Você está na página 1de 5

Andrew Yang Period 7 PERSIAN Chart AP World History

POLITICAL Leaders, Elites State Structure War Diplomacy, Treaties Courts, Laws

Chapter 23: Industrial Revolution and its Effects Intellectual Challenge and Population Pressure: 1. Intellectual ferment by Enlightenment philosophers began to stop thinking and started to become more proactive about challenging the old political system of absolutist monarchy. Individuals such as Jean Jacques Rousseau even went as far to call for a Classical-era like government in which people had a voice (thus, the rebirth of lost democratic principles flared up) 2. A growing gap suddenly appeared between the long established traditionalists and the progressive Enlightenment thinkers, as well as between the landed aristocracy and the new middle class and working classes. 3. Secondly, there was a huge population revolution in the 18 th Century that occurred due to the result of better nutrition from new world crops such as the potato and also due to rising life expectancies. 4. Businesspeople rode along the Enlightenment current and challenged the notion that aristocrats only were allowed to have the highest offices. 5. The expansion of manufacturing (textiles and cloth) also was a source of friction between losing landowners and emerging cottage industry households (proto industrialization). 6. The spark had been ignited for a series of revolution. The Tide of Revolution, 1789-1830: 1. The American Revolution: This was the first of the series of revolutions; prominent colonists including the founding fathers began to apply Enlightenment theories to fruition as they challenged their meager representation in Parliament and the rampant overtaxing through Stamp, Sugar, and Tea Acts. Through many British military blunders and the assistance of Prussian and French commanders, the United States was born in 1789 with Washington its president. This single event became the catalyst for many others to follow: 2. Crisis in France and Phases of Revolt: In the decade precluding the French Revolution, there was growing discontent among the lower classes. Reform was badly needed and badly handled by the controlling aristocracy. Only an economic slump in 1787 could convince Louis XVI to call to order a traditional parliamentary meeting, by which he hoped to outline a tax reform plan. The middle class seized the opportunity and soon controlled the assembly, forcing the king to accept less control. Things got out of hand in 1792 after free expression and other liberties were granted to the French by way of the Declaration on the Rights of Man and the Citizen, and a peasant riot stormed the political prison of Bastille. The peasants soon got hold of all of the land records they could, sending many aristocrats to the chopping block at the guillotine, where the king and queen also met their fates (Reign of Terror). Robespierre and other radical reformers abolished the monarchy overnight and turned France into something barely short of a republic with a constitution. Enter Napoleon the Great who seized control in 1799, established a centralized and orderly bureaucracy and law code. France built up a huge army and empire until disastrous defeats in Russian weather in 1812. 3. The Congress of Vienna and Afterwards: The delegation of Europeans deliberated on the issue of how to repartition Europe after the Napoleonic Era had torn it down. They agreed on leaving Frances borders alone but partitioned Poland to Russia and gave back parts of Prussia, as well as Austria. However, they failed to address the pressing need for reforms, insisting on a conservative vs. liberal approach. 4. The liberal, radical, and conservative approaches to political governing were a lethal mix that combined along with the Industrial Revolutions exploited workers to ignite the year of revolutions in 1848 across Europe. However, Britain and the

5.

United States did not experience these problems, as the British were able to pass the Reform Bill of 1832 and Americans were able to both expand voting rights to all eligible men and elect the populist president Andrew Jackson. Parliament systems were developed along with freedom of religion and granting of tolerance for the Jewish faith.

