STRANGE PHENOMENA

[fl
A SOURCEBOOK OF UNUSUAL NATURAL PHENOMENA
Compiled by W I L L I A M R. C O R L I S S VOLUME G-2

Published

by

The Sourcebook Project

Glen A r m , Maryland

21057

C o p y r i g h t © 1 9 7 4 by W i l l i a m R.

Corliss

L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s Catalog N u m b e r : 7 3 - 9 1 2 4 8

ISBN 0 - 0 6 0 0 7 1 2 - 5 - 3

NOTICE T h i s is v o l u m e G - 2 of a continuing series. T h e other v o l u m e s m a y b e purchased from W i l l i a m R . C o r l i s s , Glen A r m , Maryland 21057

F i r s t Printing:

September 1974

Second Printing: F e b r u a r y 1976

PREFACE TO STRANGE PHENOMENA VOL. G2
M o r e than six months have passed since the publication of S T R A N G E P H E N O M E N A , vol. G l . During that period, the general format of the sourcebooks has been tested, found useful, and in need of no m a j o r modifications. Volume G2 is s i m i l a r to v o l . Gl except in e m p h a s i s . Falling material (GFx) and s o l a r , lunar, and planetary effects (xxS) a r e given m o r e play, whereas Gl was strong on luminous phenomena (GLx) and sound phenomena (GSx). A considerable b a c k log of material e x i s t s , and v o l . G3 will appear in due c o u r s e . —The e n t e r p r i s e producing the sourcebooks has been given the nondescript name: The Sourcebook Project any other n a m e would be presumptious and officious. Bulletins are issued occasionally, as b u y e r s are well aware. The P r o j e c t has a l s o published the first sourcebook in the "ancient man" s e r i e s , S T R A N G E A R T I F A C T S , v o l . M l . V o l u m e s on geology and astronomy will appear soon. To quote Tennyson, the purpose of the Sourcebook Project i s : To follow knowledge like a sinking s t a r , Beyond the utmost bound of human thought. A bit melodramatic for these d a y s , but not bad at a l l . t o reproduce the Preface f r o m v o l . G l . Meanwhile, it s e e m s pertinent

PREFACE TO STRANGE PHENOMENA, VOL. G1
I have always been intrigued with the tailings from the mine of s c i e n c e . I mean hose facts that do not fit the mold, those anomalies that should not exist, those sports, those wild points that l i e far off the c u r v e . One of my hobbies is collecting and o r g a n izing these h o m e l e s s facts. T h e s e waifs are curious and m o s t intriguing. Either they a r e f a l s e or science still has much fundamental work to do. But I leave such p r o b l e m s to the reader. All I have done is c o l l e c t , c a t e g o r i z e , and reprint this anomalous information. The result is this first volume of geophysical c u r i o s i t i e s . Perhaps you can make something out of them. At the v e r y least, I hope you will be excited by the unknown territory that still l i e s ahead of u s . I have devoted a great deal of thought to the organization of this v o l u m e . The format is flexible. M o r e material may be added within the framework of categories from any source and any period. Seemingly disparate data a r e c o r r e l a t e d through the indexes and annotations. Whole new c a t e g o r i e s can be added if it appears n e c e s s a r y . The literature dealing with m y s t e r i o u s geophysical phenomena has been m e r e l y scratched. V o l u m e G l , the present volume, represents only a small portion of my collection. V o l u m e G2 is well along in preparation, as a r e v o l u m e s in the fields of ancient man and unresolved geological p r o b l e m s . The data included have been filtered only slightly. Doubtless s o m e hoaxes and honest misinterpretation will be found in the pages that follow. This is unavoidable in a project of this scope. Indeed, it is unavoidable in all phases of inquiry, especially those relying heavily upon observational evidence. Data w e r e selected for inclusion according to their "strangeness" and their tendency to contradict current scientific hypotheses or stretch them beyond their present bounds. T h e r e has also been a deliberate effort to gather in observations f r o m the 19th Century that have gathered dust too long on l i b r a r y s h e l v e s . Anomalous events are too r a r e to let them be d i s carded m e r e l y because they are old or money cannot be found to put them into

G2-iii

c o m p u t e r i z e d data s y s t e m s . The c o l l e c t i n g new I flung into the l i t e r a t u r e w a s a b r o a d one. It had to be b e c a u s e (1) valid data and good t h e o r i e s a r e often published outside the m a i n s t r e a m of s c i e n t i f i thought; and (2) people w e r e j u s t as o b s e r v a n t a century or two ago as they a r e today. Quotations in this v o l u m e will d e m o n s t r a t e that they v i e w e d the world with g r e a t c u r iosity and if they s o m e t i m e s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d things p e r h a p s they a l s o s a w the c o s m o s through l e s s b i a s e d e y e s . S o m e of the m a t e r i a l included h e r e will be l a b e l l e d " p s e u d o s c i e n c e , " but s o m e of the data so c a s t i g a t e d will be l e g i t i m a t e s c i e n c e a d e c a d e h e n c e . M e t e o r i t e s a r e , of c o u r s e , a c l a s s i c c a s e in point. The r e a d e r should b e a r in mind that many i t e m s a r e i n s e r t e d with the e x p r e s s p u r p o s e of "rocking the boat. " I should a l s o add that I have d e l i b e r a t e l y introduced data p e r h a p s 25% of the whole f r o m outside the scientific l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s w a s not done b e c a u s e of any l a c k of m a t e r i a l but r a t h e r to i n s u r e the widest p o s s i b l e s p e c t r u m of o b s e r v a t i o n s . Being that this is a s o u r c e b o o k . I m u s t acknowledge the many w r i t e r s of p a p e r s , b o o k s , l e t t e r s - t o - t h e - e d i t o r . and sundry publications that f o r m the foundation of the book. W h e r e lengthy quotations a r e taken f r o m publications still p r o t e c t e d by c o p y right, p e r m i s s i o n has b e e n obtained f r o m the c o p y r i g h t h o l d e r .

William R. Corliss Glen A r m , Maryland June 16, 1 9 7 4

CONTENTS

ORGANIZATION OF THE SOURCEBOOKS ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA* FALLING MATERIAL* LUMINOUS PHENOMENA* MAGNETIC AND ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA* CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS* SOUND PHENOMENA* VOLCANIC PHENOMENA* WEATHER PHENOMENA* SUBJECT INDEX D A T E - O F - E V E N T INDEX P L A C E - O F - E V E N T INDEX AUTHOR INDEX SOURCE INDEX

G2-1 G2-3 G2-25 G2-73 G2-123 G2-133 G2-169 G2-183 G2-191 G2-241 G2-249 G2-253 G2-256 G2-260

* A b r e a k d o w n o f the s u b s e c t i o n s within t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s f o l l o w s . U s e the h e a d i n g s at the t o p s of the p a g e s to l o c a t e s p e c i f i c s u b s e c t i o n s and e n t r i e s .

Section C o d e and T i t l e GE Electromagnetic phenomena

Subsection C o d e and T i t l e GEB *GEG GEM *GER GET GFA *GFB GFC GFF GFG *GFI GFL G F T Brocken Spectres, glories, Radar angels Unusual m i r a g e s Planetary resonances T r a n s m i s s i o n phenomena W e b s and "angel h a i r " Falls of birds Chemicals Fish, reptiles, insects Gelatin Ice falls L e a v e s , h a y , pollen Thund e r stone s etc

GF

Falling material

G2-v

GG

Gravitational and temporal phenomena Hydrospheric anomalies

*GGG *GGT *GHG *GHP *GHS *GHT *GHW *GIC *GIF GLA GLB GLD GLL GLM GLN GLW *GMA *GME *GMG GMM GMS *GOS *GOT GQE *GQF *GQG GQS GSD *GSG GSH GSM GVS *GVT GVV GWC GWD *GWF GWP *GWR GWS GWT GWW

Gravity anomalies Time anomalies G e y s e r s and w e l l s Unusual agitations Lake oscillations Anomalous tides Unusual w a v e s Unexplained Firestorms fires

GH

Gl

Incendiary p h e n o m e n a

GL

Luminous phenomena

A u r o r a - l i k e phenomena B a l l lightning Electric discharge Lightning M e t e o r - l i k e phenomena Nocturnal l i g h t s Light wheel s Atmospheric electricity Earth currents Magnetic anomalies Meteorite effects S o l a r , l u n a r , and planetary e f f e c t s Sulfurous o d o r s Unexplained s t e n c h e s Earthquake phenomena Fault phenomena Geographical correlations S o l a r , l u n a r , and p l a n e t a r y e f f e c t s S t r a n g e detonations I n f r a s o n i c sound Hums, h i s s e s , etc. M u s i c , b e l l s , etc. S o l a r , l u n a r , and p l a n e t a r y e f f e c t s G e o t h e r m a l phenomena V o l c a n i c phenomena Strange clouds Dark days Peculiar fogs P r e c i p i t a t i o n oddities T e m p e r a t u r e oddities S o l a r , l u n a r , and planetary e f f e c t s T o r n a d o e s and w a t e r s p o u t s W h i r l w i n d s and dust d e v i l s

GM

M a g n e t i c and e l e c t r i c a l phenomena

GO

Odors

GQ

Crustal movements

GS

Sounds

GV

Volcanic phenomena

GW

Weather phenomena

• T h i s s u b s e c t i o n not r e p r e s e n t e d i n V o l u m e G 2 .

G2-vi

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ORGANIZATION OF THE SOURCEBOOKS
A l l sourcebook entries a r e labelled with three l e t t e r s and a number; v i z . , G L B - 0 1 2 . The three l e t t e r s indicate a category of phenomena. G L B , for e x a m p l e , designates a subsection of the book containing accounts of ball lightning. The number following the l e t t e r s is simply an acquisition number within that subsection. Thus, entry G L B 012 is the 12th entry in the ball lightning c a t e g o r y . The indexes at the back of each sourcebook and all c r o s s r e f e r e n c e s a r e keyed to the entry number rather than page number. T h e r e is a plan to the assignment of letter c o d e s . The first letter indicates a b r o a d , general field of s c i e n c e , such as geophysics, G. The second and third l e t t e r s a r e assigned to sections and subsections within this general field, as illustrated below: G e o p h y s i c s (a m a j o r field of science) •Luminous phenomena (a section) G L B * •Ball lightning (a subsection)

The sections denoted by the second l e t t e r s are based upon the p r i m a r y physical sensation evoked by the phenomenon at hand. Ball lightning is p r i m a r i l y a luminous event and thus b e a r s the GL label. Of c o u r s e , ball lightning also makes noise on ^ ^ o c c a s i o n and s o m e t i m e s l e a v e s an odor behind, but these a r e secondary attributes. ^ ^ T h e subsections (third l e t t e r s ) a r e narrower in scope than the sections. Experience, however, has shown that subsections must be b r o a d to e n c o m p a s s the great variety of phenomena in a r e a s o n a b l e number of c a t e g o r i e s . They cannot be too broad, though, or a s t r u c t u r e l e s s hodgepodge r e s u l t s . The subsections have been selected and named with great c a r e to avoid suggesting explanations of the phenomena. A c o m p l e t e l i s t of sections and subsections now in use p r e c e d e s this page and also functions as a table of contents. Detailed descriptions of the subsections a r e placed at the beginnings of the sections. When searching f o r a specific entry," scan the running heads at the tops of the pages; they give the entry n u m b e r s as well as the subsection t i t l e s . The p e r s o n who reads for curiosity's sake will find that each subsection is much like a chapter, with many related i t e m s grouped together. Some l a r g e r w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y books, c o v e r so much ground that their contents have been split up into the appropriate subsections. The l o o s e - l e a f format of the sourcebooks m a k e s it p o s s i b l e to combine material s u b section by subsection as new v o l u m e s are i s s u e d . Each volume is indexed by subject, by t i m e - o f - e v e n t , by p l a c e - o f - e v e n t , by author, and by data s o u r c e . Each volume is self-contained. With the issuance of future v o l u m e s , cumulative indexes will be c o m p i l e d . T h e r e will be no necessity to hunt Bthrough s e v e r a l indexes to find something. B e c a u s e s o m e m a j o r fields are i n t e r related, it will doubtless p r o v e useful to cumulate indexes f r o m v o l u m e s on g e o p h y s i c s , a s t r o n o m y , geology, and so on.

G2-1

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ORGANIZATION OF THE SOURCEBOOKS
R e f e r e n c e s , annotations, and C o m p i l e r ' s S u m m a r i e s are printed full-width, while all direct quotes are indented. Being a sourcebook, the c o r e of this volume c o n s i s t s of the direct quotations f r o m e y e - w i t n e s s e s and key investigators. The text herein faithfully retains the old s p e l l ings, punctuations, and even a few typos. After all, only the eye-witness' own words convey the facts as he perceived them. Regurgitations and s u r v e y s , so c o m m o n these days, a r e already once or twice r e m o v e d f r o m the event. The whole object of these sourcebooks is to give the reader and r e s e a r c h e r an organized collection of original writings on the unusual facets of nature. Much of this unique information is being l o s t as l i b r a r i e s b e c o m e m o r e highly computerized. Data selected for the data banks must have current relevance and be acceptable to the science of the day. Hopefully, these sourcebooks will p r e s e r v e something of value and help focus the d i v e r s e , widely dispersed anomalies on the frontiers of s c i e n c e . They should also be interesting reading.

G2-2

SECTION GE: ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA
Included h e r e a r e those unusual geophysical phenomena that apparently depend upon the reflection, refraction, and t r a n s m i s s i o n of electromagnetic radiation. The descriptions of the subsections that follow elaborate on what is and what is not included. GEB Brocken Spectres, g l o r i e s , and s i m i l a r phenomena. T h e following a r e not included: haloes, sun p i l l a r s , m o c k suns, and m o c k m o o n s . Such phenomena a r e considered c o m m o n and fairly well understood. Radar angels. Unexplained radar echoes, including studies of insects and temperature anomalies as p o s s i b l e c a u s e s . Unusual m i r a g e s . Fata Morgana, cities in the sky, marching t r o o p s , e t c . , with explanations, where p o s s i b l e . M o s t m i r a g e s are e a s i l y explained and are not included. Planetary r e s o n a n c e s . Behavior of electromagnetic waves in the earth's ionospheric cavity. W h o l e - e a r t h as a resonator. T r a n s m i s s i o n phenomena. Unusual radio reception. Delayed echoes.

*GEG

GEM

*GER

GET

• T h i s subsection not represented in Volume G 2 .

ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA

G2-4

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC.
GEB-005 [ B R O C K E N SPECTRE P H E N O M E N O N ]

GEB-006

Anonymous; Nature, 2 1 : 2 1 6 , January 1, 1 8 8 0 . W r i t i n g to the W e s t e r n Daily P r e s s under the date of D e c e m b e r 2 2 , 1 8 7 9 , Prof. Silvanus Thompson s a y s : 1 had the opportunity about half-past ten this morning of witnessing f r o m Clifton Down a phenomenon which enjoys the repute of being v e r y r a r e . The entire g o r g e of the Avon was filled with m i s t , so that the r i v e r in the bottom and the Leigh Woods opposite w e r e quite obscured. Standing on the western e x t r e m i t y of the Observatory Hill, I observed a dim gigantic figure apparently standing out through the m i s t upon one of the lower s l o p e s of Clifton Down, where it runs down in undulating ridges f r o m the promenade towards the r i v e r . A m o m e n t ' s glance sufficed to show me that it was my own shadow on the m i s t , and as I waved my a r m s about the gaunt s p e c t r e followed e v e r y m o v e m e n t . A gentleman who stood beside me likewise saw his s p e c t r e , but not mine, as we ascertained by the m o v e m e n t s executed; nor could I see h i s , unless we stood so c l o s e together that the s p e c t r e s s e e m e d combined into one. The analogy presented by these s p e c t r e s with the famous Spectre of the Brocken, s e e n by t r a v e l l e r s in the level r a y s of the morning sun f r o m the s u m m i t of that celebrated mountain, and d e s c r i b e d by Sir David B r e w s t e r in h i s "Letters on Natural M a g i c , " is v e r y striking.

GEB-006

THE CIRCLE OF ULLOA

Z u r c h e r , F r e d e r i c ; M e t e o r s , A e r o l i t e s , S t o r m s , and Atmospheric Phenomena, C . Scribner & C o . , New Y o r k , 1 8 7 6 . The following description is attributed to Ulloa. He was on P a m b a m a r c a with six companions at daybreak. The top of the mountain was entirely c o v e r e d with dense clouds. As the sun r o s e , it dispelled these c l o u d s , and nothing remained in their stead but s o m e v e r y light m i s t s , which it was a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e to distinguish. Suddenly, on the side opposite that in which the sun r o s e , each of the t r a v e l l e r s s a w , at a dozen fathoms f r o m where he stood, an i m a g e of h i m s e l f reflected in the a i r , as though upon a m i r r o r . T h i s i m a g e appeared in the c e n t r e of t h r e e rainbows shaded with different c o l o r s , and surrounded at a c e r t a i n distance by a fourth arch of a single c o l o r . T h e tinting farthest on the outside of each arch was flesh-colored, or r e d , the next shade was orange, the third was yellow, the fourth s t r a w - c o l o r , and the l a s t one g r e e n . A l l t h e s e a r c s w e r e perpendicular to the horizon; they moved about and followed the p e r s o n reflected in e v e r y direction, surrounding his i m a g e like a g l o r i a . What was m o s t r e m a r k a b l e w a s , that, although the seven t r a v e l l e r s stood together in a single group, each of them s a w the p h e n o m e non only in relation to himself, and was-disposed to deny its existence in r e f e r ence to the o t h e r s . The extent of these a r c h e s i n c r e a s e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y in p r o portion to the height of the sun. At the s a m e t i m e their c o l o r s faded away, the spectra b e c a m e p a l e r and p a l e r and m o r e vague, and at last the phenomenon entirely disappeared. When this display began, the shape of the a r c s was oval; and, toward the l a s t , it was perfectly c i r c u l a r , (pp. 1 7 8 - 1 7 9 )

G2-5

GEB-007
GEB-007

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC.
A E R I A L SPECTRES

A n o n y m o u s ; N a t u r e , 8 : 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 , July 1 7 , 1 8 7 3 . In an a r t i c l e on the above subject in La N a t u r e , N o . 4, M. G. T i s s a n d i e r g i v e s the following account of what he s a w f r o m a b a l l o o n on F e b r u a r y 1 6 , l a s t . At m i d - d a y we quitted the e a r t h wrapped in a thick mantle of fog; after t r a v e r s i n g the m a s s o f the c l o u d s , w e w e r e suddenly d a z z l e d b y t o r r e n t s o f light which shot f r o m a t r o p i c a l sun, a s t r e a m of f i r e , in the m i d s t of an a z u r e sky. N e i t h e r the m e r de g l a c e nor the snowy f i e l d s of the A l p s , g i v e an i d e a of the plateau of m i s t which s t r e t c h e d under the c a r l i k e a g l a s s y c i r c l e , in which v a l l e y s of s i l v e r a p p e a r e d in the m i d s t of flakes of g o l d . Neither the s e a at sunset n o r the o c e a n w a v e s when lighted up by the o r b of day at noon, a p p r o a c h in splendour this a r r a y of c i r c u l a r c u m u l u s , but which h a v e , in addition, "the light that n e v e r w a s on s e a or land. " W h e n o u r b a l l o o n had p a s s e d about 50 m e t r e s beyond the plain of c l o u d s , its shadow w a s p r o j e c t e d with r e m a r k a b l e p r e c i s i o n , and a magnificent c i r c u l a r rainbow appeared round the shadow of the c a r . F i g . 2 g i v e s a v e r y exact idea of the p h e n o m e n o n . The shadow of the c a r f o r m e d the c e n t r e of r a i n b o w - c o l o u r e d c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s , i n which w e r e distinctly s e e n the s e v e n c o l o u r s o f the s p e c t r u m , v i o l e t , indigo, blue, g r e e n , y e l l o w , o r a n g e , and r e d . The violet w a s i n s i d e , and the r e d on the outside, t h e s e two c o l o u r s being at the s a m e t i m e t h o s e which w e r e s e e n with the g r e a t e s t d i s t i n c t n e s s . W e w e r e , a t the t i m e the o b s e r vation w a s m a d e , at a height of 1 , 3 5 0 m e t r e s above the l e v e l of the s e a . The b a l l o o n , the g a s in which expanded under the heat of the sun, continued to r i s e r a p i d l y in the a i r , its shadow v i s i b l y d i m i n i s h i n g ; soon, at a height of 1, 700 m e t r e s , the r a i n b o w - c i r c l e enveloped it e n t i r e l y , and d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m around the c a r . A l i t t l e l a t e r , at about l* 3 5 , we approached the bed of clouds and the shadow was g i r t this t i m e by t h r e e s i l v e r - c o l o u r e d a u r i o l e s , elliptical and c o n c e n t r i c , as shown in F i g . 1.
1 m

Shadow of a balloon surrounded by three aureoles from GEB-007.

G2-6

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC.

GEB-008

Nothing can g i v e an idea of the purity of t h e s e s h a d o w s , which a r e cut out in an opaline m i s t , or of the d e l i c a c y of tone of the r a i n b o w which s u r r o u n d s t h e m . The c o m p l e t e s i l e n c e which r e i g n s in the a e r i a l r e g i o n s , w h e r e this play of light i s s e e n , the absolute c a l m which e x i s t s t h e r e , above c l o u d s t r a n s f o r m e d b y the sun into flakes of light, adds to the beauty of the s p e c t a c l e , and f i l l s the soul with i n e x p r e s s i b l e a d m i r a t i o n . We do not yet know e x a c t l y to what c a u s e to attribute the production of a l u m i n o u s c o n t o u r around the shadow p r o j e c t e d upon v a p o u r s or m i s t s . S o m e o b s e r v e r s h a v e thought that t h e s e phenomena a r e due to the diffraction of light, but it is p o s s i b l e that they have a c o m m o n o r i g i n with the rainbow. What t e n d s to c o n f i r m this opinion is the n e c e s s i t y for the p r e s e n c e of the vapour of w a t e r as a n e c e s s a r y condition of the phenomenon: if it is the r e s u l t of d i f f r a c t i o n , it ought to a p p e a r as well upon a white w a l l , or any kind of s c r e e n , as upon a cloud. I t i s p o s s i b l e , m o r e o v e r , t o study t h e s e c u r i o u s phenomena b y m e a n s of e x p e r i m e n t s upon the earth; by suitably a r r a n g i n g s c r e e n s of silk or m u s l i n saturated with w a t e r , which r e s e m b l e a c l o u d , we m a y expect to be able to p r o duce the p h e n o m e n o n . M. L e t e r n e points out another e x c e l l e n t method of s t u d y ing it. On a s p r i n g m o r n i n g , when the sun, about 15 or 20 d e g r e e s above the h o r i z o n , h a s w a r m e d the a t m o s p h e r e a l i t t l e , and h a s produced a light c o n d e n sation of v a p o u r upon the g r a s s y b o r d e r s of the r o a d s , one m a y s e e h i s silhouette p r o j e c t e d upon the h u m i d v e r d u r e , s u r r o u n d e d by a l u m i n o u s c o n t o u r , in which i s s e e n the c o l o u r s o f the s p e c t r u m , the r e d , h o w e v e r , being s t r o n g e s t .

GEB-008

LUMINOUS HALOS SURROUNDING THE SHADOWS OF HEADS

E v e r s h e d , J . , and F e r m o r , L . L . ; "Nature, 9 0 : 5 9 2 - 5 9 3 , January 3 0 , 1 9 1 3 . The phenomenon r e f e r r e d to in a note in N a t u r e of D e c e m b e r 12 (p. 4 1 9 ) [ G E B - 0 1 2 ] , a s o b s e r v e d i n r i c e - f i e l d s o f Japan, c a n a l s o b e s e e n o n g r a s s when the sun is l o w in the sky. T h e p r e s e n c e of d e w , I b e l i e v e , i n c r e a s e s the i n t e n sity o f the h a l o , but i t i s p e r f e c t l y d i s t i n c t a l s o o n d r y g r a s s . If the g r a s s s u r f a c e is n e a r to the o b s e r v e r , a faint h a l o is s e e n to surround the shadow of h i s head, and t h i s is m o r e e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d if he is m o v i n g than if standing s t i l l ; my attention w a s indeed f i r s t attracted to the phenomenon when bicycling. In this mountain r e g i o n I h a v e frequently s e e n the halo p r o j e c t e d on a g r a s s y s l o p e a m i l e or m o r e distant, and under t h e s e conditions it a p p e a r s as a c i r c u l a r or elliptical patch of light without the c e n t r a l shadow, the diminution of intensity due to the p e n u m b r a l shadow of o n e ' s head being, of c o u r s e , quite i n a p p r e c i a b l e at such d i s t a n c e s . It is difficult to d e t e r m i n e the s i z e or shape of this patch, owing to i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in the b r i g h t n e s s of the b a c k g r o u n d ; but I have been able to c o m p a r e it with the n e a r l y full m o o n r i s i n g i m m e d i a t e l y above it, and should judge it to be at l e a s t 2 in d i a m e t e r , and p r o b a b l y e l l i p t i cal in shape with the long a x i s v e r t i c a l . The light a p p e a r s to e m a n a t e f r o m the g r a s s itself, which apparently r e f l e c t s m o r e light in the d i r e c t i o n of i n c i d e n c e than in other d i r e c t i o n s ; it is c e r t a i n l y not due to dust or h a z e in the i n t e r m e d i ate c o l u m n of a i r . I am unable to say w h e t h e r a s m o o t h r o c k s u r f a c e would give the s a m e a p p e a r a n c e , but a d e n s e white cloud c e r t a i n l y d o e s s o , with the addition of a faintly c o l o u r e d ring surrounding the white patch. This I p r e s u m e is allied to the " B r o c k e n s p e c t r e , " s e e n when the illuminated cloud or fog is near to the o b s e r v e r .

G2-7

GEB-008

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC.

The analogy of this elliptical bright patch opposite the sun with the G e g e n schein is so striking that one cannot help believing both to be due to the s a m e cause, and that m a t t e r outside the earth's orbit and beyond the l i m i t s of the earth's shadow r e f l e c t s m o r e sunlight in the direction of incidence than in other d i r e c t i o n s . That the Gegenschein usually c o v e r s a much l a r g e r angular area than the 2° patch seen on these hills m a y be accounted for by the much m o r e favourable conditions in which it is seen, with a dark and uniform s k y background. (J. E v e r s h e d . ) Exactly a month ago to-day, in the Betul d i s t r i c t , Central P r o v i n c e s , I had set out on field work at dawn, with my cotteague, M r . H. W a l k e r , and two chaprasis (Indian s e r v a n t s ) . I happened to be watching our shadows as we passed along the edge of a field of young green wheat, when, to my s u r p r i s e , I noticed a halo of light round the shadow of my own head and neck. Looking at the other shadows, I was still m o r e s u r p r i s e d to s e e that only my shadow was invested with this halo. I directed the attention of M r . W a l k e r and the chaprasis to the phenomenon, and found that each could s e e a halo round his own head only. W h i l s t we w e r e investigating the m a t t e r our c a m p p a s s e d on the m a r c h , and inquiries made both from our servants and from local people showed that none of them had previously noticed the phenomenon. The conditions w e r e obviously special, although frequently obtainable to one who deliberately set out with the purpose of finding them. The sun was at a l o w altitude on our left, and the wheat was soaking wet with dew on our right. The dew speedily d r i e s up in the morning sun, and although I have kept on the l o o k out for this phenomenon during the past month I have never happened to p a s s a wheat-field again with the conditions of t i m e , situation, and wetness repeated. I had, therefore, intended writing to Nature to inquire whether the o c c u r rence of t h e s e halos had been previously r e c o r d e d , and consequently was g r e a t ly interested to read the note on p. 4 1 9 of y o u r journal ( D e c e m b e r 1 2 , 1912) concerning Inada no goko, or halo in the ricefield. I have not seen the Japanese journal r e f e r r e d to, and consequently am not aware if P r o f s . Fuchino and Izu direct attention to the fact noted above, that each o b s e r v e r s e e s the halo round his own head only. T h i s fact indicates that the o b s e r v e r p e r c e i v e s those e l e ments of a n a r r o w cylinder of the sun's r a y s enclosing his head that happen to be reflected back to his e y e s by the dewdrops and wheat blades; the m a j o r portion of the cylinder of light is reflected back along the cylinder, and consequently a given o b s e r v e r is not in the line of vision for the halo round another o b s e r v e r ' s head. The explanation advanced by the Japanese o b s e r v e r s that the halo "is caused by the reflected light f r o m the s u n - i m a g e s formed on the green blades by the p a s s a g e of the sun's r a y s obliquely through the dewdrops" is doubtless c o r r e c t . I p r e s u m e that their investigations show that the farther a drop is f r o m the edge of the shadow of the head the s m a l l e r is the proportion of the light r e flected f r o m the s u n - i m a g e s that can reach the o b s e r v e r ' s eye; for the boundary of the halo is not sharp, the brightness diminishing somewhat gradually with distance f r o m the shadow. Assigning to the head in the shadow the actual d i a m eter of the head, I estimated the noticeably bright part of the halo as roughly 10 in. wide all round the head, dying out on the shoulders. A c l o s e inspection of the g r e e n blades showed that at or near the tip of each blade was one pearl of dew, whilst the whole of the r e m a i n d e r of the blade was coated with a film of minute dewdrops. It is the minute drops that give r i s e to the m a j o r portion of the effect. The fact that each o b s e r v e r s e e s only his own halo obviously precludes this phenomenon f r o m having been the origin of the halos recorded in s a c r e d w r i t ings round the head of Christ and others. ( L . L. F e r m o r . )

G2-8

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC. GEB-009
GEB-009 LUMINOUS HALOS SURROUNDING THE SHADOWS OF HEADS

Fisher, O . , et al; Nature, 9 0 : 6 2 1 - 6 2 2 , February 6, 1 9 1 3 . I r e m e m b e r when I w a s a b o y , m o r e than eighty y e a r s ago, that I u s e d to notice t h i s l u m i n o u s halo surrounding the shadow of my head on the w a t e r when I w a s fishing f r o m a b r i d g e in the m e a d o w s b e l o w S a l i s b u r y . I think it w a s in s o m e w a y c o n n e c t e d with the ripple on the w a t e r , which w a s so c l e a r that I c o u l d s e e the f i s h . I mention this b e c a u s e s i m i l a r conditions c o u l d b e e a s i l y m e t with. ( O . F i s h e r . ) T h i s p h e n o m e n o n m a y s o m e t i m e s b e s e e n i n t h i s country when o n e ' s s h a d o w falls on g r a s s . I t i s not n e c e s s a r y that the g r a s s should b e wet, i f the l e a v e s h a v e a shining c u t i c l e ; but the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of the b l a d e s (which g r o w u s u a l l y m o r e o r l e s s p a r a l l e l t o one another) i n r e l a t i o n t o the position o f the sun a t the t i m e m u s t be s u c h that its r a y s s t r i k e t h e i r s u r f a c e at an angle approaching a right a n g l e . U n d e r t h e s e conditions the b l a d e s o f g r a s s f r o m which m o s t light r e a c h e s the o b s e r v e r ' s e y e a r e t h o s e upon which the s u n ' s r a y s f a l l , and a r e r e f l e c t e d t o h i m , m o s t n e a r l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y , and the r a y s which d o s o a r e t h o s e which p a s s c l o s e s t to his head without b e i n g intercepted by it. Hence t h e r e a p p e a r s to h i m a r i n g of b r i g h t e r i l l u m i n a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y surrounding the s h a d o w of h i s head, the effect b e i n g heightened by c o n t r a s t . Farther from the s h a d o w , a s the angle o f incidence b e c o m e s m o r e oblique, the l u m i n o u s r i n g b e c o m e s g r a d u a l l y m e r g e d into the g e n e r a l illumination. The r e a s o n why the bright r i n g is not s e e n round the l o w e r p a r t s of the body or around the h e a d s of other p e r s o n s is that t h e s e a r e not so n e a r l y in the d i r e c t line of i n c i d e n c e . T h e p h e n o m e n o n "A Shadow and H a l o " is d e s c r i b e d in N a t u r e in 1 8 8 8 by s e v e r a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t s (vol. x x x v i i i . , p p . 5 4 0 , 5 8 9 , 6 1 9 ) , and its p r o d u c t i o n by r e f l e c t i o n f r o m dewy g r a s s is explained on the l i n e s I h a v e m e n t i o n e d . An a n a l o g o u s phenomenon is the s t r i p e d a p p e a r a n c e of a lawn or g r a s s field which h a s b e e n r o l l e d by a r o l l e r p a s s i n g a l t e r n a t e l y in c o n t r a r y d i r e c t i o n s . W h e r e the r o l l e r h a s t r a v e l l e d in a d i r e c t i o n f r o m the position of the o b s e r v e r the b l a d e s o f g r a s s a r e bent away f r o m h i m , and h e s e e s light f r o m the s k y r e flected f r o m the s m o o t h c u t i c l e o n t h e i r upper s u r f a c e . W h e r e the r o l l e r h a s t r a v e l l e d in a d i r e c t i o n t o w a r d s the o b s e r v e r the b l a d e s of g r a s s a r e bent o v e r t o w a r d s h i m , s o that h e s e e s m o r e o f t h e i r under s u r f a c e , which, b e s i d e s being p a r t i a l l y s h a d e d , h a s not so highly r e f l e c t i n g a c u t i c l e as the upper s u r f a c e , h e n c e t h e s e s t r i p s appear, in c o m p a r i s o n with the f i r s t , d a r k e r and of a d e e p e r green. (H. F r a n k l i n P a r s o n s . ) W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the l e t t e r s b y M e s s r s . E v e r s h e d and F e r m o r i n N a t u r e o f January 30 [ G E B - 0 0 8 ] , it m a y be of i n t e r e s t that an a m u s i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the a p p e a r a n c e of h a l o s around shadows is g i v e n by Benvenuto C e l l i n i in h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y (book i . , c h a p , c x x v i i i . ) . After being released from a w e l l - d e s e r v e d t e r m of i m p r i s o n m e n t , he noticed a h a l o round the shadow of h i s head, and i n t e r p r e t e d it as a m a r k of the e s p e c i a l favour of h e a v e n . A rough t r a n s l a t i o n of the p a s s a g e is as follows: " A l s o I m u s t not l e a v e unmentioned a thing, the g r e a t e s t that h a s happened to any m a n , which I t e l l to the g l o r y of God and of H i s m y s t e r i e s , who c o n d e s c e n d e d to m a k e me worthy of it. F r o m that t i m e . . . t h e r e r e m a i n e d a splendour (wondrous thing!) on my head, which is evident to all s o r t s of m e n to whom I have shown it (who h a v e been v e r y few). T h i s is s e e n o v e r m y shadow i n the m o r n i n g f r o m s u n r i s e until two h o u r s l a t e r , and i s s e e n m u c h b e t t e r when the g r a s s h a s dew upon it; it is v i s i b l e again at s u n s e t . I b e c a m e a w a r e of it in F r a n c e at P a r i s , b e c a u s e the a i r t h e r e is so m u c h m o r e f r e e f r o m m i s t that one s e e s i t m o r e m a r k e d l y than i n Italy, w h e r e m i s t s a r e m o r e frequent."

