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Psychology is derived from the Greek word psyche meaning soul and logos which means study.

Literally, it means the study of the soul. Eventually, psyche came to mean the mind , which transformed the psychology into the study of the mind. Objectives of Psychology:

Focus: Psychology should focus on identifying and studying these component elements that form the consciousness. Method of research: Introspection Functionalism Proponent: William James Focus: The study of behavior as an integrated process and the operations or functions of conscious activity and how we adapt to our environment through learning. This school of thought was influenced by Charles Darwin s principle of natural selection. Functionalism wants to find out how human behaviors such as thinking, perception, habits and emotions aid survival. Method of research: Experimentation Gestalt Proponents: Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka Assumption: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Focus: Gestalt is a German word which means the whole. Psychology should study the whole pattern of behavior, experience and perception. Method of research: Introspection and observation Behaviorism Proponent: Watson, Thorndike, B.F. Skinner Assumption: Conditional reflexes are the elements of behavior. Behavior is learned through stimulusresponse connections. Focus: The importance of learning and the influence of the environment on how an organism responds or behaves. Method of research: Experimentation and observation Psychoanalysis Proponent: Sigmund Freud Assumption: The mind is like an iceberg. What is visible above the water is the consciousness. What is submerged underwater is the unconscious mind. The unconscious is composed of thoughts, desires, sexual and aggressive impulses that are hidden or repressed which are sometimes revealed by dreams, emotions or slips of the tongue. Focus: The study of the unconscious mind and how it affects consciousness. The unconscious lies outside personal awareness. Method of research: Free association

1. To describe the behavior. What is the nature of this behavior? 2. To understand. Why does it occur? 3. To predict human behavior. When will it occur? 4. To influence or alter behavior in order to achieve an intended goal. What conditions affect it?

Methods of Psychological Research:

1. Introspection Method. The individual studies himself, records his own feelings and experiences and later interprets them. 2. Observation Method. This involves describing and interpreting the reactions of individuals in the laboratory or in their natural setting. 3. Experimental Method. This makes use of controlled situations and the manipulation of variables then collecting the resulting data in order to prove tentative explanatory theories. 4. Survey Method. Data are obtained through written questionnaires or interviews from a sample of a larger group. The conclusion drawn about the sample is extended to the larger group. 5. Empiricism. Information is gained through direct observation and measurement.

The Schools of Thought in Psychology The difference lies in the assumptions and focus of each school as well as what research methods to use. Structuralism Proponent: Wilhelm Wundt Assumption: All complex substances can be analyzed through their component elements. The human conscious experience can be broken into elements such as images, physical sensation or feelings.

Lecture Notes 2 Branches of Psychology 1. Developmental Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that studies intra-individual and inter-individual changes. It is concerned with all aspects of human growth and development process (cognitive, motor, emotional, and social) from prenatal to old age. 2. Comparative Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that studies and compares the behavior of different organisms, species and animals. It aims to discover the similarities and differences between animal behavior and human behavior. 3. Legal or Forensic Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that deals with the application of the principles of human behavior to legal processes. In criminology, it is concerned with the detection of guilt as well as the reliability of testimony. It also studies the psychology of delinquency and crime. 4. Social Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that studies the behavior of a group, its relationship with other groups and its social influences on the behavior of the individual. It focuses on how the individual behaves, thinks and feels in a group. 5. Parapsychology. This is the branch of psychology that investigates all psychological phenomena that cannot be explained using ordinary scientific principles. Examples of such phenomena include extra-sensory perception or E.S.P. 6. Experimental Psychology. This is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of behavior using experimentation. It is also concerned with the development of precise methods of measurement of behavior. Experiments are conducted to find out how people are motivated, how they perceive, think, feel and respond emotionally to given situations. 7. Abnormal Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that studies deviant behavior and the cause of personality defects. 8. Counseling Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that deals with helping people in educational, career or social adjustments. It also deals with the administration and interpretation of psychological tests that measure intelligence, aptitudes and personality. 9. Clinical Psychology. This is the branch of psychology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders that are rooted in individual motivation, emotion and personality. 10. Educational Psychology. This is that branch of psychology that focuses on the practical application of psychological principles to education. It studies how the motivation and learning of students may be enhanced through educational strategies and techniques, taking into account their individual differences. 11. Industrial Psychology. This is that branch of psychology that is concerned with the selection, training, supervising and

counseling of personnel in business and industry. It also deals with the evaluation of internal organization, effective supervision and communication and employee morale.

