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Brittle rupture 11

PROMETEY LOCAL APPROACH TO BRITTLE FRACTURE: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION


B.Z. Margolin, V.A. Shvetsova, A.G. Gulenko, V.I. Kostylev
Central Research Institute of Structural Materials Prometey, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
margolin@prometey2.spb.su

ABSTRACT: Approach for prediction of brittle
fracture proposed by authors over recent years and
known now as Prometey approach is briefly reviewed
and new results for its development and application are
represented.
Keywords: brittle fracture, local criterion, fracture
toughness, irradiation, RPV steel.
1 INTRODUCTION
Application of local approach for fracture toughness
predictions is known to be very important for irradiated
RPV materials for which full-sized fracture toughness
specimens cannot be tested. This explains the reason as
to why the local approach models are now intensively
developed. The Prometey local approach is based on a
new local criterion of cleavage fracture and the
Weibull statistics that was developed as applied to
fracture toughness in the Beremin and Wallin models
[1, 2]. The Prometey approach differs from other
models just in the formulation of local criterion.
Cleavage microcrack nucleation according to the
formulated criterion, as distinct from universally
accepted condition in the form V
eq
=V
Y
(V
eq
- the
equivalent stress, V
Y
- the yeild stress) depends on the
maximum principal stress, plastic strain and
temperature and may be characterized by some local
strength for microcrack nucleation. In the present
paper, the Prometey local approach is briefly
considered and new results on the prediction of the
irradiation and shallow crack effect are represented.
2 LOCAL CRITERION OF BRITTLE FRACTURE
2.1 The deterministic local criterion of cleavage
fracture
The Prometey local criterion of cleavage fracture is
based on the main physical mechanisms of cleavage
microcrack nucleation and propagation. The
microcrack propagation condition is taken in the same
form as usually used V
1
t S
C
, and it is taken into
account that the critical brittle fracture stress S
C
is a
increasing function of plastic strain and independent of
temperature, strain rate and stress triaxiality.
Theoretical and experimental studies were performed
to obtain the dependence of S
C
on plastic strain [3].
When analyzing this dependence, the parameter S
C
is
interpreted as the stress for microcrack propagation
through various barriers such as grain boundaries,
microstresses, slip bands and boundaries of diclocation
substructure. The parameter S
C
is determined by the
length of microcrack which is equal to the distance
between barriers, and the effective energy of these
barriers. When the plastic strain increases the distance
between barriers decreases due to dislocation
substructure formation and, as a result, the critical
fracture stress S
C
increases. These considerations result
in the dependence [3]
> @
2 / 1
d 2 1 C
) A exp( C C ) ( S

(1)
where the accumulated plastic strain expressed by
Odqvists parameter ( - the equivalent
plastic strain increment) is used as a measure of plastic
strain, and C

H
p
eq
d
p
eq
dH
1
, C
2
and A
d
, material constants. This
dependence S
C
() was verified by test results from
smooth tensile specimens ruptured after different pre-
strain histories [3].
It follows from the analysis of the known physical
models for nucleation of cleavage microcracks that, as
a common case, the microcrack nucleation condition
may be formulated when considering the stress
concentration near the head of dislocation pile-up
arrested by some obstacle [3]. Microcrack nucleation is
assumed to happen when the sum of the maximum
principal stress and local stress reaches some critical
stress V
d

d
r r
loc 1
c
) r ( V V V

(2)
where ) r (
loc
V - the maximum local normal stress in
the head of dislocation pile-up; r the polar coordinate,
r
c
a certain characteristic size. The parameter V
d
may
be interpreted as strength of obstacle or matrix-obstacle
interface. To determine the distribution of local stresses
near the dislocation pile-up head, dislocation pile-up is
presented as sliding crack with some blunting. It allows
the derivation of equation
eff T
r r
loc
V ,
where m
m ) r (
c
V
H

[3]
TH
- the concentration coefficient for the local
stress that depends on length and blunting of
dislocation pile-up, V
eff
= V
eq
-V
0
, the effective stress,
V
eq
, the equivalent stress, V
0
, the friction stress which
with a reasonable degree of accuracy may be taken as
the yield stress, V
Y
. As a result, eq. 2 is written as
d eff T 1 nuc
m V V V { V
H
(3)
As distinct from other dislocation models, the
dislocation pile-up geometry is considered to depend
on plastic strain and temperature: the blunting of
12 Brittle rupture
dislocation pile-up increases as temperature increases
due to cross-slip of dislocations and the length of
dislocation pile-up decreases as plastic strain increases
due to formation of dislocation substructure. This
consideration provides the dependence of the
coefficient m
TH
on temperature T and plastic strain
m
TH
=m
T
(T)m
H
(). The functions m
T
(T) and m
H
() may
be calculated as [4]
m
H
() = S
0
/S
C
(), (4)
m
T
(L) = m
0
V
Ys
(L), (5)
where it is taken that S
0
=S
C
(=0), m
0
is a constant
which may be experimentally determined and V
Ys
is the
temperature-dependent component of the yield stress.
Thus, the local criterion is formulated as
d eff T 1 nuc
) ( m ) T ( m V t V V { V
H
(6a)
) ( S
C 1
t V (6b)
Thus, two critical parameters - S
C
and V
d
may control
cleavage fracture, and this depends on loading
conditions, mainly, on stress triaxiality and
temperature. For example, the brittle fracture of smooth
specimens is controlled by eq. 6b and, by contrast, the
brittle fracture of notched or cracked specimens from
RPV steels by eq. 6a [3, 4].
2.3 Formulation of the cleavage fracture criterion in a
probabilistic manner
To formulate a fracture criterion in a probabilistic
manner it is necessary, first of all, to determine which
critical parameters included in the local criterion must
be taken as stochastic parameters and which critical
parameters may be taken as deterministic ones.
Analysis of the stochastic nature of the critical
parameters V
d
and S
C
controlling cleavage fracture
showed that as a first approximation, the parameter V
d