G2-9

GEB-010

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC.

Doubtless the "pochissimi" to whom he showed it knew him too well to c o n f e s s that they saw the halo around the shadows of their own heads, not h i s . I have often noticed the appearance, e s p e c i a l l y on short turf, such as that of golf links, when the g r a s s is wet with dew, but it m a y s o m e t i m e s be seen o n dry g r a s s . ( L . D o n c a s t e r . )

GEB-010

[BROCKEN SPECTRE PHOTOGRAPHED]

Anonymous; Nature, 8 5 : 4 1 7 , January 2 6 , 1 9 1 1 . La Nature for D e c e m b e r 17, 1 9 1 0 , contains a photograph of the "Spectre of the Brocken, " taken s o m e t i m e ago by M. Th. Moureaux on the t e r r a c e of the observatory of the Pic du M i d i . It shows in the centre of the corona the shadow of the operator holding up the photographic apparatus. On the summit of the peak and to the westward patches of cumulus cloud w e r e scattered o v e r the sky, and at t i m e s the sun shone out brightly on the rising m i s t s . The author of the note (M. J. L o i s e l ) states that, so far as he knows, this is the first t i m e that the spectre has been photographed. He r e f e r s to M. L a n c a s t e r ' s experience at U c c l e at the t i m e of a thick fog in July, 1 8 9 2 , during which he saw h i s shadow projected by a l a m p burning in a r o o m on the second floor, and all his m o v e ments reproduced. M. L o i s e l r e m a r k s that it would be interesting to o b s e r v e whether the phenomenon would be repeated in any thick fog, or only under special conditions.

GEB-011

[HALO IN THE RICEFIELD]

Anonymous; Nature, 9 0 : 4 1 9 , D e c e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 1 2 . The curious phenomenon known in Japan as Inada no goko, or halo in the ricefield, f o r m s the subject of a discussion by P r o f s . Fuchino and Izu, of the College of Agriculture and F o r e s t r y , Kogoshima, in the Journal of the M e t e o r o logical Society of Japan (October, 1 9 1 2 ) . In the early morning, when the dew is on the plants, and the sun is shining, the shadow of the head of a p e r s o n standing in the fields is surrounded by a luminous halo, elliptic in f o r m , its long axis corresponding with that of the body-shadow. As the sun r i s e s higher in the sky and the dew evaporates the halo vanishes, but reappears on sprinkling the ground with water. The authors d e s c r i b e s o m e experiments which they c a r r i e d out with blankets, isolated drops of water, and bottles. They conclude f r o m their experiments that the phenomenon of the halo is caused by the reflected light from the s u n - i m a g e s formed on the g r e e n blades by the p a s s a g e of the sun's r a y s obliquely through the dewdrops.

G2-10

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC.
GEB-012 D I S A P P E A R A N C E OF BISHOP'S R I N G IN C O L O R A D O 1887.

GEB-013

Stone, G . H . ; N a t u r e , 3 5 : 5 8 1 , A p r i l 2 1 ,

The r e d d i s h r i n g about the sun f i r s t d i s t i n c t l y appeared h e r e (at the b a s e o f P i k e ' s Peak) o n N o v e m b e r 2 2 , 1 8 8 3 . F o r s e v e r a l d a y s b e f o r e that d a t e , a faint d i s c o l o r a t i o n of the r e g i o n about the sun had attracted my attention. This gradually g r e w m o r e intense, and, o n the day mentioned, b e c a m e u n m i s t a k a ble. The subsequent h i s t o r y of B i s h o p ' s ring as s e e n at this p l a c e i s , in b r i e f , as follows:The c o l o u r w a s m o s t intense during the winter o f 1 8 8 3 - 8 4 , and d i m i n i s h e d in b r i g h t n e s s f r o m that t i m e until its d i s a p p e a r a n c e . At first it w a s v i s i b l e a l m o s t all the t i m e . L a t e r , it appeared only at the t i m e of c o l d s t o r m s , which w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d by g r e a t v e r t i c a l m o v e m e n t of the a i r , or when, f o r any r e a s o n , the c l o u d s r e a c h e d to a g r e a t height. It w a s , on the a v e r a g e , b r i g h t e r during the w i n t e r s than in the s u m m e r s ; a l s o , it w a s b r i g h t e r when the sun w a s n e a r the h o r i z o n . Many t i m e s in c o l d w e a t h e r t h e r e h a s b e e n not a t r a c e of the r i n g , although the air w a s so c l e a r that peaks a hundred m i l e s distant w e r e distinctly v i s i b l e f r o m the heights behind this c i t y . At other t i m e s the r i n g h a s been v e r y bright when the a i r w a s so hazy that the m o u n tains only ten m i l e s away w e r e hardly v i s i b l e . During the l a t e r months of 1 8 8 5 it w a s i n v i s i b l e m o s t of the t i m e , but suddenly f l a m e d out in wonderful intensity at the t i m e of the g r e a t norther of January 9 - 1 1 , 1 8 8 6 . Then f o r about two m o n t h s it frequently appeared in the m o r n i n g , or t o w a r d s evening. During the w a r m months of 1 8 8 6 it was not s e e n . On O c t o b e r 15 it a p p e a r e d distinctly. About a w e e k l a t e r it appeared v e r y faintly a few t i m e s , and s i n c e then I h a v e not b e e n able to s e e a t r a c e of it. My o b s e r v a t i o n s have b e e n m a d e at e l e v a t i o n s of f r o m 6 0 0 0 to about 1 3 , 0 0 0 feet, and t h e r e was but little a p p a r ent d i f f e r e n c e in intensity at the different e l e v a t i o n s . It is well known that the a t m o s p h e r e h e r e i s , i n g e n e r a l , v e r y d r y and t r a n s p a r e n t . T h e d i f f r a c t i o n - r i n g w a s often m o r e c o p p e r y , a l m o s t r o s y , in tint at the t i m e of the n o r t h e r s , and in the thickening h a z e in the upper a i r p r e p a r a t o r y to h a i l s t o r m s . T h e g r e a t intensity of the c o l o u r at such t i m e s , and its p e c u l i a r tint, and that, t o o , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the amount of h a z e in the l o w e r a t m o s p h e r e , m a k e s it p r o b a b l e that the r i n g w a s in part due to diffraction on ice-particles. I f s o , the i c e - p a r t i c l e s m a y t h e m s e l v e s have b e e n due t o p r e c i p i t a t i o n on d u s t - p a r t i c l e s . The fact that no d i f f r a c t i o n - r i n g h a s b e e n s e e n around the sun during the p a s t winter is not c o n c l u s i v e , f o r we have had no g r e a t n o r t h e r s , the s e a s o n being unusually m i l d . But the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of B i s h o p ' s ring f o r so long a t i m e m a k e s it c e r t a i n that, even if t h e r e c a n be a c i r c u m s o l a r g l o w due to diffraction on i c e - p a r t i c l e s , yet the p r o p e r c o n d i tions f o r such a r i n g a r e r e a l i s e d only r a r e l y , except when t h e r e is a g r e a t amount of v o l c a n i c dust in the a i r . T h e B i s h o p ' s Ring phenomenon, s e e n e l s e w h e r e i n the w o r l d , w a s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i buted to the d e b r i s i n j e c t e d into the a t m o s p h e r e during the eruption of K r a k a t o a .

GEB-013

VOLCANIC DUST PHENOMENA

Backhouse, T . W . ; Nature, 6 7 : 1 7 4 , D e c e m b e r 2 5 , 1 9 0 2 . The p h e n o m e n a connected with the v o l c a n i c dust a r e undergoing distinct

G2-11

GEB-014

BROCKEN SPECTRES, GLORIES, ETC

c h a n g e s . In c o m m o n with o b s e r v e r s in the south of England, I noted the f r e s h a p p e a r a n c e of the dust p h e n o m e n a in the end of June, e s p e c i a l l y on June 2 6 , but they w e r e not v e r y striking until A u g u s t 1. At f i r s t the m o s t d e c i d e d l y v o l canic f e a t u r e w a s the g r e a t c o r o n a round the sun, known in the c a s e of the K r a k a t o a e f f e c t s a s " B i s h o p ' s R i n g . " W h e t h e r this n a m e should b e applied t o the c o r o n a t h i s y e a r is doubtful, as i t s r a d i u s h a s b e e n fully d o u b l e that of the K r a k a t o a c o r o n a , having until r e c e n t l y a v e r a g e d about 7 0 ° , m e a s u r e d f r o m the sun to the m i d d l e of the r e d d e s t p a r t . Y e s t e r d a y and this m o r n i n g , h o w e v e r , it a v e r a g e d only about 40 , and its r e d d e s t part w a s a y e l l o w i s h - b r o w n r a t h e r than a r e d . The c o l o u r o f the c o r o n a this y e a r h a s a l w a y s b e e n m u c h l e s s d e c i d e d l y pink than w a s the c a s e with B i s h o p ' s ring; indeed, it h a s s o m e t i m e s b e e n an a b s e n c e of b l u e n e s s in that part of the s k y r a t h e r than any p o s i t i v e redness. T h e pink g l o w s after sunset w e r e v e r y s t r o n g in the end of June, but s t r o n g er still in N o v e m b e r , and on N o v e m b e r 1, 17 and 18 t h e r e w a s a l s o a faint second g l o w , a p h e n o m e n o n I had not p r e v i o u s l y s e e n s i n c e the K r a k a t o a s u n sets.

GEB-014

THE GREEN TINTS OF SUNSET 75:342, February 7, 1907.

Offord, Joseph; N a t u r e ,

The f i r s t p o r t i o n o f O f f o r d ' s l e t t e r contains s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g Egyptian h i s t o r y r e l a tive to the " g r e e n flash. " The a p p e a r a n c e of a g r e e n light at s u n s e t , l i k e m a n y other phenomena s u p p o s e d to h a v e only r e c e n t l y attracted attention, w a s noticed and c o m m e n t e d upon by the ancient E g y p t i a n s , and m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y so b e c a u s e in the c l e a r a i r of Egypt the tints of s u n s e t a r e p e c u l i a r l y d i s t i n c t . A s the sun t h e r e d e s c e n d s n e a r e r and n e a r e r t o the h o r i z o n , a p p a r e n t l y hastening to d i s a p p e a r behind one of the L i b y a n h i l l s , as if burying i t s e l f in the sand a t t h e i r b a s e , the i m m e n s e l y e n l a r g e d f l a m i n g d i s c suddenly b e c o m e s , for an instant, of a b r i l l i a n t g r e e n c o l o u r , and i m m e d i a t e l y a s e r i e s of g r e e n r a y s s u f f u s e s the sky in m a n y d i r e c t i o n s , w e l l - n i g h to the zenith. The s a m e phenomenon a p p e a r s s o m e t i m e s at s u n r i s e , but to a s m a l l e r extent. A c c o r d i n g to ancient Egyptian notions of c o s m o g o n y , the sun, after p a s s i n g through the w e s t e r n gate into the w o r l d of night, t r a v e l l e d northward p a r a l l e l to the N i l e until the s i x t h h o u r , when it c o m m e n c e d to j o u r n e y southward, having p a s s e d to the e a s t e r n side of Egypt, and, finally, at s u n r i s e c a m e forth by the "Gate of the E a s t . " Now, during the nocturnal v o y a g e , the s o l a r o r b w a s said to be a d i s c of Mafkait, which was the title of a g r e e n - c o l o u r e d m i n e r a l , and so the sun w a s c o n s i d e r e d f r o m sunset t o s u n r i s e t o b e c o l o u r e d g r e e n . S o m e t i m e s , just as the l a s t part of the s u n ' s d i s c v a n i s h e s , its c o l o u r c h a n g e s f r o m g r e e n to b l u e , and so a l s o after it h a s d i s a p p e a r e d the s k y n e a r the h o r i z o n is often g r e e n , whilst t o w a r d the zenith it is b l u e . T h i s w a s alluded to in ancient Egyptian w r i t i n g s , w h e r e s o m e t i m e s it is said that at s u n r i s e or sunset the s u n ' s r a y s w e r e of T a h e n , a b l u e m e t a l , the title of which is often u s e d in r e f e r e n c e to the blue of the sky.

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GEM-001 THE FATA M O R G A N A OF THE STRAITS OF MESSINA

GEM-001

B . , G . H . ; Nature 6 7 : 3 9 3 - 3 9 4 , February 2 6 , 1 9 0 3 . Here is a nice little review of Fata Morgana o b s e r v a t i o n s . The standard " m i r a g e explanation" probably suffices h e r e , but the white m i s t is perplexing. Just as the Brocken is noted for its " s p e c t r e , " so the Straits of M e s s i n a have long been known as presenting, under certain exceptional atmospheric c o n ditions, a fine display of the appearances known as Fata Morgana. On his appointment in 1 8 9 9 to the chair of physics at the Technical C o l l e g e of R e g g i o , D r . Vittorio E. B o c c a r a undertook a historical and critical study of the p h e nomena, and the r e s u l t s of his investigation a r e published in the M e m o r i e of the Italian Spectroscopists' Society, x x x i . , 1 0 . A m o n g the ancients, the name of A r i s t o t l e is mentioned, but his r e f e r e n c e s to the Fata M o r g a n a are doubtful. Cornelius Agrippa spoke of reflections in the a i r of mountains, animals and other o b j e c t s ; H o m e r , Apollonius Polycletus, D a m a s c i u s , and Pliny also alluded to apparitions in the a i r , but their d e s c r i p tions a r e not p r e c i s e . Allusions to the Fata Morgana a r e also contained in the historical writings of T o m m a s o F a z z e l l o (1550), Giuseppe Carnevale (1591) and M a r c Antonio Politi ( 1 6 1 7 ) , but the first attempt at a description of the phenomena was given by Father Angelucci in a letter published in 1 6 7 1 by Athanas K i r c h e r , in which he described the appearances seen on the morning of A s s u m p t i o n Day (August 15), 1 6 3 4 . T h e s e effects Kircher attributed to r e flection by c r y s t a l s in the air, and stated that he had been able to reproduce them artificially before a l a r g e audience.
1

In 1 7 7 3 , Father Antonio Minasi published a "dissertation on the phenomenon c o m m o n l y c a l l e d Fata Morgana, " in which he distinguished three different f o r m s , namely, m a r i n e morgana, aerial morgana and iridescent morgana. Minasi illustrated his descriptions by a r e m a r k a b l y good drawing showing the three p h a s e s . In a t r e a t i s e published at Naples in 1 8 2 4 , Captain Pietro Ribaud described the m a r i n e m o r g a n a of July, 1 8 0 9 , and gave a detailed account of the m e t e o r ological conditions n e c e s s a r y for its formation. In addition to c a l m , hot weather, we notice that Ribaud considered it n e c e s s a r y that the vapours e x haled under the heat of the sun from the heterogeneous substances, antimonious, vitreous, oleaginous, saline and other, contained in quantity in the s h o r e s and earths of C a l a b r i a and Sicily should not be c a r r i e d away by the wind. A l s o the m o s t favourable t i m e for the morgana is about the turn of the tide. The first to explain the morgana by refraction, was Prof. Salvatore A r c o v i t o (1838), who, however, considered the phenomenon s i m i l a r to parhelia. C a c o pardi never saw the morgana himself, but followed the views of Minasi and K i r c h e r . Regaldi saw the phenomenon on July 2 0 , 1 8 4 8 , and d e s c r i b e s how parts of the c o a s t suddenly appeared, standing, so to speak, in the middle of the channel. Coming to recent t i m e s , we have a description in the Z a g a r a for 1871 by an anonymous w r i t e r . A white streak of m i s t passing a c r o s s the Sicilian c o a s t melted like a transparent veil, revealing a r c h e s , t o w e r s and colonnades floating on the sea, h o u s e s , and woods of many c o l o u r s . Not l e s s explicit is Prof. Filippo C a p r i , who d e s c r i b e d in the Z a g a r a the Fata M o r g a n a of June 2 0 , 1 8 7 4 , which o c c u r r e d between 8 and 9 a . m . The weather was so hot as to ruin the crop of b e r g a m o t fruit, and the phenomenon, as on other o c c a s i o n s , was preceded by a white m i s t . Buildings w e r e seen to b e c o m e elongated, while the s h o r e s , with their villas and t r e e s , b e c a m e d e -

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tached l i k e i s l a n d s and then d i s a p p e a r e d . In a n s w e r to the invitation for an explanation. D r . D i e g o C o r s a r e p e a t e d M i n a s i ' s e r r o n e o u s opinions, but this point of v i e w w a s attacked by Prof. C a n a l e , w h o , h o w e v e r , did not v e n t u r e to f o r m u l a t e a t h e o r y of h i s own, having only s e e n the phenomenon o n c e . Prof. B o c c a r a s p e a k s f r o m p e r s o n a l knowledge o f t h r e e d i s p l a y s o f the F a t a M o r g a n a under its t h r e e different f o r m s n a m e l y , a n a e r i a l m o r g a n a o n June 2 7 , 1 9 0 0 , w i t n e s s e d b y h i m s e l f , Captain V i n c e n z o P o n z i , o f C h i a g g i a , and Prof. E n r i c o P u c c i n i ; a m a r i n e m o r g a n a o n July 2 , 1 9 0 1 , a l s o s e e n b y Prof. P u c c i n i ; and a m u l t i p l e m o r g a n a on M a r c h 2 6 , 1 9 0 2 . The f i r s t is well shown by the author's s k e t c h in F i g . 1, Fig. 2 giving an i d e a of the white m i s t s e e n just b e f o r e the o c c u r r e n c e of the phenomenon, and which d i s a p p e a r e d when the o c c u r r e n c e took p l a c e . In it, the h o u s e s on the Italian c o a s t at G a l l i c o and the point of Catona a r e s e e n to be c o n s i d e r a b l y elongated in a v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n , and, so t o speak, p r o j e c t e d o n the Sicilian c o a s t b e y o n d , the s t r a i t s a p p e a r i n g t o b e c o n v e r t e d into a gulf. In the m a r i n e m o r g a n a of 1 9 0 1 , a cloud again f o r m e d just p r e v i o u s l y , and the a p p e a r a n c e was p r e s e n t e d of a r c h e s standing b e l o w the s e a line in an upright position, t h e i r b a s e s having no v i s i b l e foundation. These a r c h e s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o s o m e r a i l w a y a r c h e s above the c e m e t e r y o f M e s s i n a , but w e r e m o r e b r i l l i a n t and l a r g e r than the r e a l a r c h e s . Of the t h i r d , or m u l t i ple m o r g a n a , Prof. B o c c a r a h a s given a n i l l u s t r a t i o n i n F i g . 3 , which, h o w e v e r , r e p r e s e n t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y v a r i o u s p h a s e s of the p h e n o m e n a which w e r e in r e a l i t y s e e n in s u c c e s s i o n . T h u s the t h r e e h o u s e s at the left w e r e not all v i s i b l e at the s a m e instant; when one a p p e a r e d , the other d i s a p p e a r e d . The white band with v e r t i c a l d a r k s t r i p e s w a s attributed to the wall of the c i t a d e l at M e s s i n a , and it appeared to blot out the h o u s e s of the town. Prof. B o c c a r a a t t r i b u t e s all t h e s e phenomena t o v a r i a t i o n s i n a t m o s p h e r i c density, which p r o d u c e r e f r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . It m a y be s u g g e s t e d to the m a t h e matician that c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of l e a s t t i m e f o r the path of a light r a y affords an e a s i e r way of thinking of the conditions n e c e s s a r y f o r the p h e nomenon than is given by the s i n e l a w of r e f r a c t i o n . The t e r m Fata M o r g a n a is u s e d by the author e x c l u s i v e l y in connection with apparitions in which the images are erect. W h e n i n v e r s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , s o that the phenomena a r e due to reflection, the effect is a m i r a g e , a phenomenon a l s o s e e n not unfrequently on the Sicilian c o a s t . The neighbourhood of R e g g i o is p e c u l i a r l y adapted to the display of the F a t a M o r g a n a both b y its t o p o g r a p h i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s and b y the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n ditions not unfrequently e x i s t i n g t h e r e . T h e s e conditions a r e , a m o r n i n g h o u r , hot w e a t h e r , e x t r e m e c l e a r n e s s of the a i r , c o m b i n e d , h o w e v e r , with a thin veil of m i s t o v e r the Sicilian c o a s t , arid a c a l m a i r or slight wind f r o m the north, as conditions f o r the m a r i n e m o r g a n a . F o r the a e r i a l m o r g a n a , the b e s t t i m e o f day is f r o m 10 a. m. to 1 p. m . , with a s t r a t u m of light c l o u d on the c o a s t of Sicily, s e a c a l m or n e a r l y s o , a high t e m p e r a t u r e and wind as b e f o r e . A m u l t i p l e m o r g a n a i s , o f c o u r s e , o f m u c h r a r e r o c c u r r e n c e than the s i m p l e f o r m , and the one s e e n in M a r c h , 1 9 0 2 , w a s l e s s m a r k e d than one o b s e r v e d about twenty y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y by P r o f . S c e r b o and Signor A l o i , of which a sketch is r e p r o duced i n D r . B o c c a r a ' s p a p e r .

GEM-002

UPS A N D D O W N S O F T H E H O R I Z O N

F r a z e r , Calvin; P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s , 5 2 : 2 4 2 - 2 4 6 , August 1 9 2 9 . (Reprinted b y p e r m i s s i o n o f P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s ; c o p y r i g h t , the H e a r s t C o r p . )

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UNUSUAL MIRAGES

GEM-002

T h e magnification of o b j e c t s in a m i r a g e is r a t h e r c o m m o n . Apparently the a t m o s p h e r e c a n act as a l e n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the e f f e c t s , l i k e those of the B r o c k e n S p e c t r e , are very peculiar. F r a z e r gives some instances. M a n y i n t e r e s t i n g and r e m a r k a b l e c a s e s o f l o o m i n g have b e e n r e p o r t e d f r o m other p a r t s of the w o r l d . In s o m e of t h e s e , o b j e c t s not only s e e m e d to be lifted above t h e i r n o r m a l p o s i t i o n s but a l s o to be d r a w n out v e r t i c a l l y on account of unequal r e f r a c t i o n at different heights (a phenomenon s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d "towering") o r t o b e o t h e r w i s e d i s t o r t e d . P e o p l e who have s e e n St. Joe f r o m C h i c a g o all r e m a r k that the buildings in the distant city appear too l a r g e . T h o m a s J e f f e r s o n , in h i s "Notes on the State of V i r g i n i a . " t e l l s of an i n s t a n c e in which a c a n o e containing t h r e e m e n , s e e n at a g r e a t d i s t a n c e f r o m Y o r k t o w n , w a s m i s t a k e n f o r a ship with its t h r e e m a s t s . He w a s m u c h i n t e r e s t e d in the e f f e c t s of a t m o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n on distant mountains a s s e e n f r o m M o n t i c e l l o . O f t h i s , h e s a y s : " T h e r e is a s o l i t a r y mountain about forty m i l e s off in the south, w h o s e natural shape is a r e g u l a r c o n e , but. . . . it s o m e t i m e s s u b s i d e s a l m o s t totally i n the h o r i z o n ; s o m e t i m e s i t r i s e s m o r e acute and m o r e e l e v a t e d ; s o m e t i m e s it is h e m i s p h e r i c a l ; and s o m e t i m e s its s i d e s a r e p e r p e n d i c u l a r , its top flat and as b r o a d as its b a s e . In s h o r t , it a s s u m e s at t i m e s the m o s t w h i m s i c a l s h a p e s , and all t h e s e p e r h a p s s u c c e s s i v e l y in the s a m e m o r n i n g . " During the F r e n c h m i l i t a r y expedition t o A l g e r i a , i n M a y , 1 8 3 7 , M . B o n n e font, a scientific m e m b e r of the expedition, o b s e r v e d a flock of f l a m i n g o s about t h r e e and a half m i l e s away. As they s t a r t e d to fly, they a s s u m e d such e n o r m o u s d i m e n s i o n s as to g i v e the idea of A r a b h o r s e m e n defiling one after the other. So c o m p l e t e was the illusion that a spahi w a s sent to r e c o n n o i t e r . When he r e a c h e d the point where the b i r d s had b e e n o b s e r v e d , h i s h o r s e ' s l e g s w e r e s e e n t o b e c o m e s o elongated that the animal appeared t o t o w e r m a n y y a r d s above the d e s e r t . T h e sun, when c l o s e to the h o r i z o n , n o r m a l l y a s s u m e s an oval f o r m , m u c h flattened b e l o w , b e c a u s e r e f r a c t i o n is g r e a t e r on the l o w e r side of the d i s k than on the u p p e r . At t i m e s , h o w e v e r , on account of m a r k e d inequalities in a i r density, it is s e e n to be distorted into a g r e a t v a r i e t y of q u e e r s h a p e s . It m a y take the f o r m of a b o y ' s top, a s o l d i e r ' s t r e n c h h e l m e t , a m u s h r o o m , e t c . or e v e n divide into two s e p a r a t e and much flattened s u n s . The d i s k of the m o o n undergoes s i m i l a r distortions. Many d e s c r i p t i o n s and p i c t u r e s of t h e s e c u r i o u s a p p e a r a n c e s have b e e n published, including a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of photographs taken at Lick O b s e r v a t o r y , on the s u m m i t of Mount Hamilton, C a l i f o r n i a . The e x a m p l e s shown in the a c c o m p a n y i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n w e r e drawn in the A n t a r c t i c by D o c t o r A r c t o w s k i , of the "Belgica" expedition. S o m e kinds of a t m o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n a r e e s p e c i a l l y c o m m o n in the p o l a r r e g i o n s , and in two c a s e s this phenomenon a p p e a r s to have b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e for c e l e b r a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s . In the first c a s e , Lieutenant W i l k e s , of the United States e x p l o r i n g expedition, charted the c o a s t of the A n t a r c t i c continent at s e v e r a l p l a c e s w h e r e subsequent e x p l o r e r s found only w a t e r , and a c o n t r o v e r s y has r a g e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s o v e r the m e r i t s o f h i s d i s c o v e r i e s . Probably W i l k e s w a s m i s l e d by the l o o m i n g of the land and g r e a t l y m i s j u d g e d its d i s t a n c e . The s e c o n d c a s e w a s that of the mythical C r o c k e r Land, which P e a r y thought he d i s c o v e r e d in 1 9 0 6 . After it had figured on the m a p s for y e a r s , it w a s p r o v e d to be n o n - e x i s t e n t , but the C r o c k e r Land expedition, which went north to e x p l o r e it, s a w f r o m the mountains of Grant Land the s a m e g r e a t l o o m of the a r c t i c i c e that P e a r y had m i s t a k e n for land. On the other hand, Captain Scott, B o r c h g r e v i n k , and other p o l a r e x p l o r e r s , have at t i m e s found l o o m i n g a useful m e a n s of locating both land and ice fields

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lying beyond the n o r m a l r a n g e of v i s i b i l i t y . T o w a r d the c l o s e of the eighteenth century, while Napoleonic w a r s w e r e i n p r o g r e s s , a n E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r , D o c t o r V i n c e , s u g g e s t e d posting lookouts t o watch f o r the l o o m o f approaching F r e n c h w a r s h i p s . About the s a m e p e r i o d , popular i n t e r e s t was a r o u s e d i n the c l a i m s of a F r e n c h m a n named Bottineau, a r e s i d e n t of M a u r i t i u s , who w a s s a i d to be able to detect v e s s e l s at a d i s t a n c e of hundreds of m i l e s by m e a n s of p e c u l i a r a p p e a r a n c e s in the s k y . It is p r o b a b l e , h o w e v e r , that B o t t i n e a u ' s s o c a l l e d art of "nauscopy" was e i t h e r humbug or b a s e d on s e l f - d e l u s i o n , and had nothing to do with a t m o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n . T h e m a t t e r of Bottineau will be taken up in another s o u r c e b o o k s e r i e s , b e c a u s e h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s s e e m t o h a v e m o r e c l o s e l y allied t o d o w s i n g and other p r e s u m a b l y p s y c h i c phenomena.

GEM-003

FATA MORGANA 1:9:267, March 2 5 , 1854.

M a c r a y , J . ; N o t e s and Q u e r i e s ,

Not having m e t with the following account in any E n g l i s h n e w s p a p e r , of a phenomenon said to h a v e b e e n w i t n e s s e d quite r e c e n t l y in G e r m a n y , I b e g to send you a t r a n s l a t i o n f r o m the A l l g e m e i n e Zeitung ( g e n e r a l l y quoted in England by the n a m e of the A u g s b u r g h G a z e t t e ) of F e b r u a r y 1 3 , detailing, in a c o m m u n i cation f r o m W e s t p h a l i a , the p a r t i c u l a r s of a phenomenon, new, p e r h a p s to y o u r p a g e s , but by no m e a n s new to the w o r l d . "Westphalia. I f the e a s t h a s i t s Fata M o r g a n a , w e , i n W e s t p h a l i a , h a v e a l s o quite p e c u l i a r natural phenomena, which, hitherto, i t has b e e n a s i m p o s s i b l e to explain s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , as to deny. A r a r e and striking a p p e a r a n c e of this d e s c r i p t i o n f o r m s now the subject of u n i v e r s a l talk and c o m m e n t in our province. On the 22nd of l a s t month a s u r p r i s i n g p r o d i g y of nature w a s s e e n by m a n y p e r s o n s at B u d e r i c h , a v i l l a g e b e t w e e n Unna and W e r l . Shortly b e f o r e sunset, an a r m y , of b o u n d l e s s extent, and c o n s i s t i n g of infantry, c a v a l r y , and a n e n o r m o u s n u m b e r o f w a g g o n s , w a s o b s e r v e d t o p r o c e e d a c r o s s the c o u n t r y in m a r c h i n g o r d e r . So dintinctly s e e n w e r e all t h e s e a p p e a r a n c e s , that even the flashing of the f i r e l o c k s , and the c o l o u r of the c a v a l r y u n i f o r m , which w a s white, could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . T h i s whole a r r a y advanced in the d i r e c t i o n of the wood of S c h a f h a u s e r , and as the infantry e n t e r e d the thicket, and the c a v a l r y d r e w n e a r , they w e r e hid all at o n c e , with the t r e e s , in a thick s m o k e . Two h o u s e s , a l s o , i n f l a m e s , w e r e s e e n with the s a m e d i s t i n c t n e s s . A t sunset the whole phenomenon v a n i s h e d . A s r e s p e c t s the fact, g o v e r n m e n t h a s taken the e v i d e n c e of fifty e y e - w i t n e s s e s , who have d e p o s e d to a u n i v e r s a l a g r e e m e n t respecting this most remarkable appearance. Individuals a r e not wanting who a f f i r m that s i m i l a r p h e n o m e n a w e r e o b s e r v e d i n f o r m e r t i m e s i n this r e g i o n . As the fact is so w e l l attested as to p l a c e the phenomenon beyond the p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l d i s p r o o f , p e o p l e have not been s l o w in giving a meaning to it, and in r e f e r r i n g it to the g r e a t battle of the nations at B i r k e n b a u m , to which the old l e g e n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e 1 8 4 8 , again points. " N u m e r o u s t a l e s e x i s t o f a r m i e s seen i n the sky. While there is doubtless s o m e e x a g g e r a t i o n by w i t n e s s e s , t h e s e v i s i o n s , like t h o s e at F a t i m a and the sightings o f U F O s b y m a n y o b s e r v e r s , m a y have psychic c a u s e s a s w e l l a s a t m o s p h e r i c .

