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INDEX

244PC cards, Windows 95/98 problems, 1044


386MAX, 804, error codes/error states, 829832
3D graphics accelerators, 12671272

A
accelerated graphics port (AGP), 27, 980984,
982
accelerators, 947
access time, 221, 425, 630, 777778, 1385
Acer chipsets, 203204
Acer POST codes, 477
active low logic, 391
adapters, joystick (see joysticks/game ports)
adaptive delta pulse code modulation
(ADPCM), 1206
address latch enable (ALE), CMOS setup, 229
address settings, 245
addressing (see I/O addressing)
advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI), 121, 979980
advanced power control (APC), 951
advanced power management (APM), 957,
984987
air flow, hard drive, 589591, 590
A-Law codec, 1206
allocation units, 573
alpha blending, 1271
ALR BIOS POST codes, 478
AMD chipsets, 186190
American Megatrends BIOS, 126127
AMI BIOS, 124, 125, 470, 481493
AMI Multimedia channel, 1277, 1278
AMIT BIOS POST codes, 478481
Illustrations are indicated in boldface.

amplitude, 878
amplitude modulation (AM), 878
analog-to-digital conversions, 1195, 1297
antidotes (see also viruses/antiviral), 13421343
anti-static precautions (see electrostatic
discharge)
antivirus (see virus/antivirals)
Apollo (VIA) chipsets P6 through Master
chipsets, 196200
application specific IC (ASIC), 185, 609610,
1260
applications, 48, 91
arbiter mode, 241
arbitrate priority rotation, 243, 246
Arche Legacy BIOS POST codes, 493496
arithmetic test failure, 339
ASCII, 884, 1252, 16031605
assembly (see disassembly/assembly tips)
AST, 471, 497
asychronous communications, 1151, 11771180
asynchronous static RAM (ASRAM), 780781
AT attachment (ATA) interface, 400, 598600
AT attachment packet interface (ATAPI), 400,
405, 419, 599, 603, 13621363, 1551
AT form factor motherboards, 941, 1574
AT&T BIOS POST codes, 498499, 544545,
546
attenuation, 1198
attribute memory, 10171018
ATX form factor, 2427, 941, 943, 1574
audio standards (see also sound boards and
cards), 426427
audio video interleave (AVI), 1298
auto park feature, 222
1663

1664

INDEX

autoconfiguration, 249, 284


AUTOEXEC.BAT, 68, 269, 805, 810811,
1087, 12021203, 1412, 15481549,
15521553, 15551556
LOADHIGH setting, 811, 814
automatic configuration, 228
automation for computers, Instant On, 990991
Award BIOS POST codes, 499511
Award EliteBIOS features, 121122

B
back -to- back memory, 241, 244
backfilling, 804
backlight power supplies, 11161119, 1117
BackPack drives, compressed disks, 374
backplane board (see motherboards)
backup power supply (BPS), 1494,
14971499, 1498, 14991500, 1503, 1504
backup strategies (see also data recovery; tape
drives), 21, 410, 14161426, 1431, 1500,
15061508
Backup Window, Windows 95, 1422
CMOS backups, 249250, 1508, 1558
compression, 1419
criteria for backup systems, 14171419
disaster preparation, 1421
formatting media, 1418
frequency of backup, 14171418,
14201421, 1507
hardware requirements, 1418
incremental vs complete, 1507
limitations, 14201421
magneto optical (MO) backups, 1418
maintenance disks, 14321433
manual vs. automatic backups, 1419
media, 1421
storing backups, 1418, 1421
tape drives, 14191420
total vs. selective backup, 1418
bandwidth, 913
banks of memory, 788790, 1384, 1385, 1528
barrel distortion, 910, 911
basic input/output system (see BIOS/BIOS
ROM)
batteries (see also power supplies), 99115,
948, 1501, 1502, 15301531
advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI), 979980
backup batteries, 102107
BIOS error message, 133, 134
cell voltage, 100
CMOS backup batteries, 102107, 214, 255
conserving battery power, portable PCs,
110111
constantcurrent chargers, 101102
electrodes and electrolytes, 100
life span of batteries in portable PCs, 109
lithium backup batteries, 102104, 104, 110
memory capacity with NiCad batteries, 108
memory effect in NiCad batteries, 108
mobile (notebook, laptop) batteries, 107115
nickel cadmium (NiCad), 101, 107109, 108

nickel metal hydride (NiMH), 101, 109


non rechargeable (primary) batteries, 100
pen input systems, touchpads, 1065
power management, 221, 248249, 251252
ratings, 100
rechargeable (secondary) batteries, 100102,
110, 111115
recycling used batteries, 115
replacing backup batteries, 104105
slow or trickle charge, 101
Smart Battery, 992994
system management bus (SMBus), 992994
troubleshooting, 105107, 111115
voltage memory in NiCad batteries, 108
watthours per kilogram or pound(Wh/kg or
lb), 100
zinc air batteries, 110
BatteryMark, 80
baud rate, 878, 11791180
BCLK divider, 237
beep codes, 332, 441, 470475, 564566,
15371538
flash BIOS, 1594
PC cards, 1033, 1046
power supplies, 15011503
video adapters, 1284
Bell modem signaling standards, 879880
benchmarking, 7580, 295, 964
Bernoulli drives (Iomega), 375, 11351141
bi-directional ports, type 1 and 3, 10031004
billing sheet, 1621
binary data, 569560
binary gigabytes and megabytes, 597
BIOS/BIOS ROM (see also POST codes), 8,
11, 47, 116142, 244245, 617, 938,
15861598, 1620
adapter or expansion BIOS, 117
advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI) 121
advanced power management (APM), 984985
American Megatrends BIOS, boot sequence,
126127
AMI BIOS, 124125
Award EliteBIOS features, 121122
autoconfiguration, 249
battery failures, 133
boot process, 6570, 121, 126129, 138, 142,
15951597
bootable media message, 136
bugs and errors in, 131
cache memory errors, 133
checksum errors, 133, 141, 1589
chipsets, 121
clock/timing circuit errors, 138, 140
CMOS setup, 214, 244245
COM/serial ports, 1588
compatibility issues, 1561
configuration errors, 136
CPU, 120121, 134, 136, 333, 1589
cylinder limit, hard disk drives, 618
data error, 134
defaults, 249
device driver compatibility, 129

INDEX

direct control of hardware vs., 130131


direct memory access (DMA) error, 135
display errors, 135
drives, 121, 134135
dual in line package (DIP), 1591
EIDE hard disk drives, 1588
erratic performance, 15951596
error codes, 133141, 441566
expansion devices, 15881589
extended system configuration data (ESCD),
15961597
flash BIOS updating, 15931595
flash memory compatibility, 130
floppy disk drives, 13761377, 1587
gate A20 error, 133
hard disk drive setting, 135136, 139140,
405, 407, 412413, 419, 619620, 636,
13961397, 1588
I/O process errors, 136, 141
ID strings, determining features present,
123125
IDE hard disk drives, 142, 1587
information about your BIOS, 15891590
initialization stalled, 8889
input device errors, 142
intelligent BIOS, 411
intelligent I/O (I2O) 121
interruptions to BIOS startup, 1595
interrupts, 118120, 140, 141
IO.SYS files, 5758
keyboards, 136137, 1595
logical block addressing (LBA), 1597
main sections of, 117
memory, 121, 134, 137138, 141
Microid Research Mr. BIOS, 122123
motherboard, 954, 955956, 963, 964
networks, 1588
nonsystem disk errors, 138
NVRAM errors, 141
overlay software, 967977
override errors, 139
parity errors, 136, 138139
password access, 959
patching faulty functions, 1590
PCI error messages, 141142
peripheral component interconnect (PCI), 121
Phoenix Technologies BIOS, boot sequence,
127129
plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC), 1591
plug and play devices, 121, 139, 1077, 1094,
1100
poor performance, 1596
port errors, 141
POST, 117118, 133, 139, 441, 475492, 1589
real time clock (RTC), 131132
replacing ICs, 1591
reprogramming EPROMs, 1592
SCSI devices, 11721173
seek error message, 134
setup routines, 118
shadowing, ROM shadowing, 130
shutdown failure, 140
system option error messages, 134

1665

system service routines, 118120


temperature warnings, 140141
terminator/processor card errors, 140
thermal probe warning, 140
time wrong error message, 134
troubleshooting, 15871589, 15951597
types of BIOS, 1590
Ultra ATA hard disk drives, 1588
universal standards (USB), 121
upgrading, 15861598
upper memory area (UMA) use by, 117
video adapters, 12911292
video BIOS/ROM, 233, 1253, 1265
Windows 3.x problems, 1587
Windows 95/98 problems, 1587
Year 2000 (Y2K) problems, 131132
bits per inch (BPI), 589, 591
bits per second (bps), 11791180
blackouts, 14931494
Blue Book standard, CD-ROM, 150
bombs, software, 1326
Books A through E, DVD standards, 426
boot delay, 243
boot disk, 6970, 136, 152, 159164, 251,
351, 1516
boot process, 6570, 598, 14321434, 1543
American Megatrends BIOS, sequence,
126127
AUTOEXEC.BAT files, 68, 15481549
BIOS, 121, 126129, 138, 142, 15951597
boot delay, 243
boot disk creation, 6970, 136, 152,
159164, 1516
boot records, 14331434, 14411442
boot sequences, 225
boots from hard drive, bootable disk present,
251
bootstrap operation, 65
CMOS setup, 225, 1536
COMMAND.COM, 68
CONFIG.SYS files, 5859, 68, 15471549
core tests in POST sequence, 6566
CPU speed, 225
crashes/reboots intermittently, 8990
dead system, 8688
environment configuration, 6869
error/failure messages, 6768, 468
finding operating system, 6768
floppy disk boot, 1537
floppy disk drive problems, 1381
freezes during boot, 90
hard disk drive problems, 624625, 633634
initialization stalled, 8889
IO.SYS files, 5859, 68
loading operating system, 68
lock up at boot, 637
maintenance disks, 14321433
master boot record (MBR), 14331434
memory problems, 1391
motherboard, 15761577
MSDOS.SYS files, 5859, 68
new memory installation problems, 799
PC cards, 1043, 1046

1666

INDEX

boot process, continued


Phoenix Technologies BIOS, sequence,
127129
POST, 6567
power up, 65
problems, 416, 619
reboot after power supply interruptions, 1504
reboots repeatedly, 1538, 15671568
registry files (SYSTEM.DAT), 68
SCSI devices, 11681169, 1171, 1172
startup file creation, 15471549
troubleshooting, 1518
turbo mode, 225, 226
video adapters, 12871288, 1290, 1292
viral infection, 1333
volume boot sector (VBS), 67
WINBOOT.SYS files, 58, 68
Windows 95, 9194
boot volume descriptor (BVD), CD-ROM, 161
booting catalog (BC), CD-ROM, 161, 162
bootstrap operation, 65
branch prediction, 297
breakers, 1502
brownouts, 1494
buffer settings, 238, 239, 241, 243, 246, 809,
1449
bugs, 47, 1325
burn in, 74, 1558
BURNIN43.ZIP, 74
burst extended data output (BEDO RAM), 782
burst length, 238
burst mode, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248
bus mastering, 600603, 1268
busses, 293294
AT bus setup, CMOS, 231
bus mastering, 1268
bus mode, CMOS setup, 230
control signals, 294
data lines, 293
data volume (bits), 293
extended ISA (EISA) busses, 259260,
639648
industry standard architecture (ISA),
639648, 640
master setting, 239
mastering, 600603, 1268
micro channel architecture (MCA) bus, 259,
734743, 736
overclocking CPUs, 323331
PC busses (see industry standard architecture
ISA above)
PCI bus setting, 241, 247, 12661267, 1293
peripheral component interconnect (PCI),
10481054, 1050
read operations, 294
size, 293294
system management bus (SMBus), 992994
troubleshooting, 648
universal serial bus (USB), 1112, 994995,
995
VL bus, 241, 243, 1048, 1266, 12821283,
13481354
write operations, 294
byte merge, 240

byte mode, 1004


bytes, 597

C
cabling and connectors, 23, 26, 26, 2829,
1511, 1515, 15221524, 1558
cache/caching, 8, 10, 221, 238, 603604, 605,
744, 783784, 784, 801, 956, 958, 1449,
14511452, 15291530
BIOS error message, 133, 134
CD-ROM and, 152, 167
CMOS setup, 225, 232233, 238
Cache on a Stick (COAST), 1530
cache RAM, 15291530
cached DRAM (CDRAM), 782
calibrating joysticks, 653654
caller ID, 855, 898899
camera techniques, capture, 13021303
capture, video, 1298, 13001303, 13101317
CardBus, 1016
case/enclosure changes, 48, 2122, 27, 29,
3233 1509, 1520, 15741575
cathode ray tube (CRT) (see also monitors,
video adapaters), 3335, 34, 908, 921926,
922, 11191121, 1252
CRT controller (CRTC), 1252
discharging, 4142, 42
CCITT G.711 CODECS, 1206
CD-R drives (see also CD-ROM drives; DVD
drives)
absorption control error, 178
application code error, 178
ASPI driver problems, 178
buffer, recorder, 176, 178
cant find CD-R drive letter, 180
closed audio session errors, 178179
compatibility problems, 177
data block problems, 180
dead unit, 182
error codes, 179
file size, 175
fragmentation, 175
full disc errors, 179
general protection faults, 180
gold discs wont read, 182
hard disk drives, 175
image file problems, 181
indicator light problems, 181
installation, 13571374
MSCDEX, 180
multisession CD problems, 177
overrun/underrun problems, 179
QEMM problems, 820
read problems, 177, 179, 181, 182
recording process, 175176
speed, 175, 176
system interrupts, 175
thermal calibration, 176
TOC or PMA errors, 180
troubleshooting, 174182
write problems, 180182
write protected errors, 179