must be taken as the stochastic, and the parameter S
C

may be taken as the deterministic one [4]. Formulation
of fracture criterion with two stochastic parameters V
d

and S
C
is represented hereafter in this paper. Now
following [4] the simplest formulation of the fracture
criterion in a probabilistic manner, i.e. formulation
with one stochastic parameter is considered.
1. The polycrystalline material is viewed as an
aggregate of cubic unit cells. The mechanical
properties for each unit cell are taken as the average
properties obtained by standard specimen testing. The
size of the unit cell U
uc
is never less than the average
grain size. The stress and strain fields in the unit cell
are assumed to be homogeneous.
2. The criterion of brittle fracture of a unit cell is taken
as criterion (6).
3. It is assumed that the parameter V
d
is stochastic and
other parameters are deterministic.
4. To describe the distribution function for the
parameter V
d
, the Weibull law is used

V
V V
V
K
d
0 d d
d
~
exp 1 ) ( p (7)
where p(V
d
) is the probability of finding in the
considered unit cell a carbide with minimum strength
less than V
d
;
d
~
V , V
d0
and K are Weibull parameters.
5. The weakest link model is used to describe the brittle
fracture of the polycrystalline material.
2.4 The local criterion for irradiated condition
The local brittle fracture criterion (6) contains two
parameters, V
d
and V
Y
that depend on neutron fluence
F. These dependencies are caused by the known
physical mechanisms of radiation damage. At present,
three basic mechanisms of radiation embrittlement of
RPV steels are generally recognized: matrix damage
caused by radiation-induced lattice defects,
precipitation of various elements, mainly copper, and
segregation of impurities, mainly phosphorus. The
matrix damage and element precipitation result in an
increase of V
Y
as the lattice defects and precipitation
affect the dislocation mobility. Segregation of
impurities, as a rule, is not associated with changes in
V
Y
due to irradiation. Impurity segregation may occur
on any sites where the crystal lattice incompatibility
exists. The most typical sites for phosphorus
segregation in RPV steels are surfaces of carbides,
inclusions and precipitates. It is clear that phosphorus
segregation in matrix-carbide interfaces is an essential
factor for cleavage fracture as carbides are microcrack-
nucleating obstacles. Phosphorus segregation decreases
the carbide-matrix interfacial strength therefore the
parameter V
d
decreases as neutron fluence F increases.
A simple physical model for phosphorus and other
impurity segregation on carbide-matrix interface under
irradiation provides the dependence of the critical
stress for microcrack nucleation V
d
on F [5]

D V V
m
0
1
0
d d
F
F
exp ) F ( (8)
) 0 F (
d
0
d
V V ; D
1
, m material constants for a
given condition of irradiation; F
0
is the normalizing
factor which is taken to be equal to 10
22
n/m
2
.
It should be noted also that neutron radiation does not
practically affect the critical brittle fracture stress S
C
, at
least, for transcrystalline cleavage fracture. Therefore
according to the universally accepted formulation of
local criterion V
eq
tV
Y
and V
1
tS
C
, the radiation
embrittlement is connected only with one mechanism
the matrix hardening. The known effect of phosphorus
and other impurities on radiation embrittlement of RPV
steels cannot be described with this criterion.
Brittle rupture 13
3 THE PROMETEY PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR
K
JC
(T) PREDICTION
The Prometey probabilistic model for prediction of the
K
JC
(T) curve [4, 6] is based on the brittle fracture
criterion described above. The stress and strain fields
near the crack tip are calculated by FEM or on the
crack extension line with an approximate analytical
solution. The brittle fracture probability of a cracked
specimen, P
f
, is presented in the form used in [1]
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
o
o
=
q
d
w
f
~
exp 1 P (9)
where the Weibull stress o
w
is
( )
q
=
q
(
(

o = o

/ 1
k
1 i
0 d
i
nuc w
) S max( and
( )
( )

s <
> o > o o

d0
i
nuc
i
C
i
1 d0
d0
i
nuc
i
C
i
1
i
nuc i
nuc
1 1 or S if 1 , 1
1 and S if ,
S

