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Amazing world

of carbon
Q1. Fill in the blanks.
1. The organic compounds having double or triple
bond in them are termed as _______(unsaturated)
2. The general formula of alkanes is _____________.
3. _____________ are known as parent organic
compounds. (hydrocarbons)
4. Covalent compounds are generally soluble in
____________ solvents. (organic)
5. Triple bond can be obtained by sharing
____________ pairs or ________ electrons. (three,
6. Hydrocarbons necessarily contain _____________
and ______________. (hydrogen, carbon)
Q2. Give the IUPAC name of the
following compounds.
1. CH
ANS. 1 - Propanol
Ans. Methanoic acid

Q3. Write short notes on
1. Catenation
1. The property of direct bonding between atoms
of the same element to form chain is called
2. Carbon atoms possess an unusual capability of
bonding to other carbon atoms.
3. Because of this feature, carbon atoms are
capable of forming large number of compounds.
4. Carbon can link with other carbon atoms to
form straight chains or branched chains or rings of
different shapes and sizes.
Functional group
1. The atom or group of atoms present in the molecule
which determines characteristic property of organic
compound is called the functional group.
2. All organic compounds are considered as
derivatives of hydrocarbons, it is formed by replacing one
or more hydrogen atom in a molecule by some other
3. In methane CH
, if one hydrogen is replaced by an
OH group, then compound methyl alcohol. CH
.OH is
formed. The OH group is the alcoholic functional group.
4. After replacement, a new compound has functions
i.e. properties different from the parent hydrocarbon.
Some functional group in carbon compounds.
Homologous series.
Ans. Homologous series organic compounds :
1. Organic compounds having same general molecular
formula, similar structure with similar chemical properties
are placed together in the same series are called homolog
and series of such similar compounds is called homologous
2. The formula of each homolog differs from the
member above or below it by one CH
3. The molecular mass of every two adjacent members
differ by 14. (C = 12; H = 1, CH
= 14)
For example homologous series of alkane : General formula
: C
2n + 2
Differentiate between: Detergents and soaps
Detergents Soaps
i. Detergents are generally
ammonium or sulphonate salts of
long chain carboxylic acids.
ii. Detergents have a strong
cleansing action.
iii. Oils or fats are not used in
their manufacture; usually
petrochemicals are used to
produce detergents.
iv. They function well in hard
or soft water.
i. Soaps are sodium or
potassium salts of long chain
carboxylic acids.
ii. Soaps have relatively weak
cleansing action.
iii. Vegetable oils or animal fats
are used along with hydroxide of
sodium or potassium to
manufacture soaps.
iv. They do not work well in
hard water but work well in soft
1. Draw chain and ring structures of organic compound
having six carbon atoms in them.
Ans. a) chain structure C
Ring structure: - C
Which organic compounds are named
as Alkanol in IUPAC system?
Ans. In IUPAC method, alcohols are
named as AlKanol. In naming the
alcholols by IUPAC method the last e
of the parent alkane is replaced by ol to
indicate the presence of OH group.
Explain: What do you understand by substitution
i. Reaction where substitution of one or more
atoms in a molecule for another atom takes place are
called substitution reactions. Saturated hydrocarbons
undergo substitution reaction.
ii.In Substitution reaction one or more hydrogen atom of a
hydrocarbon are replaced by some other atom (like
iii. Ex: Substitution reaction of methane with chlorine.
Methane reacts with chlorine in the presence of sunlight to
form methyl chloride and hydrogen chloride.
Which organic compounds readily undergo
addition reactions? Why?
Ans. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo
addition reactions, which are addition
reactions are given by all the alkenes and
alkynes. This is because reactants add to the
carbon atoms of C = C double and C = C
bond to form a single product of saturated
State two examples of (organic)
compound having covalent bond and two
examples having ionic bond.
Ans.Hydrocarbons like methane (CH
) and
Methyl alcohol (CH
OH) have covalent
In organic compounds like Sodium
Chloride NaCl and Magnesium chloride
) have ionic bonds.
1. State and explain how alkanes are further classified.
Ans. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with single bonds.
Alkanes are further classified as:
i. Straight chain alkanes: The alkanes in which all
the carbon atoms are attached by covalent bonds in a
continuous chain are called straight chain alkanes or normal
alkanes Eg. CH
is normal butane or n
ii. Branched chain alkanes: - The alkanes in which
all the carbon atoms are not in a continuous chain and some of
them are linked to other carbon atoms to make the branch are
called branched chain alkanes.
a. The alkanes, in which there is only one carbon chain
attached to the second carbon atom of the long chain are called
iso alkanes Eg.
The alkanes, in which there are two single carbon
branches, attached the second carbon atom of the long
chain are called neo alkanes. Eg.
What are alkynes? Name the first
member of alkyne family.
Ans. Hydrocarbons containing triple
bonds between carbon atoms are
alkynes. The first member of alkyne
family is ethyne or acetylene [HC=