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Overvoltage protection (surge arrester)

Overvoltage protection (surge arrester)
Overvoltage protection (surge arrester)
Overvoltage protection (surge arrester)

Agenda

Choose the best surge protection.

Install overvoltage protection.

Choose the best upstream protection for a surge arrester.

Installation rules.

Electrical overvoltage, unique characteristics

Sources Characteristics ● Lightning ● Ultra-rapid transient phenomenon. Unit of measurement = kV/ µs ●
Sources
Characteristics
● Lightning
● Ultra-rapid transient
phenomenon. Unit
of measurement =
kV/ µs
● Highly destructive
energy.
● Overvoltage
generated by
operations or
incidents on the
network.
● Repetitive
phenomenon
leading to
premature aging.
● Malfunction which
may even result in
permanent damage.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

Lightning

Voltage

even result in permanent damage. Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010 Lightning Voltage Operations Irms

Operations

Operations

Irms

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Lightning and its consequences

The main effect of lightning is electrical overvoltage which exposes the electrical installations to a serious risk of:

exposes the electrical installations to a serious risk of: ● malfunction, ● destruction of equipment, ●

malfunction,

destruction of equipment,

unavailability of production tools,

etc.

● unavailability of production tools, ● etc. The overvoltages come either from the electricity network

The overvoltages come either from the electricity

network or from the earth.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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The damage caused by lightning

● 90% of sockets power sensitive equipment and an overvoltage can damage them (Total values
● 90% of sockets power sensitive equipment and an overvoltage
can damage them (Total values estimated amount = €3,650).
Bedroom: computer, hi-fi,
telephone (€650)
Living-room: TV, home
cinema, rolling shutters,
air-conditioning, ADSL
modem (€1,000)
Kitchen: microwave oven,
oven, fridge, dishwasher
Laundry: freezer, washing
machine, dryer, boiler, alarm
(€500)
(€1,500)

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Choose the best surge protection

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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A means of protection for every situation

No LPS* With LPS* Type 2 surge arrester Types 1 and 2 surge arrester Distance
No LPS*
With LPS*
Type 2 surge arrester
Types 1 and 2 surge arrester
Distance of
the loads <
30m
Distance of
the loads
T3
T3
> 30m**
T3
T2
T1 +
T3
T3
T2
Types 2 and 3 surge arrester
Types 2, 1 and 3 surge arrester
Type of surge arrester T1: only used when LPS is present T2: used systematically. T3:
Type of
surge
arrester
T1: only used
when LPS is
present
T2: used
systematically.
T3: only used in
addition to a
T2 (as lower
discharge
capacity), if the
loads are more
than 30m from the
incoming T2 surge
arrester

* LPS (Lightning Protection System) = lightning rod, meshed cage on buildings)

** After 30m (between the surge arrester and the loads) lightning wave reflection phenomena appear in the cables.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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In practice: distance of equipments >30 metres

Case T2 No.1 Distance under than 30 metres (the most Mainboard common) T2 = type
Case
T2
No.1
Distance under than 30 metres
(the most
Mainboard
common)
T2 = type 2 surge arrester
T2 Case No.2 Distance of more than 30 metres Mainboard T2 = type 2 surge
T2
Case
No.2
Distance of more than 30
metres
Mainboard
T2 = type 2 surge arrester
T3
T2
Floor
switchboard
Mainboard
Install the surge arrester
as close as possible to the
sensitive equipment

* T2 = type 2 surge arrester, T3 = type 3 surge arrester.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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To summarise

To summarise Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010 9

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Install surge arrester

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Location in the switchboard: in parallel

Incoming circuit-breaker Lightning * current Sensitive equipments
Incoming
circuit-breaker
Lightning
*
current
Sensitive equipments

* SPD = Surge Protection Device.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Lifetime of the surge arrester

The surge arrester has the same lifetime as the switchboard.

At the end of its life, a thermal protector integrated into the surge arrester:

isolate the surge arrester from the rest of the installation. activates the red end-of-life warning light, indicating that the surge arrester needs to be changed.

light, indicating that the surge arrester needs to be changed. Schneider Electric – Surge Protection –

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

light, indicating that the surge arrester needs to be changed. Schneider Electric – Surge Protection –

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The upstream protection of the surge arrester

The role of the surge arrester is to drive the lightning current to the earth in a very short time (< 350 microseconds).

However, the surge arrester is not intended to be

exposed to a permanent overvoltage

(phase/neutral inversion, or neutral rupture). In this case, it would be short-circuited and may damage the switchboard.

A device protecting the surge arrester against short circuits is therefore required to ensure the safety of the electrical installation.

to ensure the safety of the electrical installation. The surge arrester must be protected upstream by

The surge arrester must be protected

upstream by a disconnection

circuit breaker.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

SPD

SPD

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Choose the best upstream protection for a surge arrester

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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2 aspects must be taken into account

When making your choice, take into account:

lightning current withstand capacity (to avoid nuisance trpping), short-circuit withstand capacity of the installation (Isc).