Physiological Bases of Behavior The Nervous System The human body is composed of a number of systems of organs, such as the cardiovascular system (the heart, arteries and veins), the digestive system (stomach, intestines, etc.), the respiratory system (lungs, trachea, etc.) but the most complex and elaborate of them all is the nervous system. It is composed of interrelating units that enable man to receive stimuli from the environment and make the necessary responses to such stimuli. The nervous system regulates the behavior of the whole individual in order to survive. The Neuron The neuron or nerve cell process and carry information as well as activate muscles and glands. Therefore, everything that we do can be traced back to the neuron. The brain is composed of a mass of neurons. The Neuron has 3 parts:

1. 2.

3.

Dendrites. They appear similar to the roots of a tree. These specialize in receiving signals from other neurons. Cell Body. The cell body process the signal received by the dendrites. It also sends its own message to another neuron using the axon. Axon. The axon is the thin fiber that carries signals away from the cell body and connects with the dendrites of another neuron. Axons may be .1 millimeter to as long as 1 meter.

The 3 Types of Neurons:

1. 2. 3.

Sensory. These neurons carry messages from the sense organs towards the central nervous system. Motor. These neurons carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. Associating. These connect neurons to each other.

The Nerve Impulse: The nerve impulse is an electrical signal from one neuron to another. The microscopic space between two neurons over which the nerve impulse travels is called the synapse. The nerve impulse traverses the synapse when the axon terminals of the sending neuron release neurotransmitters to the dendrites of the receiving neuron.

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that affect the behavior of other neurons. There are as many as 30 different neurotransmitters. Some examples of neurotransmitters are endorphin, dopamine and serotonin. The neuron cannot be replaced. Damage to or destruction of neurons is permanent. The Central Nervous System The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The Brain The brain is composed of over 100 billion neurons. As we compare different animals from lower forms to higher forms, an increasing proportion of the brain is devoted to the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the highest brain area in humans. Its outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is the wrinkled gray matter (mostly cell bodies of neurons) the visible outermost layer. The cortex is composed of two hemispheres that are connected by a band of fibers called thecorpus callosum. These two hemispheres control the opposite sides of the body. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. The functions of the left hemisphere: 1. 2. 3. It controls language It processes information sequentially

Subcortex of the Brain The subcortex can be divided into 3 parts. 1. The Hindbrain (or brainstem). The hindbrain consists of the medulla and the cerebellum. The medulla has control over vital life functions including heart rate, breathing, swallowing and the like. The cerebellum regulates posture, muscle tone and muscular coordination. The Midbrain. This is the information switching center of the brain. It serves as the link between the hindbrain and the forebrain. The Forebrain. The forebrain contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The thalamus acts as a final switching station for sensory messages. The hypothalamus is the master control center for emotion and basic motives. The hypothalamus affects behaviors such as rage, sex, hormone release, eating and drinking, sleep, walking and emotion. The hypothalamus, parts of the thalamus and other brain structures form the limbic system. The limbic system has a major role in producing emotion and motivated behavior. The amygdala is strongly related to fear. Phobias and anxiety are connected with the function of the amygdala.

2.

3.

The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system has two subparts. 1. Somatic system. This carries messages to and from the sense organs and skeletal muscles. This system can make your hand move but cannot change your heart rate. Autonomic system. This serves the internal organs and glands of the body. This system can stimulate digestion but cannot make you write a letter. The autonomic system can be subdivided further into two. 1) Sympathetic. This prepares the body for fight or flight situations because of danger or emotional arousal. 2) Parasympathetic. This calms the body after the danger or emotional arousal have ceased. The Spinal Cord The spinal cord acts as a cable connecting the brain to the rest of the body. The spinal cord is responsible for the reflex arc. When a part of the body is accidentally subjected to pain like when you touch a hot surface, the body automatically pulls your hand away from the source of the pain even before you feel that you have been burned. No brain activity is required for the reflex arc.