(10)
Here o
d0
is minimum value of o
d
; k is the number of
unit cells in a specimen, i is the number of a unit cell.
For each unit cell, the parameter mZo( ) is the
maximum value of from the beginning of
deformation up to the current moment.
i
nuc
S
i
nuc
S
To predict the K
JC
(T) curve on the basis of the
Prometey model, it is necessary to know the parameters
S
C
(), m
0
,
d
~
o , o
d0
and q and parameters describing
plastic deformation to enable the stress and strain fields
to be calculated. The parameters
d
~
o and q may be
determined from test results of small-sized fracture
toughness specimens or notched tensile specimens at
one temperature. The rest of parameters are determined
from uniaxial tension tests of cylindrical specimens.
The Prometey model was verified by application to
RPV steels in various states (for example, [4, 6]). The
calculated K
JC
(T) curves were compared with test
results and the predicted curves from the Master Curve
approach. It was shown [6] that the K
JC
(T) curves for
the initial state calculated with the Master Curve
approach and the Prometey model show good
agreement. At the same time, for highly embrittled
RPV steel, the K
JC
(T) curve predicted with the Master
Curve approach is not an adequate fit to the
experimental data, whereas the agreement of the test
results and the K
JC
(T) curve calculated with the
Prometey model is good.
4 THE UNIFIED CURVE CONCEPT
As it was shown in [6] an applicability of the Master
Curve approach may be restricted for highly embrittled
steels as this approach uses the lateral temperature shift
to describe the K
JC
(T) curves. The Prometey model
does not include any assumptions concerning the shape
of the K
JC
(T) curve and the temperature lateral shift
condition and provides a prediction of the K
JC
(T) curve
allowing for the possibility of both a shift and a
variation in shape. At the same time, the Master Curve
approach is more suitable for engineering application
as simple method as compared with the Prometey
model. Therefore a task arose to elaborate an
engineering method that allows the prediction of the
K
JC
(T) curve for RPV steels with various degrees of
embrittlement, including extremely high levels. Such
an engineering method named the Unified Curve
concept was proposed on the basis of the generalized
results obtained from the Prometey model [7]. The
main considerations of the Unified Curve concept may
be summarized as follows.
1. The K
JC(med)
(T) curve at P
f
=0.5 for specimen with
thickness B=25 mm from RPV steel for any degree of
embrittlement may be described by
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ O + =
105
130 T
tanh 1 K K
shelf
JC ) med ( JC
(11)
where =26 MPam; O is constant for a given
state of a material, T the temperature in
shelf
JC
K
o
K.
2. It is assumed that for the embrittled materials the one
parameter, O, varies, the rest of the numerical
parameters in eq. 11 are fixed.
3. Equations describing the thickness effect on K
JC
and
the scatter in K
JC
results are the same as for the Master
Curve concept.
The parameter O is determined on the basis of fracture
toughness test results at one or several temperatures.
Requirements for the number and size of specimens are
the same as for determination of the parameter T
0
in the
Master Curve. The Unified Curve concept was verified
by using more than 30 sets of experimental data for
ferritic steels with various degrees of embrittlement for
which T
0
varies from 150 up to 250
o
C [7]. One of
these sets is shown in fig. 1. It is shown in [7] that the
Master Curve is a partial case of the Unified Curve.
On the basis of eq. (8) the dependence of O on fluence
F was constructed [5]. When using eq. 11 and the
dependence O(F) the transformation of K
JC
(T) curve as
a function of F may be predicted [5].
5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROMETEY MODEL
As mentioned above the Prometey model with one
stochastic parameter o
d
allows the adequate prediction
of K
JC
(T) curve for specimens with deep cracks for
RPV steels in various conditions including extremely
high level of embrittlement. At the same time, this
model underestimates the relative contribution of the
matrix hardening in radiation embrittlement and the
effect of the loss of constraint on fracture toughness, in
14 Brittle rupture
particular, the shallow crack effect. This shortcoming
of the Prometey model is connected with the
assumption that the parameter S
C
is deterministic. Here
the Prometey model is represented allowing for two
stochastic parameters V
d
and S
C
. Experimental
determination of the scatter in S
C
was performed for
2Cr-Ni-Mo-V RPV steel. These investigations allow
more adequate prediction of the irradiation effect and
the shallow crack effect on fracture toughness.
-200 -100 0 100 200
temperature,
o
C
0
40
80
120
160
200
K
I
C
,

K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
P
f
=0.05
P
f
=0.95
P
f
=0.5
Set 31
T
o
= 137
o
C
- tests
(a)
-200 -100 0 100 200
temperature,
o
C
0
40
80
120
160
200
K
I
C
,

K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
P
f
=0.05
P
f
=0.95
P
f
=0.5
Set 31
:= 73.4 MPam
- tests
(b)
Figure 1: Experimental data and K
JC
(T) curves
calculated by the Master Curve (a) and Unified Curve
(b) for B=25 mm for irradiated weld KS01 (set 31): test
results are recalculated for B=25 mm [5].
5.1 The probabilistic model with two stochastic
parameters V
d
and S
C

Physical interpretation of the parameter S
C
as stress for
microcrack propagation through various barriers
explains the reason why this parameter is stochastic.
The distribution function for S
C
is assumed to be
described by the Weibull two-parameter function


[
C
C
C
S
~
S
exp 1 ) S ( p (12)
where p(S
C
) is the probability of the fact that the
critical brittle fracture stress for the considered unit cell
is less than S
C
;
C
S
~
and [ are Weibull parameters. The
probability of start and propagation of the nucleus
microcrack in a unit cell may be calculated according
to eq. 6b and eq. 12 as

V

[
C
1
prop
S
~
exp 1 P (13)
Let the parameter
C
S
~
be a function of the accumulated
plastic strain of type of eq. 1
> @
2 / 1
d C C
) A exp( 1
~
) ( S
~

E V (14)
where
C
~
V - some constant, E=C
2
/C
1
. Then eq. 13 may
be rewritten as