INDEX

CD-ROM drives (see also CD-R drives; DVD


drives; hard disk drives), 12, 14, 16, 30,
183, 419, 945, 957, 15541557
ATAPI, 13621363
audio problems, 166, 173, 174, 1369
block diagram, electronics, 157
Blue Book standard, 150
boot volume descriptor (BVD), 161
bootable CD-ROMs (El Torito), 152, 159164
booting catalog (BC), 161, 162
burning files onto CD-R discs, 163
cables and connectors, 1365
caching, 152, 167168
care of compact discs, 148
CD Plus or Enhanced problems, 174
chemicals/solvent damage, 148
cleaning discs, 148
Compact Disc Digital Audio Standard CEI
IEC 908, 150
compact disc interactive (CD I), 150
compression, 1367
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT,
15551556
conflicts, 270
constant angular velocity (CAV), 154
constant linear velocity (CLV), 154, 165
construction details, 154158
controls dont work, 171
cross interleaved Reed Solomon Code
(CIRC), 157
data transfer rate (DTR), 150151, 13581359
developmental timeline, 424
Device Bay, 987
device drivers for, 158159
direct memory access (DMA), 1362
disc-at-once-write mode, 153
disc stuck, 165
disc wont read, 165
door stuck, 171
drive adapters, 388422, 389
drive engine, 155, 156
drive letter problems, 167, 171
drive problems, 167172
drivers, 15551556
DVD compatiblity, 427
EIDE/IDE interface for, 157158, 411
eight to fourteen modulation (EFM),
146148, 147, 157
electronics in, 157158, 157
error correction (EC) symbols, 147
exploded view, 155
finalization, 153
fixation, 153
focus problems, 165166
frames, 147
Green Book standard, 150
heat damage to, 148
High Sierra standard, 149
I/O addressing, 1362
IDE interface problems, 173174
image files, bootable CD-ROMs, 161, 162163
incremental write mode, 154
indicator light stays on, 174
initialization errors, 13671368

1667

installation, 13571374, 15541557


interfaces, 1554
interrupts, 1362
ISO standards, 150
Kodak Photo CDs, 149
labels/writing on discs, 149
load/unload problems, 164
magneto-optical (MO) drives and, 150
media for, 144145, 152153
motherboard, 958
MSCDEX.EXE, 159, 160, 166167,
13661367, 1556
multi-spin drives, 150151
multimedia personal computer (MPC)
standard, 151152
multisession capability, 153
no access to directories or computer data, 171
no sound, 15171518, 1557
not recognized, 251, 1368
Orange Book standard, 150, 152153
packet write mode, 154
pits and lands in media, 144, 145, 427, 428
playback process, 145146, 146
port problems, 169, 172173
protected and real mode drivers, 173
read/write errors, 13681369
recordable (CD-R drives)
Recordable Compact Disc Standard, 150
recording process, 145146
Red Book standard, 150
scratches, 148
SCSI, 159, 169173, 13631365, 13691371,
15541555
seek inoperative, 164165
seek time, 1359
sled, 155156, 156
software configuration, 158159, 13661367
sound boards and cards, 1207, 1414,
15511552
standards, 149154
stepping motors, 156157
stuck drive, 1557
substrates, 144
symbols, 147
testing, 1556
track-at-once-write mode, 154
tray operation test, 15121513
troubleshooting, 164182, 13671374,
15561557
underside view, 156
upper memory area (UMA) use, 158
vertical mount problems, 169
video problems, 173
volume table of contents (VTOC), 149
White Book standard, 150
write-once CD-R drives, 150
Wrong DOS version error message, 166167
XA format, 150
Yellow Book standard, 150
central processing unit (see CPU)
Centronics ports, 9971009, 998
chameleons, software, 1326
Chandra, Neil, 1010
charging, in laser/LED printer, 682, 683

1668

INDEX

chassis, 23
checkpoints (see also POST codes), 242, 476,
476
checksum errors, 133, 141, 254, 954, 1589
chip RAM, 1384
Chips & Technologies chips, 204205, 511513
chipsets and microprocessors, 1011, 184212,
185, 938, 944, 958, 12621264, 15591568
286/386 to 486 upgrade, 1562
486 enhancements, 15621563
486 to Pentium upgrade, 1563
Acer chipsets, 203204
address latch enable (ALE) setup, 229
AMD 640 chipset, 187190
AMD chipsets, 186190
application specific ICs (ASICs), 185
AT bus setup, 231
automatic configuration, 228
BIOS and, 121
bus mode setup, 230
cache memory setup, 232233
Chips & Technologies chipsets, 204205
clock speed, 229230, 231, 15621563
CMOS setup, 228235
component/function list, 187189
core logic, 186
CPU removal/installation, 15651566
direct memory access (DMA)setup, 232
dirty bit RAM, 233
DRAM setup, 234, 235
electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage, 1565
error codes, 462
ETEQ Microsystems chipsets, 206
Faraday chipsets, 206
fast AT cycle, 230
fast decode enable, 231
I/O setup, 230, 231232
IDE setup, 232
Integrated Technology chipsets, 206
Intel chipsets, 190196
interleave mode, 234
interposer sockets, 1561
interrupt setup, 230
jumpers, 1566
legacy chips, 203211
list of, 186
memory remapping, 231
Northbridge controller (AMD 640 chipset),
189
OPTi chipsets, 200, 202203, 207208
overdrive CPUs, 15621563
Pentium enhancements, 15631564
Pentium to Pentium MMX upgrade, 1564
poor performance, 1567
pros and cons of upgrades, 15611562
refresh memory setup, 228229
row address strobe (RAS) setup, 234
SiS chipsets, 200, 201202, 208
Southbridge controller (AMD 645 chipset),
189190
Suntec chipsets, 208
support ICs, 203211
Symphony Labs chipsets, 209

Triton chipset, 192193


upgrades, 15591568
VIA chipsets, 196200, 209210
video BIOS setup, 233
VLSI Technology chipsets, 210
voltage, 1561
wait state setup, 230, 231, 233234
Western Digital chipsets, 209
Zilog chipsets, 211
Zymos chipsets, 211
CHKDSK, 14351438
cleaning computer systems, 15051518
clicking/doubleclicking, 834835
CLK/PCI CLK divider, 237
clock speed (see also clock/timing circuits),
777778, 15251526, 15621563
clock/timing circuits (see also clock speed), 8,
239, 950
BIOS, 131132, 134, 138, 140
CMOS setup, 229230, 231, 239, 246
latency timer, 238
overclocking CPUs, 323331
PCI CLK setting, 248
poor time keeping, 253
preempt timer, 247248
real time clock (RTC), 131132
retry timer, 247
setting, 221222
time outs, 244
timing modes, 243
Year 2000 (Y2K) problems, 131132
cluster adapters, error codes, 454
clusters, 346, 572573, 612, 1445, 1517
CMOS, 213256, 938, 1573, 1619
address latch enable (ALE) setup, 229
advanced chipset setup, 228235
advanced CMOS Setup, 223228
AT bus setup, 231
automatic configuration, 228, 249
backing up CMOS RAM, 249250, 1508,
1558
battery backup, 102107, 214, 255, 948
15301531
BIOS and, 214
boot process, 225, 251, 1536
bus mode setup, 230
cache memory, 221, 225, 232233
changes not saved, 250
checksum errors, 254
clock/timing circuit setup, 229230, 231, 253
configuring CMOS setup, 219249, 1536
crashes or lockups, 252253
date/time setting, 221222
devices not recognized, 252
direct memory access (DMA) setup, 232
dirty bit RAM setup, 233
disabled Setup, 220
DRAM setup, 234, 235
drive access, 221
drive letter designation, 222
drives not detected, 251
errors in CMOS setup entries, 88, 224, 254
fast AT cycle, 230

INDEX

fast decode enable, 231


floppy disk drive setup, 223, 225, 1379,
13801381
hard disk drive setup, 222, 412, 1401, 1542
high memory area (HMA) setup, 225226
I/O setup, 230, 231232
IDE setup, 232
interleave mode, 234
interrupt setup, 230
invalid system configuration data error,
253254
keyboard setup, 223, 228
launching/entering Setup utility, 219220
map of, 214219
math (numeric) co processor test, 224225
memory, 223224, 231, 1391, 1392
mismatch errors, 251
monitor setup, 223
motherboard, 955, 963
NumLock setting, 224
optimization, 221
parity error, 224
password access, 226, 254255, 958959
plug and play configuration, 235248, 252
poor performance, 250251
port problems, 253
power management, 221, 248249, 251252
refresh memory setup, 228229
ROM shadowing, 221
row address strobe (RAS) setup, 234
setup disks, 220, 252
shadow memory setup, 226227
test tick, 224
testing, 224, 1537
troubleshooting, 250255
turbo mode setting, 225, 226
Type 47 HDD data area, 224
typematic rate, 223
video BIOS setup, 233
video ROM shadow, 226
video settings, 1285
virus protection setup, 227228
wait states, 221, 230, 231, 233234
CODECS, 1206
coercivity, 569, 589
coherence of light, lasers, 687
color graphics adapter (CGA), 14, 12551256
color look up tables (CLUT), 1270
color purity (see purity)
COM/serial ports (see also modems), 8, 16,
253, 11761191
addresses and interrupts, 11811182,
11871189
asynchronous communication, 11771180
baud vs. bps, 11791180
BIOS, 1588
conflicts, 11871189
data carrier equipment (DCE), 11821183
data terminal equipment (DTE), 11821183
error codes, POST/beep codes, 11891190
garbled communications, 1190
Infrared Data Association (IrDA), 991992,
11841187, 11901191

1669

initialization problems, 1190


modems, 852, 853854, 903, 904
motherboard connection, 950
RS232 ports, 11761191
signals, 11831184
troubleshooting, 11871191
universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
(UART), 11801181, 1180
video adapter conflicts, 1283
command processor (COMMAND.COM),
6164, 68, 13321333, 1434, 1547
common access method committee (CAMC)
(see IDE)
communications error codes, 447449, 450,
452454, 461462, 464465
Compact Disc Digital Audio Standard CEI
IEC 908, CD-ROM, 150
compact disc interactive (CD I), 150
Compaq codes, 471, 513521
compatibility (see conflict resolution)
complementary metaloxide semiconductor
(see CMOS)
complex instruction set computing (CISC), 297
compressed volume file (CVF), 347349, 367,
372, 374
compression (see also CODECs, disk
compression), 878, 1206, 12981299, 1367,
1419, 14491450
concurrency, 246
CONFIG.SYS, 5859, 269, 811, 1087,
12021203, 1412, 15521553, 15551556
BUFFERS setting, 809
DEVICEHIGH setting, 810, 811, 813814
DOS location, 809810
editing for memory performance, 809810
FILES setting, 809
LASTDRIVE setting, 809
configuration, 6869, 236, 1618
autoconfiguration, 228, 249, 284
BIOS error messages, 136
CMOS setup, 219249
environment test failure, 339
launching/entering Setup utility, 219220
plug and play (PNP) devices, 284
conflict resolution (see also
AUTOEXEC.BAT; CONFIG.SYS;
devices/device drivers; I/O addressing;
interrupts), 257284, 410
AUTOEXEC.BAT files, 269
CD-ROM drives, 270
CONFIG.SYS files, 269
crashes, 268
device/port assignments, typical, 267270
direct memory access (DMA), 260261
Discovery Card testing tool, 270
extended ISA (EISA) busses, 259260
hardware conflicts, 270
I/O area assignments, 261266
interrupts, 258260
keeping notes of settings, 284
last in first out (LIFO) conflict resolution, 269
lockups, 268
memory assignments, 261, 266

1670

INDEX

conflict resolution, continued


micro channel architecture (MCA) bus, 259
open architectures, 257
plug and play (PNP) devices, 283284
popup utilities, 269
recognizing conflicts, 268269
software conflicts, 269270
system reporting tools, 269
terminate and stay resident (TSR), 269
Windows 95/98 troubleshooting, 270283
connectors (see cabling and connectors)
constant angular velocity (CAV), 154, 596
constant linear velocity (CLV), CD-ROM,
154, 165
control grid, 34
control signals, busses, 294
controllers, 15
floppy disk drives, 578
hard disk drives, 609610, 632633
Northbridge controller (AMD 640 chipset), 189
Southbridge controller (AMD 645 chipset),
189190
conventional memory, 765766, 766, 804814
convergence, 35, 910, 1483, 1484, 14861489
cooling (see fans/cooling)
core logic, 186
core tests in POST sequence, 6566
corona, in laser/LED printer, 682, 723727
CPPU, 938
CPU, 8, 910, 24, 285344, 953, 957,
15241527
addressing modes, 294
alignment, 15261527
AMD CPUs, 319321, 330
arithmetic test failure, 339
beep codes, 332
benchmarking, 295
BIOS, 120121, 134, 136, 333, 1589
branch prediction, 297
busses, 293294
cache enabled causes problems, 333
CHKCOP, 340
clock speed, 15251526, 15621563
CMOS setup, 225, 242
comparison chart, 299303
compatibility issues, 1560
complex instruction set computing (CISC), 297
crashes, 332333
Cyrix CPUs, 321323
dead system, 331332
diagram of generic CPU, 293
direct memory access (DMA), 260261
DOS4GW.EXE malfunction, 333
dynamic execution, 298
environment test failure, 339
error codes, 466
execution, superscalar vs. dynamic, 298
failure/ freeze up of CPU, 14621463
fans/cooling, 14561457, 1526
general symptoms/solutions, 331334
heatsink/fan is loose, 334
HIMEM.SYS malfunction, 333
historical index of CPUs/MCPs, list,
288293

installation, 1566
Intel CPUs, 298, 304319
interposer sockets, 1561
jumpers, 1524, 15251526, 1566
lockups, 332333, 334, 340
math co processor (MCP), 287, 338343
motherboard, 963964
multiplier jumpers, 15251526
numerical processing unit (NPU), 287
overclocking, 323331, 337338
overdrive CPUs, 15621563
P rating (PR) system, 295
performance, 287, 323
pipelining, 297
poor performance, 1567
POST codes, 332
powers up, then stops, 1567
processor interrupts, 120
protected mode operation, 294
reboots repeatedly, 15671568
reduced instruction set computing (RISC),
297
removal, 15651566
slots, 1527
Socket 7, 1527
sockets, 295297, 296, 1527
speed, 10, 242, 287
superscalar execution, 298
system diagnostics, math co processors, 341
system integrity diagnostic test failure, 340
testing, 1515
troubleshooting, 331343
turbo mode, 225, 226
upgrading, 10
VESA bus, 334
vibration and CPU failure, 14591460
voltage, 333, 1461, 1524, 1561
voltage mismatch, voltage regulator module
(VRM), 333
Winstone 96 benchmark, 295
wrong CPU reported, 333, 334
zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets, 1527
crashes, 252253, 268, 332333, 338
crashes/reboots intermittently, 8990
shutdown failure, BIOS error messages, 140
cross interleaved Reed Solomon Code (CIRC),
CD-ROM, 157
cross linked files, 1437
cursor, 834
cycle time, 1385
cyclic redundancy check (CRC), 413, 573,
593, 885, 896, 1178
cylinder head sector (CHS) addressing, 406
cylinders, 572, 592594, 592, 593, 1541
Cyrix (see chipsets and microprocessors)