2. The functions of the right hemisphere:

1. 2.

It is better at spatial skills, patterns, music. It processes information holistically.

The Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 1. 2. 3. 4. Occipital lobe. This is the primary visual area. Parietal lobe. This is responsible for touch, temperature and pressure. Temporal lobes. They are responsible for auditory information. Frontal lobe. This is associated with higher mental function and control of movement.

Lecture Notes 3 The Endocrine System The Endocrine System is made up of a number of glands that release chemicals known as hormones into the blood and lymph systems. Hormones affect internal activities and behavior and activate cells in the body. The Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. It is called the master gland because it secretes hormones that control the other glands. It also regulates growth. The Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland is located in the neck and it regulates metabolism by releasing the hormonethyroxin. Metabolism is the rate at which energy is produced and expended in the body. If a person has an overactive thyroid, he will suffer from hyperthyroidism and will tend to be thin, tense, excitable and nervous. A person with hypothyroidism has an underactive thyroid and suffers from inactivity, sleepiness, slowness and being overweight. The Adrenal Gland When a person is frightened or angry, a number of important actions take place in his body to prepare him for action: his heart rate and blood pressure rise and stored sugar is released for quick energy, the muscles tense and receive more blood. The adrenaline hormone is released when a person is in fear. The noradrenaline hormone is secreted when the person is angry. The adrenal glands are located atop the kidneys. The adrenal cortex release corticoids, which are responsible for the regulation of salt in the body. It also helps the body adjust to stress. The Parathyroid Gland Located inside the thyroid gland are the parathyroid glands. They release parathormone that control the balance of various minerals in the bloodstream, especially calcium. A slight deficiency in this hormone causes tension and irritability.

Islets of Langerhans These are a group of cells located in the pancreas. They secrete insulin which regulate the metabolism of glucose or blood sugar. Undersecretion of insulin causes diabetes mellitus. An excess of insulin makes the blood sugar drop so low that the cells in the brain are affected which may cause convulsion, unconsciousness and death. Gonads The female ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen causes the development of the female secondary characteristics. Progesterone is known as the pregnancy hormone. For males,testosterone is released by the testis and it regulates the development of the male sex organs. The Nature of Development Development is a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. Development follows a definite, predictable pattern. Each phase of development has characteristic patterns of behavior and its hazards. Development is affected by cultural changes and social expectations for every stage. Heredity Heredity is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring through the genes. Heredity brings about development through the process of maturation. A girl is born with all the ova she will ever have. A boy begins producing sperm cells at puberty. The ova and sperm cell carry 23 chromosomes each. When the sperm and the ova unite, these chromosomes pair up. Each chromosome is composed of long threads of a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Your sex is determined by your twenty-third pair of chromosomes, the sex chromosomes. Your mother provides the X chromosome, while your father provides either an X or Y chromosome. The fertilized egg or zygote contains all the hereditary potentials, which will later develop into traits. Heredity is entirely a matter of

chance. Heredity places limits beyond which individual s cannot go. At any given time and age, the level of development is the product of the interaction between heredity and environment. These two are interrelated and interdependent. Hereditary potentials cannot develop in a vacuum. Learning cannot occur if the neuromuscular system is not ready. The Four Principles of Development 1. Development is orderly and follows a sequential pattern, which is predictable. Sitting precedes standing, standing precedes walking. 2. Development is a product of the interaction between maturation and learning. Maturation requires an adequate and appropriate environment. Learning takes place through the effort of the individual only when he is biologically ready to learn. 3. There are individual differences in development. Each child will go through these stages at his own rate. 4. Development proceeds by stages. One stage prepares the child for the next.
 

and 4th months as long as the mother is not malnourished. Fetal heartbeat can be detected by the fifteenth week. Fetal movements appear between 18 and 22 weeks. Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor Birth to almost 2 years Experiencing the world through senses and actions Object permanence Stranger anxiety