V
V

[
C
prop
prop
~
exp 1 P (15)
) A exp( 1
d 1 prop
E V V (16)
To calculate the probability of brittle fracture of a unit
cell the whole loading history of a specimen is divided
on intervals 0-
1
; ;
n-1
-
n
, ,
N-1
-
N
, where
N
is
a value of when the fracture probability of a
specimen P
f
=1. If for i-th unit cell, microcracks begin
to be nucleated over the range from
n-1
to
n
and V
nuc

increases then microcrack nucleation continues in this
unit cell up to its fracture. It means that over range

n
dd
N
there is nucleus microcrack being able to
propagation. As distinct from nucleation, the process of
microcrack propagation in each unit cell may happen
only once. Then the probability of brittle fracture of i-
th unit cell, , provided microcracks
begin to be nucleated in this unit cell over the range
from
) , ( P
n 1 - n
i
f
'
n-1
to
n
with the probability
, may be calculated as
' ) , ( P
n 1 - n
i
nuc
) ( P ) ( P
1 - n
i
nuc n
i
nuc

' ) , ( P
n 1 - n
i
f

(17) ) , ( P max ) , ( P
N n
i
prop n 1 - n
i
nuc
'
where is calculated with eq. 15 and eq. 16. The
second term in eq. 17 is the maximum value of the
probability of microcrack propagation in i-th unit cell
over the range from
i
prop
P
n
to
N
. When taking into
account eq. 6a and eq. 7, the probability of microcrack
nucleation in a unit cell is calculated as

V
V V

K
d
0 d nuc
nuc
~
exp 1 P (18)
Thus, the probability of brittle fracture of i-th unit cell
over the whole loading history of a specimen is
calculated with formula
'

N n
1 n
n 1 - n
i
f
i
f
) , ( P P
Brittle rupture 15


N n
1 n
N n
i
prop 1 - n
i
nuc n
i
nuc
) , ( P max ) ( P ) ( P (19)
The probability of brittle fracture of a specimen is
calculated allowing for the weakest link model as
, where k is the number of unit cells
in a specimen.


k i
1 i
i
f f
) P 1 ( 1 P
For the model parameter calibration the procedure is
proposed that allows the calibration of the parameters
, [ and V
C
~
V
d0
from test results of smooth tensile
specimens, and for the known these parameters, the
calibration of and K - from fracture toughness or
notched tensile specimens. It should be noted that the
same set of specimens is used for calibration of
parameters for the brittle fracture model with one
stochastic parameter V
d
~
V
d
. The difference consists in the
number of smooth tensile specimens that has to be
sufficient for statistical treatment of these test results.
The stochastic dependence of the critical brittle fracture
stress S
C
was studied as applied to 2Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel
for WWER-1000 in the embrittled condition
(T
41J
=116
o
C, DBTT shift = 180
o
C). Cylindrical smooth
specimens with diameter of 5 mm and gauge length of
25 mm were tested at T=-196,-100 and -60
o
C. The
coefficients and [ were found with the likelihood
method as =2622 MPa and [=57.5. Treatment of
available data for RPV steels in the initial condition
provides the minimum values of the parameter [ as
[=3040.
C
~
V
C
~
V
5.2 Modeling the irradiation effect on K
JC
(T) curve
The Prometey model takes into account both basic
mechanisms of radiation embrittlement of RPV steels
being important for cleavage fracture the matrix
hardening and the carbide-matrix interface weakening.
The effect of these mechanisms on the K
JC
(T) curve
transformation is studied in this section. Calculations
of the K
JC
(T) curves were performed for the 2Cr-Ni-
Mo-V steel on the basis of the Prometey model with
the deterministic and stochastic parameter S
C
for
specimens with thickness B=50 mm. When modelling
the irradiation effect it is taken that two parameters,
and V
d
~
V
Y
are varied and the rest of parameters are
taken as those for unirradiated steel. The value of the
yield stress for irradiated steel is taken as = +
200 MPa, where is the yield stress for
unirradiated condition.
irr
Y
V
unirr
Y
V
unirr
Y
V
The D
JC
(L) curves calculated for the deterministic
([=200) and stochastic ([=35) parameter S
C
are shown
in fig. 2. (Preliminary calculations with the Prometey
model showed that K
JC
(T) curve for [=200 coincides
with the curve for the deterministic parameter S
C
.)
Curve 1 corresponds to unirradiated condition of a
material. Curve 2 shows the transfor tion of D ma