New Political Trends, New Government Functions 1. Unsolvable issues prior to this unit were solved within a generation after the uprisings of 1848; debates about constitutions and government structure were largely worked out and remained fairly stable for the rest of the unit. Liberals did an about face and decided that revolution was too risky, while conservatives collaborated to make significant reforms, such as granting the vote to working class men in Britain in 1867. 2. Nationalist figures, beginning with Cavour, who was able to support industrial development, boost the position of the Italian parliaments, and manage to reunify and create the modern nation of Italy, began to emerge and experienced great success by cooling the separation between liberals and conservatives. Otto von Bismarck of Prussia began a series of generous reforms, including granting the voting right to all men (by classifying them by wealth) and granting religious freedom throughout the new nation called Germany in the 1860s and 1870s at around the same time as Cavour. 3. Nationalism became the subtle force from which both conservatives and liberals were able to launch ambitious political platforms. This also fueled imperialist views in the US Republican party and many British conservatives. Nationalism was also used as a pretext for regaining lost territory or entering into skirmishes. The successful rise of many empires, including the new German Empire in 1871 from wars with France, as well as the development of the new parliamentary systems, was associated with the seemingly wonderful success of nationalism in promoting unity. 4. Finally, over a thousand years after the Chinese before them had done and kept for centuries, the Europeans decided that only the most able intellectuals would be able to enter levels of governments, initiating new rounds of civil service examinations and causing the growth of academies specialized in teaching test strategies. The government began to play a bigger role in peoples lives, also launching ambitious welfare programs led by the reforms of the pioneering Bismarck and being able to create inspection agencies and taking control of the education system so that literacy rates rose dramatically to about 90-95 percent of all adult males. Even the resurrected 1896 Olympic Games had a nationalist tinge to them. 5. Socialism, created by Karl Marx to explain for the inequities between the proletariat working class and the rich industrialist factory owner. Simply put, there would inevitably be a struggle, as previously in history, between the lower working class and the elite wealthy class of capitalist merchants and factory owners. The working class would gain the upper hand, there would be a strong government to redistribute wealth, and then that government would be successfully abolished. The force of socialism began to dwarf the two liberal and conservative factions and slowly morphed into a political force to be reckoned with in the 1860s and 1870s. And yet, most socialist party members who hated the Marxist ideology because of its flawed logic banded together with liberals and conservatives to create a new brand of socialism the reformist movement. The New Wave of European Settlement: The United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada: 1. Soon the Europeans decided to expand outwards, due to the constraints on raw resources and on new foreign markets to hunt for. The result was a series of settler

2.

3.

4.

5.

islands, mostly settled by the British in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. The United States went its own path but was also heavily dependent on European developments until it eventually eclipsed Europe in economic might. Canada: Determined not to lose Canada as it had with the United States, Britain decided to test out the model of self autonomous puppet states when it created the Dominion of Canada in 1867 and modeled the government in a Parliamentary style. Canada, although now technically politically separated from British interference, had to depend on the mother country for most of its economic goods and services. The divide and conquer approach was used with the native populations to scatter them around and weaken their regional powers. Australia: Discovered when explore James Cook landed in the early 1800s, Australia was originally the land where criminals from overloaded prisons back in Britain were shipped to finish their sentences. Cities along the coast such as Sydney soon evolved from their original beginnings to become new hubs of immigration for British and later Irish settlers in the 1840s. As with the Canadian natives, the Aboriginals were forced off their natural habitat, and the introduction of exotic domesticated animals became a problem as well. Australia was extremely dependent on Britain for economic assistance, cranking out precious minerals from discovered mines to supply the Industrial Revolution. Modernization followed a distinctively British path as well. New Zealand: One of the last of the Pacific islands that were explored later in the 1830s; then the newest of Britains Pacific holdings, it was modeled on a British settler society much like Australia was. The Maori people were also forced off their lands for the sake of raw material extraction, but they were eventually accepted members of society. The United States after 1776: After briefly fighting off British interests and keeping Europe out of Latin America through the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, the US embarked on the expansionist policy known as Manifest Destiny, swallowing up territory from Mexico and France to have two coasts (Atlantic and Pacific). Although the Civil War in the 1860s flared up to nearly tear the country apart, it allowed the US to rethink its democratic principles and go on a path that would surpass the European nation states.

ECONOMIC Type of System Technology, Industry Trade, Commerce Capital/Money Types of Businesses

Flash Point: The Double Entanglement Alliance System and prelude to World War I 1. Although the political climate of Europe had been relatively stable in the decades leading up to the war, there were major political factors that boiled over to cause the war. 2. First of all, the nationalism which had engulfed the European powers beginning in the 1860s caused an intense rivalry between sworn enemies such as Britain and the growing giant Germany and arms race buildup between the two (in terms of manufactured new battleships technology and new machine guns, etc). 3. There was an entangled alliance system in Europe, which meant that Russia, Britain, and France (although it hated Britain) were entwined together in the Triple Entente to support each other and declare war on others if one of them were attacked. Meanwhile, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were strung together on the Triple Alliance. The Industrial Revolution: 1. Started in Britain which used coal and steam engines to operate its machines and cut down on inefficiency and time, as well as reducing costs. 2. Other Europeans and the United States started to copy the success story of Britain, realizing that they too needed to industrialize if they wanted to advance and keep up their nationalistic rivalries and arms races. France started to promote innovation, and there was an emphasis on making profit and mass producing at the same time. The American innovation of the assembly line by which parts could be easily assembled piece by piece, began to be applied to the musket industry, and caught on in European factories. Usage of coal and coke helped in the mass