G2-16

UNUSUAL MIRAGES
GEM-004 ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTIONS AT THE SURFACE OF WATER

GEM-004

A n o n y m o u s ; Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w . 2 4 : 3 7 1 - 3 7 3 , O c t o b e r 1 8 9 6 . A f u r t h e r contribution to this s u b j e c t will be found in a note by M. A n d r e D e l e b e c q u e ( P a r i s C o m p t e s R e n d u s , A u g u s t , 1 8 9 6 , C X X I I I , p . 3 8 7 ) "On the e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e f r a c t i o n s o b s e r v e d on the b o r d e r s of l a k e s and known by the n a m e of fata m o r g a n a . " He s a y s : I n g e n e r a l t h i s phenomenon i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the fact that o b j e c t s situated on the opposite s h o r e of the l a k e s e e m to be d i s t o r t e d in an e x t r a o r d i n a r y way in a v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n ; the r o c k s , the w a l l s , and the h o u s e s a p p e a r to be t r a n s f o r m e d into i m m e n s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , out of which the imagination of the I t a l i a n s h a s e v o l v e d the p a l a c e s o f the F a i r y M o r g a n a . T h e fata m o r g a n a a r e e x t r e m e l y fleeting p h e n o m e n a and do not g e n e r a l l y l a s t m o r e than a few m i n u t e s . When they d i s a p p e a r the o b j e c t w h o s e v e r t i c a l d i m e n s i o n s had b e e n so m a g n i f i e d often a s s u m e s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n s . A s both M r . F o r d and m y s e l f h a v e o b s e r v e d , the fata m o r g a n a o c c u p i e s only a v e r y l i m i t e d and p e r p e t u a l l y c h a n g ing s e g m e n t of the h o r i z o n , and quite n e a r to it e n t i r e l y different r e f r a c t i o n s frequently take p l a c e . On L a k e L e m a n I h a v e only o b s e r v e d t h e m in c a l m w e a t h e r and when the t e m p e r a t u r e of the a i r is notably w a r m e r than that of the l a k e . T h e y a r e m o s t beautiful i n the m o n t h s o f M a r c h , A p r i l , and M a y . M a n y s c i e n t i s t s , a m o n g whom I m a y c i t e H u m b o l d t , W o l t m a n n and C h a r l e s Dufour, h a v e spoken of the fata m o r g a n a , but up to the p r e s e n t t i m e , as f a r as I know, no one h a s g i v e n a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation of it, f o r when the a i r is w a r m e r than the w a t e r o f the l a k e , w e s o m e t i m e s o b s e r v e the fata m o r g a n a , but m o r e often the m i r a g e known under the n a m e o f " m i r a g e o v e r c o l d w a t e r " and which h a s b e e n s o w e l l studied b y B r a v a i s ( s e e B r a v a i s , N o t i c e s u r l e M i r a g e , A n n . M e t , d e F r a n c e , p . 2 5 6 , 1 8 5 2 ) . I n this l a t t e r m i r a g e distant objects have their vertical dimensions much reduced. I t s e e m s s i n g u l a r that the s a m e t h e r m a l conditions should p r o d u c e two m i r a g e s s o d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e to each o t h e r . T h e following i s , I b e l i e v e , the c o r r e c t explanation of this apparent a n o m a l y : M a n y t i m e s when viewing the fata m o r g a n a through a powerful g l a s s I h a v e o b s e r v e d that the o b j e c t s a r e not r e a l l y i n c r e a s e d in s i z e , but that the i m p r e s s i o n is p r o d u c e d by the s u p e r p o s i t i o n of s e v e r a l i m a g e s of the s a m e o b j e c t , s o m e t i m e s upright, s o m e t i m e s upside down. I h a v e counted a s m a n y a s five of these images. A s they a r e g e n e r a l l y v e r y c l o s e t o g e t h e r and s o m e t i m e e n c r o a c h one upon the o t h e r , it is v e r y difficult to s e p a r a t e them by the naked e y e , and t h e r e f o r e the i l l u s i o n of an e n l a r g e d o b j e c t is p r o d u c e d . Sometimes one p o r t i o n alone p r o d u c e s m a n y i m a g e s . Thus, I have s o m e t i m e s seen boats with two h u l l s , while the s a i l s looked p e r f e c t l y natural; a few m i n u t e s l a t e r only one hull r e m a i n e d , but the s a i l s a p p e a r e d g i g a n t i c . It s e e m s to r e s u l t f r o m t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s that the fata m o r g a n a is nothing m o r e than a m i r a g e o f m u l t i p l e i m a g e s . M a t h e m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s c a n , h o w e v e r , explain the f a c t s o b s e r v e d . I n h i s m e m o i r o n the m i r a g e , B r a v a i s ( s e e B r a v a i s , N o t i c e s u r l e M i r a g e , A n n . M e t , d e F r a n c e , p . 2 6 4 , ) p r o v e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h r e e i m a g e s b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n the c a s e w h e r e a l a y e r o f w a r m a i r flows m o r e o r l e s s suddenly o v e r a l a y e r of c o l d air and when the subsequent c a l m n e s s of the a t m o s p h e r e a l l o w s t h e s e two l a y e r s t o r e m a i n f o r s o m e t i m e i n that p o s i t i o n . But t h e s e a r e p r e c i s e l y the conditions e x i s t i n g d u r i n g the apparition of the fata m o r g a n a , s i n c e it is n e c e s s a r y , as I said a b o v e , in o r d e r to p r o d u c e this phenomenon that the a i r b e v e r y c a l m and p e r c e p t i b l y w a r m e r than the w a t e r . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h r e e i m a g e s is a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e o c c u r r e n c e in the fata m o r g a n a . I h a v e t r i e d to

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UNUSUAL MIRAGES

explain, by analysis, the production of the five i m a g e s observed by m e , but was obliged to give it up on account of the complexity of the calculations. In the c a s e of three i m a g e s , B r a v a i s a l s o shows how only certain p a r t s of an object can p r o duce multiple i m a g e s ; this phenomenon actually o c c u r s as we have s e e n above. Finally, if we reflect that two l a y e r s of a i r of very different densities cannot remain for a long t i m e superposed one upon the other without becoming mixed, we shall understand the instability of the phenomenon and why the fata morgana and the m i r a g e on cold water can succeed each other so rapidly in the s a m e part of the lake. The existence of multiple i m a g e s infers several focussing l a y e r s in the atmosphere a rather complex m e t e o r o l o g i c a l arrangement.

GEM-005

MIRAGES, HOT A N D COLD

Angell, Roger; Holiday, 8 : 1 0 + , August 1 9 5 0 . Some interesting e x c e r p t s f r o m this popular article are quoted below. * Mountain c l i m b e r s have been so terrified by a f o r m of m i r a g e known as the "Brocken Specter" that they have l o s t their hold and been dashed to death. The Specter is named for B r o c k e n Mountain in G e r m a n y , where the frightening monster was first o b s e r v e d . Hapless Alpinists who fall victim to this type of "looming" will suddenly have the chilly feeling that they are being watched. Looking up f r o m the steep rock face they a r e ascending they will s e e , against a banked cloud, the huge, shadowy figures of s o m e giant c l i m b e r s , identically ascending an identical mountain. E v e r y motion the mountaineers make is imitated by their ghostly counterparts. The "Specter, " of c o u r s e , is nothing but the shadow of the c l i m b e r himself, reflected against clouds and enormously enlarged by atmospheric magnification. Diffraction will often surround the image with m i s t y , colored halos of light.

The great m e t r o p o l i s of mirageland is the Fata Morgana, which l i e s in the Strait of M e s s i n a , between Sicily and the tip of Italy. English C r u s a d e r s named the city for Morgan Le Fay, the wicked fairy s i s t e r of King Arthur. The Fata Morgana s o m e t i m e s appears as an ornate and lovely suboceanic city, complete with avenues, p a l a c e s , walls and t o w e r s . Some people have even sworn to s e e ing inhabitants moving on its s t r e e t s . When the air is w a r m e r , the Fata Morgana appears on the surface of the water a phenomenon which ancient m a r i n e r s interpreted as a trap of the evil fairy, to lure ships into her false harbors where they would be wrecked and their c r e w s drowned to add to the population of the underwater city. The Fata Morgana is still visible today, on hot, windless days in the Straits. Although it is perhaps the best-known m i r a g e in the world, its air of m y s t e r y r e m a i n s , since there is not complete agreement as to just what it really i s . M o s t experts believe that it is simply a m i r a g e of the nearby and very real city of M e s s i n a , but there a r e others who have c l a i m e d that the mirage is a c c o m panied by an extraordinary atmospheric magnification. This would mean that the Fata Morgana might well be nothing m o r e than a tiny stretch of s h o r e , whose pebbles, weeds and boulders w e r e blown-up and projected seaward to b e c o m e the magical city of the villainous Le Fay.

G2-18

UNUSUAL MIRAGES
GEM-006 ON THE FATA MORGANA OF IRELAND

GEM-006

M ' F a r l a n d , M r . ; R e p o r t o f the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , p a r t 2 , 2 9 - 3 0 , 1 8 5 2 . The following c u r i o u s quotations e v o k e thoughts of the l e g e n d a r y sunken c i t i e s off the B r i t i s h I s l e s and F r a n c e , such a s L y o n e s s e . T h e s e s i n g u l a r i l l u s i o n s a r e t e r m e d i n the I r i s h language Puna F e a d h r e a g h , o r F a i r y C a s t l e s . A s proof that the M o r g a n a had appeared a s a n i s l a n d , e i t h e r r e s t i n g o r floating o n the s e a p r i o r t o 1 1 8 5 , M r . M ' F a r l a n d r e a d a p a s s a g e f r o m the topographical h i s t o r y of that c o u n t r y , by G i r a l d u s C a m b r e n s i s (lib. i i . c. 1 2 ) . He then r e f e r r e d to the " M i r a n d a l o c a , q u a e vidit St. Brandanus in O c e a n o , " to which U s h e r alludes in h i s 'De H i b e r n i a ' (p. 8 1 3 ) , and quoted an unpublished H i s t o r y of I r e l a n d , c o m p o s e d about 1 6 3 6 (and now r e m a i n i n g in M S . in the L i b r a r y of the R o y a l I r i s h A c a d e m y at Dublin), that s p e a k s of an "Hand which lyeth f a r att s e a , on the w e s t of Connaught, and s o m e t i m e s is p e r c e i v e d by the inhabitants of the O w l e s and I r i s ; a l s o f r o m St. Helen Head, beyond the haven o f C a l b e g g s ( K i l l i b e g s , D o n e g a l ) . Likewise, severall s e a m e n h a v e d i s c o v e r e d it att s e a as they h a v e s a i l e d on the w e s t e r n c o a s t s of I r e l a n d . " M r . M ' F a r l a n d a l s o read f r o m the C h r o n o g r a p h i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f Connaught, written in 1 6 8 4 , by R o d e r i c k O ' F l a g h e r t y , and published by the I r i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Society, in which it is r e c o r d e d (p. 6 8 ) , that, " F r o m the I s l e s of A r r a n and the W e s t continent, often a p p e a r s v i s i b l e that enchanted i s l a n d , c a l l e d O ' B r a n i l , and i n I r i s h B e g - a r a , o r the S e s s e n A r r a n , set down in c a r d s of navigation. * * T h e r e i s , w e s t w a r d of A r r a n , in sight of the next continent, S k e r d e , a wild island of huge r o c k s ; t h e s e s o m e t i m e s appear to be a g r e a t city f a r off, full of h o u s e s , c a s t l e s , t o w e r s , and c h i m n e y s ; s o m e t i m e s full of b l a z i n g f l a m e s , s m o k e , and people running to and f r o . A n o t h e r day you would s e e nothing but a n u m b e r of s h i p s , with t h e i r s a i l e s and r i g g i n g s ; then s o m a n y g r e a t s t a k e s o r r e e k e s o f c o r n and t u r f . " M r . M ' F a r l a n d next cited the ' H i s t o r y o f the P a r i s h o f R a m o a n ( B a l l y c a s t l e , ' b y the R e v . W m . C o n o l l y ( 1 8 1 2 ) , in which it is stated, that the author had r e c e i v e d a minute d e s c r i p t i o n o f the F a t a M o r g a n a f r o m s e v e r a l p e r s o n s who s a w it, o n different s u m m e r e v e n i n g s , along the s h o r e of the Giant's C a u s e w a y ; shadows r e s e m b l i n g c a s t l e s , ruins and tall s p i r e s d a r t e d rapidly a c r o s s the s u r f a c e of the s e a , which w e r e instantly lengthened into c o n s i d e r a b l e height; they m o v e d to the e a s t e r n p a r t of the h o r i z o n , and at sunset totally d i s a p p e a r e d . T h i s w o r k m a k e s mention of an e a r l i e r one (of 1 7 4 8 ) , by a g e n t l e m a n who r e s i d e d n e a r the C a u s e w a y , and which p r e s e n t e d a long account of an enchanted i s l a n d , annually s e e n floating along the c o a s t o f A n t r i m . Reference was afterwards made to 'Plumptree's N a r r a t i v e ' (of 1 8 1 7 ) , as showing that, at Rathlin a c o n s i d e r a b l e island o p p o s i t e to B a l l y c a s t l e a b e l i e f then p r e v a i l e d , that a g r e e n island r o s e e v e r y seventh y e a r , out of the s e a , b e t w e e n it and the p r o m o n t o r y of B e n g o r e ; the inhabitants a s s e r t i n g that m a n y of t h e m had distinctly s e e n it, c r o w d e d with p e o p l e s e l l i n g y a r n , and engaged in v a r i o u s other occupations c o m m o n to a f a i r . T h e notes to the second book of D r . D r u m m o n d ' s p o e m on the ' C a u s e w a y ' w e r e a l s o g l a n c e d at, as containing an account of other c a s e s of the F a t a M o r gana, by the Bushfoot Strand and T o r - p o i n t . So, a p e r s o n still living (and w h o s e n a m e , & c . w e r e given) c o n c e i v e d that he had a sight of the floating i s l e off F a i r - H e a d ; that it s e e m e d to be w e l l - w o o d e d ; and that he could distinguish upon it the f o r m s of b u i l d i n g s , and a w o m a n laying out c l o t h e s . M r . M ' F a r l a n d then mentioned that, in June 1 8 3 3 , he h i m s e l f and a party of f r i e n d s , when standing on a r o c k at P o r t b a l i n t r e a , p e r c e i v e d a s m a l l roundish island as if in the act of e m e r g i n g f r o m the d e e p , at a d i s t a n c e of a m i l e f r o m the s h o r e ; at

G2-19

GEM-007

UNUSUAL MIRAGES

first it appeared but as a green field, afterwards it b e c a m e fringed with r e d , yellow and blue; whilst the f o r m s of t r e e s , m e n and cattle r o s e upon it slowly and s u c c e s s i v e l y ; and t h e s e continued for about a quarter of an hour, distinct in their outlines, shape and colour; the figures, too, s e e m e d to walk a c r o s s it, or wandered among the t r e e s , the ocean bathed it around, the sun shone upon it f r o m above; and all was f r e s h , fair, and beautiful, till the sward assumed a shadowy f o r m , and its various o b j e c t s , mingling into one confused whole, p a s s e d away as strangely as they c a m e . Further, Morgana had o c c a sionally a s s u m e d the s e m b l a n c e of a beautiful bridge that spanned the Sound between the Skerry r o c k s and the strand at P o r t r u s h , and having people p a s s ing and repassing o v e r it. A particular instance of this w a s stated, as well as of the appearance of the sea, at Ballintoy, of what r e s e m b l e d a city with its s t r e e t s , h o u s e s , s p i r e s , &c. Two o c c a s i o n s w e r e then specified, in which the Fata had been seen in the s k y — t h e one in the s u m m e r of 1 8 4 7 , o v e r the F e r r y at Lough F o y l e , and the other on the 14th of D e c e m b e r 1 8 5 0 , near to the Bannmouth; and in the c o u r s e of which the i m a g e s of t r o o p s , ships, &c. w e r e reflected on the clouds. Four other c a s e s of the A e r i a l Morgana w e r e adduced, as witnessed about the town and coast of W a t e r f o r d in 1 6 4 4 , and at the c l o s e of the l a s t and c o m m e n c e m e n t of the present c e n t u r i e s , and taken f r o m the 'Voyages and Observations' of M. le Gown, B r e w e r ' s "Beauties of Ireland" (vol. ii. p. 3 0 7 , n . ) , and the 13th volume of the Phil. M a g . , Old S e r i e s . M r . M ' F a r l a n d considered that these various exhibitions of the Fata Morgana might all be accounted for by applying to these parts of the coast on which they had been displayed, the theories of Minasi and M. Honel, as advanced by them in explanation of s i m i l a r phaenomena seen on and about the Strait of M e s s i n a . The Northern Channel of Ireland p r e s e n t s , to a v e r y great d e g r e e , the s a m e data as r e g a r d s shape, indentations, currents, and bitumen, as that strait d o e s , and on which their theories r e s t ; and he believed that, to s o m e extent at l e a s t , so did the sea in the neighbourhood of the i s l e s of A r r a n and town of W a t e r f o r d . W h e r e the Marine Morgana was found, the A e r i a l might be expected, and the P r i s m a t i c was a m e r e c o r o l l a r y to the first.

GEM-007

ON AN E X T R A O R D I N A R Y MIRAGE WITNESSED AT BIRKENHEAD IN CHESHIRE

Thomson, D. P. ; Report of the British Association, part 2, 3 9 , 1 8 4 7 . The author states that, during the exhibition of a panoramic model of Edinburgh, in the Zoological Gardens at Liverpool, on Sept. 2 7 , 1 8 4 6 , about 3 p. m . , an e r e c t i m a g e of Edinburgh, depicted on the clouds over Liverpool, was seen by two residents in the Great Park at Birkenhead, for a period of forty minutes. The straight-line distance between Edinburgh and Liverpool is about 170 m i l e s . The coincidence of the " m i r a g e " and the exhibition is hard to swallow.

G2-20

TRANSMISSION PHENOMENA
GET-001 AN ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION PATTERN OVER THE OCEAN 5 : 2 9 - 3 0 + , August 1 9 6 4 .

GET-001

Curtis, G e o r g e D . ; Undersea Technology,

A b s t r a c t . W h i l e p e r f o r m i n g another t a s k , s c i e n t i s t s f r o m the L T V R e s e a r c h C e n t e r d i s c o v e r e d a unique stable e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c radiation pattern o v e r the ocean. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pattern, its r e c o r d i n g , a n a l y s i s , and p o s s i b l e causes are described. Since this natural phenomenon o c c u r s o v e r the o c e a n , further study should p r o v e valuable to A S W and oceanography.

APPROXIMATELY 12.8 N.M. 50 MINUTES- RUN 1 TO RUN 5

TRANSMITTERS 30 N.M.

Comparison of five seperate runs showing the stability of the electromagnetic pattern mentioned in GET-001. Frequency used: 1740 kHz.

During a flight t e s t p r o g r a m p e r f o r m e d b y L T V for another p u r p o s e , i t w a s r e c o g n i z e d that t h e r e e x i s t s a unique l o w and m e d i u m frequency e l e c t r o m a g netic radiation pattern o v e r the s u r f a c e of the o c e a n . T h i s radiation pattern a p p e a r s to be quite stable and is found as v a r i a t i o n s in the signal f r o m r a d i o stations. Statistical a n a l y s i s showed c o r r e l a t i o n between patterns taken on c o n s e c u t i v e r u n s o v e r the s a m e a r e a to be as high as 0. 9 o v e r a o n e - h o u r period. F i g u r e s 1 and 2 c l e a r l y show the repeatability of the pattern during s u c c e s s i v e runs o v e r the s a m e a r e a s . F i g u r e 1 s h o w s two p a t t e r n s (runs 2 and 5) f r o m two b r o a d c a s t stations, r e c o r d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty m i n u t e s a p a r t , while F i g u r e 2 s h o w s a set of s u c c e s s i v e r u n s , a r r a n g e d one above the other, f r o m one station. T h e d a y - t o - d a y r e p e a t a b i l i t y is not known. T h e amplitude of the v a r i a t i o n s shown in the f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t s only the top few p e r c e n t of the signal strength in the a r e a ; z e r o h a s been g r e a t l y s u p p r e s s e d . The equipment and e x p e r i m e n t a l techniques will be explained b e f o r e the "wiggles" a r e d i s c u s s e d further.

G2-21

GET-001

TRANSMISSION PHENOMENA

T h e s e p a t t e r n s w e r e obtained by a c c u r a t e l y flying b a c k and forth o v e r the s a m e t r a c k o v e r the open ocean. A p a i r of C o l l i n s URR—23A multiband AM r e c e i v e r s , m o d i f i e d to output t h e i r delayed A G C v o l t a g e to a s e v e n - c h a n n e l A m p e x F M tape r e c o r d e r (with r e s p o n s e t o D C ) , and a T e x a s I n s t r u m e n t s dual pen r e c o r d e r , w e r e u s e d as a s e n s i t i v e field strength r e c o r d i n g s y s t e m . A dead reckoning c o m p u t e r , r a d a r , c a r e f u l drift c o r r e c t i o n s , and s m o k e l i g h t s w e r e u s e d as navigational aids to obtain repeat a c c u r a c i e s of a few hundred y a r d s , at altitudes of around 1 0 0 0 feet. The Navy supplied the a i r c r a f t and crew. The data w e r e played b a c k f r o m the m a g n e t i c tape through a 0 . 1 c p s l o w p a s s f i l t e r , onto r e c t i l i n e a r Sanborn c h a r t s . L a r g e photo p o s i t i v e s w e r e then m a d e f r o m t h e s e , in which the downwind (fast) runs w e r e e n l a r g e d s l i g h t l y to match the upwind (slow) r u n s , thus providing a s e r i e s of signal strength patterns s c a l e d to a constant ground s p e e d . The t r a n s p a r e n c i e s p e r m i t the t r a c e s to be o v e r l a i d or c o m p a r e d in any fashion ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2) or digitized for c o m p u t e r a n a l y s e s . What p r o d u c e s this p a t t e r n ? It cannot be c o n s i d e r e d to be r a n d o m n o i s e , due to the c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n of the patterns on the different runs. T h i s pattern is c o n s i d e r e d to be a natural phenomenon which h a s n e v e r been r e c o g n i z e d before to o u r knowledge, but which can be duplicated by anyone u s i n g adequate equipment and t e c h n i q u e s . The e x a c t c a u s e of this radiation pattern is p r e s e n t l y unknown. It was noticed during the p r o g r a m that the nature of the pattern v a r i e s with the t r a n s mitted f r e q u e n c i e s which a r e u s e d ; s e e F i g u r e s 1 and 3. The effects a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable above 5 , 0 0 0 feet, but the pattern is g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s tent (on the s a m e flight path) in the range f r o m 5 0 0 to 2 0 0 0 feet as shown in Figure 3 . T h e pattern h a s b e e n r e c o r d e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m two, c l e a r channel, 5 0 K W L o s A n g e l e s b r o a d c a s t stations, but i s equally noticeable f r o m other stations n e a r e r our u s u a l flight a r e a , southwest of San D i e g o . It h a s a l s o b e e n o b s e r v e d , but not m a t h e m a t i c a l l y c o r r e l a t e d , on the Atlantic and Gulf C o a s t s . Spectral a n a l y s e s w e r e m a d e on a n u m b e r of s e t s of data f r o m the original p r o g r a m b y L C d r . L . R . R o b e r t s o f the U . S . Navy P o s t Graduate School. Using an I B M 704 c o m p u t e r , L C d r . R o b e r t s found that a m a j o r portion of the r e p e a t a b l e "pattern e n e r g y " l i e s in the 0. 0 0 5 to 0. 2 c p s band, which c o r r e s ponds to a spacing of 3 8 0 0 to 1 5 , 5 0 0 y a r d s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 to 50 w a v e l e n g t h s ) . Spectral bands a p p e a r above 0. 02 c p s . but a r e much m o r e v a r i a b l e . It should be mentioned that the m a x i m u m length of the flight runs 20 m i l e s set a low frequency l i m i t on this a n a l y s i s and that field v a r i a t i o n s of even l o n g e r periods may exist. S e v e r a l explanations have b e e n p r o p o s e d for this radiation pattern. These suggestions have included: 1U n d e r s e a or B o t t o m A n o m a l i e s — T h i s is a p o s s i b l e explanation of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the radiation pattern in s h a l l o w w a t e r . H o w e v e r , good patterns a r e a l s o o b s e r v e d in deep w a t e r (300 f a t h o m s and d e e p e r ) . 2. Shore Line E f f e c t - — T h e pattern h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d c o n s i s t e n t l y at ranges o v e r 15 m i l e s f r o m i s l a n d s and the continental s h o r e l i n e . Since 15 m i l e s 80 wave l e n g t h s at 1 m c , the pattern should not be c o n s i d e r e d s h o r e line effect ( R e f e r e n c e b ) . 3. C l o u d s - — I t h a s been s u g g e s t e d that the v a r i a t i o n s of the pattern a r e due to cloud c o v e r . H o w e v e r , as stated p r e v i o u s l y , the pattern h a s been c o n sistent f o r p e r i o d s as long as one h o u r . T h i s would suggest that cloud c o v e r is not a m a j o r contributor to the radiation pattern. 4. I o n o s p h e r i c R e f l e c t i o n s T y p i c a l patterns ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2) w e r e m a d e m i d - d a y in r e l a t i v e l y high signal strength a r e a s ( o r d e r of j i v / m ) , 130 and

G2-22

TRANSMISSION PHENOMENA

GET-001

3 0 m i l e s f r o m the t r a n s m i t t e r s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , under t h e s e conditions, i o n o s p h e r i c r e f l e c t i o n should not p r o d u c e even the s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s which constitute the o b s e r v e d pattern. H o w e v e r , r e c e n t work has r e v e a l e d w e a k M F r e f l e c t i n g ionization between 5 0 and 1 0 0 K M ( R e f e r e n c e c ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h e s e l a y e r s or m i n o r b a c k s c a t t e r , could weakly r e f l e c t into the t e s t area. R e f l e c t i o n f r o m any continuous ionized l a y e r would, h o w e v e r , p r o duce a pattern s y m m e t r i c a l about the t r a n s m i t t e r . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n h a s not been observed. 5 . A n o m a l i e s n e a r the t r a n s m i t t e r s which a r e "reflected". T h i s s e e m s u n l i k e l y , due to the fine s t r u c t u r e and d i s t a n c e involved, but can be i n v e s t i gated with a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n plot of a l a r g e a r e a . The pattern o c c u r s on station r a d i a l s as well as n o r m a l t h e r e t o , and is not c o n s i d e r e d due to antenna d i r e c t i v i t y . 6 . O c e a n c u r r e n t s , t e m p e r a t u r e , salinity, e t c . The e f f e c t s o n r a d i o propagation due to t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y unknown at the p r e s e n t t i m e and c o n s i d e r a b l e effort is r e q u i r e d in the oceanographic field to i n v e s tigate the e f f e c t s of t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s . F i g u r e 4 shows a run o v e r the e d g e of the Gulf S t r e a m , r e p r e s e n t i n g a t e m p e r a t u r e difference of about 4 ° F at the s u r f a c e , p l u s p o s s i b l e changes i n w a v e s and s w e l l s . T h i s strongly s u g g e s t s an oceanographic effect, but the repeatability of this p a r t i c u l a r pattern is not known. Z e r o is not s u p p r e s s e d so strongly in this run, m a d e off Cape H a t t e r a s . It is felt that (6) is the m o s t likely c a u s e , but no p o s s i b l e o r i g i n h a s b e e n ruled out for further investigation. By what m e c h a n i s m could a n o m o l i e s in the o c e a n s u r f a c e p r o d u c e an effect such as F i g u r e 4 or the other patterns ? W h e n t r a v e r s i n g an a r e a of a l t e r e d conductivity, the tilt of a v e r t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c wave is a l t e r e d . H o w e v e r , this angular change would be e x t r e m e l y s m a l l for the change in the conductivity of s e a w a t e r c a u s e d by a change in i t s t e m p e r a t u r e of 4 ° F . Now, an a r e a of a l t e r e d conductivity c a n a l s o exhibit r e - r a d i a t i o n , r e s e m b l i n g an antenna in a l o s s y m e d i u m . T h i s could g i v e r i s e to a m i n o r i n t e r f e r e n c e pattern. Quite p o s s i b l y , the r e c o r d e d signal is due to a combination of such phenomena. T h e p r o g r a m outlined b e l o w , m a y p r o v i d e the a n s w e r . Test Program Parameters Frequency V L F (Navy t r a n s m i t t e r s ) , 2 0 0 k c (Consol o r b e a c o n ) , 1 m c (broadcast station), 2 mc ( L o r a n ) , and 10 mc ( W W V ) can be u t i l i z e d . T h i s wide range should p e r m i t s e p a r a t i o n of wave length f r o m the s i z e of any originating s y s t e m . L o c a t i o n - — S i m p l y obtaining d a y - t o - d a y c o m p a r i s o n s o v e r the exact s a m e t r a c k or a r e a should go far toward a n s w e r i n g the p r o b l e m . A g r i d would be flown, in at l e a s t two different l o c a t i o n s and d i s t a n c e s f r o m the t r a n s mitters. E x t r e m e A l t i t u d e s - — S e v e r a l s a m p l e s of radiation patterns should be obtained at the operating altitudes of 100 feet and 5 0 0 0 feet in the s a m e a r e a . This (even m o r e than the r e s t of the p r o g r a m ) will r e q u i r e the b e s t available navigation equipment and flying s k i l l . Time C o m p a r a b l e s a m p l e s could be obtained at night. T h i s will p r o d u c e a m a r k e d change i n i o n o s p h e r e e f f e c t s . M o s t of t h e s e t e s t s can, of c o u r s e , be c o m b i n e d to obtain the n e c e s s a r y data with a r e a s o n a b l e amount of flight w o r k . A m o r e difficult p r o b l e m would be obtaining o c e a n o g r a p h i c data c o r r e l a t i b l e with the a i r b o r n e data. The data c a n be reduced and analyzed with the techniques and c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s u s e d i n the p r e l i m i n a r y w o r k . Once adequate, quantitative i n f o r m a tion is available on this phenomenon, it should not be too difficult to deduce the

G2-23

GET 002

TRANSMISSION PHENOMENA

origin and significance of the patterns. It is believed that this "fixed" pattern m a y be novel, and has not been reported previously s i m p l y because no one in the past has made repeated t r a v e r s e s of the exact s a m e track, filtered out the noise but not the pattern, adjusted runs to a constant ground speed, and c o m p a r e d them. It should make an interesting oceanographic p r o b l e m . Two potential c o r r e l a t i o n s c o m e to mine: (1) The B e r m u d a Triangle with its t a l e s of magnetic disturbances; and (2) the wheels of light (Subsection G L W ) which m a y originate in electromagnetic patterns of energy.

G E T 002

WIRELESS ECHOES 1 2 6 : 3 8 1 , September 6, 1 9 3 0 .

Anonymous; Nature,

The a d d r e s s given by Prof. C a r l S t o r m e r to the Royal Society of Edinburgh on F e b . 17 has now been published in the Society's Proceedings (vol. 5 0 , p. 1 8 7 ) . He d i s c u s s e s the p r o b l e m of whether the ' w i r e l e s s echoes of long delay' c o m e from space outside the moon's orbit or not. In a communication to Nature of Jan. 5, 1 9 2 9 , he said: "the mathematical theory of the motion of electric c o r puscles around a magnetised sphere shows that the chances of obtaining a w e l l defined toroidal space round the earth are good when the direction to the sun l i e s near the magnetic equatorial plane (perpendicular to the magnetic axis). " He predicted that it was very improbable that echoes would recur before the middle of February. This prediction was duly verified by several p h y s i c i s t s . In particular, two o b s e r v e r s in I.ndo-China observed two thousand echoes f r o m a relatively s m a l l e m i t t e r station. The echoes c a m e about 30 s e c . after the signal and their amplitude was s o m e t i m e s as great as one-third of the signal. Some of the experiments recorded prove conclusively that they were echoes. It s e e m s as if the space outside the earth's orbit was t r a v e r s e d intermittently by v e r y unstable s t r e a m s of e l e c t r o n s . This may explain the great variety of echo t i m e s o b s e r v e d . It is also p o s s i b l e that multiple echoes may be caused by reflection between the inner walls of the toroidal space. The great variety of echoes is s i m i l a r to the great variations in aurora phenomena and magnetic perturbations. If this explanation is c o r r e c t , these w i r e l e s s echoes give a striking proof of the corpuscular theory of aurora and a valuable method for exploring electron currents in c o s m i c space.

G2-24

SECTION GF: FALLING MATERIAL
Falls of fish, l a r g e chunks of ice, "manna, " and other m a t e r i a l s have been reported for thousands of y e a r s . Some of these m a t e r i a l s a r e unquestionably picked up and later deposited by atmospheric disturbances; other substances may have meteoric origins. Be this as it m a y , many falls are not easily explained, as this section will demonstrate. T h e subsection descriptions follow. GFA W e b s and "angel h a i r . " Includes unusual concentrations of g o s s a m e r and web-borne s p i d e r s . H a i r - l i k e deposits left behind by geophysical phenomena. F a l l s of b i r d s . dying. F a l l s of large numbers of b i r d s , usually dead or

*GFB

GFC

C h e m i c a l s . Salt, sulfur, sand, dust, and other inorganic substances. Includes stones that do not s e e m to be of meteoric origin. Fish, reptiles, i n s e c t s . F a l l s of any animals not normally airborne. often associated with

GFF GFG

Gelatin. Gelatinous m a s s e s and droplets m e t e o r - l i k e phenomena.

*GFI

Ice falls. L a r g e chunks of ice apparently not associated with h a i l s t o r m s or other atmospheric disturbances. L e a v e s , hay, pollen. Unusual falls of organic material frequently from a c l e a r s k y — a n d unexplained deposits, such as "manna." Pollen is s o m e t i m e s associated with the colored rains described in subsection G W P . Thunderstones. Strange correlations of stones (possibly m e t e o r i t e s in s o m e instances) with thunderstorms.

GFL

GFT

• T h i s subsection not represented in Volume G 2 .

G2-25

FALLING MATERIAL

G2-26

WEBS AND "ANGEL HAIR"
GFA-O01 R A I N OF SILK

GFA-003

Laine, M. ; Annual R e g i s t e r , 6 4 : 6 8 1 , 1 8 2 1 . M. L a i n e , the French consul at Pernambuco, s a y s , in a letter, dated Nov. 1, 1 8 2 0 , that at the beginning of the preceding month there was a shower from the sky, consisting of a substance r e s e m b l i n g silk, of which many p e r s o n s p r e s e r v e d s p e c i m e n s . This phenomenon extended to the distance of 30 l e a g u e s inland, and nearly as many off to sea. A French v e s s e l was c o v e r e d with the silky m a t e r i a l . He has sent a specimen of it to P a r i s . T h e r e is no mention of s p i d e r s , which usually shoulder the b l a m e for such falls. Pernambuco is in B r a z i l .

GFA 002

SHOWER OF GOSSAMER AT SELBOURNE

Anonymous; Nature, 1 2 6 : 4 5 7 , September 2 0 , 1 9 3 0 . Gilbert White r e c o r d s ("Natural History of Selborne") that before daybreak "I found the stubbles and c l o v e r grounds matted all o v e r with a thick coat of cobweb. . . . When the dogs attempted to hunt, their e y e s w e r e so blinded and hoodwinked that they could not proceed, but w e r e obliged to lie down and s c r a p e the encumbrance f r o m their faces with their forefeet. . . . About nine, an appearance v e r y unusual began to demand our a t t e n t i o n — a shower of cobwebs falling f r o m v e r y elevated regions, and continuing, without any interruption, till the c l o s e of the day. T h e s e webs w e r e not single filmy threads, floating in the a i r in all d i r e c t i o n s , but perfect flakes, or r a g s : s o m e near an inch broad, and five or six long, which fell with a d e g r e e of velocity, that they w e r e c o n siderably heavier than the atmosphere. On e v e r y side, as the o b s e r v e r turned his e y e s , he might behold a continual s u c c e s s i o n of fresh flakes falling into his sight, and twinkling like s t a r s , as they turned their sides towards the sun. How f a r this wonderful shower extended, it would be difficult to say; but we know that it reached Bradley, Selborne and A l r e s f o r d , three p l a c e s which l i e in a short of triangle the shortest of whose s i d e s is about eight m i l e s in extent." The g o s s a m e r descended even on the highest part of the downs. This fall o c c u r r e d September 2 1 , 1 7 4 1 .

GFA-003

THE NOTES OF CHARLES FORT 1:15, January 1 9 4 2 .

Fort, C h a r l e s ; The Fortean Society Magazine,

1 8 2 0 , Oct. 1. Spiders T i m e s of Oct. 9. That o v e r area of m i l e s f r o m Liverpool and especially at Wigan, fields and roads covered with a substance that was mistaken for cotton. C a m e down like a sheet on Wigan. Found to contain ( r e v e r s e ) flies so s m a l l as required a magnifying g l a s s to make them perceptible.

G2-27

GFA-004
GFA-004

WEBS AND "ANGEL HAIR"
BRILLIANT ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA 1:178, September 1 0 , 1 8 5 9 .

A n o n y m o u s ; Scientific A m e r i c a n .