JC
(L)
curve when increasing the parameter
d
~
V and fixing the
parameter V
Y
, i.e. this curve simulates the radiation
embrittlement caused by the weakening of microcrack
initiators. Curve 3 is calculated for case when the
parameter V
Y
is increased and the parameter
d
~
V is
fixed, i.e. curve 3 is D
JC
(L) curve for embrittlement
caused by the hardening only. At last, curve 4 shows
D
JC
(L) curve for the radiation-embrittled condition
caused by both mechanisms.
-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100
T,
o
C
0
40
80
120
160
200
K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
1
2
3
4 B=50 mm
[=200
(a)
-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100
T,
o
C
0
40
80
120
160
200
K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
1
2 3
4
B=50 mm
[=35
(b)
deterministic (a) and stochastic parameter S (b).
ent coefficient A
f
with the P and Cu
contents.
Figure 2: K
JC
(T) curves calculated for the
C
When comparing curves 1 and 3 in fig. 2, it is clear
seen that the contribution of the hardening mechanism
in embrittlement for [=35 (fig. 3b) is larger than for
[=200 (fig. 3a). It means that the sensitivity of fracture
toughness to the matrix hardening increases if the
scatter in S
C
increases (for fixed average value of S
C
).
It is interesting to note also that the individual
contributions of the matrix hardening (curve 3) and the
interface weakening (curve 2) provide a less shift than
their mutual contribution (curve 4). In other words, the
contribution of these mechanisms is non-additive. The
weakening of carbide-matrix interfaces is caused by
irradiation-stimulated phosphorus segregation. The
matrix hardening is connected with the lattice damage
and copper precipitates due to irradiation. Then the
revealed non-additivity may be interpreted as the non-
additivity of P and Cu contributions in radiation
embrittlement. The latter is well known and reflected in
the regression equations that connect the radiation
embrittlem
16 Brittle rupture
5.4 Modeling the shallow crack effect on K
JC
(T) curve
The shallow crack effect on K
JC
(T) curves was studied
on the basis of the Prometey model. Calculations of the
K
JC
(T) curves were performed for 2Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel
in the initial and embrittled conditions. In fig. 3 the
K
JC
(T) curves are shown for SEB specimens with
thickness B=50 mm and wide W=100 mm with the
deep (a/W=0.5) and shallow (a/W=0.01) cracks that
were calculated for the deterministic and stochastic
parameter S
C
. Experimental values of K
JC
for standard
2T-CT specimens (a/W=0.5) [6] are also presented.
-200 -160 -120 -80 -40
T,
o
C
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
B=50 mm
P
f
=0.95
P
f
=0.5
P
f
=0.05
[=200
(a)
-200 -160 -120 -80 -40
T,
o
C
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
P
f
=0.95
P
f
=0.5
P
f
=0.05
B=50 mm
[=35
(b)
-200 -100 0 100 200
T,
o
C
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
K
J
C
,

M
P
a

m
P
f
=0.95
P
f
=0.5
P
f
=0.05
B=50 mm
[=57.5 and
[=200
(c)
Figure 3: K
JC
(T) curves for deep (solid lines) and
shallow (dotted lines) cracks: (a) and (b) the initial
condition, (c) the embrittled condition.
As seen from fig. 3, the K
JC
(T) curves for deep cracks
calculated both with the deterministic and stochastic
parameter S
C
are in good agreement with experimental
data. For steel in the initial condition, the shallow crack
effect on K
JC
(T) curves is not revealed when assuming
the deterministic parameter S
C
(fig. 3a). The model
predicts an increase of K
JC
for shallow crack if the
parameter S
C
is taken as stochastic (fig. 3b) that
corresponds to available experimental data. For steel in
the embrittled condition (fig. 3c) the K
JC
(T) curves
calculated for the stochastic parameter S
C
are
practically the same as calculated for the deterministic
parameter S
C
, and increasing K
JC
for shallow crack is
observed for both cases.
The revealed regularities are explained as follows. For
steel in the initial condition the value of K
JC
depends
both on P
prop
and P
nuc
. The scatter in S
C
affects P
prop

and, hence, K
JC
. For the considered embrittled
condition, the yield stress is very high (900 MPa) and
P
prop
=1 both for the deterministic and stochastic
parameter S
C
, and K
JC
depends only on P
nuc
. Therefore
the scatter in S
C
does not affect K
JC
, and the shallow
crack effect on K
JC
is caused by significant
contribution of V
1
in P
nuc
for the embrittled steel.
References
[1]. F.M. Beremin. A local criterion for cleavage
fracture of a nuclear pressure vessel steel. Met.
Trans., vol. 14A (1983), pp. 2277-2287.
[2]. K. Wallin. The scatter in K
IC
results. Engng.
Fracture Mech., vol. 19 (1984), pp. 1085-1093.
[3]. B.Z. Margolin, V.A. Shvetsova, G.P. Karzov.
Brittle fracture of nuclear pressure vessel steels.
Part I. Local criterion for cleavage fracture. Int. J.
Pres. Ves. & Piping, vol. 72 (1997), pp.73-87.
[4]. B.Z. Margolin, A.G. Gulenko, V.A. Shvetsova
Improved probabilistic model for fracture
toughness prediction for nuclear pressure vessel
steels. Int. J. Pres. Ves. Piping, vol. 75 (1998), pp.
843-855.
[5]. B.Z. Margolin, A.G. Gulenko, V.A. Nikolaev, L.N.
Ryadkov. Prediction of the dependence K
JC
(T) on
neutron fluence for RPV steels on the basis of the
Unified Curve concept. Int. J. Pres. Ves. Piping,
vol. 82 (2005), pp. 679-689.
[6]. B.Z. Margolin, V.A. Shvetsova, A.G. Gulenko et
al. Fracture toughness prediction for a reactor
pressure vessel steel in the initial and highly
embrittled states with the Master Curve approach
and a probabilistic model. Int. J. Pres. Ves.
Piping, vol. 79 (2002), pp. 219-231.
[7]. B.Z. Margolin, A.G. Gulenko, V.A. Nikolaev, L.N.
Ryadkov. A new engineering method for
prediction of the fracture toughness temperature
dependence for RPV steels. Int. J. Pres. Ves.
Piping, vol. 80 (2003), pp. 817-829.