D
data acquisition adapter error codes, 458
data bus Xccelerator (DBX), 947
data carrier equipment (DCE), 11821183
data compression, 347, 878
data error, BIOS error messages, 134
data frames, 11771179, 1178

INDEX

data lines, busses, 293


data recovery (see also backup strategies),
14271442
boot records, 1434
CHKDSK, 14351438
command processor (COMMAND.COM),
1434
cross linked files, 1437
damaged sectors, 14381440
DOS boot record (DBR), 14411442
DrivePro, 14411442
FDISK, 14331434, 1442
file allocation table (FAT), 14351438
hardware/system failures, 1428
hidden files, 1434
human error, 14281429
lost allocation units, 1437
maintenance disks, 14321433
master boot record (MBR), 14401442
MIRROR, 14411442
natural disaster, 1429
partition table, 14331434
POST check, 1433
problems, 14231424
protecting hard drives, 14301431
RECOVER function, 14381440
redundant array of independent disks
(RAID), 1428
Rescue Professional, 1442
SCANDISK, 1438
software bugs, 1429
Undelete, 1429
UNFORMAT, 14411442
uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), 1430
virus scan, 1433
viruses, 1429
data terminal equipment (DTE), 11821183
data transfer rate (DTR), 13581359, 1444, 1445
CD-ROM, 150151
DVD drives, 425426
EIDE drives, 408409
hard disk drives, 408409, 600601
dates for virus activation, 13271331
daughtercards, 1572
DEC Alpha (see chipsets)
decibels, 1198
decoder boards, MPEG, 18, 19, 20
defragmentation (see fragmentation/defragmentation)
degaussing, 1490, 1513
Dell BIOS POST codes, 521523
desktop management interface (DMI), 987989
Device Bay, 987
DEVICEHIGH setting, 810, 811, 813814
devices/device drivers (see also plug and
play), 129, 257, 269270
advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI), 979980
advanced power management (APM), 984987
arbitrate priority rotation, 243, 246
BIOS compatibility, 129
CD-ROM drives, 158159, 15551556
conflicts, 257284, 410
desktop management interface (DMI), 987989

1671

Device Bay, 987


device/port assignments, typical, 267268
DEVICEHIGH setting, 810, 811, 813814
devices not recognized, overclocked CPU, 338
EIDE drive support, 407408
excessive devices, 14601461
failure after upgrade, 9091
hot insertion/removal, hot swapping, 1017
IO.SYS files, 5758
independence, 1148
Intelligent I/O (I2O), 989990
legacy devices, 1086, 1091
mouse, 1549
not recognized, 252
PC cards, 10231025, 10321033
peripheral component interconnect (PCI),
10481054, 1050
plug and play devices, 283, 10761103
SCSI, 11471175
sound boards and cards, 12021203
universal serial bus (USB), 994995, 995
video drivers, 1251
Windows 95/98 conflict resolution, 270283
wrong CPU reported, Win95, 334
diagnostics, 75
differential SCSI, 10511052
digital audio tape (DAT) drives (see also tape
drives), 12311232
digital signal processor (DSP), 11971198
digital video cards, 1023
digital video stream (DVS) mode, 1278, 1279
digital video/versatile disk (see DVD drives)
digital-to-analog conversions, 1195, 1297
digitization of sound, 11941195
digitizers (see pen input systems; touchpads)
DIP switches, 952953, 13901391
direct memory access (DMA), 66, 260261,
401402, 421, 600, 601603, 938, 955, 989
BIOS error message, 135
CD-ROM drives:, 1362
CMOS setup, 232
conflicts after upgrade, 90
device/port assignments, typical, 267268
hard disk drives, 1398
sound boards and cards/audio systems:, 1210,
1211, 1213
sound cards, 1551
video adapters, 1287, 1306
DirectX technology, 12721276, 12931294
dirty bit RAM, 233
disassembly/assembly tips, 2124
backing up data (see also backup strategies),
21
closing the system, 2223
monitors (see also monitors, video adapters),
4143
opening the system, 2122
safety precautions, 2324
work orders, 21
disc-at-once write mode, CD-ROM, 153
Discovery Card testing tool, 270
disk compression, 345387
backing up data before compression, 349
BackPack drives, 374

1672

INDEX

disk compression, continued


Bernoulli drives, 375
bootable disk creation, 351
compressed volume file (CVF), 347349,
367, 372
compression utility installation, 350351
data compression, 347
DBLSPACE. INI file settings, 351357,
366377
defragmentation, 350, 369, 370372, 374,
381382
disk space allocation, 346
DOS DoubleSpace, troubleshooting, 366377
DOS DriveSpace, troubleshooting, 366377
DOS Stacker troubleshooting, 377387
DoubleGuard, DOS, 367
DRVSPACE.INI file settings, 351377
factors affecting, 349
file allocation table (FAT), 346, 380381
file defects, 350
free space available, 350, 367, 368
graphic demonstration of, 348
host drives, 347
looping problems, 374
memory check, 350
on-the-fly compression, 347
physical defects on disk, 349350
preparing for compression, 349357
RAMDrive, 375376
ratio of compression, 348, 368, 373
run length encoding (RLE), 347
slack space, 346
swap files, 369370
system for compression, 347349
tape drives, 376
tracks, sectors, clusters, 346
troubleshooting compressed drives, 357387
Windows 95/98 DriveSpace, troubleshooting,
357366
Disk Manager, 404, 406, 967971
disk mapper (see also viruses/antivirals), 1344
distortion, 1200
dithering, 1272
Ditto drive (Iomega), 11311135
divide by zero errors, 1290
DLS Technicians Certificate II, test questions,
16221661
Dolby, 426, 434
DOS (see also AUTOEXEC.BAT;
COMMAND.COM; CONFIG.SYS), 47,
15461547
AUTOEXEC.BAT
COMMAND.COM
CONFIG.SYS
DOS boot record (DBR), 14411442
DoubleGuard, 367
DoubleSpace, disk compression, 366377
DriveSpace, disk compression, 366377
EMM386.EXE, 1547
error messages, 16061611
HIMEM.SYS, 1547
memory location of, 809810
MS DOS, 5051

PC DOS, 5152
plug and play configuration, 10871090
sound boards and cards/audio systems:, 1211,
14111412
Stacker troubleshooting, 377387
startup file creation, 15471549
tape drives:, 1244
DOS boot record (DBR), 14411442
DOS extenders, 775776
DOS protected mode interface (DPMI), 776
DOSMAX, 829831
dot pitch, 908909
dots per inch (DPI), 683
double buffering, 12711272
DoubleGuard, DOS, 367
DoubleSpace (DBLSPACE.INI) compression,
351357, 366377
drift, in monitors, 913
drive adapters (see also hard disk drives),
1516, 388422, 389 1446,
error codes, 455, 456458, 463464
troubleshooting, 414422
drive board for CRT, 3536
Drive Rocket, 406, 967, 975976
drive translation, 400, 596597, 619
DrivePro, 14411442
drivers (see devices/device drivers)
drives (see CD-ROM drives; CD R drives; DVD
drives; hard disk drives; floppy disk drives)
DriveSpace (DRVSPACE.INI), 351357
DOS disk compression, 366377
Windows 95/98 disk compression, 357366
DSEA units, error codes, 450451, 456
DTK BIOS POST codes, 523
dual in line package (DIP), 747, 1591
dual inline memory modules (DIMMs), 10,
748749, 748, 753764, 13841388, 1390,
1392, 1515, 15271528
dual simultaneous voice and data (DSVD), 855
dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) signals, 853
duty cycles, power supplies, 1106
DVD drives (see also CD-ROM), 13,
423440, 424, 13721374
access time, 425
audio out, 437
audio standards, 426427
Books A through E, standards, 426
care of discs, 428430
CD-R/Photo CD problems, 439
CD-ROM compatibility, 427
data formats, 426
data transfer rates, 425426
decoder board connections, 434435, 435
Device Bay, 987
Dolby, 426, 434
drive installation problems, 438439
drive mechanics, 430432, 430432, 433
DVD-ROM, 424425
DVD-Video, 424425
indicator light flashing, 438
installation, 436437, 13571374
laser safety, 436
media, 427430, 428, 429

INDEX

motors, 431, 432


MPEG compression, 426427, 432, 434435
playback errors, 438
region code control, 432, 433
specifications/standards, 425427
stuck tray, 437
troubleshooting, 435439
universal disk format (UDF), 426
video quality problems, 437438, 439
video standards, 426427
Dvorak keyboards, 668669
dynamic convergence, 35, 14861489
dynamic decode, 247
dynamic execution, 298
dynamic RAM (DRAM), 234, 235, 744, 780

E
8086/8088 CPUs, 298, 304
8514/A adapter (PS/2), 12581259
ECC on SIMM (EOS), 787
EEPROMs, 1593
eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM), 146,
147148, 147, 157
El Torito bootable CD-ROM, 11, 152
electrodes and electrolytes, battery, 100
electromagnetic interference (EMI), 1107
electronic control unit (ECU), 679680
Electronics Industries Association (EIA), 1011
electrophotographic (EP) printers (see
laser/LED printers)
electrostatic discharge (ESD), 46, 1016,
1389, 13971398, 1410, 1565, 1573
EMM386, 804, 805, 807808, 814, 823829,
1547
emulation adapters, error codes, 455
enablers, PC card, 10141015, 1033
enclosures (see case/enclosure)
encoding/decoding, 878
enhanced capabilities port (ECP), 1002,
10041005
enhanced DRAM (EDRAM), 781
enhanced graphics adapter (EGA), 1415,
12561257
enhanced IDE (EIDE), 405413, 598600, 967,
1395, 1400, 1402, 1540, 1544, 1546, 1588
528 Mb limit, 406407
BIOS settings, 407, 412413, 1588
CD-ROM, 157158, 411
CMOS settings, 412
conflicts, 410
cylinder head sector (CHS) addressing, 406
data transfer rates, 408409
device/drive support, 407408
file allocation tables (FAT), 407
installation, 409412
IORDY signal, 409410, 413
jumpers, 411, 412413
logical block addressing (LBA), 407, 411
mixing IDE and EIDE drives, 411
translation modes, 222223
Ultra ATA compatiblity, 414
enhanced ISA (EISA), SCSI devices, 1174
enhanced parallel port (EPP), 1002, 1005

1673

enhanced small device interface (ESDI),


395400, 13991400
enhancing drive performance (see also disk
compression), 14431452
bad sectors, 1448
BUFFERS setting, 1449
cabling and connections, 1447
caching, 1449, 14511452
compression, 14491450
data transfer rates, 1444, 1445
drive adapters, 1446
file system properties, 1450
fragmentation, 14451446, 1448
interleave, 14461448
seek time, 1444
virtual memory, 14501451
Ensoniq sound boards, 1215
environment test failure, 339
EPROMs, 1592
error correction (EC) symbols, CD-ROM, 147
error correction code (ECC), 749, 787
error messages/codes, 441566
BIOS, 133141
CD-R drives, 179
CD-ROM, 166167
CMOS, 88
DOS, 16061611
interrupt errors, 120
PCI error messages, 141142
SCSI, 1170
setting, CMOS, 224
errors/bugs in software, 270
ETEQ Microsystems chipsets, 206
Eurosoft/Mylex BIOS POST codes, 524526
executable files, viral infection, 13331334
execution, superscalar vs. dynamic, 298
expanded memory, 776, 803
expansion boards, 1321, 24, 648
controllers, drive controllers, 15
decoder boards, MPEG, 18, 19, 20
drive adapters, 1516, 388422, 389
joystick adapters, 2021, 20
modems, 1618
ports, 1618
SCSI adaptes, 16, 17
sound boards, 18, 19
testing, 15141515
video boards, 1415
expansion bus/cards (see also PC cards),
639640, 1011, 12661267, 15881589
expansion slots, 69, 11, 944
extended data output (EDO RAM), 744,
781782
extended data output (EDO) RAM, 744
extended ISA (EISA) busses, 259260, 639648
16- and 32-bit bus pinout, 646647
configuration, 647
diagram of 32bit EISA slot, 645
extended memory (XMS), 766, 775776, 803,
804
extended system configuration (ESCD), 963
external commands, 6164
EZ Drive, 410, 967, 971975

1674

INDEX

F
486TST.ZIP, 74
fake memory (see also parity), 786787
fans/cooling (see also heatsinks), 8, 23, 24,
564565, 951, 14531463, 1526, 1561
cleaning, 1509, 1514
conduction vs. radiation of heat, 1454
convection, 1455
CPU fans, 14561457
excessive devices, 14601461
fan cards, 1456
fan runs/no system activity, 86
freeze up of CPU, 14621463
heat pipe, 14571458, 1457
heatsinks, 1455, 1455, 1456, 1459, 1526
liquid cooling, 14571458, 1457
loose fan, 334
noisy fan, 1462
overclocking CPUs, 325, 330331
piezoelectric coolers (Peltier coolers), 1458
power supplies, 1461, 1502
smoke and dust, 1461
stuck fan, 1462
sunlight and heat, 1460
testing, 1514
thermal cycling, 1460
troubleshooting, 14581463
vents, 1461
vibration and CPU failure, 14591460
voltage, overvoltage, 1461
worn fans, 1459
Faraday ATease BIOS POST codes, 526527
Faraday chipsets, 206
Fast ATA drives, 599
fast decode enable, 231
fast page mode (FPM) memory, 744, 781
fault codes (see also error codes; IBM diagnostic/error codes), 442
fax modem (see modems/fax cards)
FDISK, 632, 1404, 14331434, 1442
feedback loops, power supplies, 1105
file allocation table (FAT), 346, 380381, 407,
573, 578, 612613, 617, 637, 14351438,
1494, 15421543
file comparison (see also viruses/antivirals),
1342
file transfer protocols, modems, 884885
FILES setting, 809
files, corrupted/missing, overclocked CPU, 338
files, viral infection, 1334
finalization, CD-ROM, 153
firmware, 47
fixation, CD-ROM, 153
flash BIOS, 15931595
flash memory, 130, 744, 948
floating point math (see math co processor;
numerical processing unit (NPU)
floating point unit (FPU), 953954
floppy disk drives, 11, 567586, 568,
13751382, 14641475, 15341535
access problems, 584
activity LED light, 586
alignment, 14641475

allocation units, 573


azimuth alignment, 1472
BIOS, 13761377, 1587
boot problems, 1381
booting from floppy, 1537
cables and connections, 13781379, 1378,
13811382
clamping/eccentricity test, 1469, 1470
cleaning, 14681469, 15111512
CMOS setup, 223, 225, 1379, 13801381
combo drive problems, 586
controllers, 578, 1534
cyclical redundancy check (CRC), 573
damage to disks, 573
data and disk organization, 571573
data recovery, 14271442
dead unit, 580581
density of disks, 584, 585
drive designation letter, 223, 578579,
585586, 13801381
electronic components, 576578, 577
error codes, 445446, 462, 469
exploded view, 574
file allocation table (FAT), 573, 578
floppy drive cards, 1023
formatting disks, 585, 1469
head step, 14721473
head width test, 14741475, 1474
hysteresis, 14731474, 1474
installation, 13751382, 15341535
insulation displacement connector (IDC)
cable, 578
jumper settings, 586, 13781380
light stays on, 13811382
logic/interface board, 575, 576
magnetic media, 568573
maintenance, 1466
mechanical components, 574576, 574, 575
modified frequency modulation (MFM), 570
motherboard connection, 950, 1577
motors, 575576, 576
mounting, 1516
not recognized, 251, 1381, 1538
phantom directory problems, 585
physical interface, 578580, 579
pin outs for interface, 579
QEMM problems, 822
radial alignment, 14711472, 1472
read/write errors, 583584, 1381
read/write heads, 569, 571, 579
recording principles, 571573, 571
refresh, 569
repair vs. replacement, 580, 1466
seek at boot, 225
seek problems, 581582
speed of operation, 578
spindle speed test, 1470
stuck drive, 582583
swapping drives, 585586
tape drives, 1247
testing, 580, 1380, 14641475
Track 00 signal, 579580, 14701471
tracks, cylinders, sectors, clusters, 572573