A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g a r e c e n t a u r o r a l d i s p l a y , the editor s t a t e s : M r . M e r r i a m , o f B r o o k l y n , i n giving a n account o f t h e s e a p p e a r a n c e s , says:— "The a u r o r a l light s o m e t i m e s i s c o m p o s e d o f t h r e a d s like the silken w a r p of a w e b ; t h e s e s o m e t i m e s b e c o m e b r o k e n and fall to the e a r t h , and p o s s e s s exquisite s o f t n e s s and a s i l v e r l u s t r e , and I denominate t h e s e as the p r o d u c t s of the s i l k e r y of the s k i e s . I o n c e obtained a s m a l l p i e c e , which I p r e s e r v e d . " T h i s is an e n t i r e l y new idea to u s , and we think that s o m e other s u b s t a n c e m u s t h a v e b e e n picked up in a m i s t a k e for the product of the a u r o r a l l o o m . N o t e that s o m e other g e o p h y s i c a l phenomena a r e s o m e t i m e s c o r r e l a t e d with w e b s o r hair.

GFA-005

A R A I N OF SPIDER WEBS 45:337, November 26, 1881.

A n o n y m o u s ; Scientific A m e r i c a n ,

In the l a t t e r p a r t of O c t o b e r the good p e o p l e of M i l w a u k e e ( W i s . ) and the neighboring towns w e r e astonished by a g e n e r a l fall of s p i d e r w e b s . The w e b s s e e m e d to c o m e f r o m "over the l a k e , " and appeared to fall f r o m a g r e a t height. T h e strands w e r e f r o m two feet t o s e v e r a l r o d s i n length. At Green Bay the fall w a s the s a m e , c o m i n g f r o m the d i r e c t i o n of the bay, only the w e b s varied f r o m sixty feet in length to m e r e s p e c k s , and w e r e seen as far up in the air as the p o w e r of the eye could r e a c h . At V e s b u r g and Fort Howard, S h e boygan, and O z a u k e e , the fall w a s s i m i l a r l y o b s e r v e d , in s o m e p l a c e s being so thick as to annoy the e y e . In all i n s t a n c e s the w e b s w e r e strong in t e x t u r e and v e r y white. C u r i o u s l y t h e r e is no m e n t i o n , in any of the r e p o r t s that we have seen, of the p r e s e n c e of s p i d e r s in this g e n e r a l s h o w e r of w e b s . It is to be hoped that s o m e competent o b s e r v e r that i s , s o m e one who h a s m a d e a study of s p i d e r s and their h a b i t s - — w a s at hand and will r e p o r t m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y the conditions of this i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon. Quite a n u m b e r of notable g o s s a m e r s h o w e r s have been r e p o r t e d in d i f f e r ent p a r t s of the w o r l d . White d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l in h i s h i s t o r y of S e l b o r n e . In one of t h e m the fall continued n e a r l y a whole day, the webs c o m i n g f r o m such a height that f r o m the top of the highest h i l l n e a r by they w e r e s e e n descending f r o m a r e g i o n still above the r a n g e of distinct v i s i o n . Darwin d e s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r s h o w e r o b s e r v e d by h i m f r o m the d e c k of the B e a g l e , off the mouth of La P l a t a R i v e r , when the v e s s e l w a s sixty m i l e s f r o m land. He w a s p r o b a b l y the first to notice that each web of the g o s s a m e r c a r r i e d a Lilliputian aeronaut. He watched the s p i d e r s on their a r r i v a l and s a w m a n y of them put forth a new web and float a w a y . That s p i d e r s u s e their w e b s for p a r a c h u t e s t h e r e is no doubt, but a r e all i n s t a n c e s of w e b s falling due to this c a u s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when no s p i d e r s a r e p r e s e n t ?

G2-28

CHEMICALS
GFC-006 SUPPOSED M E T E O R I T E

GFC-007

A n o n y m o u s ; A m e r i c a n Journal o f S c i e n c e , 2 : 2 4 : 4 4 9 , 1 8 5 7 . W e h a v e r e c e i v e d f r o m M r . T h o m a s B a s s n e t t o f Ottawa, I l l i n o i s , s p e c i m e n s of s c o r i a , with a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r supposed fall on the 17th of June l a s t , about ten m i l e s s o u t h - s o u t h w e s t f r o m that p l a c e . The account of the f a l l , a s written out b y L . H . B r a d l e y o n w h o s e f a r m the s c o r i a was found, s t a t e s , that the t i m e it o c c u r r e d w a s fifteen or twenty m i n u t e s b e f o r e 2 p. m. ; the wind b l e w w e s t by south. He s a y s , "The c i n d e r s fell in a n o r t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n in the shape of the l e t t e r V. T h e w e a t h e r had been s h o w e r y , but I h e a r d no thund e r and s a w no lightning. T h e r e appeared to be a s m a l l , d e n s e b l a c k cloud hanging o v e r the g a r d e n in a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , or a little to the south of w e s t . The c i n d e r s fell upon a slight angle within about t h r e e r o d s of w h e r e 1 w a s at work; t h e r e w a s no wind at the m o m e n t , or none p e r c e p t i b l e . My attention w a s c a l l e d f i r s t to the f r e a k the wind had in the g r a s s , and the next m o m e n t to a h i s s i n g n o i s e c a u s e d b y the c i n d e r s p a s s i n g through the a i r . The l a r g e r o n e s w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y i m b e d d e d in the e a r t h , so m u c h as only to show a s m a l l part of it, while the s m a l l e r ones w e r e about o n e - h a l f b u r i e d . I noticed at the t i m e that the ground w h e r e I a f t e r w a r d s picked up the c i n d e r s showed s i g n s of w a r m t h , as t h e r e w a s quite a s t e a m or fog at that p a r t i c u l a r point. I thought it s i n g u l a r , as the ground had been v e r y c o l d p r e v i o u s l y . " The s c o r i a is in rounded inflated p i e c e s , l i k e what have b e e n c a l l e d v o l c a n i c b o m b s , the e x t e r i o r being g l a s s y , and the i n t e r i o r v e r y c e l l u l a r . They are little o v e r an inch in the longest d i a m e t e r . Color black. The p a p e r , c a l l e d the "Sunny South, " of A b e r d e e n , M i s s . , of Sept. 1 7 , 1 8 5 7 , d e s c r i b e s a m a s s of l a v a as l a r g e as a b a r r e l , "which fell near the f a r m of M r . John F o r t s o n , ten m i l e s w e s t of A b e r d e e n , on the 8th of July, 1 8 5 6 , and which excited a good d e a l of wonder and speculation at the t i m e for hundreds of m i l e s around." The I l l i n o i s s c o r i a is unlike any m e t e o r i t e , and s u g g e s t s the idea of a t e r r e s t r i a l o r i g i n . We know nothing about the M i s s i s s i p p i "lava. "

GFC-007

BODILY INJURIES FROM FALLING METEORS

A n o n y m o u s ; P o p u l a r S c i e n c e Monthly, 1 5 : 5 6 6 - 5 6 7 , A u g u s t 1 8 7 9 . In v i e w of the e s t i m a t e m a d e by M r . G. J. Stoney in the p a p e r e l s e w h e r e published in the p r e s e n t n u m b e r of the Monthly, the following o b s e r v a t i o n s by P r o f e s s o r H. K a r s t e n , which we take f r o m "Die N a t u r , " can not fail to be interesting. T h e accounts r e c e n t l y published, of the falling of sundry s m a l l m e t e o r i t e s in the vicinity of m e n or even upon their p e r s o n s , have vividly r e c a l l e d to my mind another i n s t a n c e , as I c o n c e i v e , of this phenomenon. In this c a s e a m a n was wounded in such a way as to lead the b y s t a n d e r s to conclude that he had been wounded by a p i s t o l - b a l l , though the m o s t thorough s e a r c h failed to d i s c o v e r any e v i d e n c e c o n f i r m a t o r y of that opinion. The r e a d e r w i l l p e r h a p s r e m e m b e r how, a c c o r d i n g to the "Cologne Zeitung, " on August 29th of y e a r b e f o r e l a s t , at h a l f - p a s t nine in the m o r n i n g , a c e r t a i n m a r r i e d couple living in the h o u s e N o . 32 N e u m a r k t , in that c i t y , w e r e s t a r t l e d by a s m a l l stone falling through the open window into their r o o m . "The wife

G2-29

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ran and p i c k e d it up a b l a c k - g r a y , p r i s m a t i c stone of the s i z e of a s m a l l bean; but, as it w a s r e d - h o t and burned the t i p s of h e r f i n g e r s , s h e quickly dropped it again. S o m e m i n u t e s l a t e r the husband again took it up and found it to be still so hot that he could h a r d l y hold it in h i s hand. " T h i s s t o n e , which w a s i m m e d i a t e l y taken t o the e d i t o r ' s o f f i c e , w a s b y all r e c o g n i z e d a s a m e t e o r ite. Shortly b e f o r e t h i s , at Hanau, a boy w a s hit on the thumb in the open fields by a s m a l l , hot, falling stone; t h i s , t o o , w a s supposed to be a m e t e o r i t e . U n fortunately, it w a s n e v e r found. At Schaffhausen, on the 2d of O c t o b e r , 1 8 7 5 , while a m a n w a s trundling a c a r t f r o m the v i l l a g e of B e r i n g e n to Neuhausen, h e n c e while going n e a r l y due e a s t , h i s right f o r e a r m w a s p e r f o r a t e d f r o m front t o b a c k a s though b y a musket-ball. The m a n w a s in the c o m p a n y of h i s b r o t h e r and an a c q u a i n t a n c e . At the m o m e n t of r e c e i v i n g the wound he h e a r d a p e c u l i a r w h i r r as of a b a l l , but his c o m p a n i o n s s a y that they h e a r d nothing. T h e y all t h r e e s e a r c h e d high and l o w all around to d i s c o v e r the one who had fired the b a l l , but in vain, though the highway in which they w e r e t r a v e l i n g r a n straight through the open, l e v e l fields; neither w a s any one to be s e e n on the r a i l w a y l y i n g at no g r e a t d i s t a n c e to the right. Shortly after the o c c u r r e n c e the t r a i n f r o m Neuhausen p a s s e d b y . A t s o m e d i s t a n c e o n the left a r e v i n e y a r d s , w h e r e a few l a b o r e r s w e r e s e e n , but none of t h e m had f i r e a r m s , and e v e n if they had they could not have sent a ball as f a r as the highway. It m a y be added that the wounded m a n is a p e a c e able f e l l o w , having n o e n e m i e s , s o far a s h e knows. B e s i d e s , the m i s s i l e a s i s t o b e s e e n f r o m the wound c a m e f r o m the front, w h e r e n o h u m a n b e i n g w a s to be s e e n on the b r o a d , straight highway. The a n t e r i o r wound w a s t w o inches i n s i d e of and two inches above the capitulum r a d i i , and the p o s t e r i o r wound, which w a s only five m i l l i m e t r e s in d i a m e t e r , w a s two i n c h e s i n s i d e of and one and one third inch above the inner c o n d y l e of the ulna. The physician who attended to the c a s e asked my opinion about this e n i g m a t i c a l o c c u r r e n c e ; and, on my attributing it either to an a i r - g u n or to a m e t e o r i t e , he r e j e c t e d both h y p o t h e s e s . It could not have b e e n an a i r - g u n , he s a i d , b e c a u s e no such i n s t r u m e n t had e v e r b e e n h e a r d of in that l o c a l i t y ; and b e c a u s e , e v e n if such an i n s t r u m e n t had b e e n u s e d , no one after d i s c h a r g i n g it could have c o n c e a l e d h i m self, owing t o the nature o f the ground, a s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d . As for m e t e o r i t e s , no one had e v e r known of p e o p l e being wounded by t h e m . I w a s not p r e pared to p r o v e my second h y p o t h e s i s or to strengthen it by citing a n a l o g o u s i n s t a n c e s , though authors had often r e c o r d e d and d e s c r i b e d the falling of g r e a t stones in fields and through the r o o f s of h u m a n habitations, the b u r s t i n g of falling s t o n e s in m i d - a i r , and the s c a t t e r i n g of the f r a g m e n t s . Still the h y p o t h e s i s s e e m e d t o m e t o b e not altogether g r o u n d l e s s i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e , and it w a s strengthened by the known v e l o c i t y of m e t e o r i c s t o n e s , which is on an a v e r a g e t w e l v e t i m e s as g r e a t as that of a m u s k e t - b a l Then, t o o , the t i m e of y e a r and the d i r e c t i o n of the p r o j e c t i l e f a v o r the opinion that the wound was inflicted b y s o m e s m a l l s t r a y m e t e o r i t e . E v e r y b o d y attributed the wound to a ball f r o m a r e v o l v e r , b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s no other way to account f o r it. Had one of the two f e l l o w t r a v e l e r s or one of the l a b o r e r s in the distant v i n e y a r d s b e e n in p o s s e s s i o n of a r e v o l v e r or other f i r e a r m , it would not have b e e n e a s y f o r h i m to c l e a r h i m s e l f of the s u s p i c i o n of having shot the m a n . On this ground, if not on account of i t s g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t , it is m u c h to be d e s i r e d that such o c c u r r e n c e s should be investigated and published, to the end that, by bringing t o g e t h e r and d i s c u s s i n g the f a c t s , light might be thrown on t h i s interesting but as y e t o b s c u r e s u b j e c t .
1

G2-30

CHEMICALS
GFC-008 [FALLING STONES]

GFC-009

Anonymous; N l l e s ' W e e k l y Register, 4 8 : 3 9 7 , August 8, 1 8 3 5 . V e s u v i u s r e m a i n e d tranquil after the eruption of A u g u s t ; having then t h r o w n out g r e y and r e d c i n d e r s s i m i l a r to t h o s e of 1 8 2 2 ; but about the m i d d l e of F e b r u a r y , f l a m e s and s m a l l p i e c e s o f l a v a w e r e thrown f r o m the b o t t o m o f the c r a t e r , which i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s d e e p and s m a l l e r i n c i r c u m f e r e n c e than that of 1 8 2 8 . T h i s new c r a t e r , which by d e g r e e s is filling up, and is now n e a r the top of the r i d g e , t h r e a t e n s an o v e r t h r o w , and s o o n e r or l a t e r m u s t f a l l . At M a r s a l a , on the southern c o a s t of S i c i l y , on a s e r e n e day t h e r e a p p e a r e d in the sky a s m a l l b l a c k cloud; which g r a d u a l l y extending, at l a s t d i s g o r g e d i t s e l f in a s h o w e r of s t o n e s , which b r o k e the s l a t e s and r o o f s of the h o u s e s . T h i s r e p o r t of a fall of s t o n e s is tucked into a d e s c r i p t i o n of V e s u v i u s , but the c i r c u m s t a n c e s indicate that the cloud, which w a s s m a l l and b l a c k a s s e e m s r a t h e r typical o f c l o u d s a s s o c i a t e d with falling m a t e r i a l , w a s c o m p l e t e l y d i v o r c e d f r o m the volcanic action.

GFC-009

T H E R E D FOGS A T CAPE V E R D E

Z u r c h e r , F r e d e r i c ; M e t e o r s , A e r o l i t e s , S t o r m s , and A t m o s p h e r i c P h e n o m e n a , C. Scribner & C o . , New York, 1876. M . E h r e n b e r g b e l i e v e s that the n a m e o f d a r k o r g l o o m y s e a , g i v e n t o the Atlantic by the a n c i e n t s , took its r i s e in the p h e n o m e n o n o b s e r v e d after the m a r i n e r h a s i s s u e d forth f r o m the S t r a i t s o f G i b r a l t a r and i s d r a w i n g n e a r t o the w a t e r s by C a p e V e r d e . At the approach of the e q u i n o x e s , and during an interval that v a r i e s f r o m thirty t o forty d a y s , t h e r e f a l l s a v e r y fine r e d p o w d e r that o b s c u r e s the a t m o s p h e r e and d e p o s i t s i t s e l f upon the rigging of v e s s e l s . T h i s s h o w e r of d u s t , known a l s o as the r e d fog, extends o v e r a s e a - s u r f a c e of m o r e than a m i l l i o n of s q u a r e m i l e s . S h o w e r s of r e d dust h a v e b e e n frequently noted, a l s o at different points on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , and in Eur.ope and W e s t e r n A s i a , but at i r r e g u l a r e p o c h s . N e a r L y o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , in 1 8 4 6 , t h e r e fell a quantity, e s t i m a t e d in all at s e v e n thousand two hundred q u i n t a l s , on a s u r f a c e of four hundred s q u a r e m i l e s . T h i s dust is not c o m p o s e d of sand and c l a y a l o n e , but a l s o of o r g a n i c s u b s t a n c e s and i n f u s o r i a , which a powerful m i c r o s c o p e r e n d e r s quite v i s i b l e . A s o r t of w o r m , w h i c h , a l o n g with the c l a y , g i v e s c o l o r t o the m i x t u r e , i s s o s m a l l that it r e q u i r e s n e a r l y t w o m i l l i o n s of t h e s e a n i m a l e u l a to fill the s p a c e of a cubic inch. One thing e s p e c i a l l y r e m a r k a b l e i s , that, i n the many s p e c i m e n s e x a m i n e d b y M . E h r e n b e r g , and c o l l e c t e d o n the Atlantic a s w e l l a s i n E u r o p e , A s i a M i n o r , and S y r i a , the s a m e s p e c i e s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n found. The savant in q u e s t i o n h a s p r e p a r e d a c h a r t o n which all the p l a c e s w h e r e this d u s t h a s f a l l e n a r e m a r k e d . He a d m i t s that the s h o w e r s of blood m e n t i o n e d in h i s t o r y m a y h a v e b e e n c o n founded with this phenomenon, s i n c e the fluid in q u e s t i o n might w e l l be r e p r e sented by the r e d s u b s t a n c e above m e n t i o n e d , when the l a t t e r is m o i s t e n e d with w a t e r , and such an explanation of the l e g e n d a r y fact is t o o obvious to be r e j e c t e d . T h e i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n of the o r i g i n of t h e s e p e c u l i a r kinds of dust then occupied h i s attention, and led h i m to a n a l y z e a g r e a t m a n y s p e c i m e n s of the soil c o l l e c t e d i n different p a r t s o f A f r i c a and South A m e r i c a . T h e r e s u l t showed

G2-31

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CHEMICALS

that nowhere on the f i r s t - n a m e d continent could s p e c i e s of infusoria be found the s a m e as t h o s e d i s c o v e r e d in the dust, while on the second they w e r e met with near the Orinoco and A m a z o n R i v e r s . This c i r c u m s t a n c e v e r y forcibly struck the attention of C o m m a n d e r M a u r y , who s a w that these d u s t - f a l l s m a y s e r v e to m a r k the extent of the circuit m a d e * by the aerial c u r r e n t s , just as bottles thrown into the s e a by m a r i n e r s m a r k the ' sweep of the o c e a n - c u r r e n t s . The periodicity indicated by the appearance of this dust at Cape V e r d e has relation, according to M a u r y , to the movement of oscillation north and south of the zone of equatorial c a l m s , a movement that c a r r i e s the rainy s e a s o n f r o m point to point o v e r the surface of A m e r i c a . "At the period of the spring equinox, " he s a y s , "the valley of the l o w e r Orinoco is in its dry season; the m a r s h e s and plains in that region are converted into arid d e s e r t s ; the water has, so to speak, disappeared, and the t r a d e - w i n d s can v e r y readily b e a r away with them the dust that w h i r l s about on t h e s e parched savannas. Six months later, at the autumnal equinox, the relative position of the zones of c a l m and of the trade-winds has changed. It is the g r e a t e r part of the valley of the A m a z o n which b e c o m e s a prey to drought and which in its turn furnishes to the heavy b r e e z e s of that period of the y e a r the organic dust that we find in the other h e m i s p h e r e . " (pp. 2 4 9 - 2 5 1 ) T h e s e are not true fogs, of c o u r s e , but m o r e c l o s e l y allied to pollen f a l l s .

As an aside, the reputed muddiness of the Atlantic in ancient t i m e s was attributed to the foundering of Atlantis.

GFC-010

NINE YEARS OF CONTINUOUS COLLECTION OF BLACK, MAGNETIC SPHERULES FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

I

C r o z i e r , W. D. ; Journal of Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 7 1 : 6 0 3 - 6 1 0 , January 15, 1 9 6 6 . A b s t r a c t . Data on the deposition of black, magnetic spherules f r o m the a t m o s p h e r e , at two stations in central New M e x i c o , have accumulated for the 9 - y e a r period 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 6 4 . T h e s e spherules, which appear to be s i m i l a r to those which I have r e c o v e r e d f r o m various sedimentary rocks and to those recovered by others f r o m ice in Antarctica and Greenland and f r o m Paleozoic salts, a r e believed to be of e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l origin. The 9 - y e a r average of the annual rate of m a s s accretion to the earth, for spherules in the d i a m e t e r range to 5 to 60 ^, w a s approximately 1 . 0 4 x 10 g r a m s . The period included 2 y e a r s in which the annual infall was nearly 2. 5 x 1 0 * 1 g r a m s , however, and therefore the l o n g - t e r m average r e m a i n s somewhat uncertain. The s i z e d i s tributions show fluctuations but, in general, a r e s i m i l a r to those previously reported. The rate of deposition d e c r e a s e d f r o m 1956 to 1 9 6 2 , and high peaks occasionally o c c u r r e d . Interesting seasonal and biennial patterns appear in the rate of deposition, and there s e e m s to be a d e g r e e of correlation between the spherule rates and r a d a r m e t e o r r a t e s , the spherule rates leading the radar rates by about 6 w e e k s . In 1 9 6 3 , high r a t e s of spherule deposition coincided with unusually high r a d a r m e t e o r r a t e s .

The point of interest h e r e is the variation in rate of collection and its apparent dependence upon season and other f a c t o r s . T h e r e m a y be a relationship to c y c l e s in precipitation and other weather phenomena. See G W S .

G2-32

FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS
GFF-006 SHOWERS OF O R G A N I C MATTER

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M c A t e e , W a l d o L . ; Monthly Weather Review, 4 5 : 2 1 7 - 2 2 4 , May 1 9 1 7 . M c A t e e ' s survey is c l a s s i c and is quoted in full except for the numerous footnotes. W h e r e a footnote identifies the source of a d i r e c t quotation in the original M c A t e e a r t i c l e , it has been placed directly after the quotation. Introduction The idea of organic matter and particularly of living things raining down f r o m the sky, on first thought, is hard to entertain. T h e r e have been r e c o r d e d in all p e r i o d s of historic t i m e , however, showers of one kind or another of animals and plants or their products showers of hay, of grain, of manna, of blood, of f i s h e s , of f r o g s , and even of r a t s . In a g e s past, these phenomena, actual or supposed, w e r e all given supernatural significance; the blood rains t e r r o r i z e d the people, the manna rains inspired p r a y e r s of thanks they w e r e m i r a c l e s . In latter days, the tendency among intellectuals who have given the m a t t e r no particular attention, has been to a s s u m e that since preternatural explanations had usually been invoked (and they certainly were incredible) therefore the s h o w e r s t h e m s e l v e s probably never o c c u r r e d . However, so many wonderful things o c c u r in nature that negation of any observation is dangerous; it is better to p r e s e r v e a judicial attitude and r e g a r d all [authentic] information that c o m e s to hand as so much evidence, s o m e of it supporting one side, s o m e the other, of a given p r o b l e m . The evidence that counts the m o s t is that which c o m e s from those we have learned to r e s p e c t and trust. I m a y say that two s m a l l bits of testimony as to living things falling in rain, given me by my father, and by my friend, M r . A. N. Caudell, of the United States Bureau of Entomology, did m o r e than all I had e v e r read to a r o u s e my interest in the phenomena of organic s h o w e r s . M r . Caudell r e l a t e s that at his f o r m e r h o m e in Oklahoma, on one occasion after a b r i e f shower during an otherwise dry and hot period, numerous e a r t h w o r m s w e r e found on the seat of an open buggy standing in the y a r d . M r . Caudell's m o t h e r was reminded by this o c c u r r e n c e that y e a r s b e f o r e , in their f o r m e r h o m e in Indiana, a live minnow was found after a rain in water held by the hollow in the top of a chopping block. The experience of my father that b e a r s on this subject is that when in North Dakota s o m e y e a r s ago on coming indoors during a rain he found s e v e r a l e a r t h w o r m s on the b r i m of his hat. H e r e are facts vouched for by p e r s o n s in whom I have e v e r y confidence, proving to a certainty that living animals do rain down. How potent a r e such s m a l l phenomena, once fixed in the mind as well authenticated, to give one faith in the l a r g e r ones; but, on the other hand, how i m p o r tant is the conviction that s o m e extensive, s o m e r e a l l y great happening of the s a m e c l a s s r e a l l y has o c c u r r e d . When, t h e r e f o r e , I c a m e upon the statement by the famous F r e n c h scientist, F r a n c i s Castlenau, that he had seen fishes rain down in Singapore in such numbers that the natives went about picking them up by the basketful, I was ready to believe a l m o s t all the t a l e s , both great and s m a l l , relating to showers of o r g a n i s m s . And why should we not believe them ? Surely not f r o m any doubt as to the capacity of the wind to lift up, to transport, and to drop again, at m o r e or l e s s distant p l a c e s , o b j e c t s of the c h a r a c t e r and s i z e usually mentioned as falling in organic s h o w e r s . All strong winds have s o m e lifting powers; we s e e p a p e r s c a r r i e d into the a i r , blown hither and thither, and s o m e t i m e s c a r r i e d for long d i s t a n c e s . Sheets of paper have been identified as falling at p l a c e s 20 to 50

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m i l e s distant f r o m their starting point. Through e x p e r i e n c e s , s o m e t i m e s s a d dening ones, m o s t of us have learned that the wind can v e r y dexterously lift and transport such objects as hats, and I have known of a silk hat being taken f r o m a dignified gentleman's head as he was walking in front of the P o s t Office D e p a r t ment in Washington and c a r r i e d up, up, and away o v e r the Star Newspaper B u i l d ing (10 s t o r i e s high). In the s a m e city during the thunder squall of July 3 1 , 1 9 1 3 , tin roofs w e r e torn f r o m many h o u s e s and blown into the s t r e e t s . T h e s e a r e things which straight blowing winds can do, but when winds begin to whirl, their lifting and c a r r y i n g capacity i n c r e a s e s enormously. The little dust whirls we see s e e m inoffensive things, but they have surprising power. I saw one travel down a r o w of shocks in a cornfield, lift e v e r y one of them, and scatter the stalks to the four q u a r t e r s , doing in a minute work it would take a man a day to do or undo. Of c o u r s e this whirl was l a r g e r than those we f r e quently s e e on hot s u m m e r days, but whirlwinds, waterspouts, dust s t o r m s , and tornadoes are essentially the s a m e thing differing principally in d i m e n s i o n s . Wind whirls which m a y be said to be practically artificial in origin develop s u r prising power. Thus Theodore Dwight, of Stockbridge, M a s s . , states that those created by the burning of wood piled in a c l e a r i n g had sufficient f o r c e to lift t r e e s 6 to 8 inches in d i a m e t e r to a height of 40 to 50 feet. All wind whirls a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m o r e or l e s s strong inflow of a i r along the surface f r o m all directions to the b a s e of the whirl, where the inflowing currents ascend. The gyratory velocity of a tornado may be as much as 310 m i l e s p e r hour. T h i s would give at the earth's surface an effective f o r c e in moving an object of about 3 0 0 pounds for each square foot of surface exposed to the wind. The velocity of the ascending c u r r e n t s a l s o runs high, but if put at 176 m i l e s per hour would yield a lifting power of m o r e than 90 pounds to the square foot. That t h e s e f o r c e s are actually exerted is shown by s o m e of the remarkable doings of tornadoes. By the tornado at Beauregard, M i s s . , A p r i l 2 2 , 1 8 8 3 , the solid iron s c r e w of a cotton p r e s s , weighing 6 7 5 pounds, was c a r r i e d 900 feet. During the tornado of A p r i l 1 6 , 1 8 7 5 , at Walterborough, S. C . , a piece of t i m b e r 6 inches square and 40 feet long, weighing 600 pounds, was c a r r i e d a distance of 4 4 0 y a r d s , and a chicken coop, 4 by 4 feet and 75 pounds in weight, was transported 4 m i l e s . In the tornado at Mount C a r m e l , I I I . , June 4, 1 8 7 7 , a piece of tin roof was c a r r i e d 15 m i l e s and a church s p i r e 17 miles. T h e s e e x a m p l e s a r e quite as m a r v e l o u s as s o m e of the seemingly m i r a c u lous s h o w e r s r e c o r d e d of old. The children of I s r a e l believed in their manna because they gathered it with their own hands and ate of it, but surely their credulity would not have stood the test had s o m e prophet told them that in y e a r s to c o m e , in a land a c r o s s the sea, chickencoops and church s p i r e s would rain down f r o m the s k i e s . There is then, we m u s t admit, no r e a s o n for general suspicion towards the accounts of organic s h o w e r s . L i k e other r e c o r d s , they must be inspected and the good sifted f r o m the m a s s . We may separate at once certain c l a s s e s of alleged organic showers as spurious. A. Spurious Showers

Insect l a r v a e . — T h e rains of insect l a r v a e that have been investigated have proved to be m e r e l y the appearance in l a r g e numbers on the surface of the ground or upon snow of the l a r v a e of soldier b e e t l e s (Telephorus), or s o m e t i m e s c a t e r p i l l a r s , which have been driven f r o m their hibernating q u a r t e r s by the saturation of the soil by heavy rains or melting snow. Ants. Accounts of showers of ants have usually been founded on i n c u r sions of l a r g e numbers of winged ants, which of c o u r s e need no a s s i s t a n c e f r o m

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the e l e m e n t s to follow out their habit of s w a r m i n g forth periodically in i m m e n s e numbers. Honey; s u g a r . Showers of honey and of sugar a r e popular n a m e s for what scientists know a r e exudations of certain plants, or of plant l i c e which feed on a great v a r i e t y of plants and whose product is often known a l s o as honey-dew. G r a i n s . — S h o w e r s of grain, usually considered m i r a c u l o u s , have in m o s t c a s e s been determined to be m e r e l y the accumulation by washing during heavy rains of either the s e e d s or root t u b e r c l e s of plants of the immediate neighborhood. Black rain. Black rain is due to the precipitation from the atmosphere by falling water of soot, or in s o m e c a s e s of black dust. T h e s e showers a r e of interest, h o w e v e r , as illustrating the c a r r y i n g power of the wind; a rain of soot o b s e r v e d in Ireland and over the Atlantic Ocean to the westward is pretty definitely known to have been c a r r i e d by the wind f r o m W a l e s . The showers of mud resulting f r o m the precipitation of d a r k - c o l o r e d dust or dirt a r e c l o s e l y related to the organic s h o w e r s d i s c u s s e d further on, as the m a t e r i a l m u s t have been derived f r o m the earth's s u r f a c e , transported and deposited in the s a m e way, and in fact it is probable that all such rains bring with them s o m e proportion of s m a l l o r g a n i s m s . In the c a s e of a black snow, observed in New Y o r k in 1 8 8 9 , it was found that the c o l o r was due to "finely divided earth and vegetable mould. " In this c a s e it is certain that s m a l l o r g a n i s m s w e r e included among the d e b r i s , for it would be i m p o s s i b l e for the wind to sweep up enough vegetable mould to d i s c o l o r a snowfall without at the s a m e t i m e taking up a considerable number of s p o r e s , s e e d s , fruits, and s m a l l a n i m a l s . Blood r a i n s . The m o s t frequently reported showers that a r e spurious, at l e a s t in n a m e , a r e the s o - c a l l e d blood r a i n s . In all t i m e s the phenomena going under this name h a v e frightened the people and have been taken as portents of terrific c a l a m i t i e s . One of the famous plagues of Egypt was a bloody rain which prevailed throughout the whole land, continuing three days and three nights. H o m e r and Virgil both allude to blood r a i n s , and, in fact, the general subject of preternatural rains was a favorite with the older w r i t e r s . But scientific investigation has done away with the element of m y s t e r y in t h e s e phenomena and has explained, with the o t h e r s , the rains of blood. Some blood r a i n s have b e e n found to be the meconial fluid ejected by l a r g e numbers of certain lepidoptera simultaneously e m e r g i n g f r o m their c h r y s a l i d e s ; other red rains are due to the rapid multiplication in rain pools of algae and of r o t i f e r s containing red coloring matter; "red snow" results from the p r e s e n c e of s i m i l a r o r g a n i s m s . But in no c a s e have they rained down, except in the s e n s e that their s p o r e s or eggs have at s o m e time been transported, probably by the wind. The precipitation of m o i s t u r e furnishes favorable conditions for their rapid development and multiplication. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s u m m a r i e s of information relating to the anciently r e corded showers of m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a t t e r . Among them is that of Valentin A l b e r t i , "Dissertatio h i s t o r i c a physica de Pluvia prodigiosa", Leipzig, 1 6 7 4 ; one by P. J. Hartmann, published as an appendix to the M i s c e l l a n e a C u r i o s a * * * A c a d e m i a e I m p e r i a l i s Leopoldinae * * * Jena, 1689; another by J. C. Haebler, entitled "Dissertatio de pluviis p r o d i g i o s i s , " published at Erfurt in 1 6 9 5 , and a l s o one by C. G. Ehrenberg in 1847 (Abh. Kgl. P r e u s s . Akad. Wiss. Berlin.). F o r m o d e r n bibliographies covering the subject of organic s h o w e r s , see: F a s s i g , O. L. Bibliography of M e t e o r o l o g y , United States Signal S e r v i c e , Showers of M i s c e l l a n e o u s Matter, Part II, 1 8 8 9 , pages 3 6 7 - 3 9 1 , and Stuntz, S. C. , & F r e e , E. E. Bibliography of Eolian Geology, Bulletin 6 8 , United States Bureau of Soils, 1 9 1 1 , pages 1 7 4 - 2 6 3 .