Preoperational 2 to 6 years Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning
 

Ability to pretend Egocentrism

The Prenatal Period As the zygote passes down the fallopian tube into the uterus, the outer layer develops into the placenta, the umbilical cord and the amniotic sac. The inner layer develops into a new human being. About ten days after fertilization, the zygote becomes implanted in the uterine wall. Nerve cells appear during the third week and increase rapidly during the 2nd, 3rd
  

Concrete Operational 7 to 11 years Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetic operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Abstract logic

Formal operational 12 through adulthood Abstract reasoning




Potential for mature moral reasoning

Lecture Notes 4 Sigmund Freud s Psycho-sexual Stages of Development Each stage is dominated by the development of a particular erogenous zone (pleasure-giving area of the body). Each stage also poses a unique conflict that must be resolved before going to the next stage. Otherwise, fixation (addiction to the pleasure) on that stage occurs

Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (2nd to 3rd years) A child begins to explore the world. When parents are patient and encouraging, children acquire a sense of independence and competence. If children are not allowed or are overprotected, a sense of shame and doubt develops. Initiative versus Guilt (4th to 5th years) A child s motor and mental abilities expand. Parents who give children freedom in running, sliding, biking help them develop initiative. Otherwise, children regard themselves as nuisances in an adult world. They become passive. Industry versus Inferiority (6th to 11th years) In elementary, children become concerned with how things work and how they are made. They develop a sense of industry by receiving recognition for their achievements. Parents and teachers who support, reward, praise children encourage industry. Those who ridicule or ignore children s efforts make them feel inferior. Identity versus Role Confusion (12th to 18th years) Adolescence poses the question Who am I? The individual tries many roles, romantic involvement and vocational choice. An integrated and coherent self must be developed or role confusion occurs. This may result in the delinquent or the hoodlum. Intimacy versus Isolation (young adulthood) Intimacy is the capacity to reach out and make contact with other people through deep friendships. It is the ability to share with and care about another without fear of losing oneself. But the risk is rejection. So, others choose shallow relationships and tend to be withdrawn and isolated. Generativity versus Stagnation (middle adulthood) Generativity is being able to embrace society and future generations. It is marked by selflessness. Stagnation is preoccupation with material possessions and one s own physical well-being. A self-centered, embittered individual characterizes stagnation. Integrity versus Despair (old age) Integrity is a sense of satisfaction comes from one s accomplishments. Despair is the feeling that the time is now too short to attempt to start a new life.

Oral Stage (age 0-1) This is marked by gratification of the mouth area by the infant through feeding sucking, biting. Those who become fixated on this stage tend to put things in their mouth such as pens and cigarettes. Anal Stage (age 2-3) This stage focuses on the child s toilet-training. The child needs to learn to inhibit the impulse to defecate. The child learns control over his anal area. Those who become fixated on this stage tend to become obsessed with control over his environment and himself i.e. everything has to be planned and neat. Phallic Stage (age 4-5) A 4-year old boy develops a strong sexual attraction for his mother and begins to see the father as his rival. This is called the Oedipus Complex, taken from the story of Oedipus Rex. A 4-year old girl at the start is close to her mother. But when she discovers that her body lacks a certain organ, she blames her mother and becomes attracted to her father who possesses the missing organ. This is called the Electra Complex. Latency Stage (age 6-11) Sexual impulses are lessened and the child engages in other activities. Genital Stage (puberty onwards) This stage is marked by the maturation of the reproductive system for boys and girls. The libido (sex impulse) is now directed towards activities such as forming friendships, starting a career, courtship and marriage. Erik Erikson s Psycho-social Stages of DevelopmentAn individual develops a healthy personality by mastering and overcoming the crisis of each stage. Trust versus Mistrust (Birth to 1st year) Whether children come to trust or mistrust themselves and other people. Infants whose needs are met and shown genuine affection develop a sense that the world is safe and dependable. But if the environment is chaotic, unpredictable and rejecting, fear and suspicion result in the child.