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Simulation of Ethernet Communication in Substation Automation Systems

B MOHAN RAO(M.TECH) Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras Summary This paper investigates communication protocols used to implement the network-103 substation communication protocol, simulates a representative substation communication system, and presents an experimental comparison of different transport protocols used to transmit network-103 traffic. Simulation studies in the article make use of PSCAD/EMTDC, and communication network, using NS2, perspectives. EPOCHS allows users to see how faults in the power network, modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC, impact communication traffic levels, within NS2, within and between substations and other power data sources. EPOCHS can be used to strictly simulate the time field characteristics of emergent events such as relay actions and breaker trips. At present, the network-103 protocol is often adopted in conjunction with the 104protocol/TCP communication protocol. This paper creates a 104protocol/UDP scheme, and compares its realtime performance with that of the 104protocol/TCP scheme within a simulated substation using the EPOCHS platform.

COMMUNICATION is one of the key issues in substation automation systems (SAS). SAS systems rely upon robust real-time communication channels to work effectively. In China, where a SAS typically uses an Ethernet LAN in its bay level network, a so-called network- 103 network communications protocol is often employed. Network- 103 protocol often uses the APCI (Application Protocol Control Information) format in IEC 60870-5-104 to encapsulate the ASDU (Application Server Data Unit) of IEC 60870-5-103 into a full APDU (Application Protocol Data Unit) for transmission over an IP network [1]-[2]. Power engineers often select TCP Transmission Control Protocol) as the transport layer protocol (called a 104protocol/TCP scheme), in their substations due to its inherent reliability. While TCP/IP ensures reliable data transmission, this paper shows UDP is a better choice, in many cases, due to its real-time properties. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM

Server and Client Flowcharts:

Simulation of the Communication system

In the network- 103 protocol, periodic information consists of the background information that IEDs (Intelligent Electric Device) at the bay level send to the host computer at the substation level. Examples of this background information include tele-measured values, electroplate measures, and switch statuses. Information of this kind is timetriggered and is sent at scheduled times with relatively stability and little variation. In the simulation, the transmission period Tp is a stochastic variable of uniform distribution, which is used to dictate cycle times with small variations. The definition of Tp is:

In the above figure, the client object in the application layer exchanges information with PSCAD/EMTDC via the AgentHQ. The client uniquely corresponds to one IED at the bay level, and its identification is the same as one of the corresponding protection/control functions implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC. The client object communicates with the server object in the host via the application portion of IEC 60870-5-103, and sever object in the host logs the monitor information into various files.

Tp=T+ .(1)
In formula (1), T is constant, and is a stochastic variable of uniform distribution in (-), , where = T*0.01.

This paper systematically studies the data transmission models in a simulated SAS, which employs the network7 103 protocol, and establishes an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) simulation model. This paper presents a new transmission scheme based on IEC 60870-5-104 and the UDP transport protocol, and compares the transmission of messages with TCP

References: [1] IEC 60870-5-103:1997, Telecontrol equipment and system - Part5: Transmission protocol - Section 103: Companion standard for the informative interface of protection equipment, IEC, 1997. [2] IEC 60870-5-104:2000, Telecontrol equipment and systems - Part5: Transmission protocols- Section 104: Network access for IEC 60870-5- 101 using standard transport profiles, IEC, 2000. Fig 1. Parallel Contingency Analysis [3] John T. Tengdin, Mark S. Simon, Charles R.Sufana, "LAN Congestion Scenario and Performance Evaluation," 1998 IEEE, pp. 919-924, 1998. [4] Wu Zai-jun, HU Min-qiang, DU Yan-sen, "Analysis of Real-time Performance of Communication Network in Substations, " Automation of Electric Power Systems, 29(8), pp. 45-49, 2005. (in Chinese) [5] Kenneth Hopkinson, Xiaoru Wang, Renan Giovanini, James Thorp, Kenneth Birman, Denis Coury, "EPOCHS: A Platform for Agent-Based Electric Power and Communication Simulation Built from Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21(2), pp. 548-558,2006.