Brittle rupture 17
ON THE LOCAL FAILURE CRITERION OF THE AVERAGE
STRESS IN THE COHESIVE ZONE
Yu.G. Matvienko
1
, O.A. Priymak
2
1 Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 ETC CKBN, Russia
matvienko7@yahoo.com, info@etc.ckbn.ru
ABSTRACT: This research work attempts to
demonstrate that the cohesive model and the local failure
criterion can be developed for a solid with a finite crack
as well as a notch to describe failure assessment curves.
The local failure criterion in the form of the average
stress limitation in the cohesive zone ahead of the
crack/notch tip has been employed, i.e. the normal
elastic stress ahead of the crack tip is averaged over the
cohesive zone length. Mode of loading and the elastic
stress concentration factor can significantly change the
shape of the failure curve.
Keywords : Cohesive zone model, crack, failure
assessment diagram, local failure criterion, notch.
1. INTRODUCTION
The cohesive zone model is very attractive in modern
fracture mechanics approaches to analyze the local
critical state at a crack tip. This model allows avoiding
the confusion of applying the unrealistic continuum
mechanics stress singularity to fracture process zone in
the vicinity of the crack tip.
The cohesive zone can be characterized by a material
specific relation between the cohesive stress and the
displacement between the zone faces. The cohesive law
can be assumed to be represented by a traction-
separation function. Thus, the cohesive law describes the
deformation and failure processes in the failure process
zone. In this simulating the deformation and failure of
the material in the cohesive zone (the vicinity of the
crack tip) the most difficulty is represented by the
determination of the parameters of the traction-
separation function. Since, there is not effective
experimental method to directly measure the traction-
separation function, an appropriate function must be
assumed. Various traction-separation formulations and
the effect of the traction-separation function on the
resulting fracture behavior have been analyzed in [1, 2].
The following conclusion has been made by Tvergaard
and Hutchinson [2] and Hutchinson and Evans [3]: the
effect of the shape of the traction-separation curve can
be relatively weak. At the same time, the important
parameters of the traction-separation law are the
cohesive stress
coh
o and the critical separation distance
C
o at material decohesion.
The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate (i)
that the cohesive model and the local failure criterion of
the average stress in the cohesive zone ahead of the
crack tip can be developed for a solid with a finite crack
as well as a notch to describe failure curves (ii) that
mode of loading and the elastic stress concentration
factor can significantly change the shape of the failure
curve.
2. THE COHESIVE MODEL AND THE LOCAL
FAILURE CRITERION
2.1. The cohesive zone
A simple Dugdale-Barenblatt type cohesive zone
model [4, 5] is employed to describe the deformation
and failure process ahead of the crack (or notch) tip.
For this purpose the crack is virtually extended from
the actual crack tip at a x = by the cohesive zone
length d . Within this zone, the crack surfaces are
loaded by the cohesive stress
coh
o . By introduction
of the cohesive zone a finite value of the cohesive
stress is postulated. For simplicity the cohesive stress
is assumed to be independent on the displacement
between the zone faces.
2.2. The cohesive stress
The cohesive stress
coh
o ahead of the crack tip can be
determined by the yielding criterion within the
cohesive zone according to flow law of von Mises or
Tresca. If von Mises yield condition and its
associated flow law is assumed, the cohesive stress
y coh
o o = can be expressed by the following
equations [6]
( )( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2 1
1 / 1
4
1
2
v
o o v v
o
o
o
o
o

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
Y
Y
Y
coh
(1)
for plane strain and
2
4
3
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Y
Y coh
o
o
o
o
o (2)
for plane stress, where
Y
o is the yield stress. Here, it
was assumed that in an infinite plate with a crack
length a 2 under a remotely tensile stress o the
stresses on the crack extension line are the principal
normal stresses and can be described by the exact
elastic solution according to the Westergaards
theory [7]
( )
2 2
a x
x
x
y