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Manna. A n account o f m a n n a " r a i n s " c e r t a i n l y p e r t a i n s t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f s h o w e r s o f v e g e t a b l e m a t t e r , f o r the s u b s t a n c e m a n n a c o n s i s t s o f l i c h e n s o f the genus L e c a n o r a , but in none of the n u m e r o u s r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e s of m a n n a " r a i n s " i s t h e r e any d i r e c t e v i d e n c e that the s u b s t a n c e r e a l l y fell f r o m the s k y . T h e s e l i c h e n s f o r m , s m a l l , round b o d i e s that a r e e a s i l y blown o v e r the s u r f a c e of the ground and a c c u m u l a t e in d e p r e s s i o n s ; they a r e v e r y buoyant a l s o and hence e a s i l y drifted into m a s s e s during the r u n - o f f o f rain w a t e r . Manna " r a i n s " have not o c c u r r e d except i n c o u n t r i e s w h e r e t h e s e l i c h e n s a r e c o m m o n , and as f o r s t a t e m e n t s of their falling down upon r o o f s or upon p e o p l e , or f o r any other p r o o f s that they r e a l l y rained down, I have s e e n none. B. True Showers

Red r a i n s ; d u s t . O t h e r r e d r a i n s a r e c a u s e d b y the b r i n g i n g down i n r a i n water of a t m o s p h e r i c dust of a r e d d i s h c o l o r . T h i s hue u s u a l l y is noticed in rain falling in southern E u r o p e at a t i m e when the a i r is c h a r g e d with s i r o c c o dust. T h e c o m p o s i t i o n of this dust h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d and it h a s b e e n found t o contain s p o r e s , pollen g r a i n s , c o n f e r v o i d a l g a e , d i a t o m s , infus o r i a , and r o t i f e r s . I n 5 0 s a m p l e s o f s i r o c c o dust f r o m v a r i o u s p a r t s o f Italy pollen, s p o r e s , e t c . , w e r e found in e v e r y one. In s i r o c c o dust c o l l e c t e d at L y o n s , E h r e n b e r g c l a i m s to h a v e found 1 1 1 different s p e c i e s of i n f u s o r i a , and the total n u m b e r o f o r g a n i s m s e n u m e r a t e d b y h i m f r o m s a m p l e s o f such dust i s 3 2 0 . I n the L y o n s instance o r g a n i c f o r m s m a d e u p o n e - e i g h t h o f the e n t i r e m a s s o f the dust. Since v a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s p l a c e the amount o f s i r o c c o d u s t i n a fall at f r o m 5 - 1 / 2 to 9 tons to the s q u a r e m i l e , it w i l l be s e e n that a fall of a ton o f m i c r o s c o p i c o r g a n i s m s p e r s q u a r e m i l e i s within the bounds o f p o s s i bility. It is not only the hot and d r y s i r o c c o that is laden with dust containing o r g a n i s m s , for indeed they a r e i n the a i r e v e r y w h e r e a t a l l t i m e s . The r e s e a r c h e s o f M M . M i q u e l and B o u d i e r i n F r a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y have elucidated the nature of a t m o s p h e r i c dust. T h e a t m o s p h e r e a l w a y s is c h a r g e d with a l a r g e n u m b e r of organic e n t i t i e s . T h e v e g e t a b l e constituents a r e c h i e f l y b a c i l l i and the s p o r e s o f c r y p t o g a m s , a s o f fungi, l i c h e n s , m o s s e s , and a l g a e . There are also hairs of plants, f i b e r s of cotton, flax, and h e m p , p o l l e n s of e v e r y f o r m , and s t a r c h grains. T h e a n i m a l r e m a i n s include epithelial c e l l s , h a i r s , s h r e d s o f f e a t h e r s , bits of down and w o o l , s c a l e s of l e p i d o p t e r a , and the e g g s of i n f u s o r i a . The quantity of s u s p e n d e d m a t t e r in the a i r is high in s u m m e r and l o w in w i n t e r , and l e s s at high altitudes than in l o w e r a r e a s n e a r e r the s o u r c e of the b o d i e s found. Special f o r m s o f a e r o s c o p e s h a v e b e e n d e v i s e d t o c o l l e c t s a m p l e s o f a t m o s pheric dust. I n one f o r m d e s c r i b e d b y M r . Hubert A i r y , w e r e caught i n the city of London, the following things additional to t h o s e j u s t n a m e s : L i v i n g m i t e s , e n t o m o s t r a c a , and d i a t o m s . It a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , that a g r e a t v a r i e t y of s m a l l o r g a n i s m s or t h e i r s p o r e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the a i r a t all t i m e s , that they a r e f r e e l y c a r r i e d about b y the w i n d s , and a r e constantly b e i n g p r e c i p i t a t e d e i t h e r in dust or in falling m o i s ture. T h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e minute f o r m s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y u n l i m i t e d , f o r dust c l o u d s t r a v e l indefinite d i s t a n c e s . In the United States a dust s t o r m and m u d s h o w e r w a s o b s e r v e d o n the s a m e d a y i n I l l i n o i s , N e w Y o r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a , and N e w J e r s e y . T h i s s h o w s t r a n s p o r t of the m a t e r i a l o v e r a third of the breadth of the United States, if indeed all of it did not c o m e f r o m the w e s t e r n p l a i n s . A dust cloud a thousand, p e r h a p s two thousand m i l e s in length w a s o b s e r v e d a t s e a b y J . M i l n e when 2 0 0 t o 4 0 0 m i l e s distant f r o m the c o a s t o f China, f r o m w h o s e l o e s s plains i t w a s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d . T h i s dust contained s h r e d s of p l a n t s . At t i m e s of g r e a t v o l c a n i c activity, dust c l o u d s have e n c i r c l e d the w o r l d . T h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , no l i m i t to the distribution of

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atmospheric dust, and therefore probably none to that of the minute o r g a n i s m s that a r e one of its constant components. Showers of plants and invertebrates. Pollen f a l l s , sulphur r a i n s . Pollen of various plants, as previously noted, is one of the m o s t c o m m o n constituents of atmospheric dust; for instance, Miquel found that there are often a thousand pollen grains to each cubic m e t e r of a i r . But pollen d e s e r v e s m o r e extended notice because it is r e a l l y s h o w e r s of pollen that have been so often reported as showers of sulphur. The yellow c o l o r suggested sulphur; pollen, especially of pine, is highly i n f l a m m a b l e , the imagination supplied the s m e l l of b r i m s t o n e , and superstition jumped at the conclusion that the devil had been busy. The occasional phosphorescent a p p e a r ance of pollen falls at night a l s o has encouraged preternatural speculations. The following is extracted f r o m an account of a pollen shower in England in early June, a fall of fine yellow dust which coated the surface of rain water in b a r r e l s and p o o l s , was taken by the uneducated for a fall of sulphur. It was said by the imaginative to s m e l l "awful like b r i m s t o n e " and to p r e s a g e the end of the world. Examination of the dust under a m i c r o s c o p e at once showed it to be the pollen of pine. Another writer adds: As this m y s t e r y , if it is not explained, may prove serious to the nervous, superstitious, or credulous part of the community, we may as well add that at this s e a s o n districts in the neighborhood of fir (Pinus sylvestris) plantations run the r i s k of a thorough dusting of this powder if there is the slightest b r e e z e , as the cones of the young Scots fir are thickly coated with yellow powder or pollen, which will give out a blinding saffron cloud on the slightest disturbance. f Nature, 2 0 : 2 6 7 ] The appearance of a conspicuous movement of pollen has been well described by Dr. D. P. Thomson. On the afternoon of June 1 1 , 1 8 4 7 , the wooded part of M o r a y s h i r e appeared to s m o k e , and for a t i m e fears were entertained that the fir plantations were on fire. A s m a r t b r e e z e suddenly got up f r o m the north and above the woods there appeared to r i s e about 50 columns of something resembling s m o k e , which was wreathed about like waterspouts. The atmosphere now calmed and the m y s t e r y was solved, for what s e e m e d s m o k e was in reality the pollen of the woods. flntroduction to Meteorology, 1849] The e a s e with which pollen is taken up into the a i r together with the prodigal profusion with which it is produced make it e a s y to understand the frequency of the s o - c a l l e d sulphur rains. In March 1 8 7 9 , s e v e r a l instances of yellow rain or snow o c c u r r e d in the United States. Prof. W. H. Chandler of Lehigh U n i v e r sity, South Bethlehem, Pa. , writes that during Saturday night, M a r c h 1 6 , 1 8 7 9 , there was a slight fall of snow in that section and on Monday morning when the snow had melted, a yellow deposit was found covering the ground m o r e or l e s s . Upon examining the deposit, it was found to be the pollen of pine t r e e s . The United States Signal Corps o b s e r v e r at New O r l e a n s , reports light showers on the 17th of the s a m e month, and states that "a peculiar feature of the rain was its yellow c o l o r , which was due to large quantities of the pollen of the c y p r e s s tree floating in the atmosphere. " The United States Signal Corps o b s e r v e r at Lynchburg, V a . , forwarded on M a r c h 2 1 , 1 8 7 9 , a s a m p l e of the yellow deposit which had fallen with the rain the preceding night and " * * *it was found to c o n sist * * * entirely of the characteristic triple-grained pollen of the pine. " A pollen shower at Pictou, Nova Scotia, in June, 1 8 4 1 , was so heavy that bucketMs w e r e swept up on a ship. This material was entirely the pollen of pine t r e e s . As showing how far pollen may be transported by the wind, it is noted

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that "A shower of this kind fell at Lund at the south of Sweden, which M. Agardh (Nova Acta, 12) found to contain the pollen of Pinus s y l v e s t r i s or Scotch fir, borne on the wind f r o m a forest about 35 m i l e s d i s t a n t . " H a y . — T h e vegetable substance, which, after pollen, figures m o s t frequently in the accounts of actual showers of organic m a t t e r , is hay. This should not be surprising, since the material is comparatively light and is available at the time of y e a r when wind whirls a r e m o s t frequent. The first step in the d e v e l o p ment of a shower of hay was observed by Prof. F. E. Nipher, who d e s c r i b e s a whirlwind that picked up hay and c a r r i e d it in the f o r m of an inverted cone about 2 0 0 feet high and 150 feet in d i a m e t e r at the top. The whirl was followed for about half a m i l e when it disappeared over a hill. The complete phenomenon, on a s m a l l s c a l e , is d e s c r i b e d as follows by Sir F r a n c i s Galton: We had a curious sight * * * yesterday (July 2 6 , 1891). It was a dead c a l m , but in a field just below the garden * * * the hay was whirled up high into the sky, a column connecting above and below, and in the c o u r s e of the evening we found great patches of hay raining down all over the surrounding meadows and our garden. It kept falling quite four hours after the affair. [Nature, 4 4 - 2 9 4 ] On June 3 0 , 1 8 9 2 , a large quantity of hay was taken up by a whirlwind at Nether P r i o r s , E s s e x , England, and fell at Belchamp, about 3 m i l e s to the north. In two other c a s e s noted, one in London, the other in Ireland, the hay was seen floating at a great height in the atmosphere and then to fall. Wheat. In my introductory r e m a r k s I stated that most of the s o - c a l l e d showers of grain w e r e spurious. However "in 1804 * * * a real rainfall of wheat took place in Andalusia, which had been c a r r i e d by a hurricane a c r o s s the Straits of G i b r a l t a r , from a threshing floor at T e t u a n . " Meteoric "paper. " A substance which has fallen from the sky, and has been called "meteoric paper, " was proved in one c a s e at least to be vegetable matter of t e r r e s t r i a l origin. Ehrenberg who investigated the c a s e s a y s "On the 3 1 s t of January, 1 6 8 7 , a great m a s s of p a p e r - l i k e , black substance fell with a violent snowstorm * * * near the village of Rauden in Courland." Some of the substance was p r e s e r v e d and it was 152 y e a r s later that Ehrenberg examined it and found it to consist "of a compactly matted m a s s of Conferva crispata, t r a c e s of Nostoc and of about 29 * * * s p e c i e s of infusoria." This material was undoubtedly the c r u s t s of dried algae which form on the surface of the ground exposed by the evaporation of the water of shallow ponds. This p a p e r like substance could easily be lifted up by the wind and carried a long distance. Jelly or "flesh." Manna is the bread of organic showers; but what is the m e a t ? Showers of flesh have often been recorded and they have proved to be precipitations of a glairy substance, which upon partial drying formed enough of a skin on the outside to induce people to call it flesh. When found fresh, this material has been compared to butter. Probably m o s t if not all of it is the material known as zooglea formed on the surface of water where bacteria are actively multiplying. The substance known as zoogen or zoiodin is probably the s a m e . An extensive shower of such j e l l y - l i k e material occurred in Bath County, K y . , in 1 8 7 6 , and was r e f e r r e d to as the dried spawn of fishes or of s o m e batrachian. Such spawn really has rained down a l s o , if we may believe the account of M. Moreau de St. M e r y , relating to an observation in San Domingo. F r o m November, 1 7 8 5 , to the 5th of M a y , 1 7 8 6 , there was experienced a terrible drought. The last day, v i z , May 5, 1 7 8 6 , there fell during a strong east wind, in s e v e r a l parts of the city of Port au Prince * * * a great quantity of black e g g s , which hatched the following day. M. M o z a r d p r e s e r v e d about 50 of these small a n i m a l s in a flask half full of water, where they shed their

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skins s e v e r a l t i m e s . They r e s e m b l e d tadpoles. fA Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica, 1851] Other jelly rains have proved to c o n s i s t of the egg m a s s e s of m i d g e s , and of colonies of infusoria. A shower of the latter is d e s c r i b e d as follows by L. Jenyns in his article on a s o - c a l l e d s t o r m of i n s e c t s at Bath, England: T h e r e had been a sudden squall of wind before there c a m e a heavy rain, and my idea is that these o r g a n i s m s must have been lifted up by the f o r c e of the wind, acting in a gyratory manner, f r o m s o m e shallow pool in the neighborhood. * * * A boy at the station first noticed them (that i s , the spherical m a s s e s in which the o r g a n i s m s w e r e grouped) falling on his coat * * *; as the rain fell m o r e heavily the platform * * * was c o v e r e d with them. [Zoologist, 6:2286] Insects. The popular designation of these infusoria as i n s e c t s of c o u r s e was due to the v e r y wide m i s u s e of this t e r m . I have noted previously that the alleged s h o w e r s of insect larvae a l s o w e r e not genuine, but there have been apparently a few real rains of i n s e c t s . Two which occurred in Germany are d e s c r i b e d as follows: At Szentes, August 14, between 9 and 10 p. m. a deep-black cloud suddenly appeared in the evening sky. Soon thereafter began a downpour, not of rain, but of winged i n s e c t s , which in a few minutes c o v e r e d the ground a foot deep. At St. Catherine a d. L a m m i n g (Obersteiermark) on the 10th and 11th of August, insect rains also occurred, which while not so r e m a r k a b l e , still w e r e very annoying. The insects w e r e in part s m a l l neuropteroids and in part winged ants. fMeteorol, Z t s c h r . , 18:426] Accounts of three other showers which have been gleaned f r o m French publications a r e circumstantial, and c l e a r l y show sustained transport of i n s e c t s by the wind and their falling f r o m the skies after the manner of rain; Toward the end of M a y , M. L. Aude, * * * while returning f r o m Mortagne to H e r b i e r s , w a s caught in a violent s t o r m f r o m the northeast which, during a heavy rain, c o v e r e d his conveyance with a multitude of G r y l l u s . The wind was cold and the Orthoptera falling in the midst of the rain appeared l i f e l e s s . T h e s e * * * a r e all in the larval state and are G r y l l u s domesticus of authors. [Bui. Soc. ent. France, p. 9 6 , 1858] Rey de Morande in describing a shower of insects and spiders in HauteSavoie, s a y s : On the night of January 2 9 - 3 0 [ 1 8 6 9 ? ] , about 4 : 3 0 a. m . , with a violent gust of wind which soon c e a s e d , snow fell until day, and in the morning there w e r e found on this snow a l a r g e quantity of living l a r v a e . * * * (The t e m p e r a ture for s o m e days b e f o r e had been v e r y l o w . ) * * * They appeared to b e , for the m o s t part, larvae of T r o g o s i t a mauritanica, which are c o m m o n in old t r e e s in the f o r e s t s in southern F r a n c e . T h e r e w e r e found a l s o larvae of a little moth * * * probably Stibia stagnicola. T h i s shower of insects and spiders at an altitude of 1 , 0 0 0 to 1, 200 m e t e r s , can not be explained except by t r a n s portation by a violent wind f r o m central or southern F r a n c e . M. T i s s o t , * * * who observed the phenomenon, adds, that in N o v e m b e r , 1 8 5 4 , s e v e r a l thousands of insects, m o s t l y living w e r e thrown down by a v i o lent wind in the vicinity of Turin. Some w e r e l a r v a e and s o m e adult and all appeared to be of a species of hemiptera that had never been collected except on the i s l e of Sardinia. [Bui, h e b d . , A s s o c . s c i . de F r a n c e , 5:242] Molluscs. Before leaving the consideration of invertebrates we m a y note that: "A shower of m u s s e l s , s o m e weighting [sic] about 2 ounces, fell during a s e v e r e s t o r m , on the 9th of August, 1 8 3 4 , in the United States. The following y e a r another shower of m o l l u s c o u s a n i m a l s , Bulimus truncatus, took place at Montpelier [ F r a n c e ] .

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Falls of vertebrate organisms

T h e fall o f v e r t e b r a t e a n i m a l s f r o m the s k i e s l i k e r a i n i s , o f c o u r s e , the m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g of all the s h o w e r s of organic m a t t e r , and it m u s t be a d m i t t e d — t h e hardest to believe. Y e t t h e r e cannot b e the s l i g h t e s t doubt that t h e r e a r e genuine p h e n o m e n a of this c h a r a c t e r , though p e r h a p s not so n u m e r o u s as the r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e s . T h e s e o c c u r r e n c e s , i f o b s e r v e d b y m a n , naturally m a k e profound i m p r e s s i o n s and in the olden t i m e s e s p e c i a l l y , the t a l e s of s h o w e r s of f i s h e s and the l i k e w e r e i m p r o v e d by each t e l l e r , so that soon they r e a c h e d the s t a g e of the u n b e l i e v a b l e . Frogs, toads. 1 quote only one of the o l d e r w r i t e r s , A t h e n a e u s , who flourished about 2 0 0 A. D. He is the author of a p o l y h i s t o r i c a l work c a l l e d the " D e i p n o s o p h i s t s , " in which he quotes about 8 0 0 authors, w h o s e w o r k s he c o n sulted at the A l e x a n d r i a n L i b r a r y , 7 0 0 to w h o m would have been unknown, except f o r the fortunate p r e s e r v a t i o n of A t h e n a e u s ' w o r k . In a chapter entitled "De pluvius p i s c i u m , " he s a y s : I know a l s o that it h a s v e r y often rained f i s h e s . At all events P h e n i a s , in the second b o o k of h i s E r e s i a n M a g i s t r a t e s , s a y s that in the C h e r s o n e s u s it once rained fish uninterruptedly for t h r e e d a y s ; and P h y l a r c h u s in h i s fourth book, s a y s that p e o p l e had often s e e n it raining fish, and often a l s o raining wheat, and that the s a m e thing had happened with r e s p e c t to f r o g s . At all events H e r a c l i d e s L e m b u s , in the 2 1 s t book of h i s h i s t o r y , s a y s : "In P a e o n i a and Dardinia, it h a s , they s a y , b e f o r e now rained f r o g s ; and so g r e a t h a s b e e n the n u m b e r of t h e s e f r o g s that the h o u s e s and the r o a d s have b e e n full with them; and at first f o r s o m e days the inhabitants, endeavoring to kill t h e m , and shutting up t h e i r h o u s e s endured the pest; but when they did no good, but found that all t h e i r v e s s e l s w e r e filled with t h e m , and the f r o g s w e r e found to be boiled up and r o a s t e d with everything they ate, and when b e s i d e s all this they could not m a k e u s e of any w a t e r , nor put t h e i r feet on the ground f o r the h e a p s of f r o g s that w e r e e v e r y w h e r e , and w e r e annoyed a l s o by the s m e l l of t h o s e that died, they fled the c o u n t r y . " [The D e i p n o s o p h i s t s or Banquet of the L e a r n e d , Book X V , pt. 2 , pp. 5 2 6 - 5 2 7 ] F o r n u m b e r s of f r o g s and the f a r reaching effects of their fall this t a l e c a n s c a r c e l y b e s u r p a s s e d , but i t will b e well t o recount s o m e l a t e r i n s t a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y s o m e o f the m o r e c i r c u m s t a n t i a l o n e s . Holinshed i n f o r m s u s that in G r e a t B r i t a i n F r o g s fell i n A n g u e s h i r e during the t i m e o f A g r i c o l a . F r o g s were reported to have d e s c e n d e d , during the s u m m e r of 1 8 4 6 o v e r the H u m b e r , upon the d e c k s of v e s s e l s in the r i v e r and on the c o a s t near K i l l i n g h o m e l i g h t s . [Thompson, David P. ; Introduction to M e t e o r o l o g y , pp. 1 6 4 - 1 6 5 , 1 8 4 9 ] A l a t e r a c c o u n t s r e c i t e s that During the s t o r m that r a g e d with c o n s i d e r a b l e fury in B i r m i n g h a m (England) on W e d n e s d a y m o r n i n g , June 30 [ 1 8 9 2 ] , a s h o w e r of f r o g s fell in the suburb of M o s e l e y . T h e y w e r e found s c a t t e r e d about s e v e r a l g a r d e n s . A l m o s t white i n c o l o r , they had evidently b e e n a b s o r b e d in a s m a l l waterspout that w a s d r i v e n o v e r B i r m i n g h a m b y the t e m p e s t . [ S y m o n ' s M e t e o r o l o g i c a l M a g a z i n e , 3 2 : 1 0 7 ] S e v e r a l n o t i c e s h a v e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e b e e n brought b e f o r e the F r e n c h A c a d e m y of s h o w e r s of f r o g s having fallen in different p a r t s of F r a n c e . M. Duparque s t a t e s in a l e t t e r that In A u g u s t , 1 8 1 4 , after s e v e r a l w e e k s of drouth and heat, a s t o r m b r o k e one Sunday about 3 : 3 0 p. m . , upon the v i l l a g e of F r e m o n , a q u a r t e r l e a g u e from Amiens. T h i s s t o r m w a s p r e c e d e d b y b u r s t s o f wind s o violent that they shook the c h u r c h and frightened the c o n g r e g a t i o n . W h i l e t r a v e r s i n g the s p a c e s e p a r a t i n g the church f r o m p r e s b y t e r y , we w e r e s o a k e d , but what s u r p r i s e d

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m e w a s t o b e s t r u c k o n m y p e r s o n and m y clothing b y s m a l l f r o g s . * * * A l a r g e n u m b e r of t h e s e s m a l l a n i m a l s hopped about on the ground. On a r r i v i n g at the p r e s b y t e r y , we found the f l o o r of one of the r o o m s in which a window facing the s t o r m had b e e n left open c o v e r e d with w a t e r and f r o g s . [L'Institut, 2:354] S h o w e r s o f toads s e e m t o b e m o r e c o m m o n i n s o m e r e g i o n s than t h o s e o f f r o g s . I have s e e n accounts of 13 different o c c u r r e n c e s of the kind in F r a n c e . A F r e n c h s c i e n t i s t M. Mauduy, c u r a t o r of natural h i s t o r y at P o i t i e r s , had p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e with two such s h o w e r s , which h e n a r r a t e s b r i e f l y a s follows: On the 23d of June, 1 8 0 9 , during a hot s p e l l , I w a s caught in a rain s t o r m in which with the v e r y l a r g e d r o p s w e r e m i x e d little b o d i e s the s i z e of h a z e l n u t s , which in a m o m e n t , c o v e r e d the ground, and which I r e c o g n i z e d as l i t t l e t o a d s . * * * T h e s e c o n d o c c a s i o n , o c c u r r e d in A u g u s t , 1 8 2 2 , during a s t o r m y and v e r y hot p e r i o d . I w a s again s u r p r i s e d by a heavy s h o w e r of l a r g e d r o p s m i x e d , as w a s the other, with little t o a d s , s o m e of which fell on my hat. T h i s t i m e the a n i m a l s w e r e the s i z e of walnuts. I found that I w a s m o r e than a l e a g u e d i s tant f r o m any b r o o k , r i v e r , o r m a r s h . fL'Institut, 2 : 4 0 9 ] A c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n of the subject of r a i n s of toads w a s c a r r i e d on in 1 8 3 4 in the F r e n c h scientific m a g a z i n e f r o m which I have quoted. I c i t e two m o r e b i t s of t e s t i m o n y by e y e w i t n e s s e s , one of which h a s b e e n widely reproduced. M. Heard, writes: In June, 1 8 3 3 , I w a s at Jouy near V e r s a i l l e . I s a w toads falling f r o m the sky; they s t r u c k my u m b r e l l a ; I saw t h e m hopping on the p a v e m e n t , during about 10 m i n u t e s in which t i m e the d r o p s of w a t e r w e r e not m o r e n u m e r o u s than the t o a d s . T h e s p a c e upon which I s a w the multitude of t h e s e a n i m a l s w a s about 2 0 0 f a t h o m s . fL'Institut, 2 : 3 5 3 ] M. Peltier in his oft-copied statement says: In support of the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of C o l . M a r m i e r , I cite an incident I o b s e r v e d in my youth; a s t o r m advanced upon the little v i l l a g e of H a m , D e p a r t m e n t of the S o m m e , w h e r e I l i v e d , and I o b s e r v e d its m e n a c i n g m a r c h , when suddenly rain f e l l in t o r r e n t s . I saw the v i l l a g e s q u a r e c o v e r e d e v e r y w h e r e with little l o a d s . A s t o n i s h e d by this sight, I held out my hand and w a s s t r u c k by s e v e r a l of the r e p t i l e s . The d o o r y a r d a l s o w a s c o v e r e d ; I saw t h e m fall upon the s l a t e r o o f and rebound to the p a v e m e n t . * * * W h a t e v e r the difficulty of explaining the t r a n s p o r t of the r e p t i l e s , I a f f i r m , without doubt the fact which m a d e such a profound i m p r e s s i o n upon m y m e m o r y . [L'Institut, 2 : 3 4 6 - 3 4 7 ] The m o s t r e m a r k a b l e account of a s h o w e r of t o a d s , that I have s e e n , so i s the following: In the s u m m e r of 1 7 9 4 M. Gayet w a s q u a r t e r e d in the v i l l a g e of L a l a i n , D e p a r t m e n t du N o r d , * * * n e a r the t e r r i t o r y which the A u s t r i a n s , then m a s t e r s of V a l e n c i e n n e s , had flooded with w a t e r f r o m the S c a r p e . It w a s v e r y hot. Suddenly, at about 3 o ' c l o c k in the afternoon, t h e r e fell such an abundance of rain that 1 5 0 m e n of the grand guard, in o r d e r not to be s u b m e r g e d , w e r e obliged to l e a v e a l a r g e d e p r e s s i o n in which they w e r e hidden. But what w a s t h e i r s u r p r i s e when t h e r e began to fall on the ground all about a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of t o a d s , the s i z e of h a z e l n u t s , which b e g a n to j u m p about in e v e r y direction. M . Gayet, who could not b e l i e v e that t h e s e m y r i a d s o f r e p t i l e s fell with the rain, s t r e t c h e d out his handkerchief at the height of a m a n , h i s c o m r a d e s holding the c o r n e r s ; they caught a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of t o a d s , m o s t of which had the p o s t e r i o r part elongated into a tail, that is to s a y , in the tadpole s t a t e . During this rain s t o r m , which l a s t e d about half an h o u r , the m e n of the grand guard felt v e r y distinctly on their hats and on t h e i r clothing the b l o w s struck by the falling t o a d s . As a final proof of the r e a l i t y far,

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o f this phenomenon, M . Gayet r e p o r t s that after the s t o r m the t h r e e - c o r n e r e d hats of the m e n of the guard held in t h e i r folds s o m e of the r e p t i l e s . [L'Institut, 2 : 3 5 4 ] Fish. F o r r e p o r t s of the falling of f r o g s and t o a d s f r o m the s k i e s , we have b e e n f a r afield, f o r the v e r y good r e a s o n that I h a v e not found any c a s e s r e p o r t e d f o r the United S t a t e s . But for f i s h e s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e p o r t s . B e f o r e giving t h e s e a c c o u n t s , allow me to introduce a few s t a t e m e n t s that tend to s h o w how f i s h e s get s t a r t e d on the a e r i a l j o u r n e y s that t e r m i n a t e in fish r a i n s . T o show the t r e m e n d o u s p o w e r o f w a t e r s p o u t s , w e m a y quote M . O e r s t e d ' s d e c l a r a t i o n that " A t C h r i s t i a n s o e a w a t e r s p o u t e m p t i e d the h a r b o u r to such an extent that the g r e a t e r part of the bottom w a s u n c o v e r e d . " Naturally under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s f i s h e s and any other o r g a n i s m s in the water m a y change t h e i r habitat v e r y abruptly. W a t e r s p o u t s have been o b s e r v e d t o a c c o m p l i s h the c o m p a r a t i v e l y insignificant t a s k s of e m p t y i n g fish ponds and s c a t t e r i n g their occupants. A prodigy of this kind is r e c o r d e d to h a v e o c c u r r e d in F r a n c e , at a town s o m e d i s t a n c e f r o m P a r i s , during a violent s t o r m . W h e n m o r n i n g dawned, the s t r e e t s w e r e found s t r e w e d with fish o f v a r i o u s s i z e s . The m y s t e r y was soon s o l v e d , f o r a fish pond in the vicinity had b e e n blown d r y , and only the l a r g e fish left behind. [Reess' Cyclopedia] So, d u r i n g a s t o r m on D e c e m b e r 2 8 , 1 8 4 5 , at B a s s e n t h w a i t e , England, fish w e r e blown f r o m the l a k e t o d r y land. P r o c e e d i n g now t o the United States r e c o r d s , M r . T h o m a s R . B a k e r states that During a recent t h u n d e r s t o r m at W i n t e r P a r k , F l a . , a n u m b e r of fish f e l l with the r a i n . T h e y w e r e sunfish f r o m 2 to 4 inches long. It is supposed that they w e r e taken up by a waterspout f r o m L a k e V i r g i n i a , and c a r r i e d w e s t w a r d by the strong wind that w a s blowing at the t i m e . The d i s t a n c e f r o m the lake to the place w h e r e they fell is about a m i l e . [Science, 2 1 : 3 3 5 ] In the Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w f o r June, 1 9 0 1 (p. 2 6 3 ) , is the note " M r . J . W . G a r d n e r , voluntary o b s e r v e r a t T i l l e r s F e r r y , S . C . , r e p o r t s that during a heavy l o c a l s h o w e r about June 27 [ 1 9 0 1 ] t h e r e fell hundreds of little fish (cat, p e r c h , trout, e t c . ) that w e r e a f t e r w a r d s found s w i m m i n g in the p o o l s between the cotton r o w s . " In a l l , I am acquainted with four r e c o r d s of f a l l s of f i s h e s in the United States, two in South A m e r i c a , eight in G r e a t B r i t a i n , two in F r a n c e , and six in India and neighboring c o u n t r i e s : T h e s e a r e all well vouched f o r , or f a i r l y m o d e r n and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d i n s t a n c e s . The o l d e r , chiefly t r a d i t i o n a l , r e c o r d s would m a k e a l o n g l i s t . One of the m o s t ancient r e c o r d s of fish having fallen f r o m the a t m o s p h e r e in G r e a t B r i t a i n is the following: About E a s t e r , 1 6 6 6 , in the p a r i s h of Stanstead, which is a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e f r o m the s e a , or any branch of it, and a p l a c e w h e r e t h e r e a r e no fish ponds and r a t h e r s c a r c i t y of w a t e r , a p a s t u r e field w a s s c a t t e r e d all o v e r with s m a l l fish, in quantity about a b u s h e l , s u p posed to h a v e been rained down f r o m a cloud, t h e r e having been at the t i m e a g r e a t t e m p e s t of thunder, rain, and wind. T h e fish w e r e about the s i z e of a m a n ' s little f i n g e r . S o m e w e r e like s m a l l whitings, o t h e r s like s p r a t s , and s o m e s m a l l e r , l i k e s m e l t s . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e fish w e r e sold publicly a t M a i d stone and D a r t f o r d . A s h o w e r of h e r r i n g s is r e c o r d e d to have taken p l a c e n e a r to Loch L e v e n , in K i n r o s s - s h i r e , about the y e a r 1 8 2 5 ; the wind b l e w f r o m the F r i t h of F o r t h at the t i m e , and d o u b t l e s s the fish had been thereby c a r r i e d f r o m the s e a a c r o s s F i f e s h i r e to the p l a c e w h e r e they w e r e found. In 1 8 2 8 ,

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s i m i l a r fish fell in the county of R o s s , 3 m i l e s distant f r o m the Frith of Dingwall. On the 9th of M a r c h , 1 8 3 0 , in the I s l e of Ula, in A r g y l e s h i r e , after a heavy rain, n u m b e r s of s m a l l h e r r i n g s w e r e found scattered o v e r the fields; they w e r e perfectly fresh, and s o m e not quite dead. On the 30th of June, 1 8 4 1 , a fish m e a s u r i n g 10 inches in length, with others of s m a l l e r s i z e , fell at Boston; and during a thunderstorm, on the 8th of July, in the s a m e y e a r , fish and i c e fell together at Derby. [Thompson, D. P . ; Introduction of M e t e o r o l o g y , p . 1 0 3 , 1849] A convincing statement of personal experience with a rain of fishes is that of John L e w i s , of A b d e r d a r e , who s a y s that while working, February 9: I w a s startled by something falling all o v e r me down my neck, on my head, and on my back. On putting my hand down my neck I was s u r p r i s e d to find they w e r e little fish. By this time I saw the whole ground c o v e r e d with them. I took off my hat, the b r i m of which was full of them. * * * They c o v e r e d the ground in a long strip about 80 y a r d s by 12 y a r d s , as we m e a s u r e d a f t e r w a r d s . * * * We gathered a great many of them * * * and threw them into the rain pool, where s o m e of them now a r e . * * * It was not blowing very hard, but uncommon wet. * * * The p e r s o n who took this testimony adds that he secured about 20 of the little fish, s o m e of which w e r e 4 and 5 inches long. A number of these fishes w e r e exhibited for s e v e r a l weeks in the aquaria house of the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park, London. [Tomlinson, C h a r l e s ; The Rain-cloud and the Snow-storm, pp. 1 9 3 - 1 9 4 ] The accounts of rains of fishes in South A m e r i c a are by Alexander von Humboldt, whose language relating to them is as follows: When the earthquakes, which precede every eruption in the chain of the Andes, shake with mighty f o r c e the entire m a s s of the volcanoes, the s u b t e r ranean vaults a r e opened and emit at the s a m e t i m e water, fishes, and tufamud. T h i s is the singular phenomenon that furnishes the fish P i m e l o d e s cyclopum, which the inhabitants of the highlands of Quito c a l l "Prefiadilla, " and which was d e s c r i b e d by me soon after my return. When the s u m m i t of the mountain C a r g u a i r a z o to the north of C h i m b o r a z o and 1 8 , 0 0 0 feet high, fell, in the night between the 19th and 20th of June, 1 6 9 8 , the surrounding fields, to the extent of about 43 English square m i l e s , w e r e covered with mud and fishes. The f e v e r which raged in the town of I b a r r a seven y e a r s b e f o r e had been a s c r i b e d to a s i m i l a r eruption of fishes f r o m the volcano Imbaburu. [Annuals of Philosophy, 2 2 : 1 3 0 ] There a r e s e v e r a l well authenticated reports of falls of fish in India, and this has given r i s e to the belief that the phenomenon is m o r e frequent there than e l s e w h e r e . T h i s may be true on account of the favoring c i r c u m s t a n c e s of extensive r i v e r flood plains, numerous shallow water tanks, a fish fauna rich in shoal water f o r m s , and a hot whirlwind-breeding c l i m a t e . Certainly the description of fish rains in that part of the world are numerous, specific, and astonishing as to the magnitude of the phenomena. One of the oldest r e p o r t s , brief but with a humerous touch, I quote first. It is by Lieut. John Harriott, who s a y s : In a heavy shower of rain, while our a r m y was on the m a r c h a short d i s tance f r o m Pondicherry, a quantity of s m a l l fish fell with the rain to the astonishment of a l l . Many of them lodged on the m e n ' s hats.* * * They w e r e not flying fish, they w e r e dead and falling f r o m the well-known effect of gravity; but how they ascended or where they existed I do not pretend to account. I m e r e l y relate the s i m p l e fact. [Struggles through Life, pp. 1 4 1 - 1 4 2 , 1809] A v e r y valuable account of a shower of fishes is that by J. P r i n s e p , editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He writes: The phenomenon of fish falling f r o m the sky in the rainy season, however

