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Basic Engineering Drawing Part I

Introduction
Drawing is a universal language. It has several advantages over textual information. It is easily understood - even by illiterates. Drawing can be used as a form of visual communication. There are two types of drawings: Artistic Drawings and Technical Drawings. Engineering drawings come under Technical category. Artistic Drawing: It is a freehand creation of an artist. It is the artists way of expressing himself/herself. It doesnt have any standard rules. These drawings are often very pleasing and attractive but have very little use in the field of science and technology. Technical Drawing: It is a language of technicians. And like any other language, is also has its rules and grammar. These drawings are very precise, accurate and with all the details: and because of these qualities, these drawings play very important role in the field of construction and manufacturing.

Objective
In this chapter, we are going to learn what is meant by basic engineering drawing, different forms of it and its use. We will learn to draw basic shapes. We will also learn to draw shapes by selecting proper scale. By studying few examples, we will learn to calculate area of regular and irregular shapes.

Engineering Drawing:
Engineering drawings are usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance, line styles, size, etc. These drawings are very accurate and precise and provide exact technical information of the product. The purpose of the drawing is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a product or a component. The end goal of an engineering drawing is to convey all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce that component. All engineering drawing uses standard symbols while drawing. One should know the meaning of these symbols to understand and interpret the drawing correctly. We will learn all about those symbols in Basic Engineering Drawing Part II. Drawing basic shapes: To draw basic shapes correctly, one will often need following instruments. T square

Parallel rule

Set square

Drafting machine

Rule scale

Protractor

Compass

Basic shapes
We will study some basic shapes here: 1. Triangle We can use compass and scale to draw a triangle. A triangle has three sides and three angles. Sum of all the three angles of triangle is always 1800. Three sides and angles of triangle may or may not be of same size. There can be 2 or 3 equal sides or angles in triangle. When all the three sides are of same size and each angle is 600, the triangle is called Equilateral Triangle.

When a triangle has two equal sides and equal angles, it is called Isosceles Triangle.

When there are no equal sides and no equal angles in a triangle, it is called Scalene Triangle.

Depending on the angles in a triangle, there are three different names for it. Acute Triangle: All angles of this triangle are less than 900.

Right Triangle: It has one right angle (900).

Obtuse Triangle: It has one angle more than 900.

2. Quadrilateral A shape with four straight sides is called as quadrilateral.

Quadrilateral will have four sides or edges and four corners or angles. Sum of all the four angles is always 360. There are some types of quadrilateral: Parallelogram:

Opposite sides of a parallelogram are always of equal in length and are parallel to each other. Also, opposite angles are equal. Rectangle:

All the angles in rectangle are right angles (900). Opposite sides are parallel to each other and of same length. Rhombus:

Opposite sides are parallel to each other and all the four sides are of same length. Opposite angles are equal. Square:

Opposite sides are parallel to each other. All four sides are of same length and all four angles are right angles. Trapezoid:

Out of four sides, two sides are parallel to each other. Kite:

Kite has two pairs of sides which are equal in length. Angles where the pairs meet are equal too. 3. Pentagon Pentagon has five straight sides. There are two types of pentagon: Regular pentagon:

All sides and angles are equal. Irregular pentagon:

All sides and angles are of different sizes. 4. Hexagon Hexagon has six straight sides. There are two types of hexagon: Regular hexagon:

All sides and angles are of same size. Irregular hexagon:

All sides and angles are of different sizes. 5. Circle Circle is a closed figure without any straight lines or any angles.

Calculation of area of geometric shapes: Area of regular shape is calculated using standard mathematical formula. Area of triangle is calculated by using following formula:

Area = * base * height In another words, area of a triangle is half of the base times height.

Height Height

Base Base To calculate area of a triangle, always measure height at right angle to the base. Area of a square or rectangle is calculated by using following formula: Area of quadrilateral = Length * breadth Area of a circle can be calculated as: Area = * r2 (r = radius of a circle) Area of any compound simple shapes can be calculated by sub-dividing the shape into multiple simple shapes and adding the results together. E.g. To calculate the area of following shape, we have sub-divided the shape into a rectangle and a triangle. Now, we can calculate area of the rectangle and the triangle and add them together to get our final results.

Area of irregular shape Graphical Method In regular practice, we need to measure irregular shapes of land, construction area, material etc. Graphical method is used to calculate area of such irregular shapes. 1. Select appropriate scale and draw the drawing on graph. 2. Then count number of complete squares on the graph. 3. Count number of 75% complete squares (3/4th squares) on the graph. 4. Count number of 50% complete squares i.e. half squares on the graph. 5. Count 25% complete squares (1/4th squares) on the graph. If you add all these squares then we get the area of the place. We can also calculate the area of irregular shape by drawing multiple simple shapes into the drawing. Add area of all these simple shapes to get area of the irregular shape.

Summary
Here is the summary of what we learned in this chapter: Engineering drawings are very accurate, precise and they give exact information of the product.

To draw such drawings correctly, one need special instruments. E.g. T-square, parallel ruler, set square, protractor etc. Triangle, Quadrilateral, Pentagon, Hexagon, Circle etc. are some of the basic shapes. There are many types of each of these shapes. Area of a regular shape can be calculated by using a formula. But to calculate area of an irregular shape, we have to sub-divide that shape into small, simple shapes and then add the results together.

Activity
1. Draw the following i) Equilateral triangle of 10 cm length ii) Square of 15 cm in length iii) Rectangle of length = 12 cm , breadth = 10 cm iv) Circle with radius = 7 cm Find area of a leaf of a plant. Find top surface area of a percolation tank.

2. 3.