INDEX

troubleshooting, 580586, 13811382


upgrading, 585
Write protect, 579580, 583584
flux changes per inch (FCI or KFCI), 591
flux reversal, 570
flyback transformer (FBT), 37, 919, 11191121
focus grid, 34
fogging effects, 1271
forced perfect termination (FPT), SCSI, 1152
form factors, 2429, 941, 1384
formatting hard drives, 393395, 1418, 1430
fragmentation/defragmentation, 175, 369,
370372, 374, 381382, 14301431,
14451446, 1448, 1517
frame buffers, 12511252, 1252
frame rate, video capture, 1300
frames, CD-ROM, 147
free space available, 367, 368
frequency, 878
frequency modulation, 878
frequency response, 11981199, 1199
frequency shift keying (FSK), 878
fuses, 86, 1502

G
gain, 1198, 1200
game ports (see joysticks/game ports)
gestures and glyphs, pen systems,
10631064
gigabytes, 597
glyphs, pen systems, 10631064
Gouraud shading, 1271
graphical user interface (GUI), 48
graphics (see monitors, video adapters; video
capture; PC TV)
graphics accelerators (see also monitors,
video adapters), 1260
graphics adapter, error codes, 459461
graphics device interface (GDI), 12731274
Green Book standard, CD-ROM, 150
green PCs (see also power management),
248249
grounds, enclosure as ground, 46
group special mobile (GSM) 6.10, 1206
H
handshaking, 1151
hard disk drives (HDD), 12, 587638, 588,
589, 13941405, 15391549
32 bit access, 636
528 Mb limit, 420, 618620
access time, 630
accidental format/deletion, 625
adapters, drive adapters, 1446
adding second drives, 13941405
air flow, 589591, 590
allocation of space, 346
application specific IC (ASIC), 609610
architecture, 1395
AT attachment (ATA) interface, 400, 598600
AT attachment packet interface (ATAPI),
400, 405, 419, 599, 603

1675

auto park feature, 222


AUTOEXEC.BAT, 15481549
backing up drives, 410, 1431
bad sectors/tracks, 635, 1404, 1448
Bernoulli drives (Iomega), 375, 11351141
BIOS, 135136, 139140, 405, 412413,
419, 619620, 636, 13961397, 1588, 1597
bits per inch (BPI), 589, 591
blank screen at power up, 1403
block diagram, 610
block transfer mode, 599, 601
boot disks, 1516, 1543
boot problems, 416, 619, 624625, 633634,
14321434
boot records, 1434
BUFFERS setting, 1449
bus mastering, 600, 601603
cables and connectors, 403, 404, 1396,
13991400, 1401, 1447
caching, 603604, 605, 1449, 14511452
capacity limits, 597, 617620
CHKDSK, 14351438
clusters, 346, 612, 1445, 1517
CMOS setup, 222223, 412, 1401, 1542
code 10 error, 420421
coercivity, 589
command interpreter errors, 629
command processor (COMMAND.COM),
1434
compatibility issues, 1397
compression (see also disk compression),
14491450
CONFIG.SYS, 15471549
configuration, 13991401, 15391549
conflicts, 410
constant angular velocity (CAV), 596
contaminants on disc, 590591, 591
controllers, 400, 415, 608610, 621622,
632633, 15391540, 1546
crashes/fatal errors, 417, 589, 628, 634, 1463
cyclic redundancy check (CRC), 413, 593
cylinder head sector (CHS) addressing, 406
cylinder wrapping, 619
cylinders/tracks, 222, 618, 1541
damaged sectors, 14381440
data recovery, 14271442
data transfer rates, 408409, 600601, 1444,
1445
dead unit, 624
defragmentation, 350, 369372, 374, 381382,
14301431, 14451446, 1448,1517
density of recording, 589, 591
Device Bay, 987
direct memory access (DMA), 401402, 421,
600, 601603, 1398
directory problems, 625626
Disk Manager, 967971
Ditto drive (Iomega), 11311135
DOS boot record (DBR), 14411442
DOS compatibility mode problems, 622623
DOS file copies, 15461547
DOS installation problems, 634635
DOS version incorrect, 637

1676

INDEX

hard disk drives (HDD), continued


drive adapters, 388422, 389
drive letter designation, 635636, 1543
drive light stays on, 1546
drive not recognized, 251, 416417, 419,
626627, 634, 961962, 1546
Drive Rocket, 967, 975976
drive translation, 400, 596597, 619
EIDE, 405413, 598600, 967, 1395, 1400,
1402, 1540, 1544, 1546
electronic components, 609610
electrostatic discharge (ESD), 13971398
enhanced small device interface (ESDI),
395400, 13991400
enhancing performance, 14431452
error codes, 451452, 465466, 469,
621622, 628629,
exploded view, 606
EZDrive, 967, 971975
Fast ATA drives, 599
FDISK, 632, 1404, 14331434, 1442
file allocation table (FAT), 346, 380381, 407,
612617, 637, 14351438, 1494, 15421543
file defects, 350
file system properties, 1450
flux changes per inch (FCI or KFCI), 591
form factors, 607
format errors, 417, 629, 633
formatting, 1404, 1430, 1543
frame, 604
free space available, 350, 367, 368
geometry of hard drive, 15401541
hard-drive cards, 1023
head actuators, 608
head flight, 589591
heads, 222
hidden files, 1434
high level formatting, 394395, 399, 612, 633
I/O address, 402403, 418, 13981399
IDE, 400405, 598600, 948, 957, 960,
1395, 1400, 1402, 1546, 1554
inaccessible second drive, 1405
index pulse, 593
indicator light always on, 626
installation, 409412, 13941405,
15391549,
insulationdisplacement connector (IDC),
401, 402
interface rates, 600
interleave, 595596, 14461448
intermittent operation, 627
interrupts, 402403, 418, 601, 1398
jumpers, 411, 412413
landing zone (LZ), 222, 595, 1541
latency, 591592
lock ups, 415, 416, 421422, 619, 637
logical block addressing (LBA), 407, 415,
599, 618, 1597
logical drives, 620
low level format, 393394, 398399,
404405, 611, 631632
master boot record (MBR), 612, 14401442
master/slave drives, 419, 601603, 1541

mechanical components, 604609


media, 588
memory, 14501451
mixing IDE and EIDE drives, 411
motherboard, 959960, 1577
mounting, 1430, 1516, 15411542
mouse problems, 421
Norton Anti Virus problems, 421
not ready errors, 1403
Novell compatiblity, 417
overlay software, 967977, 1545
paddle board controller, 400
parameters of drive, 222, 596597
parking heads, 1431
partitioning, 394395, 399, 611617, 618,
632, 633, 636, 13961397, 1402,
14331434, 15421543
physical defects, 349350
platters, 588589, 592594, 592, 593, 604605
port failures, 418
POST check, 636, 1433
power modes, 598
power supplies, 1396, 1430, 1580
primary (master) drives, 222
programmable I/O (PIO), 600, 601603
Promise drive adapters, 421
protecting hard drives, 14301431
RAMDrive, 375376
random data errors, 629
read/write errors, 422, 606607, 608, 625,
629630
recording density, 591
registry for Windows95, 603
removable, 11221146
restoring data to drives, 1402
ROM address, 1399
SCANDISK, 1438, 1517
SCSI, 1395, 14001401, 1404, 1540, 1545,
1546
secondary (slave) drives, 222
sector not found error, 627628
sector sparing (defect management), 594595
sectors, 346, 635, 1541
sectors per track (SPT), 222
seek errors, 629
seek time, 593, 1444
servoing the heads, 608
size of drive, 222
slack space, 346
slow/poor performance, 415416, 626,
630631, 636
SMART command set, 598
smoke and dust, 1430
spindle motors, 609
ST506/412, 389395, 391
start time, 597598
startup file creation, 15471549
stuck drive, 1403, 1546
symptoms/solutions, 623637
SyQuest removable drives, 11411146
testing, 15161517, 1545
thinfilm media, 589
thrashing, 634, 1292

INDEX

Track 00 signal, 630


track density/tracks per inch (TPI), 591
tracks, sectors, cylinders, 346, 592594, 592,
593, 1541
translation, drive translation, 222223,
15441545
troubleshooting, 414422, 620637,
14021405, 15451546
truncation of cylinders, 619
Type 47 HDD data area, 224
Ultra ATA, 413414, 599600, 1395, 1400,
1402
upper memory area (UMA), 1399
vibration/handling, 1430
virtual memory, 626, 14501451
virus scan, 637, 1431, 1433
VL drive adapters, 417418
volume lables, 637
Windows errors, 416, 418
WPcom (compensated cylinders) setting, 222
write precompensation (WP), 596, 1541
Y adapters, 636
Zip drive (Iomega), 1112, 11231131
zoned recording, 401, 594
hard-drive cards, 1023
hardware, 4647, 270, 286
harmonic distortion, total (THD), 11991200
Hayes compatibility, 855, 868, 904
head flight, 589591
heat pipe, 14571458, 1457
heatsinks (see also fans/cooling), 24, 1455,
1455, 1456, 1459, 1526
helical scan tapes, 12221224, 1223
hidden files, 1434
high level formatting, 394395, 399, 612, 633
high memory area (HMA), 225226, 804,
812814
High Sierra standard, CD-ROM, 149
high voltage power supplies, 11161121, 1120
HIMEM.SYS, 775, 801, 804, 805807,
823829, 1547
horizontal drive circuits (see monitors, video
adapters)
host adapters for SCSI devices, 11581160,
1159, 1170
host drives, disk compression, 347
hot swapping, 1017

I
I/O addressing, 241, 246, 294, 402403, 418,
744745, 744, 745, 938, 946948, 950
cylinder head sector (CHS) addressing, 406
logical block addressing (LBA), 407, 411,
599, 618
area assignments, 261266
BIOS error messages, 136, 141
CD-ROM drives:, 1362
CMOS setup, 231232, 241
COM/serial port addresses, 11811182,
11871189
conflicts after upgrade, 90
device/port assignments, typical, 267268

1677

DIP switch settings, 261266


DirectInput, 1275
error codes, 452
hard disk drives, 13981399
Intelligent I/O (I2O), 121, 989990
jumper settings, 261266
POST codes, 563
recovery time, 230, 231, 246
sound cards, 1551
video, 13061307
wait states, 230
IBM beep codes, 472
IBM diagnostic/error codes, 442468
IBM Microelectronics (see chipsets; CPU)
IBM POST codes, 528532
IDE drives, 1516, 237, 400405, 598600,
948, 957, 960, 1395, 1400, 1402, 1546, 1554
528 Mb limit, 406407
AT Attachment interface (ATA), 400
AT attachment packet interface (ATAPI),
400, 405
BIOS settings, 142, 405, 1587
cabling, 403, 404
CD-ROM, 157158
CMOS setup, 232, 237
controllers, paddle board, 142, 400
cylinder head sector (CHS) addressing, 406
direct memory access (DMA), 401402
drive translation, 400
error codes, 465466
insulationdisplacement connector (IDC),
401, 402
interrupts/addressing, 402403
jumpers, 412413
low level formatting, Disk Manager, 404405
mixing IDE and EIDE drives, 411
PCI IDE setup, 236237
translation modes, 222223
Ultra ATA compatiblity, 414
zoned recording, 401
identifying problems, 73
image files, bootable CD-ROMs, 161, 162163
incremental write mode, CD-ROM, 154
Indeo video codec (Intel), 12991300
independence of devices, 1148
index pulse, 593
industry standard architecture (ISA) busses,
639648, 640
AT 16bit signals/pinouts, 642644
diagram of 8- and 16-bit ISA slots, 640
mixing 8- and 16-bit ISA boards, 644645
plug and play devices, 10941095
XT 8-bit signals/pinouts, 641642, 641
Infrared Data Association (IrDA), 991992,
11841187, 11901191, 1184
initialization (see boot process)
initiators, SCSI, 11501151
input devices (see keyboards; joysticks/game
ports; pen systems)
Instant On, 990991
instruction pipelining (see pipelining)
insulationdisplacement connector (IDC), 401,
402, 578

1678

INDEX

integrated drive electronics (see IDE)


