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EXPERIMENT # 5 COLLOIDS Abstract: Introduction: A Colloid is a kind of mixture in which a substance is dispersed evenly throughout another.

Experimental Procedure: The experiment is divided into 3 parts: for the first part, we prepared a sol and an emulsion; for the second part, Alexander s Patriotic Tube, which is consist of a gel was prepared; for the last part, we observed through the Tyndall Effect and the appearance of precipitation the properties of the different colloids prepared. I. Preparation of Colloids A. Sol a. 50 mL of water was heated. Once it started boiling, 1 M Fe(OH)3 was dropped to it until the mixture changed in color. The mixture was cooled and set aside for use in subsequent procedures. b. A pinch of sulphur powder was placed in water and stirred. Another pinch of sulphur powder was placed in 5 mL hot alcohol. The new solution (sulphur + hot alcohol) was poured into a new beaker which contained 50 mL water. The sulphur mixtures were compared with each other. B. Emulsion 1 mL of oil was added to a test tube with 10 mL water and shaken. The mixture was observed and was set aside for 10 20 minutes. After the said time, 5 mL concentrated soap solution was added to the mixture and shaken. The mixture was observed again. II. Alexander s Patriotic Tube A pinch of agar was dissolved into 15 mL boiling water. Afterwards, 2 drops of 1 M NaOH, a few drops of phenolphthalein (until the mixture becomes pink) and 1 M K4[Fe(CN)6] was added to the same mixture. The mixture was then poured into a test tube and allowed to cool into a gel. 1 mL of 0.1 M FeCl3 was poured on top of the gel. The test tube was corked and was set aside for an hour. III. Properties of Colloids A. Tyndall Effect The Fe(OH)3 sol prepared from I-A was put in a test tube and was placed against a beam of light coming from a small hole. The path of light was observed. The procedure was 1|P ag e Colloids

repeated in different systems: sulphur sol (from I B), CuSO4 sol, dilute milk, boiled starch solution, unboiled starch solution, soap solution. B. Precipitation 2 mL of Fe(OH)3 was placed in 3 different test tubes. 10 drops of 1 M NaNO3 was added to the first test tube, 10 drops of 1 M Na2SO4 to the second and 10 drops of 1 M Na3PO4 to the third. The amount of precipitation formed in the 3 test tubes were compared.

Experimental Results: Table 1. Preparation of Colloids COLLOID OBSERVATION Fe(OH)3 sol Color changed from orange to brown Sulfur (in Sulfur didn t dissolve. Some water) sulphur floated on the surface of the water while some settled at the bottom. Sulfur sol (in The solution had a cloudy hot alcohol white appearance. Some and water) sulphur settled at the bottom. Oil (in water) Oil formed a separate layer on top of the water Oil (in soap A cloudy yellow layer (oil + and water) water) formed underneath the bubble (soap) layer. In the preparation of the Fe(OH)3 sol, FeOH3 was dispersed in hot water. In the sulphur solution prepared without the hot alcohol, the sulphur did not dissolve. The same was true for the sulphur solution with the hot alcohol. Although it can be observed that rather than the clear appearance of the first sulphur solution, the second sulphur solution had a cloudy appearance. The mixture containing oil and water had two separate layers with oil forming a layer above the water. While the mixture containing oil and soap solution was observed to have mixed into a cloudy substance. Table 2. Alexander s Patriotic Tube SYSTEM Agar gel Agar gel ( with 1 mL 0.1 FeCl3) OBSERVATION The gel was pink. The FeCl3, upon addition, turned the top of the pink gel into a blue green color. After some time, the gel completely

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lighten in color, starting from top to bottom. In the preparation of the Alexander s Patriotic tube, the different compounds in the pink gel reacted when the last reagent, FeCl3, was added, thus changing the color of the gel. Table 3. Tyndall Effect SYSTEM *Fe(OH)3 sol OBSERVATION Transparent orange; light passes through; did not scatter *Sulfur sol Cloudy white; light scattered CuSO4 sol Light passed through; completely Dilute milk Cloudy white; light did not pass through *Boiled Starch Cloudy white; Solution light scattered Unboiled A little cloudy then particles Starch settled at the bottom; Solution light did not pass through; light scattered Soap Solution Cloudy; beam of light passes through; did not scatter (with * exhibits tyndall effect)

Table 4. Precipitation PRECIPITANT 1 M NaNO3 1 M Na2SO4 1 M Na3PO4 OBSERVATION Less was formed Least precipitate formed Most precipitate formed

Discussions: Guide Questions and Answers: 1. Why is sulfur not soluble in water? What kind of colloidal dispersion is a sol? Sulfur appears as S8 there are 8 covalently bonded sulphur in a ring with 2 lone pairs each thus it is non polar. Since like dissolves like and water is polar whereas sulphur is non polar, sulphur cannot be soluble in water. 3|P ag e Colloids

