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Hypophosphorus acid NF 26 Colorless or slightly yellow, odorless liquid Contains n.l.t 30% and n.m.t.

n.m.t. 32% HPH2O2 Specific gravity: 1.13 at 25o C Becomes solid at 17o C and melts at 26o C Very powerful reducing agent since the oxidation state of the central phosphorus atom is 1+ It can reduce many compounds to form phosphorus acid (H3PO3) having an oxidation state of 3+ and finally phosphoric acid (H3PO4) having an oxidation state of 5+ for a net transfer of four electrons Reducing properties: o o reaction w/ molecular iodine to form iodide ions ability to decolorize acidic solutions of KMnO4 immediately

USES: Hypophosphorus acid and its salts (hypophosphites) have no important pharmacological action Their concentration ranges when used as antioxidants are never over 1

Hypophosphorus acid -Its use principally as an antioxidant

-To prevent the formulation of free iodine in Diluted Hydroiodic Acid and Syrup. -Also present in Ferrous Iodide Syrup NF XI where it prevent the formulation of both ferric ions and molecular iodine

Hypophosphites -also used for antioxidant properties -Sodium hypophosphate is present as preservative in certain foods -Ammonium hypophosphate may also be found in many preparations as preservative -should never be triturated with oxidizing agents (nitrates, chlorates or permanganates)

HARDNESS OF WATER

This refers to the presence of varying amounts calcium, iron, and/or magnesium salts which convert ordinary soap (water soluble sodium and/or potassium salts of high molecular weight fatty acids) into water insoluble calcium, iron and/or magnesium salts of fatty acids (water insoluble curd)

Types of water hardness Temporary hardness (bicarbonate hardness) Caused by the presence in the water of calcium or magnesium. These effects can be removed/softened by boiling the water in an open container or addition of a source of hydroxide. Permanent hardness

Caused by the presence in solution of sulfates, chloride or hydroxides of calcium and/or magnesium which cannot be removed by boiling or addition of a source of hydroxide.

> The process of distillation is costly especially to manufacturing laboratories so other means of purifying water were devised:

1. Addition of soluble carbonates which will precipitate calcium and magnesium as insoluble carbonates 2. Chelation by the zeolite (Permutit) process

Zeolite is sodium aluminum silicate with the symbol NA2Zeol -Passing the hard water through a zeolite column, an exchange of water hardening cations is made for non-hardening sodium cations. When the calcium zeolite reaches a high enough concentration, the column can no longer exchange calcium ion for sodium ion efficiently. To restore its activity, a strong solution of NaCl is allowed to flow through the inactivated zeolite, reconverting it to the sodium form.

3. Deionizer or Demineralizer

-makes use of certain synthetic resins which are endowed with removing both cations and anions from water - Since the water produced from this apparatus compasses very favorably with distilled water in purity and at lower cost, USP XX modified the name and monograph of Distilled Water to permit the use of deionized water under the title of Purified Water.

4. Polyphosphate Chelation -used by the detergent industry -usage of basic phosphate and sodium metaphosphate to chelate the divalent calcium making it unavailable for further reaction.