=
o
o (3)
Table of Content 5
Table of content
Brittle rupture
Prometey local approach to brittle fracture: development and application,
B.Z. Margolin, V.A. Shvetsova, A.G. Gulenko, V.I. Kostylev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
On the local failure criterion of the average stress in the cohesive zone,
Y.G. Matvienko, O.A. Priymak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Assessment of the role of micro defect nucleation in probabilistic modeling of cleavage fracture,
J. Hohe, J. Wenck, D. Siegele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Investigations on damage evolution and cleavage based on combined experimental and numerical methods,
D. Siegele, V. Friedmann, J. Hohe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Caracterization of He embrittlement of a 9Cr-1Mo steel using local approach of brittle fracture,
J. Malaplate, L. Vincent, X. Averty, J. Henry, B. Marini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Physical models for cleavage fracture at various temperatures -Bases for local approach to fracture of HSLA steel,
J.H. Chen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Some comments about crack initiation in relation with cyclic irreversibility,
M. Risbet, X. Feaugas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
The effect of warm prestress in RPV assessment : some experimental results and
their interpretation by local approach to fracture,
D. Moinereau, A. Dahl, R. Masson, P. Gilles, S. Chapuliot, T. Yuritzinn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
State of the art of the WST model 2005,
K. Wallin, T. Laukkanen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Transferability of cleavage appearance temperature from laboratory specimen to structure,
V. Le Corre, S. Chapuliot , S. Degallaix , A. Fissolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Method of constraint loss correction of CTOD fracture toughness for fracture assessment of steel components,
F. Minami, M. Ohata, H. Shimanuki, T. Handa, S. Igi, M. Kurihara,
T. Kawabata, Y. Yamashita, T. Tagawa, Y. Hagihara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Application of equivalent CTOD ratio to fracture assessment of structural components.
(Part 1 : Wide plate panels subjected to bi-axial loading),
H. Shimanuki, M. Ohata, F. Minami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Weibull stress approach to correlation between Charpy impact energy and CTOD fracture toughness,
Y. Takashima, M. Ohata, F. Minami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Modelling quasi-brittle rupture behaviour using statistically distributed local strengths,
J. Schicker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Recent development in the Weibull stress model for prediction of cleavage fracture in ferritic steels,
X. Gao, J.P. Petti, R.H. Dodds, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Local approach to fracture for cleavage crack arrest prediction,
C. Berdin , M. Hajjaj , P. Bompard , S. Bugat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
The energy approach of EPFM as a link between the global and the local approach,
Y. Wadier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Investigation on the role of fracture process zone denition in local approach to brittle fracture criterion,
L. Esposito, N. Bonora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Local approach concepts and the microstructures of steels,
J.F. Knott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Assessment of the limitations of the local and global approach criteria in the case of brittle fracture,
S. Chapuliot, M. Reytier, S. Osterstock, M. Ndlec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Toward a better understanding of the cleavage in RPV steels : Local mechanical conditions and evaluation of a
nucleation enriched Weibull model and of the Beremin model over a large temperature range,
B. Tanguy, C. Bouchet, S. Bordet, J. Besson, A. Pineau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Microstructures and mechanical properties of simulated heat affected zone in x100 pipeline steel girth welds,
A.-S. Bilat, A.-F. Gourgues-Lorenzon, J. Besson, A. Pineau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Ductile rupture
Characterization of material fracture behavior by small punch test and numerical simulation,
Y.-S. Chang, T.-R. Lee, J.-B. Choi, Y.-J. Kim, M.-C. Kim, B.-S. Lee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
On the use of the crack tip opening angle parameter to explain the ductile crack growth
J. Besson, D. Moinereau, D. Steglich EUROMECH - MECAMAT 2006
6 Table of Content
behavior of miniature compact specimens,
M. Scibetta, J. Schuurmans, E. Lucon, E. van Walle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Non-local plastic-damage model for ductile rupture of sheet-metals,
M. Brunet, F. Morestin, H. Walter-Leberre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Computational aspects of a nonlocal approach to ductile fracture,
R.H.J. Peerlings, J. Mediavilla, M.G.D. Geers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Damage evolution prediction using X-ray tomography and the three-dimensional damage percolation model,
O. Orlov, E. Maire, J. Adrien, M. J. Worswick, D.J. Lloyd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Ductile tearing behavior near a bimetallic interface,
P. Gilles, V. Robin, J. Devaux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Micromechanical modelling of anisotropic porous viscoplastic materials under dynamic loading,
V. Pense, Q.C. He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Ductile fracture initiation and propagation modeling using a new fracture criterion,
L. Xue, T. Wierzbicki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Strain aging and prediction of ductile fracture in C-Mn steels,
J. Belotteau, C. Berdin, S. Forest, A. Parrot, C. Prioul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Modelling fracture of metal foams,
K.R. Mangipudii, E. Amsterdam, J.T.M. De Hosson, P.R. Onck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Fracture assessments of high pressure pipelines with axial aws including constraint and ductile tearing effects,
Fernando Dotta, Claudio Ruggieri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Evaluation of ductile cracking for steel structures under large-scale cyclic
straining based on the effective damage concept,
M. Ohata, M. Toyoda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Simulation of crack extension in aluminum weldment using rate-dependent cohesive elements,
M. Anvari, C. Thaulow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Concurrent mesh and model adaptive modeling of crack propagation,
B. Tie, D. Aubry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Numerical modelling of damage behaviour in laser-hybrid welds,
A. Bajric, W. Dahl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
How to predict the ductile fracture in metal forming ?,
K. Saanouni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Ductile fracture of a high-strength steel: experiments and modeling,
J.-P. Doan, R. L. McPherson, A. A. Benzerga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Simulation of Ballistic Impact Tests under Various Conditions for a Nickel-Base Superalloy,
K. N. Singh, D. Klingbeil, R. Sievert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Ductile fracture modelling of advanced metallic materials,