Integrated Technology chipsets, 206
Intel chipsets, 190207
intelligent BIOS, 121, 411
intelligent I/O (I2O), 121, 989990
interactive multimedia association (IMA)
ADPCM, 1206
intercast broadcasts, 13051306, 13161317
interfaces, 243244, 978996
advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI), 121
AT attachment (ATA) interface, 400
CD-ROM, 157158
CMOS settings, 243, 244
EIDE/IDE, CD-ROM, 157158, 222223
enhanced small device interface (ESDI),
395400
graphical user interface (GUI), 48
ST506/412 drive adapter, 393
interlace, 912913, 12901291
interleave memory, 783
interleave mode, 234, 595596, 14461448
intermodulation distortion (IMD), 1200
internal commands, 61
International Standards Organization (ISO),
1011
interposer sockets, 1561
interrupts (IRQ), 66, 118120, 235, 236, 244,
258260, 402403, 418, 938, 954955
BIOS error messages, 140, 141
CD-R drives, 175
CD-ROM drives:, 1362
Centronics ports, 999
CMOS settings, 230, 235236, 244
COM/serial ports, 11811182, 11871189
conflicts, 90, 410
device/port assignments, typical, 267268
error messages, 120
extended ISA (EISA) busses, 259
hard disk drives, 1398
Intelligent I/O (I2O), 989990
micro channel architecture (MCA) bus, 259
modems, 11811182, 11871189
PC cards, 1033
plug and play devices, 1094
printers, 999, 1208
processor interrupts, 120
sound boards and cards, 1207, 1551
stacks, 258
video, 13061307
invalid system configuration data error, 253254
inverters, 1502
IO.SYS files, 5759, 68
Iomega (see Bernoulli; Ditto; Zip drives)
IORDY signal, 409410, 413
ISO standards, CD-ROM, 150
isolating problem areas, 73
ITU (CCITT) modem signal standards, 880882

J
Japan Electronics Industry Development
Assoc. (JEIDA), 1011

jitter, in monitors, 913


JMark, 80
Joint Electron Device Engineering Council
(JEDEC), 1011
joysticks/game ports, 649662, 650
adapter, 2021, 20
calibration, 653654
cleaning, 655
digital (game pad) joysticks, 653, 654
drift or rolling, 654
eliminator plug, 656, 656
error codes, 449
IDC ribbon cable connectors, 657
internal components, 650652, 652
MIDI devices, 657, 658, 1208
second joystick adapter, 652
sound cards, 657, 1552
symptoms/solutions, 658661
troubleshooting, 656661
Windows 95/98 use, 655656
Y adapters, 657, 658
jumpers, 411, 950, 952953, 956, 961,
13781380, 15241526, 1566

K
Kermit, 885
key codes, 666667
keyboards (see also pen input systems;
touchpads), 663678, 664, 15331534
BIOS, 136137, 1595
cleaning/maintenance, 669672, 1510
CMOS setup, 223, 228, 247
conflicts, 677
dead/erratic keyboard, 674675
Dvorak keyboards, 668669
error codes, 444, 469, 675, 677
function keys, 676677
initialization errors, 673
interfaces/controllers (KBC), 666, 668
key codes/scan codes, 666667
macro/programmable keys, 675676
make/break connections, 664, 666667
matrix of keys, 665, 666
mechanical switch assembly, 664665, 664
membrane switch assembly, 665, 665
motherboard connection, 950, 955, 958
NumLock, 224, 678
sounds to keystrokes, 677
stuck cursor, 676
troubleshooting, 673678
typematic rate, 223
Windows specific keys, 676678
wireless keyboards, 676
Kodak Photo CDs, 149
L
LAN cards, 1023
landing zone (LZ), 222, 595, 1541
Landmark BIOS POST codes, 532536
lands, CD-ROM media, 144, 145, 427, 428
laptop computers (see portable PCs)
laser/LED printers, 679733

INDEX

alignment or focus of laser, 687688


black image, 707
black lines on page, 710711, 718, 722, 725
blacked out image, 717, 719, 723
broken jigsaw puzzle image, 706
cartridge, EP cartridge, 689690, 689, 730
charging drum, 682, 683, 723727
checksum errors, 692
cleaning/maintenance, 681682, 681, 682
controller (logic) symptoms, 692, 702707,
702, 705
corona, 682, 723727
CPU errors, 692
cross section view, 680
dead printer, 732
developing mechanism, 683684, 683
dots per inch (DPI), 683
drive/transmission system, 714716, 715
drum and cartridge replacement, 689690
electronic control unit (ECU), 679680
error codes, 693701
fan errors, 731
fusing process, 685686, 686, 719723, 720
fuzzy image, 718
gaps in print, 714715
garbage/symbols in image, 704
ghosting in image, 731732
graping in image, 717718
half of image missing, 722723
high temperature errors, 719720
high voltage power supply (HVPS), 716719
I/O errors, 703704
image formation system (IFS), 680
jeweled image, 713
laser assembly, 686688, 688, 709714, 710
LEDs, 688
manufacturers listing, web sites, 691692
memory/RAM error, 702703
opening the printer, 729730
overlapped print, 714715
overrun error, 703
paper feed, 727729, 728, 729
polygon motor errors, 711
rasterized image, 706707
registration problems/symptoms, 707709, 708
resolution, 683
right hand text distorted, 710
sample image problems, 705, 708, 711, 715,
717, 721, 724, 732
scalloping, 726
scanner assembly, 709714, 710
shock/burn hazards, 690
size wrong, 707
skewed image, 709
smudged/blurred image, 707709, 713714,
721722, 732
splotches, 717, 726727
squashed image, 716
staticcharge eliminator, 685
stitching in image, 704, 705, 706
tic marks on page, 726
toner and developer, 683684, 730731, 731
top margin too big/too small, 708, 709

1679

trace/scan line, 686


transfer process/mechanism, 684685, 685
troubleshooting, 690733
warm up mode stuck, 727
washed out/faded image, 713, 718, 723725
waves in image, 712713, 716
white bands on page, 712, 714, 725726, 727
writing mechanism, 683, 686688, 687
wrong position on page, 706
last-in first-out (LIFO) conflict resolution, 269
LASTDRIVE setting, 809
latency, 238, 591592
legacy devices, 1086, 1091
light emitting diode (LED), printers, 688
lighting, 1269
line conditioners, 1497
line-in line-out systems, 946
liquid cooling, 14571458, 1457
lithium backup batteries, 102104, 104
lithium ion (Li ion) batteries, 110
LOADHIGH setting, 811, 814
logic, 391, 570
logic bombs, 1326
logical block addressing (LBA), 407, 411,
415, 599, 618, 1597
loop through, 1292
loss less compression, 434
lost allocation unites, 1437
Lotus Intel Microsoft (LIM or EMS)
specification, 776
low level format, 393394, 398399, 404405,
611, 631632

M
macro viruses, 13321333, 13441346
magnetic storage, 568573
allocation units, 573
binary data, 569570
coercivity, 569, 589
density of recording, 589, 591
disk organization, 571573
flux reversal, 570
logic 1/logic 0 in binary data, 570
modified frequency modulation (MFM), 570
oxide layer of magnetic media, 568
problems with media, 573
random access media, 572
refresh, 569
retentitivity, 569
tape, 569
thin-film media, 589
tracks, cylinders, sectors, clusters, 572573
magneto-optical (MO) drives, 150, 1418
main board (see motherboards)
maintenance disks, 14321433
maintenance, preventive, 15051518
make/break connections, 664, 666667
management extension hardware, 951
mapping memory, 1344
mask, shadow mask, 909910, 14861487
master boot record (MBR), 612, 14401442
master/slave drives, 419, 601603, 1541

1680

INDEX

mastering, bus, 600, 601603, 1268


math co-processor (MCP), 8, 287
162 error, IBM PS/2 50, 60, 70, 344
arithmetic test failure, 339
CHKCOP, 340
Configuration Error message, 344
error codes, 446
failure to boot after install, 341342
OS2 1107 error, 343
system diagnostics and, 341
test, CMOS setup, 224225
troubleshooting, 338343
Weitek not installed message, 343
matrix of keys, keyboard, 665, 666
MCA bus (see micro channel architecture)
mechanical switch assembly, 664665, 664
MEM function, 811, 812
membrane switch assembly, 665, 665
memory, 24, 236, 239, 240, 245, 744832,
938, 960, 962, 13831393, 15271530
386MAX, 804, 829832
access time, 777778, 1385
adding memory, 747, 13831393
addressing, 294, 744745, 744, 745
assigning memory, 261, 266
asynchronous static RAM (ASRAM), 780781
AT memory troubleshooting, 796
attribute memory, 10171018
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 805, 810811
back to back memory, 241, 244
backfilling, 804
backup batteries for, 102107
banks of memory, 788790, 1384, 1385, 1528
BIOS/BIOS ROM, 8, 11, 47, 121, 134,
137138, 141
boot problems, 799
BUFFERS setting, 809
burst extended data output (BEDO RAM), 782
burst length, 238
burst mode, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248
cache memory, 10, 152, 167, 221, 225,
232233, 238, 744, 783784, 801, 956, 958,
1449, 14511452
Cache on a Stick (COAST), 1530
cache RAM, 782, 15291530
checksum errors, 799800
chip RAM, 1384
CMOS, 102, 214219, 223224, 236, 239,
240, 245, 1391, 1392
compatibility problems, 801
complementary metaloxide semiconductor
(see CMOS)
compression (see disk compression)
compression memory check, 350
CONFIG.SYS, 805806, 811
conflicts after upgrade, 90
conventional memory, 765766, 766, 804814
corrosion on contacts, 794
cost of additional memory, 13881389
cycle time, 1385
DEVICEHIGH setting, 810, 811, 813814
diagnostic/error codes, 468
DIP switches, 13901391

direct memory access (DMA), 66, 135, 232,


260261, 401402, 421, 955
dirty bit RAM, 233
DOS extenders, 775776
DOS location, 809810
DOS protected mode interface (DPMI), 776
DOSMAX, 829831
dual inline memory modules (DIMMs), 10,
748749, 748, 753764, 13841388, 1390,
1392, 1515, 15271528
dual inline package (DIP), 747
dynamic RAM (DRAM), 10, 234, 235, 780
ECC on SIMM (EOS), 787
EEPROMs, 1593
electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage, 1389
EMM386, 804, 805, 807808, 814, 823829
enhanced DRAM (EDRAM), 781
enhancing drive performance, 14431452
EPROMs, 1592
error codes, 443444, 463, 467, 795801,
814823
error correction code (ECC), 749, 787
expanded memory, 776, 803
extended data output (EDO RAM), 10, 744,
781782
extended memory (XMS), 766, 775776,
803, 804
fake memory, 786787
fast page mode (FPM) memory, 744, 781
fault addresses error, 800801
FILES setting, 809
flash BIOS, 15931595
flash memory, 130, 744, 948
form factors, 1384
hard disk drives, 14501451
high memory area (HMA), 225226, 777,
804, 812814
HIMEM.SYS, 775, 801, 804, 805, 806807,
823829
I/O area assignments, 261266
installation, 787790, 13831393,
15271530
interleave memory, 783
LASTDRIVE setting, 809
LOADHIGH setting, 811, 814
Lotus Intel Microsoft (LIM or EMS)
specification, 776
low memory errors, 801
managers (see memory managers), 803832
mapping memory, 1344
megabyte sizes, 749, 764
MEM function, 811, 812
mixing memory, 15281529
modem use, 852, 853, 868, 903
motherboards, 964
new memory doesnt work, 799
NiCad batteries in portable PCs, problems, 108
overclocking CPUs, 325, 338
overlay software, 967977
packages, 747765
pages, 781, 783
parity, 224, 749, 785787, 794795, 960,
1386, 1393, 1529

INDEX

PC card problems, 10261031, 1033, 1035,


1040
pipelined burst static RAM (PB SRAM), 781
pipelining, 241, 247, 958
power supplies, 1503, 1580
presence detect (PD), 779
protected mode operation, 294, 776
protection errors, 801
QEMM, 804, 814823
RAM, 8, 10, 1385, 1527
RAMBUS, 744, 782783
RAMDAC, 1261, 12651266
RDRAM, 10
real mode or base memory, 766, 767775
recycling old memory devices, 791792
refresh memory, 228229, 779780
remapping, 231
ROM, 8, 47
shadow memory, 130, 221, 226227, 239,
784, 804
SIMCHECK equipment, 792794, 793
single inline memory module (SIMM), 10,
748749, 748, 750763, 765, 791792, 794,
948, 956, 958, 962, 13841388, 1390, 1392,
1515, 15271529
single inline package (SIP), 747
size of memory, 13851386
small outline J leads memory package, 747
snoop/snoop filters, 240241, 246, 247
sorting, memory sorting, 804
sound boards and cards, 1414
specialized memory, 13841385, 1386, 1388
speed of memory, 777778, 791, 1385
stacks, 258
static RAM (SRAM), 744, 780
streaming, 246
synchronous burst static RAM (SBSRAM),
781
synchronous DRAM (SDRAM),10, 11, 744,
782, 1385
tape drives, 14251426
terminate stay resident (TSR) programs, 813
test tick, 224
testing, 792794, 793, 1391, 1515
thin small outline package (TSOP), 747
troubleshooting, 792801, 13911393
Type 47 HDD data area, 224
upgrading, 10
upper memory area (UMA), 117, 158, 241,
776, 804, 809, 811814
video memory (VRAM), 744, 781, 831832,
12521253, 1291
video problems, 1292, 1293
video ROM (VROM), 226, 820, 1291
viral infection, 13321333
virtual control program interface (VCPI), 776
virtual memory, 626, 14501451
wait states, 10, 221, 230, 231, 233234,
777778
Windows 95/98 and memory, 812, 821822
Windows RAM (WRAM), 783
XT memory troubleshooting, 795796
memory cards, 1022
memory managers (see also memory), 803832

1681

386MAX, 804, 829832


AUTOEXEC.BAT, 805, 810811
BUFFERS setting, 809
CONFIG.SYS, 805806, 811
DEVICEHIGH setting, 810, 811, 813814
DOS location, 809810
DOSMAX, 829831
EMM386, 804, 805, 807808, 814, 823829
FILES setting, 809
high memory area (HMA), 812814
HIMEM.SYS, 804, 805, 806807, 823829
LASTDRIVE setting, 809
LOADHIGH setting, 811, 814
MEM function, 811, 812
QEMM, 804, 814823
terminate stay resident (TSR) programs, 813
upper memory area (UMA), 811, 812814
using memory managers, 804814
video RAM (VRAM), 831832
video ROM (VROM), 820
Windows 95/98 and memory, 812, 821822
Memphis (see Windows 98)
metal oxide varistors (MOV), 1502
micro channel architecture (MCA) bus, 259,
734743, 736
configuration/signals, 735741
PS/2 reference/diagnostic disks, 741742
troubleshooting, 743
Microcom Networking Protocol (MNP)
standard, 882884
Microid Research BIOS, 122123, 536541
microphones (see also sound boards and
cards), 12001202, 1212, 12141215, 1408
microprocessors (see chipsets and
microprocessors)
Microsoft, 46
MIDI (see also sound boards and cards),
11961197, 1196, 1207, 1406, 1407, 1408,
1413, 1552
error codes, 463
joysticks, 657, 658, 657, 1208
MIPS Orion (see chipsets; CPU)
MIRROR, 14411442
mixers, 11971198
modems/fax cards (see also COM/serial
ports), 1618, 851905, 1023
asynchronous communication, 11771180
auto detection/switching, 855
automatic timeout/watchdog, 890
bit/baud rate, 878, 11791180
bits per second (bps), 11791180
call waiting, 890
caller ID, 855, 898899
COM (COM/serial port) connection, 852,
853854, 903, 904, 11761191
command processor, 886888
command set, 855868, 902
computer, 890
connect sequences for V.22bis/V.32, 875,
876877
connection problems, 894895, 902, 903904
cyclic redundancy check (CRC), 885, 896,
1178