Isc 25kA C60L C60L NG125N NG125N 15kA 15kA C60H C60H C60H C60H C60H 6kA C60N
Isc
25kA
C60L
C60L
NG125N
NG125N
15kA 15kA
C60H
C60H
C60H
C60H
C60H
6kA
C60N
C60N
C60N
C60N
8kA
20kA
40kA 40kA
65kA
Lightning current
● E.g. the best disconnection circuit breaker for a breaking capacity of 15kA
and Imax of 40kA is a C60H.
for a breaking capacity of 15kA and Imax of 40kA is a C60H. The surge arrester/protection

The surge arrester/protection device coordination table is

supplied by Schneider Electric.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Example of Schneider Electric coordination table

Example of Schneider Electric coordination table Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010 1 6

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Schneider Electric innovates for safe coordination and easy installation

Quick PF and Quick PRD include both an upstream circuit breaker and a surge arrester, thus ensuring:

no risk of coordination error, continuity of service.

Safe Efficient Easy selection

● continuity of service. Safe Efficient Easy selection Quick PF and Quick PRD Schneider Electric –

Quick PF and Quick PRD

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

of service. Safe Efficient Easy selection Quick PF and Quick PRD Schneider Electric – Surge Protection
of service. Safe Efficient Easy selection Quick PF and Quick PRD Schneider Electric – Surge Protection

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Installation rules

The surge arrester is effective only if it is properly installed!
The surge arrester is effective
only if it is properly installed!

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Installing a surge arrester

Lightning is a phenomenon that generates a high frequency voltage:

The length of the cables must be taken into account in cases of high frequency 1 metre of cable crossed by a lightning current generates an overvoltage of 1,000V.

1000V U spd Load 1000V Uload = USPD + 2000V
1000V
U spd
Load
1000V
Uload =
USPD + 2000V

500V

U spd

Load

500V U spd Load U load = U SPD + 500kV

Uload =

USPD + 500kV

+ 2000V 500V U spd Load U load = U SPD + 500kV For an effective

For an effective surge protection, shorten the length of cables.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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L 50cm

In practice: consider the intermediate earth terminal to shorten cables length

L1

L1

L1
L1
L1
the intermediate earth terminal to shorten cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L >

L2

intermediate earth terminal to shorten cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm
L3 Main earth bar
L3
Main earth
bar

L > 50cm

L1

L1

L1
L1
L1
cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth
cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth
cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth
cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth

L2

cables length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth

L3

length L1 L2 L3 Main earth bar L > 50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth terminal

Intermediate

earth terminal

Main earth

bar

50cm L1 L2 L3 Intermediate earth terminal Main earth bar Mandatory in Standard IEC 60364-5-534: ●

Mandatory in Standard IEC 60364-5-534:

L (length of cables) < 50cm,

cable cross-section S < 4mm²(Type 2) and S< 16mm² (Type 1).

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

L = L1 + L2 + L3

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Installation in a plastic enclosure (e.g. Pragma)

L1 ~ 12cm

Installation in a plastic enclosure (e.g. Pragma) L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm
Installation in a plastic enclosure (e.g. Pragma) L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm

L2 ~ 0cm

L3 ~ 5cm

enclosure (e.g. Pragma) L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm

L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm

L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth
L1 ~ 12cm L2 ~ 0cm L3 ~ 5cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm Main incoming earth

Main incoming earth via the bottom (main earth bar and intermediate earth terminal).

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Installation in a plastic enclosure (e.g. Pragma)

L1 ~ 12cm

Installation in a plastic enclosure (e.g. Pragma) L1 ~ 12cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm L2 ~
Installation in a plastic enclosure (e.g. Pragma) L1 ~ 12cm L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm L2 ~
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm

L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm

L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm
L1+L2+L3 < 50 cm

L2 ~ 0cm

L3 ~ 15cm

Incoming earth cable via the top (main earth bar and intermediate earth terminal).

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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Installation in a metal enclosure (e.g. Prisma Plus)

Directly on "metal chassis".

(e.g. Prisma Plus) ● Directly on "metal chassis". ● Use a lock washer to connect the

Use a lock washer to connect the cable to the chassis to give a good electrical contact.

the cable to the chassis to give a good electrical contact. The installation is possible only

The installation is possible only if the enclosure complies

with standard IEC 60439-1.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION

Protection of people

Circuit

protection

Against permanent failure (due to overcurrent, overload, earth fault)

failure (due to overcurrent, overload, earth fault) Protection of sensitive equipment Against temporary failure
failure (due to overcurrent, overload, earth fault) Protection of sensitive equipment Against temporary failure

Protection of sensitive equipment

Against temporary failure (overvoltage, lightning)

equipment Against temporary failure (overvoltage, lightning) In the low-voltage system, the surge arrester is essential
equipment Against temporary failure (overvoltage, lightning) In the low-voltage system, the surge arrester is essential

In the low-voltage system, the surge arrester is essential to

ensure complete protection.

Schneider Electric – Surge Protection – 03/2010

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