M. Zrilic, M. Rakin, N. Gubeljak, M. Dobrojevic, N. Krunich, A. Sedmak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Local approach based numerical modeling of fracture of high strength modern pipeline steel,
T. T. Luu, B. Tanguy, J. Besson, A. Pineau, G. Perrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Assessment of a model of ductile rupture with a nonlocal evolution equation of the porosity,
K. Enakoutsa, J.B. Leblond, G. Perrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Inuence of the cutting process on damage in dual phase steels,
A. Dalloz, A-F. Gourgues-Lorenzon, A. Pineau, J. Besson, T. Sturel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Ductile to brittle transition
Local approach of the delayed cracking phenomenon in the 301 unstable austenitic steel,
M.R. Berrahmoune, D. Bouscaud, K. Inal, S. Berveiller, E. Patoor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
ESIS TC8 A synthesis of numerical round robin on local approach to simulate
the brittle to ductile transition curve of RPV steel,
C. Poussard, C. Sainte Catherine and ESIS TC8 members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Numerical analysis of the ductile to brittle transition in welded joints,
I. Peuelas, C. Betegn, J.J. del Coz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Evaluation of fracture toughness from instrumented Charpy impact tests for a reactor pressure vessel steel
using local approach to fracture,
A. Parrot , A. Dahl, P. Forget, B. Marini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Numerical evaluation of the ability of the master curve approach to describe the effect
of irradiation on the brittle fracture toughness of RPV steels,
P. Forget, B. Marini, A. Parrot, P. Todeschini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Usage of the small-punch-test for the characterisation of reactor vessel steels in the brittle-ductile transition region,
J. Besson, D. Moinereau, D. Steglich EUROMECH - MECAMAT 2006
Table of Content 7
T. Linse, M. Kuna, J. Schuhknecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Using Charpy load-displacement data and slip line fracture mechanics to predict initial and
continuing crack growth in structures and cleavage transition statistics during growth,
F.A. McClintock, I.M. Collier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Fatigue and creep
Experimental and numerical investigation on the reliability of leadfree solders,
S.Wippler, M. Kuna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
A cohesive zone model to simulate the crack growth in the turbine blades,
J.L. Bouvard, J.L. Chaboche, F. Feyel, F. Gallerneau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Constitutive model for fatigue crack growth,
S. Pommier, R. Hamam, F. Bumbieler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Strength of high-cycle fatigue of non-homogeneous cast iron,
M. Leonavi cius, K. Bobyliov, A. Krenevi cius, M. ukta, S. Stupak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
In-situ investigation of shear-mode fatigue crack growth in various alloys,
V. Doquet, G. Bertolino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Fatigue damage micromechanisms of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel,
A. El Bartali, V. Aubin, S. Degallaix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Simulation of fatigue crack growth in single crystal superalloys using local approach to fracture,
N. Marchal, S. Forest, L. Rmy, S. Duvinage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Non metallic materials
Nonlocal description of the damage and failure of stratied composites,
N. Germain, J. Besson, F. Feyel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Convex optimization and stress-based lower/upper bound methods for limit analysis of porous polymer materials,
F. Pastor, M. Trillat, J. Pastor, E. Loute, P. Thor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Damage modelling by scale transition for a class of highly-lled particulate composites:
description of unilateral effects and damage evolution,
S. Dartois, D. Halm, C. Nadot, A. Dragon, A. Fanget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
effect of particle density on 3D fracture scaling in concrete,
H.-K. Man, J.G.M. van Mier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
3D damage and discrete crack propagation modelling application to the alcali-silica reaction
at the mesoscale in concrete structures,
I. Comby, P.-O. Bouchard, F. Bernard, F. Bay, E. Garcia Diaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Analysis of the crack tip elds in rubber toughened PMMA,
O. Bondil, S. Braymand, C. Fond, R. Schirrer, P. Gerard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Local approach used on lled rubbers multiaxial fatigue crack initiation assessment,
L. Laiarinandrasana, A. Bennani, S. Cantournet, R. Piques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Experimental investigation and modelling of damage in semi-crystalline polymers,
L. Laiarinandrasana, J. Besson, G. Hochstetter, M. Lafarge, 0. Delcroix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
3D fuel cracking modelling in pellet cladding mechanical interaction,
B. Michel, J. Sercombe, G. Thouvenin, R. Chatelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Two-dimensional modelling of PWR fuel rods analysis of fuel cracking,
T. Helfer, . Castelier, P. Garcia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
A numerical study of impact-induced deformation modes in amorphous glassy polymers,
K. Chowdhury, A. A. Benzerga, R.Talreja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Mesoscale modelling
A crystallographic approach of brittle fracture in the 16MND5 bainitic steel. In-situ X-ray diffraction and
scanning electron microscope measurements at low temperatures,
R. Pesci, K. Inal, R. Masson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Computation of brittle fracture local probability of a RPV bainitic steel based on realistic microstructure representation,
J.-P. Mathieu, K. Inal, S. Berveiller, O. Diard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Fracture of heterogeneous materials : from microstructure to structure,
F. Perales, Y. Monerie, A. Chrysochoos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
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8 Table of Content
A multiscale model for the cracking resistance of 7000 Al,
F. Scheyvaerts, P.R. Onck, Y. Brchet, T. Pardoen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Numerical study of softening due to second population of cavities in metals,
M. Ould Ouali, L. Siad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
PERFECT (Prediction of irradiation damage effects on reactor components):
progress with multi-scale modelling in RPV mechanics sub-project,
D. Lidbury, S. Bugat, O. Diard, E. Keim, B. Marini, H.-W. Viehrig, K. Wallin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Constitutive relations for a nonlocal homogenization procedure based on micromechanical arguments,
U. M"uhlich, M. Kuna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Cross-identication isotropic/anisotropic damage for (visco-)plasticity based models,
R. Desmorat, S. Otin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Damage model with internal sliding and friction for hysteresis and fatigue of quasi-brittle materials,
R. Desmorat, F. Ragueneau, H. Pham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Void shearing effect in ductile fracture of porous materials,
L. Xue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
J. Besson, D. Moinereau, D. Steglich EUROMECH - MECAMAT 2006