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CONTENTS TOPIC page no. Abstract 1 Chapter 1 : Introduction 3 1.1 Project Overview 3 Chapter 2: Introduction to EMBEDDED SYSTEM 2.

1 Examples 4 2.2 History 5 2.3 Charecteristics 6 2.4 User Interface 6 2.5 Simple System 6 2.6 In More Complex System 6 2.7 C.P.U Platform 7 2.8 Peripherals 7 2.9 Tools 7 2.10 Debugging 8 2.11 Reliability 8 2.12 Embedded Software Architecture 9 Chapter 3 : Outlook of the Project 11 3.1 MicroController 11 3.2 L.C.D 11 3.3 Power Supply 11 3.4 Circuit Diagram 12 Chapter 4 : H Bridge 13 4.1 Basic Theory 13 4.2 Building The H Bridge 14 4.3 Processor Interface 15 4.4 Motor Speed 16 4.5 SemiConductor H Bridge 18 Chapter 5: MicroController 21 4

5.1 Features 21 Chapter 6: Memory Organisation 23 6.1 Program Memory 23 6.2 Data memory 24 6.3 Interrupts 25 6.4 External Interrupts 27 Chapter 7: LCD 28 7.1 Overview 28 7.2 Specification 29 7.3 Color Displays 30 7.4 Passive and Active Matrix Addressed LCDs 31 7.5 Active Matrix Technolgy 31

Chapter 8: Stepper Motor 35 8.1 Basics 35 8.2 Advantages and Disadvantages 35 8.3 Open Loop Operation 35 8.4 Stepper Motor Types 36 8.5 Size and Power 37 8.6 When to Use a Stepper Motor 37 8.7 The Rotating Magnetic Field 38 8.8 Torque generation 38 8.9 Phases, Poles and Stepping Angles 39 8.10 Step Angle Accuracy 40 8.11 Torque vs Speed charecteristics 40 Chapter 9: Power supply 42 9.1 Electrical Power Supplies 42 9.2 Batteries 42 9.3 Solar Power

42 9.4 Computer Power supply 43 9.5 Domestic Main Adapter 43 9.6 Linear Power Supply 43 9.7 Switch Mode PowerSupply 44 9.8 Uninterruptable PowerSupply 44 9.9 Power Convertion 44 9.10 Mechanichal power Supplies 44 Chapter 10: L293 Driver IC 45 10.1 Description 45 Chapter 11: DC Motors 47 11.1 Brushed DC Motors 47 11.2 Brushless DC Motors 47 11.3 Coreless or Ironless DC Motors 48 11.4 Principles of Operation 51 Chapter 12: Software 53 12.1 Overview of KEIL CROSS 53 12.2 Projects 53 12.3 Simulator/Debugger 53 Chapter 13: Working 55 13.1 Forward and Reverse movment 55 13.2 Steering Control 55 13.3 Drive Circuit For Motors 56 Chapter 14: Coding 57 Chapter 15: Future Scope of Project 64 Chapter 16: Conclusion 64 BIBILOGRAPHY 65

A MINI PROJECT ON SMARTCARD BASED TOLL-GATE AUTOMATED SYSTEM A mini project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requiremen t for The awards of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 1. Muthu.Mamatha 2. Mallireddy.Karthik 3. Sayana.Swathi BY 07M25A0401 07M25A0404 07M25A0406

Under the esteemed guidance of our internal guide T.Srinivasarao LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE New Delhi AND affliated to JNTU-Hyderabad) Sy.no.32 , Himayatsagar , Hyderabad-500008. LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE New Delhi AND affliated to JNTU-Hyderabad) Sy.no.32 , Himayatsagar , Hyderabad-500008 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project with entitle SMARTCARD BASED TOLL-GATE AUT OMATED SYSTEM is bonafide work of Muthu.Mamatha bearing Roll Number 07M25A040 1, Mallireddy.Karthik bearing Roll No. 07M25A0404, Sayana..Swathi bearing Roll No 07M25A0406 carried of partial fulfillment of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOL OGY in ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION AND ENGINEERING of JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLGI CAL UNIVERSITY during academic year 2008-2009 T.SRINIVASARAO SYED AMJAD ALI (INTERNAL GUIDE) F DEPT.) (EXTERNAL EXAMINER)

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