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SKIN NOTES FOR EXAM 2

I. Skin: an organ or a system (Integumentary System) covers entire outer surface of body A. Tissue components of Skin and underlying tissues 1. Epidermis: Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 2. Basement Membrane 3. Dermis (corium) or true Skin: Thick layer of connective tissue containing collagenous and elastic fibers: composed of two layers (papillary and reticular) (slide 10 missing) d. Clinical points 1) Cellulitis and Erysipelas: wide spread inflammation of HYPODERMIS caused by bacterial infections (streptococcal or staphylococcal); complication of would healing: erysipelas associated with face
Erysipelas ORIGIN late Middle English : via Latin from Greek erusipelas; perhaps related to eruthros red and pella skin.

2) Edema: Excessive fluid accumulation in Areolar tissue of Hypodermis: associated with inflammation B. Epidermis 1. Structure (bottom to top) a) Stratum Basale: Single lay of cuboidal cells: occurs in waves because of the shape of the underlying papillary layer of the Dermis (1) Mitosis: Occurs constantly: as new cells are produced, old cells move upward into higher strata (layers) (2) Merkels Cells (disc): Connect to sensory nerve endings: sensitive to light touch (3) Melanocytes: interspersed in S. Basale: some present in S. Spinosum (a) Produce Melanin (Black pigment) melanoma i) Protects S. Basale against ultraviolet radiation sunlight ii) Responsible for color of skin (Black, Brown, Yellow, white) Albinos do not produce melanin (4) Clinical Note: Laye that produces most common skin cancer (Basal cell carcinoma) b) Stratum Spinosum: Lie above S. Basale (1) Mitosis: occurs here sparingly *Paul Langerhans (2) Change in cell shape: become spiny (3) Langerhans cells (Dendritic cells or macrophages): react to Antigens that cross broken skin and initiate immune responses c) Stratum Granulosum: Cells begin to flatten and die here (1) Cells die because there are NO BLOOD VESSELS in epidermis: cells have migrated too far away from source of nutrition (blood vessels in dermis) (2) Keratohyaline (protein): present in cytoplasmic Granules in large quantities

SKIN NOTES FOR EXAM 2

d) Stratum Lucidum: Multiple layers of dead flattened cells (1) Found ONLY in Thick Skin or thick epidermis: (Palms. soles, calluses and bunion) (2) Eleidin: converted from keratohyaline in thick regions of akin associated with relatively constant pressure e) Stratum corneum: multiple layers of flattened dead cells (1) Keratin (protein)- converted from Eleidin or keratohyaline: main component of this layer binds dead cells together and forms a waterproof covering for the epidermis 2. Comparison of thick and thin epidermis a) Thick- Contains 5 layers with overall greater dimensions b) Thin- Contains 4 layers with overall smaller dimensions (No S. Lucidum) C. Dermis 1. Structure a) Papillary layer: Made of ridges (papillae and grooves: gives S. Basale its Wavy shape (1) Papillae responsible for finger, palm and sole (2) contains collagenous and elastic fibers 2. Functions a) Supports and nourishes Epidermis and its appendages (hair follicles, nails and glands of the skin b) Elastic fibers allow for resiliency (stretch skin and it rebounds to its normal position)