1682

INDEX

modems/fax cards, continued


data carrier equipment (DCE), 11821183
data frames, 11771179, 1178
data terminal equipment (DTE), 11821183
dead unit, 893
distinctive ring, 855, 897898
dual simultaneous voice and data (DSVD), 855
dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) signals, 853
duplexing, 891
error codes, 461, 464465
escape sequence, 874
external modems, 853854, 854
fax transmission, 896, 902
file transfer protocols, 884885
garbage, 892894
hardware problems, 885
Hayes compatibility, 855, 868, 904
Infrared Data Association (IrDA), 991992,
11841187, 11901191
initialization (init) strings, 868, 891
intermittent operation, 892
internal modems, 852853, 853
interrupts, 11811182, 11871189
Kermit, 885
lock up, 890, 897, 904
memory use, 903
memory use, nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM),
852, 853, 868
modem cards, 1023
modes, command vs. data mode, 874, 895
modulation/demodulation explained, 852,
877879
mouse compatibility problems, 848, 896
negotiation, 874875
no answer, 893
noise, 889, 894
not recognized, 891
on-screen text wrong, 891892
PC cards, 1036, 10381039, 1042
plug and play, 900, 10911092
power supplies, 886, 895,1581
result codes, 868, 869871
Sealink, 885
setup parameters (S registers), 852, 868,
871874, 888, 896, 900
signal level, 890
signaling standards, Bell, ITU/CCITT (V),
MNP, 879884
slow operation, 900901, 904
state-checking, 874
status lights, 877
sychronous communication, 899900
telephone equipment, 885886, 888
troubleshooting, 885905
universal asychronous receiver/transmitter
(UART), 852853, 889, 11801181, 1180
voice mail, 855
Windows errors, 897, 901905
X-, Y-, ZModem, 884885
x2 technology, 854
modified frequency modulation (MFM), 570
modulation, 877879
eight to fourteen modulation (EFM),
146148, 147, 157

monochrome display adapter (MDA), 14, 1255


monitors, video adapters, 1415, 14, 3144,
32, 33, 906937, 960, 12501294,
14761492, 15311533
3D graphics accelerators, 12671272
8514/A adapter (PS/2), 12581259
accelerated graphics port (AGP), 980984, 982
accelerator, video, 12641265
alignment/adjustment, 927, 14761492
alpha blending, 1271
AMI Multimedia channel, 1277, 1278
bandwidth, 913
barrel distortion, 910, 911
beam tracing, 921922
beep codes, 1284
BIOS error messages, 135
BIOS settings, 12911292
bloom, 935
boot problems, 12871288, 1290, 1292
brightness control, 37, 932
bus mastering, 1268
cabling and connectors, 12761280
cathode ray tube (CRT), 3335, 34, 4142,
42, 908, 921926, 922
cathode ray tube controller (CRTC), 1252
center balance, 40
center pincushion (center PCC) adjustment, 40
centering image, 1484
chipsets, video, 12621264
clamp pulse position, 41
cleaning, 1491, 1510
clock speed, 1282
CMOS setup, 223, 1285
color alignment (horizontal static)
adjustment, 39
color depth, 1269
color drive, 14901491
color graphics adapter (CGA), 14, 12551256
color look up tables (CLUT), 1270
color problems, 924, 927928, 932933, 934,
1286, 1288
COM4 conflicts, 1283
compressed/expanded image, 931, 934
configuration problems, 1285
contrast control, 37
control grid, 34
convergence, 35, 910, 922, 1483, 1484,
14861489
corner balance, 40
corner pincushion (corner PCC) adjustment, 40
cursor looks wrong, 1292
curvature (pin balance) adjustment, 39
dead unit, 1538
degaussing, 1490, 1513
digital video cards, 1023
digital video stream (DVS) mode, 1278, 1279
DirectX technology, 12721276, 12931294
disassembly/assembly tips, 4143
discharging the CRT, 4142, 42
distorted image, 931934, 1290
dithering, 1272
divide by zero errors, 1290
DMA errors, 1287
dot pitch, 908909

INDEX

double buffering, 12711272


drift, 913
drive board for monitor, 3536
dynamic convergence, 35, 14861489
enclosure, 3233
enhanced graphics adapter (EGA), 1415,
12561257
error codes, 444445, 454456, 461, 462,
466467, 469
expanded/shrunken display, 1287
expansion bus architecture, 12661267
exploded view, 33
flickering, intermittent images, 934
flipping, scrolling image, 936
flyback transformer (FBT), 37, 919
focus, focus grid, 34, 935936, 1482
fogging effects, 1271
fuzzy picture, 1288, 1291
gamma/cutoff problems, 924925
garbage display, 12851286, 1288, 1289
general protection faults (GPF), 1287
Gouraud shading, 1271
graphics accelerators, 12601272
graphics, 12521253
half, cut, shrunk screen, 930
hangs up, 1286, 1287
height and width of image, 1484
high/horiz. output transistor (HOT), 919,
934935
high voltage test/regulation, 1481
horizontal adjustment/control, 38, 39,
14831484
horizontal drive circuits, 3637
horizontal scan/sync, 910912, 918919
hot operation, 923, 935
installation, 15311533
interlacing, 912913, 913, 12901291
jitter, 913
key balance adjustment, 39
lighting, 1269
linearity, 14851486
lines across screen, 929930, 1284
locks up, 1292
loop through, 1292
memory problems, 1291, 1292, 1293
mirror for testing, 1479
missing information in picture, 1288
modes of operation, 12531255, 1293
moire level, 39
monochrome display adapter (MDA), 14, 1255
motherboard problems, 1282, 15771578
MPEG data port (MDP) mode, 12781280
MPEG devices, 1291
multicolor graphics array (MCGA),
12571258
multimedia peripheral port (MPP) mode,
12781280
no video display, 89, 12831284
not recognized, 1288
on-screen controls, 3741
overscanning, 1290
palletized textures, 1270
PCI bus/board, 1293, 12661267, 1480
phase, 14831484

1683

phosphor triads (RGB, etc.), 34, 924


pin balance adjustment, 39
pincushion (PCC amp), 39, 910, 911,
14821483
pixels, 15, 908
polarity, 914
power supplies, 37
professional graphics adapter (PGA), 1257
purity, color, 34, 35, 39, 41, 922, 1482,
14891490, 1513
purity magnet, 34
radiation from screen, 1481
RAMDAC, 1261, 12651266
raster, 35, 910912, 917, 928, 930931, 1482
raster drive board, 3637
reassembly tips, 927
refresh, 12901291
rejuvenators for CRT, 926
rendering, 12671268
resolution, 15, 908, 12681269, 1532
retrace, 910
rolling image, 12841285
rotation adjustment, 39
screen control, 925, 14811482
screen door/stippling effect, 1271
screen grid, 34
SCSI device problems, 12891290
shadow mask, 3435, 35, 909910,
14861487
shaky image, 936937
shock hazards, 4142, 42, 1478
shorts, 923926
slant or tilt (key balance) adjustment, 39
slow performance, 1289
speed of video, 12641269
split screen, 1286
standard mode operation, 1278
starting point for adjustment, 14791480, 1479
static convergence, 35, 14861487
sub-assembly removal/replacement, 4243
super VGA (SVGA), 15, 1259
swim, 913
synchronization, 914
testing, 926, 927, 14761492
Texas Instruments Graphical Architecture
(TIGA), 1260
text, 12521253,
texture mapping, 1269, 12701271
thrashing, 1292
transparency, 1269
trapezoidal (PCC phase) adjustment, 39
triads, color palettes, 908909
troubleshooting, 3536, 921937, 12801294
twist (rotation ) adjustment, 39
vertical adjustment/control, 3839, 40, 1484
vertical drive circuits, 3637
vertical scan/sync, 115, 118, 910912, 915
video BIOS/ROM, 1253, 1265
video drive circuits (RGB), 914915, 915, 916
video graphics array (VGA), 15, 1258
video RAM, 12521253, 1265
video signal, 914
VL bus, 1266, 12821283, 13481354
warranties, 14771478

1684

INDEX

monitors, video adapters, continued


Windows 95/98 problems, 12931294
wiring diagrams, 920
XGA and XGA/2, 12591260
zbuffering, 1270
Zoomed Video (ZV), 1016
motherboards, 811, 9, 938966, 942, 943,
944, 15211522, 15691578
accelerators, 947
active, passive, modular, 938939
advanced power control (APC), 951
advanced power management (APM), 957
AT Attachment interface (ATA), 400
AT form factor, 941, 1574
ATX form factor, 2426, 25, 941, 943, 1574
battery, 948
benchmarking, 964
BIOS/BIOS ROM, 8, 11, 954, 955956, 963,
964, 965
boot problems, 15761577
bus mastering, 965
cache, 8, 10, 956, 958
case/enclosure changes, 15741575
CD-ROM drives, 945, 957, 958
checksum errors, 954
chipsets/microprocessors, 1011, 944, 958, 962
clock/timing circuits, 8, 950
CMOS, 955, 963, 1573
COM/serial ports, 8
compatibility problems, 956964, 15601561
connections, 945, 952, 953
core logic, 186
CPU, 8, 910, 953, 957, 963964, 965
crashes/locks up/hangs up, 960, 961, 963964
data bus Xccelerator (DBX), 947
daughtercards, 1572
diagnostic/error codes, 468
DIP switch settings, 952953
direct memory access (DMA), 66, 955
drive problems, 1577
electrostatic discharge (ESD)damage, 1573
error codes, 442443
expansion slots, 89, 11
extended system configuration (ESCD), 963
fans/cooling, 951
flash memory, 948
floating point unit (FPU), 953954
floppy disk drive, 950
foreign objects, 952
form factors, 2426, 941
front panel connections, 948, 949
grounding, 953
hard disk drives, 959960, 961962
I/O, 946947, 948, 950
IDE drives, 948, 957, 960
installation, 15751576
intermittent problems, 953
interrupts (IRQ), 66, 954955
jumper settings, 950, 952953, 956, 961
jumperless motherboard, 956
keyboard connections, 950, 955, 958
locks up, 1577
management extension hardware, 951

math co processor, 8
MEMMAKER problems, 957
memory, 10, 960, 962, 964, 965
monitors, video adapters, 964, 1282
mounting, 23
NLX form factor, 2729, 27, 941, 943, 1574
overclocking CPUs, 324325
parallel ports, 8
parity errors, 960
password access, 958959
PCI bridge and memory controller (PMC),
947948
PCI connectors, 951
pipelined memory, 958
ports, 950, 964
POST testing errors, 953955, 957
power supplies, 948, 952
printer ports, 964
processor card upgrades, 1572
RAM, 8, 955
refresh, 954
removal, 1574
repair vs. replace, 951952
SCSI, 962
single inline memory module (SIMM), 948,
956, 958, 962
Slot1 connectors, 947
slots, 944
Socket 7-, Socket 8-, or Slot 1-, 940
sockets, CPU, 295297, 296, 952
sound boards and cards, 944, 946, 960, 1409
speakers, 948
static device errors, 965
telephone support, 945946
testing, 1576
troubleshooting, 951965, 15761578
upgrading, 963, 964, 15691578
video errors, 960, 15771578
VL bus, 13481354
voltage, 1561
wavetable cards, 946, 951
Windows problems, 958, 961, 963
mouse (see also pen input systems;
touchpads), 833837, 836, 15491550
cleaning, 838839, 15101511
clicking/doubleclicking, 834835, 847
cursor position, 834, 845, 849850
dead unit, 849
drivers, 841842, 845846, 1549
erratic performance, 844845, 846857
error codes, 846
general protection faults, 846
hard drive compatibility, 421
installation, 15491550
interfaces, 840
mechanical construction, 835836, 835
modem problems, 848, 896
motherboard connection, 950
options for pointer, 847848
PC card problems, 1032
plug and play devices, 1096, 1098
port settings, 841
PS/2 mouse, 841, 847

INDEX

right button features, 848


sensors, 836837, 837
serial vs. bus mouse, 840
troubleshooting, 840850, 1550
Windows 95, 842844, 848
MPC (see multimedia PC)
MPEG compression, 426427, 432, 434435,
13201323
MPEG data port (MDP) mode, 12781280
MPEG decoder boards, 18, 19, 20
MPEG devices, 1291
MS DOS, 5051, 5765, 6970
MSCDEX.EXE, 159, 160, 1412, 1556
MSDOS.SYS files, 5859, 68
multi spin CD-ROM, 150151
multicolor graphics array (MCGA), 12571258
multimedia extension (MMX) processors,
Pentium, 317
multimedia mode, 240
multimedia PC (MPC), 151152, 16011602
Pentium multimedia extension (MMX)
processors, 317
sound card compatibility, 1408
multimedia peripheral port (MPP) mode,
12781280
multimedia (see also CD-ROM drives; PC
TV; sound boards and cards), 15501558
multipartite viral infection, 1335
multiplier jumpers, 15251526
multipliers, overclocking CPUs, 327
multisession capability, CD-ROM, 153
musical instrument digital interface (see MIDI)
Mylex beep codes, 473
Mylex BIOS POST codes, 524526

N
NCR BIOS POST codes, 541544
NetBench, 80
network adapters, error codes, 455456, 467
network operating systems (NOS), 989990
networks
BIOS, 1588
Infrared Data Association (IrDA), 991992,
11841187, 11901191
LAN cards, 1023
optical networks, 991992, 11841187,
11901191
PC cards, 10331034, 10421043, 1045
peripheral component interconnect (PCI),
10491054, 1050
wireless networks, 991992, 11841187,
11901191
newsgroups, PC related, 16121613
nibble mode, 1004
nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries, 101,
107109, 108
nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, 101, 109
NLX form factor motherboards, 2729, 941,
943, 1574
nonsystem disk error, BIOS, 138
Northbridge controller (AMD 640 chipset), 189
Norton Anti Virus, hard drive problems, 421