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incredible it m a y appear, has been attested by such circumstantial evidence that no reasonable doubt can be entertained of the fact. I was as incredulous as my neighbors until I once found a small fish in the b r a s s funnel of my pluviometer at B e n a r e s . I have now b e f o r e me a note of a s i m i l a r phenomenon, on a c o n s i d e r a b l e s c a l e which happened at the Nokulhatty factory, Zillah D a c c a Jedalpur, in 1 8 3 0 . M r . C a m e r o n , who communicated the fact, took the precaution of having a regular deposition of the evidence of s e v e r a l natives who had witnessed the fall made in Bengalee and attested b e f o r e the m a g i s t r a t e ; the statement is well worthy of p r e s e r v a t i o n in a journal of s c i e n c e . * * * The shower of fish took place on the 19th of F e b r u a r y , 1 8 3 0 , in the neighborhood of the Surbundy factory, F e r i d p e r (p. 6 5 0 ) . [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 3 : 6 5 0 - 6 5 2 ] T h e r e a r e depositions of nine eye w i t n e s s e s , of which I quote two: Shekh Chaudari A h m e d , son of Mutiullah, inhabitant of Nagdi, r e l a t e s in his deposition: "I had been doing my work at a meadow, when I p e r c e i v e d at the hour of 12 o'clock the sky gather clouds, and gegan to rain slightly, then a l a r g e fish touching my back by its head fell on the ground. Being surprised I looked about, and behold a number of fish likewise fell f r o m heaven. They w e r e saul, s a l e , guzal, m i r g a l , and bodul. I took 10 or 11 fish in number, and I saw many other p e r s o n s take m a n y . " Shekh Suduruddin, inhabitant of Nagdi, was called in and d e c l a r e d in h i s deposition saying: "On Friday, at 12 o'clock p. m . , in the month of Phalgun * * * when I was at work in a field, I perceived the sky darkened by clouds, began to rain a little and a l a r g e fish fell f r o m the sky. I was confounded at the sight, and soon entered by cottage, which I had t h e r e , but I c a m e out again as soon as the rain had c e a s e d and found e v e r y part of my hut scattered with fish; they w e r e boduli, m i r g a l , and nouchi, and amounted to 25 in number. " [Journal of the A s i a t i c Society of Bengal, 3 : 6 5 0 - 6 5 2 ] The l a r g e number of fishes that may rain down is illustrated by another Indian instance which was reported as follows: On the 16th or 17th of May l a s t a fall of fish happened in monon Sonare, pergunna Dhata Ekdullah, Zillah Futteppur. The z e m i n d z r y of the village have furnished the following p a r t i c u l a r s which a r e confirmed by other accounts. About noon, the wind being f r o m the west, and a few distant clouds v i s i b l e , a blast of high wind, accompanied with much dust, which changed the a t m o s p h e r e to a reddish yellow hue c a m e on; the blast appeared to extend in breadth about 4 0 0 y a r d s . * * * When the s t o r m had p a s s e d o v e r , they found the ground south of the village to the extent of two bigahs strewed with fish, in number not l e s s than three or four thousand. The fish w e r e all of the Chalwa s p e c i e s (Clupea cult rat a), a span or l e s s in length, and f r o m 1 - 1 / 2 to 1 / 2 s e e r in weight; when found they w e r e all dead and d r y . Chalwa fish a r e found in the tanks and r i v e r s of the neighborhood; * * * the n e a r e s t water is about half a mile south of the v i l l a g e . [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 3 : 3 6 7 ] F o r the number of fishes that fell this account is not surpassed, but for a l l around interest, and credulity inspired by the name of its distinguished author, the testimony of F r a n c i s de Castelnau, mentioned at the beginning of this paper, is s u p r e m e . The note is entitled "Shower of F i s h e s ; earthquake at S i n g a p o r e , " and was published in 1 8 6 1 . We experienced h e r e an earthquake at 7:34 p . m . , February 16, that lasted about two minutes; it was followed by hard r a i n s , which on the 20th, 21st, and 22d b e c a m e veritable t o r r e n t s . The last day at 9 a . m . the rain redoubled in fury, and in a half hour our inclosed plot b e c a m e a s e a of water. * * * At 10 o'clock the sun lifted and f r o m my window I saw a large number of Malays and Chinese filling baskets with fishes which they picked up in the pools

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of w a t e r which c o v e r e d the ground. On b e i n g a s k e d w h e r e the f i s h e s c a m e f r o m , the natives r e p l i e d that they had fallen f r o m the s k y . Three days afterw a r d s , when the p o o l s had d r i e d u p , we found m a n y dead f i s h e s . Having e x a m i n e d the a n i m a l s , I r e c o g n i z e d t h e m as C l a r i a s b a t r a c h i , C u v i e r and V a l e n c i e n n e s , a s p e c i e s of catfish which is v e r y abundant in f r e s h water i n S i n g a p o r e , and the n e a r e r M a l a y a n I s l a n d s , i n Siam, B o r n e o , e t c T h e y w e r e f r o m 2 5 t o 3 0 c e n t i m e t e r s long, and t h e r e f o r e adult. T h e s e s i l u r o i d s , the s a m e as Ophicephalus, e t c , a r e able to l i v e a long t i m e out of w a t e r , and to p r o g r e s s s o m e d i s t a n c e on land, and I thought at o n c e that they had c o m e f r o m s o m e s m a l l s t r e a m s n e a r b y ; but the y a r d o f the h o u s e I inhabited is i n c l o s e d in a wall that would prevent t h e m entering in this m a n n e r . An old M a l a y h a s s i n c e told me that in h i s youth he had s e e n a s i m i l a r p h e n o m e non. [ C o m p t e s R e n d u s , 5 2 : 8 8 0 - 8 8 1 ] Other v e r t e b r a t e s . S h o w e r s of v e r t e b r a t e s other than f r o g s , t o a d s , and fishes a r e r a r e indeed. It w a s r e c o r d e d in 1 8 7 3 that a s h o w e r of r e p t i l e s f e l l M i n n e s o t a , and f r o m the d e s c r i p t i o n it is evident the c r e a t u r e s w e r e l a r v a e of a s a l a m a n d e r , p r o b a b l y of A m b l y s t o m a t i g r i n u m . T h e Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w f o r M a y , 1 8 9 4 (p. 2 1 5 ) s t a t e s that during a s e v e r e h a i l s t o r m "at Boving, 8 m i l e s e a s t of V i c k s b u r g , M i s s . , a gopher turtle 6 by 8 i n c h e s and entirely i n c a s e d in i c e fell with the h a i l . " T h i s is a m o s t r e m a r k a b l e o c c u r r e n c e , but what shall we s a y of a s h o w e r of b i r d s , in which hundreds dropped dead in the s t r e e t s of a L o u i s i a n a c i t y ? In the Baton R o u g e , L a . , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f the Philadelphia T i m e s , s o m e t i m e in 1 8 9 6 , it is stated that On F r i d a y morning l a s t e a r l y r i s e r s in the little capital [Baton R o u g e , L a . ] w i t n e s s e d a p e c u l i a r sight in the shape of a s h o w e r of b i r d s that fell f r o m a c l e a r s k y , l i t e r a l l y cluttering the s t r e e t s of the c i t y . T h e r e w e r e wild d u c k s , c a t b i r d s , w o o d p e c k e r s , and m a n y b i r d s of s t r a n g e p l u m a g e , s o m e of t h e m r e s e m b l i n g c a n a r i e s , but all d e a d , falling in h e a p s along the t h o r o u g h f a r e s , the s i n g u l a r phenomenon attracting m a n y s p e c t a t o r s and causing m u c h c o m m e n t . T h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e theory as to the s t r a n g e windfall is that the b i r d s w e r e d r i v e n inland by the recent s t o r m on the F l o r i d a c o a s t , the f o r c e of the c u r r e n t of a i r and the sudden change of t e m p e r a t u r e c a u s i n g death to m a n y of the feathered c r e a t u r e s when they reached Baton R o u g e . S o m e idea of the extent of the s h o w e r m a y be gathered f r o m the e s t i m a t e that out on National Avenue alone the c h i l d r e n of the neighborhood c o l l e c t e d 2 0 0 b i r d s . [San J o s e G a z e t t e , November 4, 1896] T h i s s e e m s c l e a r l y not to have b e e n a c a s e of m i g r a n t s b e c o m i n g confused b y city l i g h t s , n o r killing t h e m s e l v e s b y flying against o b s t a c l e s , m i s h a p s which r a t h e r frequently o c c u r t o b i r d t r a v e l e r s . T h e phenomenon o f m i g r a tion a m o n g m a m m a l s g i v e s r i s e to the only s t o r y of a s h o w e r of t h o s e a n i m a l s that I h a v e s e e n . It is given by C h a r l e s T o m l i n s o n , who w r i t e s . In s o m e c o u n t r i e s r a t s m i g r a t e in v a s t n u m b e r s f r o m the high to the l o w c o u n t r i e s ; and it is r e c o r d e d in the h i s t o r y of N o r w a y that a s h o w e r of t h e s e , t r a n s p o r t e d by the wind, fell in an adjacent v a l l e y . I have not s e e n the original of this t a l e , but it m a y have been p r o m p t e d by the a p p e a r a n c e , in l a r g e n u m b e r s , of l e m m i n g s which frequently m i g r a t e in h o r d e s in Scandinavia. It is p o s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , that during one of t h e s e m i g r a t o r y m o v e m e n t s s o m e of the a n i m a l s w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d by a violent wind and precipitated as "a s h o w e r of r a t s . " C. Wind as a Distributing A g e n t .

We h a v e r e v i e w e d i n s t a n c e s of the r a i n - l i k e fall of v a r i o u s animal and plant b o d i e s , of pollen, of hay, of d i a t o m s , a l g a e , r o t i f e r s , of i n s e c t s , f r o g s ,

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t o a d s , f i s h e s , s a l a m a n d e r s , t u r t l e s , b i r d s , and r a t s . I t r e m a i n s t o inquire what s i g n i f i c a n c e , if any, t h e s e phenomena h a v e f o r the distribution of living things upon the e a r t h . Vertebrates. In the c a s e of v e r t e b r a t e s distribution by wind t r a n s p o r t m u s t b e o f p r a c t i c a l l y n o i m p o r t a n c e . M a m m a l s and b i r d s thus snatched u p by the wind, if c a r r i e d any d i s t a n c e , a r r i v e dead. B a t r a c h i a n s a l s o often a r e killed, and i f not, u s u a l l y m u s t b e c a r r i e d f o r s h o r t d i s t a n c e s only; the c h a n c e s a r e a l s o that they will r e a c h an u n f a v o r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t and p e r i s h f o r that reason. F i s h e s , m o s t of a l l , a r e fated to fall w h e r e they c a n not s u r v i v e , and t h e i r inability to l i v e l o n g out of w a t e r s t r i c t l y l i m i t s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r d e r i v i n g advantage by wind t r a n s p o r t . In addition, it m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d that in all t h e s e g r o u p s i n s t a n c e s of their being c a r r i e d by the wind a r e r e a l l y r a r e . A l l in a l l , we m u s t c o n c l u d e that the wind is a v e r y unimportant f a c t o r in the distribution of v e r t e b r a t e a n i m a l s . Plant s e e d s . In the c a s e of m o s t s e e d - p r o d u c i n g plants, although hundreds of s p e c i e s have s e e d s modified f o r wind t r a n s p o r t , it h a s not b e e n shown that they a r e e s p e c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n making rapid s t r i d e s i n distribution. Kerner says: The d i s t a n c e to which s p e c i a l l y adapted s e e d s m a y be c a r r i e d by the wind is c o n s i d e r a b l e , but in o r d i n a r y c o u r s e is not attained. * * * A m o n g the n u m e r ous s p e c i e s of fruits and s e e d s obtained f r o m snow fields and g l a c i e r s high in the A l p s not one w a s d e r i v e d f r o m a distant d i s t r i c t . V o l g l e r , who m a d e a s p e c i a l study of the m e a n s of distribution of alpine plants, found that i n s t a n c e s of s p r e a d by the wind to d i s t a n c e s of f r o m 3 to 40 k i l o m e t e r s w e r e not r a r e , while "transport of s e e d s * * * to great d i s t a n c e s , even hundreds of k i l o m e t e r s * * * is p o s s i b l e , but in the actual distribution of plants p l a y s a m i n o r r o l e . " Spores, e t c W h e n w e c o m e t o c o n s i d e r , h o w e v e r , the distribution o f plants and a n i m a l s that h a v e j s p o r e s , e g g s , s t a t o b l a s t s , or other minute but r e s i s t a n t r e s t i n g s t a g e s , it is apparent that winds a r e t h e i r m o s t important m e a n s of s p r e a d . The United States Bureau of E n t o m o l o g y h a s shown that winds a r e i m p o r tant in the distribution of mites ( M c G r e g o r , E . A . , & McConough, F . L . , Dept. A g r . B u i . 4 1 6 , 1 9 1 7 , pp. 3 1 - 3 2 ) , and the g i p s y - m o t h (Collins, C . W . , Dept. A g r . B u i . 2 7 3 , 1 9 1 5 ) . S m a l l larvae of the last-named pest w e r e found to be c a r r i e d 1 3 - 1 / 2 m i l e s by o r d i n a r y winds. F o r a typical exposition of the agency of wind in distributing, fungus s p o r e s , s e e J o u r n . a g r i c r e s e a r c h , Washington, M a r c h , 1 9 1 5 , 3 : 4 9 3 - 5 2 5 . Reflect what opportunities a r e offered to the wind in every dry b a s i n left by the evaporation of s h a l l o w p o o l s . The d r y i n g of the water s t i m u l a t e s all the o r g a n i s m s to p r o d u c e t h e i r e n c y s t e d f o r m s . The b o t t o m is c r u s t e d with matted a l g a e b e a r i n g their own s p o r e s or oogonia, r e s t i n g s t a g e s which long retain t h e i r vitality and which a r e ready at any t i m e to profit by wind t r a n s p o r t . A m o n g the a l g a e t h e r e m a y be flagellates, b a c t e r i a , d i a t o m s , the s p o r e s of aquatic m o s s e s , of h o r s e t a i l s , of club m o s s e s , and q u i l l w o r t s , and the minute seeds of rushes. There may be also cysts of protozoa, gemmules of freshwater s p o n g e s , the s t a t o b l a s t s of b r y o z o a , and the e g g s of w o r m s , l e e c h e s , Crustacea, i n s e c t s , and m o l l u s c s , all of which may be minute enough to be c a r r i e d r e a d i l y by the wind and r e s i s t a n t enough to s u r v i v e the p r o c e s s . U n told n u m b e r s of t h e s e r e p r o d u c t i v e bodies m a y be gathered up by the wind and c a r r i e d long d i s t a n c e s . This g o e s far to explain the e x t r e m e l y wide, often c o s m o p o l i t a n distribution of f r e s h water m i c r o o r g a n i s m s . It is not only aquatic o r g a n i s m s that h a v e s p o r e s suitable for c a r r i a g e by the wind, but a l s o a long s e r i e s of t e r r e s t r i a l o n e s including b a c t e r i a , algae,

G2-46

FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS

GFF-007

fungi, m o s s e s , l i v e r w o r t s , f e r n s , and club m o s s e s . Dust-like s e e d s as those o f o r c h i d s , b r o o m - r a p e s , p y r o l a s , l i v e - f o r - e v e r s , e t c . , a r e a l m o s t as well adapted to wind transport as a r e s p o r e s . Perhaps the b e s t i l l u s t r a tion that can be given of the potency of the wind in distributing these plants is the part it played in the revegetation of the isolated volcanic island Krakatoa f r o m which all life w a s extirpated by the 1883 eruption of a l m o s t unparalleled v i o l e n c e . F r o m 16 to 30 p e r cent of the phanerogams established on Krakatoa 25 y e a r s after the catastrophe of 1883 w e r e c a r r i e d there by winds, as w e r e all of the ferns (16 s p e c i e s ) and l o w e r c r y p t o g a m s , a l m o s t without exception ( m o r e than 30 s p e c i e s ) . Between 49 and 63 per cent of its flora, t h e r e f o r e , is wind-borne. The first recolonization of the island in 1886 was entirely by wind-distributed s p e c i e s a s algae, bacteria, d i a t o m s , l i v e r w o r t s , m o s s e s , and f e r n s . The distribution of s p o r e s and other light reproductive c e l l s does not d e pend on sporadic gusts of wind that suddenly pick up a quantity of these objects to l a t e r drop them as showers of o r g a n i s m s ; there s e e m to be a certain numb e r of them always in the a t m o s p h e r e . In fact, a e r o s c o p e s reveal a steady fall of a t m o s p h e r e . In fact, a e r o s c o p e s reveal a steady fall of atmospheric dust, including minute o r g a n i s m s , that must be a f a r m o r e important element in the distribution of such life than the m o r e i m p r e s s i v e but sporadic s h o w e r s . D. Conclusion.

It would appear, therefore, that the m o r e spectacular the shower of organic m a t t e r the l e s s its importance in the distribution of l i f e . The rains of l a r g e r animals have attracted much attention and excited wonder, but in many c a s e s the animals have been dead; in others they w e r e doomed to die because of falling in an unsuitable environment. Not often are all the conditions propitious for the s p e c i e s to s e c u r e a new foothold. The unobtrusive, but steady and widespread movement of minute e g g s and s p o r e s by the a t m o s p h e r e , however, is of great importance in distribution b e c a u s e these organic bodies are adapted to survive such transport; their numbers are so great and their d i s p e r s a l so wide that s o m e of them will n e c e s s a r i l y fall in favorable p l a c e s . The chances a r e , in fact, that e v e r y suitable environment will be populated. So far as m e r e preservation of s p e c i e s is c o n c e r n e d , we s e e h e r e , as in other p h a s e s of viological investigation, the s u p e r i ority of the p i g m y o v e r the giant, of insignificance over conspicuousness, of passivity and adaptability o v e r strenuous effort. "Blessed a r e the m e e k , for they shall inherit the earth. "

GFF-007

S H O W E R OF P E R C H — S U N S E T S 4:396, December 28, 1883.

Stewart, John A . ; Knowledge,

Being a constant reader of your valuable journal, I enclose the cutting f r o m today's Edinburgh Scotsman, of rather a peculiar phenomenon witnessed in A i r d r i e , v i z . , a shower of live perch, last Saturday morning, D e c . 1 5 . Now, perch never, or r a r e l y , swim near the surface of the water, and, if drawn up by a whirlwind, it must have been an extra strong current to have drawn them f r o m deep water.

G2-47

GFF-008
GFF-008

FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS
SHOWER OF FISH

A n o n y m o u s ; Annual R e g i s t e r , 1 0 1 : 1 4 - 1 5 , 1 8 5 9 . If anyone h a s e n t e r t a i n e d doubts as to the p o s s i b i l i t y of this phenomenon, h i s hesitation will be put to r e s t by a w e l l - c e r t i f i e d o c c u r r e n c e at Mountain A s h , G l a m o r g a n s h i r e . At 11 a. m. of the 9th of F e b r u a r y , during a h e a v y r a i n , a stiff g a l e blowing f r o m the south, a v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r of s m a l l fish w e r e p r e c i p i t a t e d upon the fields and h o u s e t o p s at that p l a c e . The p h e n o m e n o n w a s w i t n e s s e d b y a g r e a t n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s : the R e v . M r . R o b e r t s , c u r a t e of St. P e t e r ' s , C a r m a r t h e n , and the R e v . John Griffith, the V i c a r of A b e r d a r e and Rural D e a n , m a d e i n q u i r i e s on the spot, in o r d e r to p r e s e r v e the f a c t s of this c u r i o u s o c c u r r e n c e . T h e following is the t e s t i m o n y of John L e w i s , a s a w y e r , who w a s the p r i n c i p a l w i t n e s s : "On W e d n e s d a y , F e b r u a r y 9, I w a s getting out a p i e c e of t i m b e r , f o r the p u r p o s e of setting it for the s a w , when I w a s s t a r t l e d by s o m e t h i n g falling all o v e r me down m y neck, o n m y head, and o n m y b a c k . O n putting m y hand down my neck I w a s s u r p r i s e d to find they w e r e little fish. By this t i m e I s a w the whole ground c o v e r e d with t h e m . I took off my hat, the b r i m of which w a s full of t h e m . T h e y w e r e j u m p i n g all about. T h e y c o v e r e d the ground in a long s t r i p of about 80 y a r d s by 1 2 , as we m e a s u r e d a f t e r w a r d s . That shed (pointing to a v e r y l a r g e workshop) w a s c o v e r e d with t h e m , and the shoots w e r e quite full of t h e m . My m a t e s and I might have gathered bucketsful of t h e m , s c r a p i n g with our h a n d s . We did gather a g r e a t m a n y , about a bucketful, and t h r e w t h e m into the rain pool, w h e r e s o m e o f t h e m now a r e . T h e r e w e r e two s h o w e r s , with an interval of about ten m i n u t e s , and each s h o w e r l a s t e d about two minutes or thereabouts. The t i m e w a s 1 1 a . m . The m o r n i n g u p - t r a i n t o A b e r d a r e w a s j u s t then p a s s i n g . It w a s not blowing v e r y h a r d , but u n c o m m o n wet; j u s t about the s a m e wind as t h e r e is t o - d a y (blowing r a t h e r stiff, and it c a m e f r o m this q u a r t e r (pointing to the S. of W . ) . T h e y c a m e down with the rain in 'a body like.'" M r . Griffith c o l l e c t e d 1 8 o r 2 0 living s p e c i m e n s o f the unexpected visitants and t r a n s m i t t e d t h e m t o P r o f e s s o r Owen. T h e t h r e e l a r g e s t w e r e four inches long. S o m e , which died after c a p t u r e , w e r e fully five i n c h e s in length.

GFF-009

A FISH STORM

Anonymous; Niles' Weekly R e g i s t e r . 5 2 : 3 5 6 , August 5, 1 8 3 7 . D r . W o o d , a n a t u r a l i s t , r e l a t e s the astonishing f a c t , that after a thunders t o r m at L o u i s v i l l e , on the 2 1 s t u l t i m o , he s a w the puddles of water c o l l e c t e d in the s t r e e t s and the c o m m o n s , s w a r m i n g with a s p e c i e s of p s i c a t o r y t r i b e , v a r y i n g in weight f r o m 10 to 3 d w t s . which not without doubt he r a n k s with the genus E x o c e t u s , although the p e c t o r a l fins a r e not united with the s i d e s quite n e a r enough t o the spinal m e m b r a n e t o b e the t r u e E l r o l a n s . H e further o b s e r v e s that by p l a c i n g t h e m in a g l a s s j a r of w a t e r b e t w e e n h i m s e l f and the light of a t a p e r , he found the body to be t r a n s p a r e n t and void of v e i n s or a r t e r ies. Only two p a r t s of the body contained blood v e s s e l s v i s i b l e to the naked eye. The a i r v e s s e l s c o v e r e d the w h o l e i n t e r i o r o f the s i d e s and b a c k . W h e t h e r they a s c e n d e d in the c l o u d s in spawn and t h e r e attained t h e i r p r e s e n t s i z e , or whether they w e r e drawn up in that p e r f e c t i o n , he d o e s not d e c i d e . " P i s c a t o r y " w a s s p e l l e d i n c o r r e c t l y i n the original a r t i c l e .

G2-48

FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS
GFF-010 FISHES F A L L E N FROM T H E SKY 58:516, December 21, 1923.

GFF-011

Jochelson, W a l d e m a r ; Science,

The Y u k a g h i r , l i v i n g on the Siberian tundra between the K o l y m a and A l a s e y a r i v e r s , told m e that the s k y , r e g a r d e d b y t h e m a s a beneficent d e i t y , t o supply m e n with food f l i n g s f i s h e s to the e a r t h . W h e n fish a p p e a r in the l a k e s in g r e a t n u m b e r s , the Y u k a g h i r s a y that they h a v e fallen f r o m heaven. T h e y know w e l l enough that f i s h d e v e l o p f r o m spawning, but they s a y that f i s h o r i g i n a l l y had been and continue to be sent by the d e i t y . W h e n a s k e d how they knew f i s h f a l l f r o m the s k y , the Y u k a g h i r a s s e r t e d that they often found l i v i n g pike ( E s o x l u c i u s ) and a r i v e r s p e c i e s of s a l m o n i d a e , c a l l e d c h e e r ( C o r e g o n u s n a s u t u s ) , in d r y places. E v i d e n t l y , said the Y u k a g h i r , it followed that t h e s e f i s h in falling f r o m heaven f a i l e d to r e a c h the w a t e r . I explain this phenomenon in the following way: The m a j o r i t y o f p o l a r l a k e s a r e connected b y s m a l l r i v u l e t s w h i c h the f i s h follow when p a s s i n g f r o m one lake to another f o r spawning. In the c o u r s e of the p a s s a g e the f i s h j u m p o v e r obstructions f o r m e d by s t o n e s and g r a s s h i l l o c k s . In the s u m m e r when the r i v u l e t s run c o m p l e t e l y d r y i n p l a c e s , the m i g r a t i n g fish m a y find t h e m s e l v e s caught on d r y land.

GFF-011

[FALLS OF FISH A N D SHELLS]

A n o n y m o u s ; Edinburgh New P h i l o s o p h i c a l J o u r n a l , 1 : 1 8 6 - 1 8 8 , 1 8 2 6 . 5 . Shower o f F i s h e s i n A r g y l e s h i r e . " T h e r a r e o c c u r r e n c e o f such f a l l s r e n d e r s t h e m s o r e m a r k a b l e , a s t o b e r e m e m b e r e d after long i n t e r v a l s o f t i m e , and even after e v e r y c i r c u m s t a n c e connected with t h e m is f o r g o t t e n . W h e n any phenomenon is not c o n s i d e r e d in its r e l a t i o n to a n y p a r t i c u l a r c a u s e , few will attend to its p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s to p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s ; and f e w e r still will e s t e e m it of such i m p o r t a n c e as to t r e a s u r e up the o b s e r v a t i o n s which they m i g h t have happened to m a k e , e v e n although t h e s e might be of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e , in i l l u s trating the nature and c a u s e s of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o b s e r v e d . It is thus, that, though the t e s t i m o n y of m a n y h a s enabled me to a s c e r t a i n , that a s h o w e r of h e r r i n g - f r y fell in L o r n , about t h e y e a r 1 7 9 6 , yet I h a v e not m e t with any who could i n f o r m me of the p a r t i c u l a r s c o n c e r n i n g it. In the s a m e d i s t r i c t , and n e a r the s a m e p l a c e , on a s m a l l e m i n e n c e above M e l f o r d H o u s e , a s h o w e r o f h e r r i n g fell i n 1 8 2 1 , i n e v e r y r e s p e c t s o l a r g e and g o o d , that the tenants by whom they w e r e found w e r e induced to send s o m e of t h e m to t h e i r l a n d l o r d , then r e s i d i n g in E d i n b u r g h . In r e g a r d to the state of the w e a t h e r , I could l e a r n no m o r e than that it w a s e x c e e d i n g l y b o i s t e r o u s ; while the hill on which they w e r e found is e x p o s e d to t h e s o u t h - w e s t wind, which b l o w s along L o c h M e l f o r d , an a r m of the s e a in which h e r r i n g s a r e frequently found; and, as f a r as I know, the only one on this q u a r t e r in which the fly is c o m m o n l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d in fishing t h e m . In the month of M a r c h 1 8 1 7 , strong g a l e s of wind f r o m the north w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d in Appin. Upon the evening of the s e c o n d day of t h e i r continuance, rain fell in abundance; and next day being v e r y w a r m and s u l t r y , s o m e c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d a l a r g e quantity of h e r r i n g - f r y s c a t t e r e d o v e r a m o s s a little to the n o r t h - e a s t of the f e r r y of Shien. T h e r e might h a v e been about t h r e e b a r r e l s or m o r e of t h e s e , and m e a s u r i n g f r o m 1 - 1 / 2 to 3 i n c h e s in length. Now, the p l a c e in w h i c h they w e r e found is only about 3 0 0 y a r d s north of L o c h c r e r a n , an a r m

G2-49

GFF-012

FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS

o f the s e a running e a s t and w e s t , f r o m which s e v e r a l s u p p o s e d the f r y m u s t h a v e been raised. The wind, h o w e v e r , being f r o m the north, r e n d e r s t h i s a s e e m i n g i m p o s s i b i l i t y ; and it m a y , p e r h a p s , be m o r e s a f e l y c o n c l u d e d , that they m u s t f have b e e n e j e c t e d f r o m the Linnhe L o c h , another a r m o f the s e a , extending s o u t h w e s t and n o r t h - e a s t , about t h r e e m i l e s north of the p l a c e in which they w e r e found. A r a n g e of m o o r l a n d , about 3 0 0 feet a b o v e the l e v e l of the s e a , i n t e r v e n e s ; but i t i s e a s i e r t o s u p p o s e the c a u s e which o r i g i n a l l y e l e v a t e d t h e s e fry to be so powerful as to c a r r y t h e m this height and d i s t a n c e , than that they should obtain a c o u r s e c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l body of the a i r . T h e y exhibited no a p p e a r a n c e of b e i n g b r u i s e d by the f a l l , nor w a s t h e r e any thing which could induce t h e m to b e l i e v e that w a t e r had f a l l e n at the s a m e t i m e . " Letter Rev. Colin Smith of Appin to the E d i t o r . 6. S h o w e r of H e r r i n g s in G a l l o w a y . " M a c c h i r m o r e , or the Head of the M a c c h i r s , f o r indeed t h e r e is not m u c h white ground a b o v e it, p e r t a i n s to D u n b a r of M a c c h i r m o r e . It is situate upon the e a s t s i d e of the r i v e r of C r e e , one m i l e distant to the south f r o m the town of Monnygaffe; and h e r e is the f i r s t ford of the w a t e r of C r e e , except that betwixt K i r k m a b r e c k and W i g t o n , of which m o r e hereafter. T h i s f o r d i s five m i l e s , o r t h e r e b y , i n r e c t a l i n e a , t o the northward distant f r o m W i g t o n . In the m o o r s of this p a r i s h of M o n n y g a f f e , not m a n y y e a r s s i n c e , at a p l a c e c a l l e d La Spraig, not f a r distant f r o m the w a t e r of Munnach, but s i x t e e n m i l e s distant f r o m the s e a , t h e r e fell a s h o w e r of h e r r i n g , which w e r e s e e n b y c r e d i t a b l e p e r s o n s , who r e l a t e d the s t o r y t o m e . S o m e of the said h e r r i n g w e r e , as I am i n f o r m e d , taken to the E a r l of G a l l o w a y ' s h o u s e , and shown to h i m . " A n d r e w S y m s o n ' s L a r g e D e s c r i p t i o n of G a l l o w a y , 1 6 8 4 . Edinb. 1 8 2 3 , p. 3 1 . ' " 7. Shower of Herrings in K i n r o s s - s h i r e . M r . A r n o t i n f o r m s m e , that, about a y e a r ago, a s h o w e r of h e r r i n g s fell n e a r L o c h L e v e n ; it c a m e in the d i r e c t i o n of the F r i t h of F o r t h , and the h e r r i n g a r e c o n j e c t u r e d to h a v e b e e n blown out of the w a t e r of the F r i t h , and c a r r i e d by the wind a c r o s s F i f e s h i r e , to the p l a c e w h e r e they w e r e found, in the vicinity of L o c h L e v e n . 8. S h o w e r of S h e l l s in I r e l a n d . "I s e n d y o u another i n s t a n c e of a s h o w e r of s h e l l s , which fell at M o n a s t e r e e n , in the county of K i l d a r e , a few d a y s ago. At this t i m e the t i d e s w e r e r e m a r k a b l y high, and the s e a exhibited m a r k s of unusual d i s t u r b a n c e . I r e g r e t that I can send one only of t h e s e s h e l l s .
1 1

GFF-012

[FALL OF HERRING FRY]

A n o n y m o u s ; G e n t l e m a n ' s M a g a z i n e , 2:2 : 4 6 2 , M a y 1 8 2 8 . A p r i l 2 1 . A s M a j o r F o r b e s M a c k e n z i e , o f F o d d e r t y , i n Strathpeffer, c o . R o s s , w a s t r a v e r s i n g a field on h i s f a r m , he w a s s u r p r i s e d to find a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of the ground c o v e r e d with h e r r i n g f r y , of f r o m t h r e e to f o u r inches each in length. The fish w e r e f r e s h and e n t i r e , and had no a p p e a r a n c e of being d r o p p e d by b i r d s a m e d i u m by which they m u s t h a v e b e e n b r u i s e d and mutilated. The only r a t i o n a l c o n j e c t u r e that c a n be f o r m e d of the c i r c u m stance i s , that the fish w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d thither by a w a t e r - s p o u t a phenomenon that h a s b e f o r e o c c u r r e d in this county, and which is by no m e a n s u n c o m m o n in t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e s . T h e Frith of Dingwell l i e s at a d i s t a n c e of t h r e e m i l e s f r o m the p l a c e in q u e s t i o n ; but no o b s t r u c t i o n o c c u r s between the field and the s e a the whole is a. l e v e l s t r a t h or plain and w a t e r - s p o u t s h a v e b e e n known to c a r r y e v e n f a r t h e r than t h i s . M a j o r Mackenzie has forwarded a s m a l l quantity of the fish to the s e c r e t a r y of the N o r t h e r n Institution.