RELIGIOUS Holy Books Beliefs, Teaching Conversion Sin/Salvation Deities

production of steel (advancement from cast iron). An increasing number of technological advancements in transportation and communication (steam power, the telegraph and later telephone, railroads) also aided in exporting manufactured goods across great distances more efficiently and at faster speeds. 4. The factory system became increasingly more emphasized, and cities boomed overnight around factories as more workers flocked to get working jobs. However, the system was only focused on gaining profit for the growing higher middle class factory owner (often to a tremendous cost to the workers) 5. The growing of private industrial companies and the increasing wealth of the managers of such companies (well into the billions of dollars) also occurred, as well as new investment developments and the stock markets creation. 6. Through the usage of manufactured goods, ships became iron hulled and turned into the modern dreadnaught battleship image of a ship. The era from 1750-1900 was a continuation of the shift away from religion and the influence of the Church to increasing amounts of secularism and lost influence. 3.

SOCIAL Family Gender Relations Social Classes Inequalities Life Styles

INTELLECTUAL, ARTS Art, Music Writing, Literature Philosophy Math & Science Education

The aristocracy lost their landed rights to the challenge of industrial businessmen and the burgeoning middle class, as land no longer meant status, but rather money did. The Industrial Revolution in the beginning, especially in the already swelling urban centers of Britain, caused great hardship for those flocking to the city for hopes of a good factory job and for a while caused crime rates to increase and increased the incidence of epidemic outbreaks due to the lack of proper sanitation systems The Industrial Revolution caused the factory system to separate work from the home cottage industry type work to the actual factory work using the machines at hand; work conditions were often very dangerous, at a great cost to children and women. But at around 1850, the growing middle class decided that it was better off for children to have primary and secondary education (a radical concept) and for women to be better off staying at home caring for the children instead of doing factory work. The concept of family was profoundly changed by the Industrial Revolution, due to the fact that parental authority began to be eroded and couples began to marry earlier and with more disapproval. Leisurely activities began to be pursued by the new middle class especially as new technologies such as silent films began to make an early appearance and music hall venues and beach trips, along with new sports stadium games developed. The Feminist movement ignited in the late 1880s and early 20 th century under the banner of sometimes very radical rabblerousing women activists intent on receiving their fair representation in government affairs (by being able to vote). After such movements, most governments caved in around the early and late 1910s, and by the early 1920s, women gained their long coveted voting rights. The Industrial Revolution involved the development of many different technological innovations, which in turn caused great scientific achievements to occur: 1. Through analysis of the many different beaked bird species in the Galapagos Islands, the ecologist Charles Darwin was able to come up with the modern theory of Evolution, as well as the notion of Survival of the Fittest (which was misused for the purpose of Social Darwinism) 2. From more accurate data showing the existence of germs and other infectious particles and by disproving spontaneous generation in finding the germs, Louis Pasteur was able to alert officials to the importance of good sanitation and proper preserving of perishable food items. 3. A better understanding of the extremely tiny particles in a cathode ray tube, as well as improved knowledge about invisible electromagnetic radiation, allowed

for the discovery of subatomic particles and later the expansion of physics into the branch of modern day quantum level physics (Einsteins Theory of Relativity for example). 4. Sigmund Freud examined the psychological functions and purpose of the brain and proposed his ideas on how he thought the human conscience worked(the id, the ego, the superego) Additionally, there was a new form of artistic and literary expression, moving away from the rationality of Enlightenment thinking and into the realm of expressing human emotions and evoking emotional rather than logical reactions (romanticism). Art morphed into new radical forms, such as Seurats pointillism in which many small dots made up a single picture that appeared to be uniform, or Cezannes unorthodox art involving naked people. In the United States, intellectual movements were merely mirrors of the intellectual developments occurring in Western Europe; scientific achievements in the US did not gain ground until the United States was able to closely model the successful German system of research universities and laboratories. The Industrial revolution caused many environmental side-effects; although fewer trees were cut down, there were often uncontrolled smoke emissions from the factories and huge slagheaps where waste was dumped and seeped into the water supply, affecting human health.

NEAR: GEOGRAPHY Location Physical Movement Human/Environment Region

NOTES: In general, the development of a streamlined manufacturing process, coupled with the ability to use machinery to speed up slow human labor, were catalysts for the new Industrial Revolution, which in turn became the catalyst for much political, social, and economic restructuring and helped to define the period from 1750 to 1900 as a restless period where the pace of innovation quickened at a breakneck speed.