1685

notebook computers (see portable PCs)


Novell compatibility issues, 417
NTSC standards, 1303
numerical processing unit (NPU), 287
NumLock setting, CMOS, 224
NVRAM errors, BIOS, 141
Nyquist Sampling Theorem, 1195

O
offset, 1151
Olivetti BIOS POST codes, 544548
on-the-fly compression, 347
open architectures, 257, 639
operating systems, 4570, 617
adjusting MS DOS for upgrades, 5961
advanced power management (APM), 985986
boot disk creation, 6970
boot process, 6570
bugs or errors in, 6465
disk operating system (DOS), 47
environment configuration, 6869
graphical user interface (GUI), 48
initialization (see boot process), 65
installing/using multiple versions of MS
DOS, 61
limitations, 620
loading, 68
MS DOS, 5051, 5765
OS 2 Warp 4.x, 5253
partitioning limits, 618
PC DOS 7.0, 5152
plug and play devices, 1078
registry files (SYSTEM.DAT), 68
troubleshooting, 6465
upgrading, 65
WINBOOT.SYS files, 58, 68
Windows 95/98, 52, 5559
Windows CE, 53
Windows NT (Workstation), 5355
OPTi chipsets, 200, 202203, 207208
optical networks, IrDA, 991992, 11841187,
11901191
optical storage technology association
(OSTA), 426
optimization, CMOS, 221
Orange Book standard, CD-ROM, 150, 152153
OS 2 Warp 4.x, 5253
overclocking CPUs, 323331, 15621563
75 and 83 MHz bus speeds, 328
AMD K5 series, 330
bus speed, 327, 328
corrupted/missing files, 338
CPU issues, 324, 338
crashes, 338
Cyrix/IBM 6X86, 330
devices not recognized, 338
heat/cooling, 325, 330331
Intel Pentium CPUs, 328, 329
Intel Pentium Pro, 328, 330
lockups, 338
memory errors, 338
motherboards, 324325

1686

INDEX

overclocking CPUs, continued


multiplier setting, 327
no boot up, 337
pitfalls of, 325
RAM, 325
requirements for, 324325
steps to overclock the system, 325327
supply voltages, 327328
troubleshooting, 337338
Windows 95/98 caveat, 327
overlay mode, PC TV, 13041305
overlay software, 967977, 1545
override errors, BIOS, 139
overscanning, 1290

P
P rating (PR) system, 295
packet write mode, CD-ROM, 154
paddle board, 400
pages, in memory, 781, 783
PAL standards, 1303
palletized textures, 1270
parallel ports (see also laser/LED printers;
printers), 8, 16, 964965
bi-directional ports, type 1 and 3, 10031004
BIOS error messages, 141
Centronics ports, 9971009, 998
enhanced capabilities port (ECP), 1002,
10041005
enhanced parallel port (EPP), 1002, 1005
motherboard connection, 950
unidirectional ports, 1003
parity, 239, 749, 785787, 794795, 960,
1386, 1393, 1529
BIOS error messages, 136, 138139
CMOS settings, 224, 239
parking heads, hard disk drives, 1431
partitioning, 394395, 399, 611615, 618,
1402, 14331434, 15421543
password access, 226, 254255, 958959
PC busses (see also industry standard
architecture), 640
PC cards, 13, 10101047
anti-virus program problems, 10311032
architecture, 10121014, 1013
attribute memory, 10171018
audio system problems, 1035
beep codes, 1033, 1046
boot problems, 1043, 1046
CardBus, 1016
configuration/compatibility problems, 1033,
1034, 1035, 1036, 1037, 1041, 10431046
connections/interfaces, 10181021
device/device driver incompatibility,
10231025, 10321033
enablers, 10141015, 1033
error codes, 463
hot insertion/removal, hot swapping, 1017
installation, 10231026
interrupts, 1033
lock ups, 1032, 1034
logon problems, 10401041

memory, 10261029, 10301031, 1033,


1035, 1040
modem problems, 1036, 10381039, 1042
mouse problems, 1032
network problems, 10331034, 10421043,
1045
no display, 1032
not recognized, 1031, 10351036, 1037
other types of PC cards, 10221023
parent/child nodes, 1036
portable PCs, 1040, 10441045
power problems, 1037
socket disabled (red X), 10361037
troubleshooting, 1022, 10291047
types I, II, III, 10151016
Windows 95/98 problems, 1032, 10371040,
1042, 1043, 10451047
Zoomed Video (ZV), 1016
PC DOS 7.0, 5152
PC TV boards, 1295, 13031306, 1304,
13161317
PCI bridge and memory controller (PMC),
947948
PCI bus, 121, 141142, 236237, 241, 247,
10481054, 1050, 12661267, 1293
PCI push, PC TV boards, 13031304
PCMCIA (see PC card)
PCs, basic layout/components, 48, 57
Peltier coolers, 1458
pen input systems, 10551075, 1076
batteries, 1065
capacitive type, 10591060, 1060
cleaning/maintenance, 1064
electromagnetic type, 10601062, 1061
environment, software, applications,
10621064
gestures and glyphs, 10631064
resistive type, 10571058, 1058, 1059
troubleshooting, 10651075
Pentium (see CPU)
performance improvement (see enhancing
drive performance)
peripheral component interconnect (see PCI)
peripherals (see devices/device drivers; plug
and play)
phantom power, microphones, 1201
phase shift keying (PSK), 878879
phase, in modulation, 878
Philips BIOS POST codes, 548549
Phoenix codes, 462, 474475, 549553
Phoenix Technologies BIOS, 127129
phosphor triads (RGB, etc.), 34
Photo CDs, Kodak, 149
piezoelectric coolers (Peltier coolers), 1458
pincushion distortion, 910, 911, 14821483
pipelined burst static RAM (PB SRAM), 781
pipelining, 241, 247, 297, 958
pits, CD-ROM media, 144, 145, 427, 428
pixels, 15, 908
planar board (see motherboards)
plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC), 1591
platters, 588589, 592594, 592, 593, 604605
playback, audio, 1194, 1194, 12101211

INDEX

playback, video, 13171320


plug and play (PNP) devices, 10761103
autoconfiguration, 284
BIOS, 121, 139, 1077, 1094, 1100
BLASTER variable, DOS, 1088
bridge conflicts, 1100
CMOS configuration/setup, 235248
conflict resolution, 283284, 10881090, 1101
detection vs enumeration, 1079, 1086
disabling, 10921093, 1094, 1102
DOS, 10871090
extra port displayed, 1096, 1102
hot insertion/removal, hot swapping, 1017
identification codes, 10791086
improper function, 252
installation, 10901093
interrupts, 1094
ISA adapters, 10941095
legacy devices, 1086, 1091
locks/hangs up, 10951096, 11011102
modems, 10911092
mouse, 1096, 1098
not recognized, 1095
operating systems, 1078
portable PCs, 1095, 1102
printers, 1092, 1096, 10981099
removal, 1093, 1096
SCSI, 10951096
sound devices, 11001101, 1552
troubleshooting, 10931103
Windows 95, 10771086, 1093, 10951097,
10991102
pointing devices, 463, 833834
polarity, in monitors, 914
popup utilities, 269
portable PCs
backlight power supplies, 11161119, 1117
batteries, 107115
conserving battery power, 110111
PC card problems, 1040, 10441045
plug and play devices, 1095, 1102
Smart Battery, 992994
Suspend or Hibernation mode, 110
system management bus (SMBus), 992994
ports (see also COM/serial ports; parallel
ports), 1618, 253, 964
ATX form factor, 2425, 25
BIOS error messages, 141
Centronics ports, 9971009, 998,
COM/serial ports, 11761191
device/port assignments, typical, 267268
error codes, 446447, 469
I/O port assignments, 261266
motherboard connection, 950
POST, 47, 6567, 88, 117118, 133, 332, 441,
475492, 636, 1433, 1589
BIOS/BIOS ROM, 139
motherboard errors, 953955
power on defaults, 249
POST boards/cards, 562566, 648
Post Probe, 562564, 562
power on defaults, 249

1687

power supplies (see also batteries), 8, 1521,


15791585
ac testing, 15811582
advanced configuration and power interface
(ACPI), 979980
advanced power control (APC), 951
advanced power management (APM), 957,
984987
alarm/beep code conditions, 15011503
ATX form factor, 2627
backlight power supplies, 11161119, 1117
backup power supply (BPS), 1494,
14971499, 1498, 14991500, 1503, 1504
batteries, 99115, 948, 1501, 1502,
15301531
blackouts, 14931494
breakers, 1502
brownouts, 1494
choosing a supply, 15831585
CPU, 333
CRT flyback supplies, 11191121
dead system, 86
duty cycles, 1106
electromagnetic interference (EMI), 1107
failures, 1581
fan runs/no system activity, 86
fans/cooling, 1502
feedback loops, 1105
flyback transformer (FBT), 37, 11191121
freezes up, 1580
fuses, 1502
hard disk drives, 1396, 1430, 1580
heat, 1461
high voltage power supplies, 11161121,
1120, 1481
Instant On, 990991
inverters, 1502
line conditioners, 1497
memory, 1503, 1580
metal oxide varistors (MOV), 1502
modem problems, 1581
monitors, 37
motherboard, 948, 952
NLX form factor, 29
overclocking CPUs, supply voltages, 327
phantom power, microphones, 1201
power management, 221, 248249, 251252
protection devices, 14921504
Smart Battery, 992994
supressors, surge and spike, 14961497,
1496, 1497
surges and spikes, 14941495, 15001501
switching power supplies, 11041115, 1106,
1107
symptoms of power problems, 1495,
15821583
transformers, 1106
troubleshooting, 15031504, 15801583
uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), 1430,
1494, 14991500, 1503, 1504
upgrading, 15791585
voltage, 1561

1688

INDEX

power supplies, continued


voltage output by pin, 86, 87
voltage regulator module (VRM), 333
prediction, branch, 297
preempt timer, 247248
prefetch, 245
presence detect (PD) in memory, 779
preventive maintenance, 15051518
primary (master) drives, 222
primary surface mode, PC TV, 1305
printers (see also parallel ports)
Centronics ports, 9971009, 998
error codes, 446447, 449, 455, 456, 461,
462, 469, 693701
interrupts, 999, 1208
laser/LED printers, 679733
motherboards, 964
plug and play, 1092, 1096, 10981099
sound card conflicts, 1208
processor cards, motherboard upgrades, 1572
professional graphics adapter (PGA), 1257
programmable I/O (PIO), 600, 601603
Promise drive adapter, 421
protected mode operation, 294, 776
protection errors, 801
public switched telephone network (PSTN), 852
purity, 1482, 14891490, 1513
purity magnet, 34

Q
QEMM, 804, 814823
quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 879
Quadtel BIOS codes, 475, 553556
quarter inch cartridge (QIC), 12181221
R
rabbit, virus, 1331
RAM, 8, 10, 938, 955956, 1265, 1385, 1527
RAMBUS, 744, 782783
RAMDAC, 1261, 12651266
RAMDrive, 375376
random access, 572
raster, 35, 910912, 917, 928, 930931, 1482
raster drive board, 3637
read settings, 237, 243, 245, 294
real mode or base memory, 766, 767775
real time clock (RTC) (see also clock/timer
circuits), 131132, 950
rechargeable batteries (see batteries)
Recordable Compact Disc Standard,
CD-ROM, 150
recording density, 591
recording process, audio, 11931194, 1194,
1210, 1211
RECOVER function, 14381440
recovering data (see data recovery)
Red Book standard, CD-ROM, 150
reduced instruction set computing (RISC), 297
redundant array of independent disks (RAID),
1428
refresh, 228229, 569, 779780, 954,
12901291

region codes, DVD drives, 432, 433


registry files, Windows 95, 68, 9293, 603
removable drives, 11221146
Bernoulli drives (Iomega), 11351141
Ditto drive (Iomega), 11311135
SyQuest drives, 11411146
Zip drive (Iomega), 11231131
rendering, 12671268
replicators, virus, 1331
Rescue Professional, 1442
resolution, laser/LED printers, 683
resolution, of monitors, 15, 908, 12681269,
1532
retentitivity, 569
retrace, 910
retry timer, 247
ROM, 47, 1253, 1265, 1399
row address strobe (RAS) setup, 234
RS232 port (see COM/serial ports)
run length encoding (RLE), 347

S
safety precautions, 2324
sampling, 11941195
scan codes, keyboard, 666667
scan line, in laser/LED printer, 686
SCANDISK, 1438, 1517
screen door/stippling effect, 1271
screen grid, 34
SCSI, 1617, 11471175
adapter cards, 1617, 1023
BIOS, 11721173
boot problems, 11681169, 1171, 1172
cables and terminators, 1152, 1160,
11621164, 1163, 1164
CD-ROM, 159, 13631365, 13691371,
15541555
configuration, bus pinouts, 10531158, 1161,
1162
device independence, 1148
differential, 10511052
disconnect/reconnect, 1151
drivers, 1160, 11641165
EISA drives, 1174
erratic operation, 11691170
error codes, 458, 463, 466468, 1170
hangs up, 11721173,
hard disk drives, 1395, 14001401, 1404,
1540, 1541, 1545, 1546
host adapters for SCSI devices, 11581160,
1159, 1170
ID numbers, 10521053
initiators, 11501151
installation, 1162
motherboard, 962
negotiation, 1157
not recognized, 1171, 1172
plug and play devices, 10951096
sense codes, 12361238
singleended, 10511052
synchronous, asychronous communications,
1151
tape drives, 12361238