G2-50

GELATIN
GFG-007 PWDRESER

GFG-007

H u g h e s , T . M c K e n n y ; N a t u r e , 8 3 : 4 9 2 - 4 9 4 , June 2 3 , 1 9 1 0 . H e r e f o l l o w s one o f the c l a s s i c accounts o f " s t a r j e l l y " o r "gelatinous m e t e o r s . " In my b o y h o o d I often l i v e d on the c o a s t of P e m b r o k e s h i r e . Wandering about with my gun I w a s f a m i l i a r with m o s t natural o b j e c t s which o c c u r r e d there. O n e , h o w e v e r , which I often c a m e a c r o s s t h e r e , and h a v e s e e n e l s e w h e r e s i n c e , g r e a t l y r o u s e d my c u r i o s i t y , but I h a v e not yet m e t with a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation of it. On the s h o r t , c l o s e g r a s s of the h i l l y ground, I frequently s a w a m a s s of white, t r a n s l u c e n t j e l l y l y i n g on the turf, as if it had b e e n d r o p p e d t h e r e . T h e s e m a s s e s w e r e about a s l a r g e a s a m a n ' s fist. I t w a s v e r y l i k e a m a s s o f f r o g ' s spawn without the e g g s in it. I thought it m i g h t h a v e b e e n the gelatinous p o r t i o n of the food d i s g o r g e d by the g r e a t f i s h - e a t i n g b i r d s , of which t h e r e w e r e plenty about, as k i n g f i s h e r s e j e c t p e l l e t s m a d e up of the b o n e s of the fish they e a t , o r that p o s s i b l y t h e r e might b e s o m e pathological explanation c o n n e c ting it with the s h e e p , l a r g e f l o c k s of which g r a z e d the s h o r t h e r b a g e . But the s h e p h e r d s and o w n e r s of the s h e e p would h a v e known if such an explanation were admissible. T h e y c a l l e d it "pwdre s e r , " the r o t of the s t a r s . Y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s I w a s in W e s t m o r l a n d , on the G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , and again not unfrequently s a w the "pwdre s e r . " But I now got an addition to my s t o r y . I s a a c Hindson, of K i r k b y L o n s d a l e , a m a n w h o s e scientific knowledge and genial p e r s o n a l i t y m a d e h i m a w e l c o m e c o m p a n i o n to t h o s e who had to c a r r y on g e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h in h i s d i s t r i c t , told me that he had once s e e n a l u m i n o u s body f a l l , and, on going up to the p l a c e , found only a m a s s of white jelly. He did not s a y that it w a s l u m i n o u s . I h a v e n e v e r s e e n it l u m i n o u s , but that m a y be b e c a u s e when it w a s light enough to s e e the l u m p of j e l l y , it would p r o b a b l y be t o o light to detect l u m i n o s i t y in it. T h e n , in my novel r e a d i n g , I found that the s a m e thing w a s known in S c o t land, and the s a m e o r i g i n a s s i g n e d to it, for W a l t e r Scott, in "The T a l i s m a n , " puts t h e s e w o r d s in the mouth of the h e r m i t : - "Seek a fallen s t a r and thou shalt only light on s o m e foul j e l l y , which in shooting through the h o r i z o n , h a s a s s u m e d f o r a m o m e n t an a p p e a r a n c e of s p l e n d o u r . " I think that I r e m e m b e r s e e i n g it u s e d e l s e w h e r e as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of disappointed h o p e s , which w e r e "as when a m a n s e e i n g a m e t e o r f a l l , r u n s up and finds but a m a s s of putrid j e l l y , " but I h a v e l o s t the r e f e r e n c e to this p a s s a g e . T h u s it a p p e a r e d that in W a l e s , in the L a k e D i s t r i c t , and in Scotland, t h e r e e x i s t e d a b e l i e f that s o m e t h i n g which fell f r o m the sky as a l u m i n o u s body l a y on the ground as a l u m p of white j e l l y . I a s k e d H u x l e y what it c o u l d b e , and he said that the only thing l i k e it that he knew w a s a n o s t o c . I turned to S a c h s f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of a n o s t o c , and found that it " c o n s i s t s , when m a t u r e , of a l a r g e n u m b e r of m o n i l i f o r m t h r e a d s i n t e r w o v e n a m o n g one another and i m b e d d e d in a glutinous j e l l y , and thus united into c o l o n i e s of a s p e c i f i c a l l y defined f o r m . . . . T h e gelatinous envelope of the new f i l a m e n t i s d e v e l o p e d , and the o r i g i n a l l y m i c r o s c o p i c s u b s t a n c e attains o r e v e n e x c e e d s the s i z e of a walnut by continuous i n c r e a s e of the j e l l y and d i v i s i o n s o f the c e l l s . " A l l the n o s t o c s , h o w e v e r , that I h a v e had pointed out to me have b e e n of a g r e e n o r p u r p l i s h o r b r o w n - g r e e n c o l o u r , w h e r e a s the "pwdre s e r " w a s a l w a y s white, t r a n s l u c e n t in the u p p e r p a r t , and t r a n s p a r e n t in the l o w e r p a r t , which a p p e a r e d t o o c c u r a m o n g the r o o t s o f the g r a s s , a s i f i t g r e w t h e r e . M o r e o v e r ,

G2-51

GFG-007

GELATIN

the m a s s w a s m u c h l a r g e r than a walnut, in fact, would g e n e r a l l y about fill a half-pint m u g . The only r e f e r e n c e I can find f r o m which it would a p p e a r that the w r i t e r w a s d e s c r i b i n g a nostoc is the p a s s a g e in D r y d e n and L e e ( 1 6 7 8 ) . "The shooting s t a r s end all in purple j e l l i e s . " In the following note, appended to this p a s s a g e , it is c l e a r that the w r i t e r thought that the j e l l y - l i k e m a t t e r found where s h o o t i n g - s t a r s had s e e m e d t o fall, w a s white. Note. - "It is a c o m m o n i d e a that falling s t a r s , as they a r e c a l l e d , a r e c o n v e r t e d into a s o r t of j e l l y . A m o n g the r e s t , I had often the opportunity to s e e the s e e m i n g shooting of the s t a r s f r o m p l a c e to p l a c e , and s o m e t i m e s they appeared as if falling to the ground, w h e r e I o n c e or t w i c e found a white j e l l y like m a t t e r a m o n g the g r a s s , which I i m a g i n e d to be d i s t i l l e d f r o m t h e m ; and thence f o o l i s h l y c o n j e c t u r e d that t h e s t a r s t h e m s e l v e s m u s t c e r t a i n l y c o n s i s t o f a like s u b s t a n c e . " P o e t s and d i v i n e s c a r r y the r e c o r d of this c u r i o u s b e l i e f f a r b a c k into the seventeenth c e n t u r y . Suckling (1541) s a y s : " A s h e w h o s e q u i c k e r e y e doth t r a c e A f a l s e s t a r shot to a m a r k ' t p l a c e D o ' s run a p a c e , A n d , thinking it to c a t c h , A j e l l y up do s n a t c h . " Jeremy Taylor (1649):'Tt is w e a k n e s s e of the o r g a n that m a k e s us hold our hand between the sun and u s , and yet stand s t a r i n g upon a m e t e o r or an inflamed gelly. " Henry M o r e ( 1 6 5 6 ) : "That the S t a r r e s eat that t h o s e falling S t a r r e s , a s s o m e c a l l t h e m , which a r e found on the earth in the f o r m of a t r e m b l i n g g e l l y , a r e t h e i r excrement." Dryden ( 1 6 7 9 ) : "When I had taken up what I supposed a fallen s t a r I found I had b e e n c o z e n e d with* a j e l l y . " William Somerville (1740):"Swift as the Shooting Star that g i l d s the night With rapid t r a n s i e n t B l a z e , she r u n s , she f l i e s ; Sudden she s t o p s n o r l o n g e r c a n endure T h e painful c o u r s e , but drooping s i n k s away, And like that falling M e t e o r , t h e r e she l y e s A j e l l y c o l d on earth. " S e v e r a l old w r i t e r s , h o w e v e r , while a g r e e i n g as to the m o d e of o c c u r r e n c e of the "pwdre s e r , " and r e c o g n i s i n g the w i d e s p r e a d b e l i e f that it w a s s o m e t h i n g which fell f r o m the s k y and w a s s o m e h o w connected with falling s t a r s , have t r i e d to find s o m e m o r e c o m m o n p l a c e and p r o b a b l e explanation of the p h e n o m e non, and m o s t of t h e m r e f e r it to the stuff d i s g o r g e d by b i r d s that had fed on frogs or w o r m s . M e r r e t t ( 1 6 6 7 ) , f o r instance, in h i s w o r k on m e t e o r s and wandering l i g h t s , says:"Sequuntur M e t e o r a , ignita, v i z . Ignis fatuus, the Walking f i r e , or Jack of the L a n t e r n , C a s t o r and Pollux, Helena, Ignis l a m b e n s . D r a c o , Stella cadens: E s t substantia q u a e d a m alba et glutinosa p l u r i m i s in l o c i s c o n s p i c u a q u a m n o s t r a t e s ' S t a r - f a i n ' nuncupant, creduntq; multi o r i g i n e m s u a m d e b e r e s t e l l a e cadenti hujusq; m a t e r i a m e s s e . Sed R e g i a e Societati p a l a m ostendi s o l u m m o d o o r i r i ex intestinis r a n a r u m a c o r v i s in unum l o c u m c o n g e s t i s , quod a l i i s e t i a m ejusdem societatis viri praestantissimi postea confirmarunt. "

G2-52

GELATIN

GFG-007

T h e R e v . John M o r t o n , o f E m m a n u e l C o l l e g e ( 1 7 1 2 ) , i s , h o w e v e r , the only one who, so far as I c a n a s c e r t a i n , e v e r t r i e d any e x p e r i m e n t s with the v i e w of finding out what it r e a l l y w a s . He set s o m e of it on the f i r e , and when he had driven off all the w a t e r y p a r t , t h e r e w a s left a f i l m l i k e i s i n g l a s s , and s o m e thing l i k e the s k i n s and v e s s e l s of animal b o d i e s . He r e c o r d s m a n y o b s e r v a t i o n s as to i t s t i m e and m o d e of o c c u r r e n c e ; f o r i n s t a n c e , he s a y s that "in 1 6 9 9 - 1 7 0 0 t h e r e w a s no s t a r - g e l l y to be found about Oxenden till a wet week in the end of F e b r u a r y , when the s h e p h e r d s brought me above thirty s e v e r a l l u m p s . " T h i s and other o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t that it is a growth dependent upon the w e a t h e r , &c. On the other hand, he s a y s that he s a w a wounded gull d i s g o r g e a heap of halfd i g e s t e d e a r t h - w o r m s m u c h r e s e m b l i n g s t a r - j e l l y , and that Sir W i l l i a m C r a v e n s a w a b i t t e r n do the s a m e in s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e Hon. R o b e r t B o y l e , 1 7 4 4 , explaining how c l a m m y and v i s c o u s b o d i e s , such as white of egg, a r e r e d u c e d to a thin and fluid s u b s t a n c e , s a y s : "And I r e m e m b e r , I have s e e n a good quantity of that j e l l y , that is s o m e t i m e s found on the ground, and by the v u l g a r c a l l e d a s t a r - s h o o t , as if it r e m a i n e d upon the extinction of a falling s t a r , which being brought to an eminent p h y s i c i a n of my acquaintance, he lightly d i g e s t e d it in a w e l l - s t o p t g l a s s f o r a l o n g t i m e , and by that alone r e s o l v e d it into a p e r m a n e n t l i q u o r , which he e x t o l s as a specifick to be outwardly applied against W e n s . " Pennant s e e m s to have supposed that i t s o r i g i n w a s that s u g g e s t e d by M o r t o n , f o r in h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the w i n t e r m e w he s a y s : - " T h i s kind (i. e. the Coddy M o d d y o r W i n t e r M e w ) f r e q u e n t s , during winter, the m o i s t m e a d o w s in the inland p a r t s of England r e m o t e f r o m the Sea. The gelatinous s u b s t a n c e , known by the n a m e of s t a r shot, or s t a r g e l l y , o w e s i t s origin to this b i r d or s o m e of the kind, being nothing but the half d i g e s t e d r e m a i n s of e a r t h - w o r m s , on which t h e s e b i r d s feed and often d i s c h a r g e f r o m their s t o m a c h s . " I h a v e found it c o m m o n l y n e a r the s e a , but have n e v e r s e e n any t r a c e of e a r t h - w o r m s o r o t h e r s i m i l a r food i n it. H e r e , then, we have a w e l l - k n o w n s u b s t a n c e which m a y be of different origin in different c a s e s , r e s p e c t i n g the g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e of which, h o w e v e r , a l m o s t all a c c o u n t s a g r e e . The v a r i e t y of n a m e s under which it is known point to its c o m m o n and w i d e s p r e a d o c c u r r e n c e , e . g . p w d r e s e r , s t a r - s l o u g h , s t a r shoot, s t a r shot, s t a r - g e l l y o r j e l l y , s t a r - f a l l ' n . We have in e v e r y n a m e , and in e v e r y notice in l i t e r a t u r e , a recognition of the u n i v e r s a l b e l i e f that it h a s s o m e t h i n g to do with m e t e o r s , yet t h e r e d o e s not a p p e a r to be any evidence that anybody e v e r s a w any l u m i n o s i t y in the j e l l y . N o r h a s anybody s e e n it d i s g o r g e d by b i r d s , except in the c a s e of those two wounded b i r d s w h e r e s o m e h a l f - d i g e s t e d gelatinous m a s s w a s thrown u p . Nor has anyone watched i t s growth like nostoc f r o m the ground. In 1 9 0 8 I w a s with my wife and one of my b o y s on Ingleborough, w h e r e we found t h e " p o w d r e s e r " lying on the short g r a s s , c l o s e to the s t r e a m a little way above Gaping Ghyl H o l e . F o r the first t i m e I felt grateful to the i n c o n s i d e r a t e t o u r i s t who left b r o k e n b o t t l e s about, f o r I w a s able to pack the j e l l y in the bottom of one, tie a c o v e r on, and c a r r y it down f r o m the fell. I sent it, with the sod o n which i t appeared t o have g r o w n , t o m y c o l l e a g u e , M r . E . A . N e w e l l A r b e r , with a b r i e f sketch of my s t o r y and the r e a s o n why I thought it of i n t e r e s t . M r . A r b e r r e p o r t e d that it w a s no n o s t o c , and said that he had sent it o v e r to M r . B r o o k e s , in the Botany School, who r e p o r t e d that it was a m a s s of b a c t e r i a . That is the end of my s t o r y , but I c o n f e s s I am not s a t i s f i e d . The j e l l y s e e m e d to me to g r o w out f r o m a m o n g the r o o t s of the g r a s s , and the part s t i l l tangled in the g r a s s w a s not only translucent but quite t r a n s p a r e n t . What is it, and what is the c a u s e of i t s having a m e t e o r i c o r i g i n a s s i g n e d to it ? H a s anyone e v e r s e e n it l u m i n o u s ?

G2-53

GFG-008

GELATIN

Should anyone c o m e upon it I should be v e r y grateful if they would send it, and the s o d on which it is found, to the Botany School at C a m b r i d g e , with a label indicating what the p a r c e l c o n t a i n s , so that it m a y be attended to b e f o r e d e c a y has p e r h a p s o b s c u r e d i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s .

GFG-008

P W D R E SER

F r e e , Edward E . ; N a t u r e , 8 5 : 6 , N o v e m b e r 3 , 1 9 1 0 . On my r e t u r n f r o m a field s e a s o n beyond the r e a c h of p e r i o d i c a l s , I have just s e e n , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , Prof. M c K e n n y H u g h e s ' s a r t i c l e o n " P w d r e S e r " in Nature of June 2 3 , and the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o in the s u c c e e d i n g n u m b e r s . It m a y i n t e r e s t y o u r r e a d e r s to know that a s u b s t a n c e of this s o r t w a s found b y M r . R u m s G r a v e s (at one t i m e l e c t u r e r o n c h e m i s t r y i n D a r t m o u t h C o l l e g e ) at A m h e r s t , M a s s . , on August 1 4 , 1 8 1 9 , and "by h i m identified with a l u m i n o u s m e t e o r which had been s e e n to fall at that spot on the p r e v i o u s e v e n i n g . His r e p o r t of the o c c u r r e n c e appeared in the A m e r i c a n Journal of S c i e n c e , v o l . i i . , pp. 3 3 5 - 7 , 1 8 2 0 . T h e m a s s o f j e l l y w a s c i r c u l a r , about 8 inches i n d i a m e t e r and about 1 inch thick. It was of a bright buff c o l o u r , and c o v e r e d with a "fine nap s i m i l a r to that on m i l l e d cloth. " The i n t e r i o r w a s soft, of an i n s u f f e r a b l e odour, and liquefied on e x p o s u r e to the a i r . S o m e of this liquid was allowed to stand in an open g l a s s f o r a few d a y s , when it had e n t i r e l y e v a p o r a t e d , l e a v i n g only a s m a l l quantity of a "fine a s h - c o l o u r e d p o w d e r without taste or s m e l l , " which e f f e r v e s c e d s t r o n g l y with sulphuric a c i d , but not with nitric n o r h y d r o chloric . M r . G r a v e s ' s account was noted by A r a g o in the A n n a l . de C h i m i e , v o l . x i x . , p p . 6 7 - 9 ( 1 8 2 1 ) , who quoted a l s o s e v e r a l s i m i l a r o c c u r r e n c e s cited i n e a r l i e r c h r o n i c l e s . I t i s p r o b a b l e , o f c o u r s e , that M r . G r a v e s w a s m i s t a k e n i n h i s identification, that the m e t e o r actually fell at s o m e o t h e r point, and that the j e l l y w a s confused therewith only b e c a u s e no other unusual s u b s t a n c e w a s found a t the point w h e r e the m e t e o r w a s supposed t o have fallen. M r . G r a v e s h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r e d that t h e r e was "no r e a s o n a b l e doubt that the s u b s t a n c e found w a s the r e s i d u u m of the m e t e o r i c body, " but the e v i d e n c e which he s t a t e s is hardly s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the m o d e r n , m o r e c r i t i c a l i n q u i r e r . I t s e e m s p r o b a b l e that t h e s e j e l l i e s a r e , i n g e n e r a l , P l a s m o d i a o f s o m e f o r m o r f o r m s o f M y x o m y c e t e s , and that t h e i r c o m m o n identification with f a l l ing s t a r s m a y have i t s b a s i s i n the frequent r e c u r r e n c e o f this e r r o r into which M r . G r a v e s s e e m s t o h a v e been l e d . I t i s w e l l known that visual e s t i m a t e s o f the d i s t a n c e of falling s t a r s a r e a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y f a r too l o w . If, then, an u n trained o b s e r v e r of a m e t e o r g o e s next m o r n i n g to the n e a r - b y p l a c e w h e r e he thought he s a w the body f a l l , and finds t h e r e no unusual body excepting one of t h e s e P l a s m o d i a , the j e l l y and the m e t e o r a r e a l m o s t s u r e t o b e a s s o c i a t e d i n h i s mind. E s p e c i a l l y i s this p r o b a b l e , s i n c e the P l a s m o d i a , i n g e n e r a l (at l e a s t in my e x p e r i e n c e ) , h a v e the a p p e a r a n c e of having fallen on the g r a s s r a t h e r than of having g r o w n t h e r e . T h e original account published in the A m e r i c a n Journal of Science can be found in GFG-004.

G2-54

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN
GFL-003

GFL-004

A C C O U N T OF M E T E O R I C STONES, MASSES OF I R O N , A N D SHOWERS OF DUST, R E D SNOW, A N D OTHER SUBSTANCES, WHICH H A V E F A L L E N F R O M T H E H E A V E N S , F R O M T H E EARLIEST PERIOD D O W N T O 1819

A n o n y m o u s ; Edinburgh P h i l o s o p h i c a l Journal,

1 : 2 2 1 - 2 3 5 , October 1 8 1 9 .

Chapter III of this r e p o r t c o v e r s "other s u b s t a n c e s " and s o m e of the m o r e i n t e r e s t ing i t e m s a r e r e p r o d u c e d b e l o w . B. C. 4 7 2 , N o v . 5 or 6. A g r e a t fall of b l a c k d u s t , probably at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , during which the h e a v e n s s e e m e d t o b u r n . — P r o c o p i u s , M a r c e l l i n u s , T h e o p h a n e s , & c . (p. 2 3 3 ) M i d d l e of the 9th c e n t u r y , red d u s t , and m a t t e r l i k e coagulated b l o o d , f e l l f r o m the h e a v e n s . — - K a z w i n i , E l m a z e n . (p. 2 3 3 ) 1 1 1 0 . A burning body f e l l in the L a k e of V a n in A r m e n i a , and m a d e its waters blood r e d . T h e earth w a s cleft i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s . — M a t t h . E r e t z . (p. 2 3 3 ) 1 4 1 6 . Red r a i n f e l l i n B o h e m i a . — S p a n g e n b e r g . 1 5 4 8 , N o v . 6. A r e d substance like coagulated b l o o d , fell with a m e t e o r , p r o b a b l y in T h u r i n g i a . — - S p a n g e n b e r g . (p. 2 3 3 ) 1 5 6 0 . On the day of P e n t e c o s t , red rain f e l l at E m b d e n and L o u v a i n e . Fromond. D e c . 2 4 . A m e t e o r and red rain f e l l a t L i l l e b o n n e . — N a t a l i s C o m e s . (p. 2 3 4 ) 1 6 1 8 , A u g . A s h o w e r of b l o o d , s t o n e s , and a m e t e o r , fell in S t y r i a . D e H a m m e r . (p. 2 3 4 ) 1718, March 24. Gelatinous m a t t e r f e l l , with a g l o b e of f i r e in the I s l e of L e t h y in India. B a r c h e w i t z . (p. 2 3 4 ) 1 7 9 6 , M a r c h 8. A v i s c o u s m a t t e r f e l l along with a m e t e o r in L u s a t i a . It had the c o l o u r and odour of d r i e d brown v a r n i s h , and is supposed by Chladni to c o n s i s t of sulphur and i r o n . G i l b e r t ' s A n n a l , l v . (p. 2 3 4 ) 1 8 1 3 , M a r c h 1 3 and 1 4 . M u c h red d u s t , r e d s n o w , and r e d r a i n , f e l l i n C a l a b r i a , T u s c a n y , and F r i u l i , at the t i m e of the fall of m e t e o r i c stones at C u t r o . Snow and h a i l , of a y e l l o w - r e d c o l o u r , f e l l o v e r a l l T u s c a n y , with a north wind. Snow, of a b r o w n i s h - y e l l o w c o l o u r , f e l l at B o l o g n a , the wind being south-west. B i b l . B r i t . O c t . 1 8 1 3 , and A p r i l 1 8 1 4 . this dust contained, Silex 33 Chrome Alumina 15-1/2 Carbon Lime 11-1/4 Loss Iron 14-1/2 According to Sementini, 1 9 15-3/4 100

It is p r o b a b l y significant that m e t e o r s a r e often s e e n b e f o r e a fall of m a t e r i a l .

GFL-004

A R A I N OF SOLID MATTER

A n o n y m o u s ; Journal o f the Franklin Institute, 9 0 : 1 1 - 1 2 , 1 8 7 0 . C o s m o s contains a notice of a r e m a r k a b l e rain of y e l l o w i s h m a t t e r which fell at G e n o a , during the m o r n i n g of the 14th of F e b r u a r y , 1 8 7 0 . The i n f o r m a -

G2-55

GFL-005

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN

tion i s c o m m u n i c a t e d b y M . G . B o c c a r d o , d i r e c t o r o f the T e c h n i c a l Institute, of that p l a c e , and Prof. C a s t e l l a n i , who t o g e t h e r m a d e an examination of it. The quantitative a n a l y s i s gave as result: Water Organic m a t t e r S i l i c e o u s and A r g i l l a c e o u s sand (the l a t t e r in s m a l l quantity) Oxide of I r o n Carbonate of L i m e 6.490 6.611 65.618 14.692 8.589 100.00

The m i c r o s c o p e r e v e a l e d the p r e s e n c e o f n u m e r o u s s p h e r i c a l o r i r r e g u l a r l y ovoidal g l o b u l e s , of the c o l o r of c o b a l t - b l u e , c o r p u s c l e s r e s e m b l i n g the s p o r e s of P e r m o s p o r e : c o r p u s c l e s of a p e a r l y c o l o r with c o n c e n t r i c z o n e s , g r e a t l y r e s e m b l i n g g r a i n s of s t a r c h , f r a g m e n t s of D i a t o m a c e a , & c . T h i s r e p o r t i s t y p i c a l o f the "yellow r a i n s . "

GFL-005

YELLOW RAIN

Ernst, A . ; Nature, 4 : 6 8 , May 2 5 , 1 8 7 1 . The following notice will p e r h a p s be of s o m e i n t e r e s t to the r e a d e r s of N a t u r e . In D e c e m b e r 1 8 7 0 , after a heavy rain at R o s a r i o de Cacuta (New G r a n a d a ) , a g r e a t m a n y s m a l l round s p e c k s of a y e l l o w c l a y i s h s u b s t a n c e w e r e found on the l e a v e s of plants that had been e x p o s e d to the rain. A s a m p l e of this s u b s t a n c e w a s sent to D r . A. R o j a s , of this town, who forwarded it to me in o r d e r to e x a m i n e it under the m i c r o s c o p e . It p r o v e d to be c o m p o s e d a l m o s t entirely of a s p e c i e s of T r i c e r a t i u m , and another of C o s m a r i u m , which m u s t have been c a r r i e d away by a violent s t o r m f r o m their l a c u s t r i a n a b o d e s . C o s m a r i u m is a type of f r e s h - w a t e r a l g a e . in G F F - 0 0 6 . See the c o m m e n t s on this o b s e r v a t i o n

GFL-006

[FALL OF YELLOW POLLEN]

A n o n y m o u s ; N a t u r e , 6 6 : 1 5 7 , June 1 2 , 1 9 0 2 . S e v e r a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t s h a v e sent to the daily p a p e r s accounts of the fall of a y e l l o w p o w d e r on June 1 and 2 during a t h u n d e r s t o r m . At G r e a t Y e l d h a m , in E s s e x , and at L a n g p o r t , S o m e r s e t , this y e l l o w s e d i m e n t was found after the s t o r m had s u b s i d e d , and w a s thought t o b e sulphur. M r . C . T u r n e r h a s , h o w e v e r , pointed out in the T i m e s that the s u b s t a n c e supposed to be sulphur i s i n r e a l i t y the p o l l e n f r o m pine t r e e s . T h i s i s often produced i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s and h a s many t i m e s been m i s t a k e n in c o u n t r y p l a c e s for " s h o w e r s of sulphur."

G2-56

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN
GFL-007 THE M A N N A OF THE ISRAELITES

GFL-007

Teesdale, M . J . ; Science Gossip, 3 : 2 2 9 - 2 3 3 , 1897. M a n y r e p o r t s t e l l o f m a n n a "falling" f r o m the s k i e s , but u s u a l l y t h i s m e a n s that the m a n n a w a s found one day w h e r e it did not e x i s t the day b e f o r e . That m a n n a e x i s t s , one cannot doubt. Indeed, the following r e p o r t t e l l s of s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s . The q u e s t i o n i s : " D o e s it actually fall out of the s k y ? " In a r e c e n t b o t a n i c a l work of authority o c c u r s the following p a s s a g e : "It should be m e n t i o n e d that the m a n n a sent to the I s r a e l i t e s on t h e i r j o u r n e y out of Egypt to the Holy Land is identical with the l i c h e n d e s c r i b e d h e r e and figured on p a g e 6 9 5 , and the o l d e r v i e w that the m a n n a of the d e s e r t w a s the s a p of a t a m a r i s k ( T a m a r i x g a l l i c a - m a n n i f e r a ) exuded u n d e r the influence of a p a r a s i t e is without any foundation. " T h e l i c h e n thus p o s i t i v e l y a s s e r t e d t o b e identical with the m a n n a o f S c r i p t u r e ( s e e E x o d u s x v i . and N u m b e r s x i . ) i s d e s c r i b e d i n the s a m e work a s c o n sisting of three s p e c i e s , spread over an enormous region in South-West A s i a and extending as f a r as the s o u t h - e a s t of E u r o p e and the north of A f r i c a . It w a s f i r s t o b s e r v e d b y the c e l e b r a t e d naturalist and t r a v e l l e r , P . S . P a l l a s , in 1 7 6 9 , i n the d e s e r t s o f T a r t a r y , and w a s n a m e d L e c a n o r a e s c u l e n t a , P a l l a s (fig. I a ) ; i t i s a l s o known a s Sphaerothallia e s c u l e n t a , N e e s . "It f o r m s , " s a y s P r o f e s s o r K e r n e r , "thick, wrinkled and warted c r u s t s on the s t o n e s , p r e f e r a b l y on s m a l l f r a g m e n t s of l i m e s t o n e ; the outer c o l o u r of the c r u s t is a g r e y i s h y e l l o w , w h i l e on b r e a k i n g it a p p e a r s as white as a c r u s h e d g r a i n of c o r n . " T h e A l g e r i a n s p e c i m e n s i n the C r y p t o g a m i c D e p a r t m e n t o f the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m a r e s m a l l e r than the A s i a t i c , and a r e o f a r e d d i s h c o l o u r , p r o b a b l y b o r r o w e d f r o m the s o i l o n which they a r e r o l l e d about, a s h e r e a f t e r d e s c r i b e d . " A s they get o l d e r the c r u s t s b e c o m e rent, and s e p a r a t e e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y o r wholly f r o m t h e i r s u b s t r a t u m , t o which they w e r e only l i g h t l y attached b y r o o t - l i k e f r i n g e s . When they f i r s t b e c o m e l o o s e n e d the e d g e s o f the detached p o r t i o n b e c o m e s o m e w h a t rolled back. The r o l l i n g then c o n t i n u e s , and u l t i m a t e l y the l o o s e n e d p i e c e f o r m s an e l l i p t i c a l or s p h e r i c a l warted body, with a v e r y m u c h c o n t r a c t e d c e n t r a l cavity As a r u l e the h o l e is filled with a i r , and when d r i e d the p i e c e s w e i g h very little. It is e a s y to s e e that the l o o s e p o r t i o n s will be r o l l e d about by the wind, and that a s t o r m will s o m e t i m e s s w e e p t h e m up f r o m the ground and c a r r y them hither and thither through the a i r . In rainy s e a s o n s the m a n n a - l i c h e n is a l s o washed by r i v u l e t s into the d e p r e s s i o n s in the Steppes, and in s o m e y e a r s in such quantities that they f o r m h e a p s a span high, and one m a n can in a day c o l l e c t four t o s i x k i l o - g r a m m e s (about 1 2 , 0 0 0 t o 2 0 , 0 0 0 p i e c e s , v a r y i n g i n s i z e f r o m a p e a to a h a z e l - n u t ) . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y the c a s e in the Steppes r e g i o n and in the high l a n d s of S o u t h - W e s t A s i a , w h e r e the m a n n a - l i c h e n is u s e d as a s u b stitute for c o r n in y e a r s of f a m i n e , being ground in the s a m e w a y , and baked into a s p e c i e s of b r e a d A l l the g r e a t s o - c a l l e d r a i n s of m a n n a , of which news h a s c o m e f r o m the E a s t to E u r o p e , o c c u r r e d at the beginning of the y e a r , b e t w e e n January and M a r c h , i. e. at the t i m e of the h e a v i e s t r a i n s . " In an a r t i c l e in the " G a r d e n e r s ' C h r o n i c l e " for S e p t e m b e r , 1 8 4 9 , it is stated that this l i c h e n s p r i n g s up with g r e a t rapidity after rain on the K h i r g i z Steppes and in C e n t r a l A s i a , and it is mentioned that accounts had then r e c e n t l y b e e n r e c e i v e d of the fall as it w e r e f r o m the s k i e s of p r o d i g i o u s quantities in one night in the neighbourhood of E r z e r u m , in A r m e n i a . It is added that P a r r o t brought s p e c i m e n s c o l l e c t e d in the beginning of 1 8 2 8 which w e r e said to h a v e d e s c e n d e d f r o m the s k i e s i n s o m e d i s t r i c t s o f P e r s i a , and t o h a v e c o v e r e d the

G2-57

GFL-007

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN

ground to the depth of five or s i x inches. Gobel analysed these, and believed them to have been c a r r i e d by e l e c t r i c a l winds f r o m distant l o c a l i t i e s . He believed it to be P a r m e l i a esculenta (another synonym of Lecanora esculenta), a native of the Steppes and the districts between the Caspian and A r a l S e a s . In 1 8 2 9 , during the w a r between P e r s i a and R u s s i a , there was a great famine in Orumiah, south-west of the Caspian. One day, during a violent wind, the surface of the country was c o v e r e d with a lichen which "fell down f r o m heaven. " The sheep i m m e d i a t e l y attacked and e a g e r l y devoured it, which suggested to the inhabitants the idea of reducing it to flour and making b r e a d of it, which was found to be good and nourishing. In the spring of 1 8 4 1 there w a s an astonishing fall of the s a m e substance near Lake Van, in the e a s t of A s i a M i n o r . It c o v e r e d the ground three or four inches in depth. The p i e c e s w e r e of the s i z e of hailstones, grey in colour and pleasant to the taste. A white m e a l was prepared f r o m them which provided a rather t a s t e l e s s b r e a d . In January, 1 8 4 6 , at Jenischehir, in the west of A s i a M i n o r , and the surrounding d i s t r i c t s , during a t i m e of famine, a s i m i l a r fall took p l a c e . It lasted s o m e days, and the p i e c e s of lichen w e r e of the s i z e of hazel nuts. They w e r e ground into flour, the bread f r o m which was pronounced little inferior to wheat b r e a d . Another account s a y s that the manna was of a greyish-white colour, rather hard and i r r e g u l a r in f o r m , inodorous and insipid. In the y e a r 1847 a r e p o r t was made by General Jussuf, the C o m m a n d e r of the French t r o o p s , to the G o v e r n o r of A l g i e r s , on the subject of an edible lichen spread o v e r a l a r g e portion of the Sahara and the A l g e r i a n plateaux, which he said had been a sustenance to the troops during the campaign, especially as p r o vender for the h o r s e s . It was named Chlorangium jussufii, L i n k . , but is identified by l i c h e n o l o g i s t s as Lecanora esculenta, P a l l . On the whole there is no doubt that this curious natural product has been food for both men and animals in the s e v e r a l countries where it has fallen, but it is said that the sheep in A l g i e r s do not thrive upon it, and no doubt it contains in its composition v e r y slight nourishing p r o p e r t i e s . Sir Roderick Murchison, the geologist, wrote in the "Gardeners' Chronicle" for August 13th, 1 8 6 4 , as to specimens of manna-lichen sent to h i m by the Austrian Internuncio at Constantinople which fell with a gust of rain at Charput, north-west of Diarbekir, A s i a Minor, that the s p e c i m e n s contained m o r e than sixty-five per cent of oxalate of l i m e , with twenty-five p e r cent only of amylaceous m a t t e r , allied to starch, of which Iceland m o s s , the food of the reindeer, contains eighty per cent. We m a y a s s u m e that the manna brought to the I s r a e l i t e s w a s , like the q u a i l s , a local natural product, provided in harmony with the preordained l a w s of the universe, and can proceed to c o n s i d e r whether the Lecanora esculenta, or s o m e other product, m o s t nearly a c c o r d s with the Scriptural description of manna. Numerous t r e e s and shrubs exude sweet g u m s , to s o m e of which the name of manna is applied, but only a few of them a r e worthy consideration in connection with this subject. One of t h e s e is yielded by a thorny leguminous shrub, very c o m m o n f r o m the North of India to Syria, and plentiful in the W i l d e r n e s s of Sin. It is called by the A r a b s " A l h a j " (Alhagi of Linnaeus). Two s p e c i e s , Alhagi m a u r o r u m and A. d e s e r t o r u m , a r e called by them "Ooshter K h a r , " or c a m e l ' s - t h o r n , and in M e s o p o t a m i a "Agool. " The l e a v e s of A. m a u r o r u m exude a sweetish juice (Arabic " T e r enkjubin" m o i s t honey), which c o n c r e t e s into s m a l l granular m a s s e s , and which is usually distinguished by the name of P e r s i a n manna. It contains, amongst various s o r t s of p a r t i c l e s , a great number of globular, c r y s t a l l i n e and almost transparent bodies of different s i z e s and of a y e l l o w i s h =