A sol is a kind of colloidal dispersion of solid particles in a liquid. They are stable and exhibits the Tyndall Effect. It is a lyophobic (solvent-hating) suspension of solid particles (1-1000nm in size) in a liquid. 2. How would you account for the observation in procedure IA-b2? Sulfur has a nonpolar crystalline structure which makes it harder to dissolve in water under normal conditions and without interventions. On the other hand, the less polar ethanol has the ability to dissolve sulfur to some extent and increase the solubility when it is heated. A lyophobic colloid was formed when the sulfur-alcohol mixture solution was added to water. Also, the sulfur particles were electrically charged with the same sign, so they naturally repelled each another, keeping them apart. 3. What is the role of soap solution in the oil emulsion prepared in procedure IB? The soap solution acted as an emulsifier. It is generally made of phospholipids which has a hydrocarbon bond and is both polar and non polar. Oil, on the contrary is a pure hydrocarbon thus it is completely non polar. This allowed the water and oil to mix because emulsifying agents have a lyophobic and a lyophilic end. The soap solution s lyophobic (non polar) end attached to the oil which is also lyphobic (non polar) while the lyophilic (polar) end attached to the water causing them to mix. 4. What causes Tyndall effect? The Tyndall effect is causes by light scattering particulate matter dispersed in a light transmitting medium, when the cross-section of an individual particulate is the range of roughly between 40 and 900 nanometers, or somewhat below or near the wavelength of visible light (400 750 nanometers). To put it simply, Tyndall Effect is caused by the reflection of light by very small particles in suspension in a transparent medium. In this, light with a longer wavelength is transmitted while those with a shorter wavelength are reflected. Thus, size of colloidal particles in a medium contributes to the appearance of Tyndall Effect. An example of this is when headlight beams are visible in foggy nights. Another is when we see the dust in the air as the sun comes in through a window. The Tyndall effect is used to tell the difference between the different types of mixtures, namely solution, colloid, and suspension. Conclusion and Recommendations: There are two ways to prepare Lyophobic colloids: Condensation method and Dispersion method. In the condensation method, molecules in a true solution are dissolved into larger colloidal particles. This involves preparation of a supersaturated solution from which 4|P ag e Colloids

the dispersed particles precipitate as a second phase. The phase formation involves two stages: nucleation and growth. Nucleation may be either heterogeneous, when the presence of foreign particles or other foreign substance in the solution allows precipitation at minor value of supersaturation, or homogeneous, when there are no solid particles present higher supersaturation is required in order to form stable nuclei, providing following particle growth. Condensation may be done by the following ways: 1) By oxidation 2) By reduction 3) By hydrolysis 4) By double decomposition 5) By excessive cooling 6) By solvent exchange 7) By change of physical state. The Dispersion method is capable to disperse particles to a a size, which is a result of an equilibrium between the two processes: subdivision and aggregation under mechanical force. Grinding and milling techniques are commonly used for subdivision large solid particles. Dispersion may be done by: 1) Mechanical dispersion 2) By electrical dispersion or Bredig s arc method 3) by peptisation. Colloids are classified depending on their composition: the dispersed phase suspended in the dispersing medium. The classifications of colloids are: Liquid aerosols (liquid in gas), Solid aerosols (solid in gas), Foam (gas in liquid), Emulsion (Liquid in liquid), Sol (solid in liquid), solid foam (gas in solid), Gel (liquid in solid) and Solid sol (solid in solid). Colloids have 5 properties: Physical, Colligative, Mechanical, Optical and Electrical properties. These 5 properties are further divided into specific subproperties. Physically, colloids have a heterogeneous nature it is consist of a dispersed phase and a dispersing agent; they are stable their particles are in a state of motion and does not settle at the bottom; filterable colloids are easily filterable. Colloids exhibit vapour pressure, boiling point elevation and freezing point depression. The mechanical properties of colloids are: Brownian movement which explains the force of gravity acting on colloidal particles; Diffusion; and Sedimentation. They also exhibit the Tyndall effect.

References: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_sulfur_not_soluble_in_water http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080223044139AARjwXw http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyndall_effect http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080122013620AAAuvWd http://silver-lightning.com/tyndall/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_(colloid) http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/554soap.html 5|P ag e Colloids

http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=preparation_of_colloids http://www.transtutors.com/chemistry-homework-help/surface-chemistry/preparation-ofcolloids.aspx/ http://chemistry.tutorvista.com/physical-chemistry/classification-of-colloides.html http://www.transtutors.com/chemistry-homework-help/surface-chemistry/properties-of-colloids.aspx

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