INDEX

targets, 11501151, 1172


troubleshooting, 11651174
upgrading for SCSI, 11581165
variations, SCSI 1, Fast- and Wide-, etc.
11491150
video adapters, 12891290
VL bus/card use, 11731174
Windows 95, 1165
SDRAM, 11
Sealink, 885
secondary (slave) drives, 222
sector sparing (defect management), 594595
sectors, 346, 572, 592594, 592, 593, 1541
sectors per track (SPT), 222
seek time, 593, 1359, 1444
self monitoring analysis and reporting
technology (see SMART)
sense codes, tape drives, 12361238
sensititivy, 1200
serial ports (see COM/serial ports)
ServerBench, 80
setup routines, BIOS, 118
Setup utility, CMOS, 219249
SGS Thomson (see chipsets;CPU)
shadow and slot masks, 3435, 35, 909910,
14861487,
shadow memory, 130, 221, 226227, 239,
784, 804
shoe shining, tape drives, 1249
signal to noise ratio (SNR), 1199
signature scanners (see also viruses/antivirals),
1343
SIMCHECK equipment, 792794, 793
single inline memory module (SIMM), 10,
748749, 748, 750763, 765, 791792, 794,
948, 956, 962, 13841388, 1390, 1392,
1515, 15271529
single inline package (SIP), 747
single-ended SCSI, 10511052
SiS chipsets, 200, 201202, 208
slack space, 346
Slot 1 motherboards, 940
slots, expansion, 235, 944, 1527
small computer system interface (see SCSI)
small outline J leads memory package, 747
Smart Battery, 992994
SMART command set, 598
snoop, 240241, 246, 247
Socket 7/8 motherboards, 940, 1527
sockets, CPU, 295297, 296, 1527
software, 47, 269270, 286, 987989
sorting, memory sorting, 804
sound boards and cards, 18, 19, 944, 960,
11921215, 1193, 1197, 14061415, 1407,
15511554
analog-to-digital/digital-to-analog
conversions, 1195
ATAPI, 1551
attenuation, 1198
audio cards, 1023
AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS, 1412,
15521553
buzz or hum, 1206

1689

cabling and connectors, 1411


CD problems, 1207
CD-ROM compatibility, 1414, 15511552
CODECS, compression, 1206
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT,
12021203
configuration, 1551
data bits, 11951196
decibels, 1198
digital signal processor (DSP), 11971198
digitization of sound, 11941195
direct memory access (DMA), 1210, 1211,
1213, 1551
DirectSound, 1274
distortion, 1200, 1209
DOS, 1211, 14111412
drivers, 12021203
electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage, 1410
Ensoniq sound boards, 1215
frequency response, 11981199, 1199
full-duplex operation, 1212
gain, 1198, 1200
harmonic distortion, total (THD), 11991200
I/O address, 1551
IDE drives, 1554
installation, 14061415, 15511554
intermodulation distortion (IMD), 1200
interrupts, 1207, 1551
joystick/game port problems, 657, 1208, 1552
line-in line-out systems, 946
lock ups, 1210, 1211, 1413
memory/environment space, 12071208,
1210, 1211, 1414
microphones, 12001202, 1212, 12141215,
1408
MIDI, 11961197, 1196, 1207, 1406, 1407,
1408, 1413, 1552
mixers, 11971198
motherboards, 1409
MPC compatibility, 1408
MSCDEX.EXE, 1412
no sound, 14131414, 1554
not recognized, 1553
Nyquist Sampling Theorem, 1195
PC card problems, 1035
playback process, 1194, 1194, 12101211
plug and play devices, 11001101, 1552
poor sound, 1206, 1207, 1208, 12091210
printer problems, 1208
pros and cons, 14091410
quality of sound, 11951196
recording process, 11931194, 1194, 1210,
1211
removing sound boards, 1411
sampling, 11941195
sensititivy, 1200
signal to noise ratio (SNR), 1199
software, sound, 15521553
speakers, 948, 12061207, 1408
stereo receiver connections, 946
testing, 1413, 1513
troubleshooting, 12021215, 14131414,
15531554

1690

INDEX

sound boards and cards, continued


WAV files, 12031206, 12081209
WebPhone, 1215
Windows 3.x, 1412
Windows 95, 1211, 12131214, 1412
Southbridge controller (AMD 645 chipset),
189190
speakers, 948, 12061207, 1408, 15091510
speech adapters, error codes, 463
speed of processor, 10, 777778
spikes, 14941495, 15001501
ST506/412 drive adapter, 389395, 391
Stacker, DOS disk compression, 377387
stacks, 258
standard mode operation, 1278
standards, form factors for components, 2429
startup file creation, 15471549
state machine settings, 244
static convergence, 35, 14861487
static RAM (SRAM), 744, 780
stereo receiver connections, 946
sterilizing the shop, 8385
storage (see disk compression)
streaming, 246
Suntec chipsets, 208
super VGA (SVGA), 15, 1259
superscalar execution, 298
supressors, surge and spike, 14961497, 1496,
1497
surface mounted devices (SMD), 952
surges and spikes, 14941495, 15001501
swap files, 369370
swim, in monitors, 913
switching power supplies, 11041115, 1106,
1107
symbols, CD-ROM, 147
symbols, tokens, 878
Symphony Labs chipsets, 209
synchronization, in monitors, 914
synchronous burst static RAM (SBSRAM), 781
synchronous communications, 899900, 1151
synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), 744, 782, 1385
SyQuest removable drives, 11411146
system assembly procedures, 15191558
system BIOS (see BIOS/BIOS ROM)
system board (see motherboards)
system integrity diagnostic test failure, 340
system management bus (SMBus), 992994
system options, BIOS error message, 134
system reporting tools, 269
system resources, 258268
conflict resolution, 257284
device/port assignments, typical, 267268
direct memory access (DMA), 260261
extended ISA (EISA) busses, 259260
I/O area assignments, 261266
interrupts, 258260
memory assignments, 261, 266
micro channel architecture (MCA) bus, 259
plug and play (PNP) settings, 283284
stacks, 258
system reporting tools, 269
Windows 95/98 conflict resolution, 270283
system service routines, BIOS, 118120

T
244PC cards, Windows 95/98 problems, 1044
386MAX, 804, error codes/error states,
829832
3D graphics accelerators, 12671272
3D WinBench 97, 79
Tandon BIOS POST codes, 556559
tape drives (see also backup strategies), 12, 376,
569, 12161249, 1217, 14191420, 1425
autoloaders, 12281229
auto-skip, 1247
bad blocks, 1230, 1243, 1245
beginning/end of tape, 1243
capacity, 12481249
caught tapes, freeing, 12321235
cleaning tapes/drives, 12271232, 1512
comparing tapes, 1425
compatibility issues, 1221, 1245, 1425
dead unit, 12381239
despooling tape, 1423
digital audio tape (DAT) drives, 12311232
DOS, 1244
dropout errors, 1230
electronic circuitry, 12261227, 1226
error codes, 467
exploded view, 1225
fault type errors, 12431244
floppy drives, 1247
format errors, 1230, 1246, 1247, 1248,
14241425
handling tape, 12271232
helical scan tapes, 12221224, 1223
load/eject problems, 1242, 1247
locks up, 1243
logic errors, 1248
maintenance, 12271232
mechanical components, 12241226, 1239,
1240, 1241
media errors, 1230, 1231, 1246
memory errors, 12461247, 14251426
not recognized, 1244, 1423
overlay errors, 12441245
quarter inch cartridge (QIC), 12181221
read/write errors, 1230, 12391240
restoring files, problems, 14231424
sense codes, 12361238
shoe shining errors, 1249
speed problems, 12401241, 1246, 1248
tape properties, 12171218
tape rotation for backups, 14191420
Travan tape cartridges, 12211222
troubleshooting, 12351249, 14221426
Windows 95, 1244
write protected tapes, 12421243
targets, SCSI, 11501151
temperature warnings, 140141
terminate and stay resident (TSR), 257, 269,
813, 1343
terminators, BIOS error messages, 140
test codes (see also error codes; IBM
diagnostic/error codes), 442
test questions, 16221661
test tick, memory, 224

INDEX

testing system assemblies, 15361539


Texas Instruments Graphical Architecture
(TIGA), 1260
texture mapping, 1269, 12701271
thermal calibration, CD-R drives, 176
thermal probe warning, BIOS, 140
thin small outline package (TSOP), 747
thin-film media, 589
ThinkPad, QEMM problems, 822823
thrashing, 634, 1292
time bombs, 13261331
time outs, 244
timing modes, 243
toner and developer, 683684
total harmonic distortion (THD), 11991200
touchpads (see pen input systems)
tower enclosures (see also enclosures), 78
trace, in laser/LED printer, 686
track-at-once write mode, CD-ROM, 154
track density/tracks per inch (TPI), 591
trackballs (see also mouse), 833, 838, 840,
845846
tracks, 346, 572, 592594, 592, 593 1541
transformers, 919, 1106, 11191121
transient commands (see external commands)
translation modes, hard drives, 222223, 400,
619, 15441545
transparency, 1269
Travan tape cartridges, 12211222
trellis coded quadrature amplitude modulation
(TCQAM), 879
triads, color palettes, 908909
Trojan horses, 13251326
Truespeech codec, 1206
truncation of cylinders, 619
turbo mode, 225, 226
TV (see PC TV boards)
Type 47 HDD data area, 224
typematic rate, 223

U
u-Law codec, 1206
Ultra ATA drives, 413414, 599600, 1395,
1400, 1402, 1588
UNFORMAT, 14411442
unidirectional ports, 1003
uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), 1430,
1494, 14991500, 1503, 1504
universal asychronous receiver/transmitter
(UART), 852853, 889, 11801181, 1180
universal disk format (UDF), 426
universal serial bus (USB), 1112, 121,
994995, 995
upgrading
benchmarks, 75
conflicts after upgrade, 90
CPU upgrades, 10
memory, 10
operating system adjustments, 5961, 65
SCSI upgrades, 11581165
troubleshooting problems, 9091
upper memory area (UMA), 117, 158, 241,
776, 804, 809, 811, 812814, 1399

1691

V
vaccines (see also viruses/antivirals),
13411341
vertical drive circuits, 3637
vertical scan/sync, 910912
VESA (see also VL bus), 1348, 1349
VGA card setting, 240, 243, 245
VIA Apollo chipsets, 196200, 209210
vibration and CPU failure, 14591460
video, video accelerators, video adapters,
video boards (see monitors, video adapters)
video BIOS/BIOS ROM, 233, 1253
video capture boards (see also monitors, video
adapters; PC TV), 1415, 14, 12951303,
1296, 1297
analog to digital/digital to analog conversion,
1297
audio video interleave (AVI), 1298
camera techniques, capture, 13021303
capture process, 1298, 13001303, 13101317
CODECs, 12981299
color, 1302
direct memory access (DMA), 1306
frame rate, 1300
I/O addresses, 13061307
image window size for capture, 1300
Indeo video codec (Intel), 12991300
installing video capture boards, 13081310
intercast broadcasts, 13051306, 13161317
interrupts, 13061307
lighting, 1302
MPEG compression, 13201323
overlay mode, PC TV, 13041305
playback process, 13171320
primary surface mode, PC TV, 1305
quality of video source for capture, 1301
troubleshooting, 13061323
vertical sync/blanking, 1306
video electronics standards association (see
VESA; VL bus)
video graphics array (VGA), 15, 240, 243,
245, 1258
video palette snoop, 240
video RAM (VRAM), 744, 781, 831832
video ROM (VROM), 226, 820
video standards, 426427
virtual control program interface (VCPI), 776
virtual memory, 626
viruses/antivirals, 8185, 637, 13241347,
1429, 1431, 1433
antiviral tools, 13411344
CMOS protection setup, 227228
curing infections, 13401341
identifying, 8183
myths, 13351337
protection, 13371338
sterilizing the shop, 8385
symptoms, 13381339
virulent code, 13241332
VL bus, 241, 243, 417418, 1048, 1266,
13481354
CPU conflict after upgrade, 334

1692

INDEX

VL bus, cotninued
monitors, video adapters, 12821283
SCSI devices, 11731174
VLSI Technology chipsets, 210
voice mail, 855
voltage regulator module (VRM), 333
volume boot sector (VBS), 67
volume lables, 637
volume table of contents (VTOC), CD-ROM,
149
Vxx modem signal standards, 880882

W
wait states, 10, 221, 230, 231, 233234,
777778
Warp (OS2) 4.x, 5253
WAV files, 12031206, 12081209
WebBench, 80
WebPhone (see also sound boards and cards),
1215
Western Digital chipsets, 209
White Book standard, CD-ROM, 150
WINBOOT.SYS files, 58, 68
Windows 3.x, 1412, 1587
Windows 95/98, 52, 5559
Backup Window, 1422
BIOS, 1587
boot disk creation, 6970
boot process, problems, 9194
conflict resolution, 270283
device/device driver settings, 270283
DriveSpace disk compression, 357366
memory, 812, 821822
motherboard, 958, 961, 963
mouse, 842844, 848
overclocking CPUs, 327
PC card problems, 1032, 10371040,
10421047
plug and play devices, 10771086, 1093,
10951097, 10991102
registry files, missing, 9293
resource settings, 270283
SCSI devices, 1165
shortcut keys, 16141616

sound boards and cards, 12031206, 1211,


12131214, 1412
tape drives:, 1244
video adapters, 12931294
WAV file problems, 12031206
WINBOOT.SYS files, 58, 68
wrong CPU reported, 334
Windows CE, 53
Windows NT, 5355, 963
Windows RAM (WRAM), 783
wireless communications, 991992,
11841187, 11901191
wireless keyboards, 676
Wizard adapter, error codes, 467
work orders, 21
worms, 1332
wrapping, cylinder wrapping, 619
write operations, 294
write precompensation (WP), 596, 1541
write settings, 237, 238, 239, 242243, 245, 247
writeonce CD-R drives, 150

X
X-, Y-, ZModem, 884885
XA format, CD-ROM, 150
XGA and XGA/2 video adapter, 12591260
XtraDrive systems, QEMM problems, 820821
Y
Y adapters, joysticks, 657, 658
Year 2000 (Y2K) problems, 131132
Yellow Book standard, CD-ROM, 150
Z
zbuffering, 1270
Zenith BIOS POST codes, 560562
zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets, 1527
Zilog chipsets, 211
zinc air batteries, 110
Zip drive (Iomega), 1112, 11231131
zoned recording, IDE drives, 401, 594
Zoomed Video (ZV), 1016
Zymos chipsets, 211

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Stephen J. Bigelow is the founder and president of Dynamic Learning Systemsa technical writing, research, and publishing company specializing in electronic and PC service
topics. Bigelow is the author of twelve feature-length books for TAB/McGraw-Hill, and
almost 100 major articles for mainstream electronics magazines such as Popular Electronics, Electronics NOW, Circuit Cellar INK, and Electronic Service & Technology.
Bigelow is a contributing columnist for Computer Currents (the Computer Advisor column) and Computer Connections (The Computer Guy column). Bigelow is also the edTM
itor and publisher of The PC Toolbox a premier PC service newsletter for computer
enthusiasts and technicians. He is an Electrical Engineer with a BS EE from Central New
England College in Worcester, MA. Before contacting the author with questions about the
book, be sure to read the FAQGetting the most from this book.
Dynamic Learning Systems
PO Box 282
Jefferson, MA 01522-0282 USA
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