G2-58

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN

GFL-007

white c o l o u r . The b i g g e s t of these does not exceed a l a r g e coriander seed in s i z e , and they have somewhat the appearance of s m a l l lumps of m a s t i c . Tournefort s a y s that it is chiefly gathered about T a u r i s , a city of P e r s i a , during great heats in that part of the world, but it is indigenous o v e r a l a r g e part of the E a s t , yielding manna, however, only in P e r s i a , Bokhara, A r a b i a and Palestine. Extensive plains a r e in these countries covered with the c a m e l ' s - t h o r n , and it is of great importance as food for c a m e l s as well as for sheep and goats. F r o m the wounds produced by the browsing of these anim a l s , the manna chiefly exudes. It is collected by the A r a b s and c a r a v a n s which c r o s s the d e s e r t , and is used as food. It is gathered by shaking the branches. This Alhagi does not appear to be the s a m e shrub as that which the t r a v e l l e r W e l l s t e d found bearing manna in the Wady Hebron, on his journey f r o m T o r to Mount Sinai, in September, 1 8 3 6 , "fifteen m i l e s f r o m the s e a , and at an elevation of about 2 , 0 0 0 f e e t . " That shrub was called "gavan, " was about two feet high, and b o r e a striking r e s e m b l a n c e to the b r o o m . In Kurdistan, D r . Wright found in one part of the mountains great quantities of a sweet substance on the l e a v e s of certain t r e e s , generally the oak and g a l l nut t r e e , and which is called "gezza" in Kurdish, and "manna" in Syriac. It f o r m s on the l e a v e s in such abundance that when they a r e dried and pounded it c o m e s off in s c a l e s , and is collected and used as an article of food. When melted and strained in o r d e r to separate the crumbled l e a v e s it is v e r y delicious, and is eaten by the people often in preference to honey. In the s u m m e r it is collected in l a r g e quantities and put up for winter u s e . Another kind of manna is a l s o gathered in the W i l d e r n e s s of Sin which appears to have m o r e points of r e s e m b l a n c e with the manna of the I s r a e l i t e s than either the edible lichen or the saccharine exudations above r e f e r r e d to. This substance exudes f r o m the twigs of the t a m a r i s k ( T a m a r i x gallic a), figs. 2 - 4 , a shrub or tree which is distributed over a l a r g e part of the northern h e m i s p h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y near the s h o r e s of the Atlantic and Mediterranean s e a s and those of W e s t A s i a and N o r t h - W e s t India, but which only y i e l d s manna in the valleys of the Sinaitic Peninsula, such as the Wady El Sheikh, the Wady Feiran, Wady Gharundel and the Wady T a i b e , this local variety being known to botanists as T. gallic a ( m a n nifera). In the Wady Feiran, the valley in which the I s r a e l i t e s a r e believed to have camped, and which leads f r o m the Gulf of Suez towards Mount Sinai, the traveller p a s s e s through thick avenues of these t r e e s , which a r e called by the natives "Turfeh" or "Tarffa" t r e e s . They r e s e m b l e a weeping-birch, and are especially rich in s a p . The manna flows f r o m the e x t r e m i t i e s of their slender pensile boughs in d r o p s , d e s c r i b e d by Lepsius as s o m e t i m e s as l a r g e as p e a s , s o m e t i m e s no l a r g e r than pin-heads. The exudation was ascertained by E h r e n b e r g to be consequent upon the puncture of the C o c c u s manniparus, E h r . , a kind of s c a l e insect or m e a l y - b u g (fig. 6 ) , which infests t h e s e t r e e s in spring and s u m m e r , and which is allied to the cochineal insect (Coccus cacti), and the Coccus i l i c i s , of which the dye-stuff called " K e r m e s " is manufactured. The g u m m y m a t t e r falls m o s t plentifully in rainy s e a s o n s on the l e a v e s and the ground beneath the t r e e s (fig. 6 ) , and when falling on clean rock is white as snow in c o l o u r . It soon hardens, but m e l t s again (says the t r a v e l l e r Burckhardt) as soon as the sun shines upon it, so it is collected by the A r a b s before s u n r i s e , when it is coagulated. They c l e a r away the l e a v e s , d i r t , e t c . , which adhere to it, boil it, strain it through a c o a r s e cloth, and put it into leathern skins. In this way they p r e s e r v e it till the following y e a r , and use it, as they do honey, to pour on their unleavened b r e a d and dip the bread into. T h i s substance c o r r e s p o n d s in s i z e , taste and c o l o u r , as a l s o in the t i m e and mode of its appearance and collection, with the manna of Exodus xvi, and Numbers x i . " W e read" (says C a r l Ritter, in his "Geography of Palestine") "that this food was provided after the I s r a e l i t e s had taken their journey f r o m

G2-59

GFL-008

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN

E l i m and had c o m e into the W i l d e r n e s s of Sin, which is between E l i m and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the s e c o n d month a f t e r their departing out of the land of Egypt. T h i s s e e m s t o c o r r e s p o n d with the W a d y T a i b e , the m o s t northern point, a c c o r d i n g to S e e t z e n , w h e r e the manna ( T a m a r i x m a n n i f e r a ) is found, and the t i m e after the p a s s a g e of the Red S e a c o i n c i d e s a c c u r a t e l y with the s e a s o n when it is f i r s t o b s e r v e d in the W a d y F e i r a n . " It h a s b e e n o b j e c t e d that v e r y l i m i t e d s u p p l i e s of this m a n n a a r e g a t h e r e d in the p r e s e n t day, but t r a v e l l e r s h a v e r e c o r d e d that the vegetation of the d e s e r t has b e e n r u t h l e s s l y d e s t r o y e d by the B e d o u i n s , chiefly f o r the m a n u f a c t u r e of c h a r c o a l , and we c a n be sure that in the t i m e of the I s r a e l i t e s ' w a n d e r i n g s the t a m a r i s k extended i n v a s t f o r e s t s o v e r the d i s t r i c t w h e r e i t i s still found. The c a m e l ' s - t h o r n w a s a l s o no doubt m u c h m o r e abundant at that t i m e than in the present day. Add t o which, the y i e l d o f m a n n a would b e e n o r m o u s l y i n c r e a s e d if we s u p p o s e that the s a m e winds which brought the q u a i l s in such p r o f u s i o n a l s o brought an unusual quantity of the C o c c u s p a r a s i t e , and that the t r e e s w e r e a b n o r m a l l y punctured. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know the grounds upon which the l e a r n e d author and editor of the "Natural H i s t o r y of P l a n t s " have pronounced so d e c i d e d l y in f a v o u r of the l i c h e n , as it a p p e a r s f r o m the f o r e g o i n g r e v i e w of the s u b j e c t that the food of the I s r a e l i t e s c o n s i s t e d , with a m u c h g r e a t e r d e g r e e of p r o b a b i l i t y , of the exudation still known as manna, than of the d r y and insipid l i c h e n . S o m e , h o w e v e r , m a y b e inclined t o think that the m a n n a d e s c r i b e d with s u c h e x a c t n e s s in the S c r i p t u r e s w a s that of the t a m a r i s k supplemented by the other s o r t s known to be c o m m o n in the Sinaitic P e n i n s u l a .

GFL-008

[FALL OF MANNA]

A n o n y m o u s ; N a t u r e , 4 3 : 2 5 5 , January 1 5 , 1 8 9 1 . The d i r e c t o r of the c e n t r a l d i s p e n s a r y at Bagdad h a s sent to La Nature a s p e c i m e n of an e d i b l e s u b s t a n c e which f e l l during an abundant s h o w e r in the neighbourhood of M e r d i n and D i a r b e k i r (Turkey in A s i a ) in A u g u s t 1 8 9 0 . The rain which a c c o m p a n i e d the s u b s t a n c e f e l l o v e r a s u r f a c e of about ten k i l o m e t r e s i n c i r c u m f e r e n c e . The inhabitants c o l l e c t e d the " m a n n a , " and m a d e it into b r e a d , which is said to h a v e been v e r y good and to have b e e n e a s i l y digested. The s p e c i m e n sent t o L a N a t u r e i s c o m p o s e d o f s m a l l s p h e r u l e s ; y e l l o w i s h on the o u t s i d e , it is white within. B o t a n i s t s who have e x a m i n e d it s a y that it b e l o n g s to the f a m i l y of lichens known as L e c a n o r a e s c u l e n t a . A c c o r d i n g to D e c a i s n e , this l i c h e n , which has b e e n found in A l g e r i a , is m o s t frequently m e t with on the m o s t a r i d mountains of T a r t a r y , w h e r e it l i e s a m o n g p e b b l e s f r o m which it can be distinguished only by e x p e r i e n c e d o b s e r v e r s . It is a l s o found in the d e s e r t of the K i r g h i z e s . T h e t r a v e l l e r P a r r o t brought to Europe s p e c i m e n s of a quantity which had fallen in s e v e r a l d i s t r i c t s of P e r s i a at the beginning of 1 8 2 8 . He w a s a s s u r e d that the ground w a s c o v e r e d with the s u b s t a n c e to the height of two d e c i m e t r e s , that a n i m a l s ate it e a g e r l y , and that it w a s c o l l e c t e d by the p e o p l e . In s u c h c a s e s it is supposed to have b e e n caught up by a w a t e r s p o u t , and c a r r i e d along by the w i n d . N o t e that l i c h e n s g r o w s l o w l y .

G2-60

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN
GFL-009 "PURPLE PATCHES"

GFL-010

Pedder, A . ; Nature, 55:33, November 12, 1 8 9 6 . I should be v e r y glad if I could obtain i n f o r m a t i o n as to the c a u s e and nature of c e r t a i n "purple p a t c h e s " which I have noticed f r o m t i m e to t i m e f o r m a n y y e a r s p a s t , but h a v e b e e n unable to get e x p l a i n e d . The patches in q u e s t i o n o c c u r during, or i m m e d i a t e l y after, rain, on the p a v e m e n t or roadway; d a s h e s of vivid p u r p l e , o r r a t h e r v i o l e t , v a r y i n g i n s i z e f r o m s m a l l s p l a s h e s o r d r o p s t o patches a s l a r g e a s the p a l m o f o n e ' s hand, but m o s t c o m m o n l y they a r e about the s i z e of a s h i l l i n g . W h e n quite f r e s h , s o m e t i m e s a little c l o t is o b s e r v a b l e in the c e n t r e of the s p l a s h . S o m e t i m e s I find one patch c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d , s o m e t i m e s two o r t h r e e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ; s o m e t i m e s , again, n u m e r o u s little d r o p s s c a t t e r e d o v e r a c e r t a i n s p a c e ; once I counted twenty or thirty tiny d a s h e s in about ten y a r d s of p a v e m e n t . W h e n quite wet the v i o l e t c o l o u r c a n be rubbed up with a handkerchief or p a p e r , which it s t a i n s as with "aniline p u r p l e " d y e , as it d o e s the p a v e m e n t , and when o n c e d r y it is quite i n e r a s i b l e , and l a s t s till it is worn away by e x p o s u r e , or the feet of p a s s e r s b y . I o b s e r v e it to o c c u r chiefly during w a r m r a i n a f t e r a d r y o r cold s p e l l ; n e v e r during d r y w e a t h e r , whether in s u m m e r or winter. During the past hot s u m m e r t h e r e w a s none t o b e found, but d i r e c t l y the w e a t h e r changed in July, I s a w it in v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s . This w a s a l s o the c a s e in the long c o l d winter of 1 8 9 5 , when on the b r e a k i n g up of the frost t h e r e w e r e plentiful p a t c h e s to be s e e n up and down the s t r e e t s ; t h e r e w a s a l s o a c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e during the following s u m m e r , till the drought g a v e , and then again I found this a p p e a r a n c e r e c u r . I naturally o b s e r v e it m o s t in Bath, w h e r e I l i v e ; but it is not at all confined to one p l a c e or situation. I h a v e found good s p e c i m e n s at such widely different p l a c e s as the d o o r w a y of a hotel at Oban; the C a s t l e H i l l , Edinburgh; r a i l w a y p l a t f o r m at M o r e c a m b e ; d o o r s t e p at W i n d e r m e r e ; in s t r e e t s and r o a d s at C a m b r i d g e , B u d e , P e n z a n c e , St. I v e s , Clevedon; o n c e in a London s t r e e t (Pall M a l l E a s t ) , and once s o m e w a s found in a c o l d w a t e r bath. I h a v e f r o m t i m e to t i m e m a d e i n q u i r i e s f r o m v a r i o u s people who I thought would know, but h a v e not b e e n fortunate enough to m e e t any scientific p e r s o n who h a s o b s e r v e d it. But one l e a r n e d p r o f e s s o r to whom I d e s c r i b e d the "patches, " s u g g e s t e d whether "purple b a c t e r i a " would p r o v e a solution to the m y s t e r y , and r e c o m m e n d e d m e t o inquire through the m e d i u m o f y o u r c o l u m n s . I should be m u c h obliged if s o m e one would enlighten m e , or mention s o m e authority to w h o m I could r e f e r .

GFL-010

"PURPLE PATCHES" 5 8 : 5 2 1 , September 2 9 , 1898.

Southerden, F . ; N a t u r e ,

In Nature of N o v e m b e r 1 2 , 1 8 9 6 , there appeared a letter asking for s o m e explanation of c e r t a i n p u r p l e patches frequently noticed by the w r i t e r ( A . P e d d e r ) o n r o a d w a y s and p a v e m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y a t B a t h . T h e r e w e r e but t h r e e r e p l i e s , two of w h i c h s u g g e s t e d "copying-ink" p e n c i l s as r e s p o n s i b l e . T h e following n o t e s , m a d e r e c e n t l y i n D e r b y s h i r e b y m y s e l f , s e e m s o n e a r l y to fit the c a s e that I v e n t u r e to think a c a u s e such as h e r e d e s c r i b e d , or one c l o s e l y a l l i e d , m i g h t explain s o m e a t any r a t e , o f the c a s e s m e n t i o n e d . H e r e a r e the v e r b a t i m n o t e s : -

G2-61

GFL-011

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN

"29/8/98 At A x e Edge last Wednesday I noticed on a coal-pit ventilating shaft (Thatch M a r s h Colliery) on the m o o r certain deepish blue m a s s e s on a ledge near the b a s e . Some m a s s e s brighter b l u e , others nearly black. Under a lens appeared to contain horny parts of l a r v a e and many s m a l l s e e d s . They a r e probably the droppings of b i r d s . They leave a bluish stain on the stone. "To-day I noticed the s a m e on s o m e p i e c e s of stone on the road to Govt's Bridge, a steep, rocky road. "30/8/98. V i s i t e d A x e Edge shaft again. T h e r e w e r e no f r e s h deposits on it. This m a y be due to a l m o s t continuous rain the last four days; but the stains a r e still t h e r e . A l s o found deposit on one or two stones round shaft and on a piece of wooden staging. They w e r e v e r y plentiful, especially on the tops of the six posts of this staging, w h e r e one would expect b i r d s to settle chiefly. The colour and stains w e r e just the s a m e — s o m e reddish purple and s o m e bluish purple. The colour is thus evidently due only to the excreta ( ? ) , and not to the body on which deposited. The s e e d s appear reddish, and it s e e m s likely that the colour is due to them. ( B i l b e r r i e s a r e plentiful on the s u r r o u n d ing m o o r ) . " " 1 / 9 / 9 8 . — T h e s e e d s are identical with b i l b e r r y , and o n extracting the excreta with cold water a c l a r e t - r e d colour is obtained, which leaves a g r e e n ish-blue stain on p a p e r . " Pedder, however, observed the patches in the middle of the winter as well as s u m m e r .

GFL-011

EXTRAORDINARY FLIGHT OF LEAVES 4 2 : 6 3 7 , October 3 0 , 1 8 9 0 .

Shaw, J a m e s ; Nature,

The pastoral f a r m of Dalgonar is situated near the s o u r c e of the Skarr W a t e r , in the parish of Penpont, D u m f r i e s s i r e . The ridge of hills on the f a r m as per Ordnance Survey is 1580 feet above s e a - l e v e l . T h e r e are only five trees on the f a r m two ash and three l a r c h . An extraordinary o c c u r r e n c e presented itself to the e y e s of M r . W r i g h t , my informant, at the end of October 1 8 8 9 , on this f a r m , which has been narrated to me in a letter received f r o m h i m , a s f o l l o w s : "I w a s struck by a strange appearance in the a t m o s p h e r e , which I at first mistook for a flock of b i r d s , but as I saw them falling to the earth my curiosity was quickened. Fixing my e y e s on one of the l a r g e r of them, and running about 100 y a r d s up the hill until directly underneath, I awaited its a r r i v a l , when I found it to be an oak leaf. Looking upwards the air was thick with them, and as they descended in an a l m o s t vertical direction, oscillating, and g l i t t e r ing in the sunshine, the spectacle w a s as beautiful as r a r e . The wind was from the north, blowing a v e r y gentle b r e e z e , and there w e r e occasional showers of rain. "On examination of the hills after the l e a v e s had fallen, it was found that they c o v e r e d a tract of about a m i l e wide and two m i l e s long. The leaves w e r e wholly those of the oak. No oak t r e e s grow in clumps together n e a r e r than eight m i l e s . The aged shepherd, who has been on the f a r m since 1 8 2 6 , never witnessed a s i m i l a r o c c u r r e n c e . " Why only oak leaves ?

G2-62

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN
GFL-012 A SHOWER OF H A Y 3 3 : 1 9 7 , September 2 5 , 1875.

GFL-014

A n o n y m o u s ; Scientific A m e r i c a n ,

D r . Hawtrey B e n s o n , of Dublin, writing in the Dublin D a i l y E x p r e s s under date July 2 7 , d e s c r i b e s a r e m a r k a b l e s h o w e r of s m a l l p i e c e s of hay which he w i t n e s s e d at Monkstown that m o r n i n g . It appeared in the f o r m of "a n u m b e r of d a r k flocculent b o d i e s floating slowly down through the a i r f r o m a g r e a t height, appearing as if falling f r o m a v e r y heavy d a r k c l o u d , which hung o v e r the h o u s e . " T h e p i e c e s of hay picked up w e r e w e t , "as if a v e r y heavy dew had been deposited on it. The a v e r a g e weight of the l a r g e r f l o c k s w a s p r o b a b l y not m o r e than one o r two o u n c e s , and, f r o m that, a l l s i z e s w e r e p e r c e p t i b l e down to a s i m p l e b l a d e . The air w a s v e r y c a l m , with a gentle under c u r r e n t f r o m S. E . ; the c l o u d s w e r e m o v i n g in an upper c u r r e n t f r o m S. S. W. " The a i r was t o l e r a b l y w a r m and d r y , and the phenomenon is thus accounted for by D r . J. W. M o o r e : "The coincidence of a hot sun and two a i r c u r r e n t s p r o b a b l y c a u s e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of a whirlwind s o m e d i s t a n c e to the south of M o n k s t o w n . B y i t the hay w a s r a i s e d into the a i r , t o f a l l , a s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , o v e r M o n k s town and the adjoining d i s t r i c t s . " A s i m i l a r s h o w e r of hay f e l l near W r e x h a m , E n g l a n d , July 2 5 .

GFL-013

J U L Y 29, 1875. SHOWER OF H A Y N E A R D U B L I N

A n o n y m o u s ; N a t u r e , 1 2 6 : 1 5 3 , July 2 6 , 1 9 3 0 . About 9:30 a . m . a quantity of hay f e l l f r o m the s k y at Monkstown n e a r Dublin, o v e r an a r e a of m o r e than a m i l e in d i a m e t e r , the s h o w e r l a s t i n g five m i n u t e s . T h e r e w a s a d a r k cloud o v e r h e a d and the hay was w e t , but n o r a i n was f a l l i n g , and the a i r w a s v e r y c a l m . Whirlwinds frequently s u c k hay high up into the a i r , so that the "whirlwind t h e o r y " i s m o r e r e a s o n a b l e h e r e . See a fuller account i n [ G F L - 0 1 2 ] ,

GFL-014

[SHOWER OF G R A I N ] 1:41:40, 1841.

A n o n y m o u s ; A m e r i c a n Journal o f S c i e n c e ,

C o l . Sykes c o m m u n i c a t e d the contents of a l e t t e r f r o m India, f r o m Capt. A s t o n , on the s u b j e c t of a r e c e n t singular s h o w e r of g r a i n . He stated that 60 or 70 y e a r s a g o , a fall of fish had o c c u r r e d during a s t o r m in the M a d r a s P r e s i d e n c y . T h i s fact is r e c o r d e d by M a j o r H a r r i o t t , in his "Struggles through L i f e , " as having taken place while the t r o o p s w e r e on the line of m a r c h , and s o m e of the fish falling upon the hats of the E u r o p e a n t r o o p s , they w e r e c o l l e c ted and m a d e into a c u r r y for the g e n e r a l . T h i s fact was p r o b a b l y f o r fifty y e a r s r e g a r d e d as a t r a v e l l e r ' s t a l e , but within the l a s t ten y e a r s , so m a n y other i n s t a n c e s have been w i t n e s s e d , and publicly attested, that the s t o r y is no longer doubted. T h e s h o w e r of grain above m e n t i o n e d , took p l a c e M a r c h 2 4 , 1 8 4 0 , at Rajket in K a t t y w a r , during one of those thunder s t o r m s to which that month is s u b j e c t , and it was found that the g r a i n had not only fallen upon the

G2-63

GFL-015

LEAVES, HAY, POLLEN

town, but a l s o upon a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent bf country round the town. C a p t . A. c o l l e c t e d a quantity of the s e e d , and t r a n s m i t t e d it to C o l . S y k e s . T h e natives flocked to C a p t . A. to a s k for his opinion of this phenomenon: for not only did the raining of g r a i n upon t h e m f r o m heaven, e x c i t e t e r r o r , but the o m e n w a s aggravated by the fact that the s e e d w a s not one of the cultivated g r a i n s of the country, but w a s e n t i r e l y unknown to t h e m . T h e genus and s p e c i e s w a s not i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d by s o m e botanists to whom it w a s shown, but it w a s thought to be e i t h e r a S p a r i u m , or a V i c i a . A s i m i l a r f o r c e to that which e l e v a t e s f i s h into the a i r , no doubt operated on this o c c a s i o n , and this new fact c o r r o b o r a t e s the p h e n o m e n a , the e f f e c t s of which had been p r e v i o u s l y witnessed.
f

GFL-015

A M A R V E L L O U S " R A I N F A L L " OF SEEDS September 18, 1897.

W a l l a c e , R . H e d g e r ; N o t e s and Q u e r i e s , 8 : 1 2 : 2 2 8 ,

T h e following is a cutting f r o m a publication entitled the Golden Penny, and g i v e s s o m e d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g the " e x t r a o r d i n a r y phenomenon" of a rainfall of seeds : "Some d a y s a g o the p r o v i n c e of M a c e r a t a , in Italy, w a s the s c e n e of an extraordinary phenomenon. Half an hour b e f o r e sunset an i m m e n s e n u m b e r of s m a l l b l o o d - c o l o u r e d c l o u d s c o v e r e d the s k y . About an hour l a t e r a c y c l o n e s t o r m b u r s t , and i m m e d i a t e l y the a i r b e c a m e filled with m y r i a d s of s m a l l seeds. T h e s e e d s f e l l o v e r town and c o u n t r y , c o v e r i n g the ground to a depth of about half an inch. T h e next day the whole of the s c i e n t i s t s of M a c e r a t a w e r e a b r o a d in o r d e r to find s o m e explanation. Prof. C a r d i n a l i , a c e l e b r a t e d Italian naturalist, stated that the s e e d s w e r e of the genus C e r c i s , c o m m o n l y c a l l e d Judas T r e e , and that they belonged to an o r d e r of L e g u m i n o s a e found only in C e n t r a l A f r i c a or the A n t i l l e s . It w a s found, upon e x a m i n a t i o n , that a great n u m b e r of the s e e d s w e r e actually in the f i r s t s t a g e of g e r m i n a t i o n . " A r e t h e r e m a n y authentic i n s t a n c e s of a rainfall of s e e d s ; and a r e t h e r e any in the B r i t i s h I s l e s ? The t r a n s p o r t of s e e d s by wind is c e r t a i n l y r e a s o n a b l e . T h e " s t r a n g e " part is s e g r e g a t i o n of m a t e r i a l w h e r e is the other l o o s e m a t e r i a l that m u s t e x i s t in the a r e a w h e r e the s e e d s w e r e picked u p ? I f s o m e o f the s e e d s w e r e g e r m i n a t i n g , they w e r e l i k e l y on or in the g r o u n d .

GFL-016

ON A METEORITE WHICH FELL NEAR JAFFERABAD IN INDIA O N A P R I L 2 8 , 1893

Judd, John W . ; N a t u r e , 4 9 : 3 2 - 3 3 , N o v e m b e r 9 , 1 8 9 3 . P a r t i c u l a r s have r e c e n t l y r e a c h e d this country c o n c e r n i n g a fall of a m e t e o r i t e n e a r Jafferabad in the s o u t h - e a s t of K a t h i a w a r , a native State adjoining the B o m b a y p r e s i d e n c y . D r . J . W . E v a n s , the g e o l o g i s t t o the State of K a t h i a w a r , h a s kindly f o r w a r d e d to me a t r a n s l a t i o n of the r e p o r t sent in by the l o c a l official. It is c u r i o u s that a fall of Nagali J a o w a r (a kind of

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GFL-018

s e e d u s e d as food by the p o o r e r people of the country) is said to h a v e o c c u r r e d at the s a m e t i m e as the fall of the s t o n e . As s u g g e s t e d by D r . E v a n s , the s e e d m a y have b e e n c a r r i e d a short d i s t a n c e by the wind, which is v e r y s t r o n g on the c o a s t of Kathiawar at the t i m e of y e a r when the fall o c c u r r e d . The spot w h e r e the fall took p l a c e is a flat r e g i o n of r e c e n t l i m e s t o n e . D r . Evans adds that the official r e p o r t is i n t e r e s t i n g , as it is the account of a m a n who n e v e r h e a r d of a m e t e o r i t e , and to whom the fall of g r a i n is as p r o b a b l e as that of s t o n e s . The r e p o r t that f o l l o w s d e s c r i b e s a typical m e t e o r i t e fall and s a y s nothing about seeds.

GFL-017

A SHOWER OF M E A T 34:197, March 25, 1876.

A n o n y m o u s ; Scientific A m e r i c a n ,

T h e Bath County ( K y . ) N e w s s a y s : O n F r i d a y , M a r c h 3 , 1 8 7 6 , a s h o w e r of m e a t f e l l n e a r the house of A l l e n C r o u c h , who l i v e s s o m e two or t h r e e m i l e s f r o m the O l y m p i a n Springs in the southern portion of the county, c o v e r ing a s t r i p of ground about one hundred y a r d s in length and fifty w i d e . M r s . C r o u c h w a s out in the y a r d at the t i m e , engaged in m a k i n g s o a p , when m e a t which looked l i k e beef began t o fall around h e r . T h e sky w a s p e r f e c t l y c l e a r at the t i m e , and s h e said it f e l l like l a r g e snow f l a k e s , the p i e c e s as a g e n e r a l thing not being m u c h l a r g e r . One p i e c e f e l l n e a r h e r which w a s t h r e e o r four inches s q u a r e . M r . H a r r i s o n G i l l , w h o s e v e r a c i t y i s unquestionable, and f r o m w h o m we obtain the a b o v e f a c t s , h e a r i n g of the o c c u r r e n c e , visited the locality the next d a y , and s a y s he s a w p a r t i c l e s of m e a t sticking to the f e n c e s and s c a t t e r e d o v e r the ground. The m e a t when it f e l l appeared to be p e r f e c t l y fresh. T h e c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f the L o u i s v i l l e C o m m e r c i a l , writing f r o m Mount Sterling, c o r r o b o r a t e s the a b o v e , and s a y s the p i e c e s of f l e s h w e r e of v a r i o u s s i z e s and s h a p e s , s o m e of t h e m being two inches s q u a r e . T w o g e n t l e m e n , who tasted the m e a t , e x p r e s s e d the opinion that it w a s either mutton or v e n i s o n .

GFL-018

T H E K E N T U C K Y M E A T SHOWER 2 : 4 7 3 , July 2 2 , 1 8 7 6 .

E d w a r d s , A . M e a d ; Scientific A m e r i c a n Supplement,

In y o u r Supplement of July 1st is an a r t i c l e , taken f r o m the Sanitarian, on the Kentucky m e a t - s h o w e r , and introducing the a r t i c l e , y o u e x p r e s s an opinion that we h a v e therein a solution of the question as to what the s u b s t a n c e c o n s t i tuting the m e a t - s h o w e r w a s , in M r . B r a n d e i s ' a s s e r t i o n that it c o n s i s t e d of m a s s e s of n o s t o c , a low f o r m of v e g e t a b l e e x i s t e n c e . As the public s e e m s to

G2-65

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be still i n t e r e s t e d in the m a t t e r , and a s , a p p a r e n t l y , they have not yet l e a r n e d what it r e a l l y i s , p e r m i t me s a y a few w o r d s t h e r e o n . We have in the city of N e w a r k , N . J . , a n a c t i v e , w i d e - a w a k e organization known a s the N e w a r k Scientific A s s o c i a t i o n , at the m e e t i n g s of which novel scientific m a t t e r s a r e d i s c u s s e d and sifted. At one of our m e e t i n g s , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , the true solution o f M r . E d i s o n ' s s o - c a l l e d ''etheric f o r c e " took p l a c e ; and a t our m e e t ing in M a r c h l a s t the Kentucky m e a t - s h o w e r w a s d i s c u s s e d , and at that t i m e I m a d e a c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e v i e w i n g what w a s known with r e g a r d to s o - c a l l e d s h o w e r s o f m e a t , b l o o d , and c o l o r e d m a t t e r s g e n e r a l l y . A t that t i m e , and b e f o r e I had s e e n any s p e c i m e n s f r o m Kentucky, I e x p r e s s e d an opinion that it would turn out to be n o s t o c . W h e n , then, I s a w M r . B r a n d e i s ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n , I felt convinced that he had s o l v e d the p r o b l e m , and knowing h i m w e l l , I c a l l e d on him to s e e if he could give me a s p e c i m e n of the o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e . He kindly placed h i s w h o l e supply in my h a n d s , and i n f o r m e d me that it had been r e c e i v e d f r o m Prof. C h a n d l e r , who g a v e it to a physician in B r o o k l y n , who in turn gave i t t o h i m , M r . B . Soon a f t e r , D r . A l l a n M c L a n e H a m i l t o n published a l e t t e r i n the New Y o r k M e d i c a l R e c o r d , w h e r e i n he said that he had r e c e i v e d a p i e c e of the Kentucky shower f r o m Prof. C h a n d l e r , and a m i c r o s c o p i c examination of it b y h i m s e l f and D r . J . W . S . A r n o l d r e v e a l e d the fact that i t c o n s i s t e d o f lung t i s s u e either f r o m a human infant or a h o r s e , the s t r u c t u r e of the organ in t h e s e two c a s e s being v e r y s i m i l a r . A t once I c a l l e d o n D r . H a m i l t o n , and h e l i k e w i s e placed his s p e c i m e n s i n m y h a n d s , a t the s a m e t i m e i n f o r m i n g m e that two m o r s e l s of the s h o w e r had been sent f r o m Kentucky to the editor of the A g r i c u l t u r i s t ; that g e n t l e m a n p l a c e d them in the hands of Prof. C h a n d l e r . One went to D r . H a m i l t o n , the other to B r o o k l y n , and eventually into the hands of M r . B r a n d e i s . So I evidently had the whole m a t t e r in my p o s s e s s i o n . On examination I found D r . H a m i l t o n ' s s p e c i m e n t o b e , a s h e stated, lung t i s s u e , in one portion of which c a r t i l a g e w a s to be s e e n beautifully exhibited. M r . B r a n d e i s ' s p e c i m e n , when e x a m i n e d by m e a n s of the m i c r o s c o p e , turned out to be lung t i s s u e a l s o , but not in as good a state of p r e s e r v a t i o n as the first mentioned. Soon t h e r e a f t e r f w a s shown b y P r o f . J . Phin, o f the A m e r i c a n Journal of M i c r o s c o p y , a p r e p a r e d s p e c i m e n sent f r o m Kentucky to M r , W a l m s l e y , o f Philadelphia, which w a s undoubtedly s t r i a t e d m u s c u l a r f i b r e . And subsequent thereto h e showed m e another s p e c i m e n sent t o h i m b y M r . A . T . P a r k e r , o f L e x i n g t o n , K y . , which w a s a l s o s t r i a t e d m u s c u l a r f i b r e . Being d e t e r m i n e d to follow the m a t t e r up, I w r o t e to M r . P a r k e r , and he v e r y kindly sent me three s p e c i m e n s , two in the natural state as they f e l l , and one p r e p a r e d and mounted f o r the m i c r o s c o p e . The l a s t - n a m e d c o n s i s t s entirely of c a r t i l a g e ; one of the o t h e r s is l i k e w i s e a m a s s of c a r t i l a g e , while the r e maining portion shows a few striated m u s c u l a r f i b r e s , along with what a p p e a r s to be d e n s e connective t i s s u e , but in such a condition that its exact c h a r a c t e r can not be w e l l m a d e out. I am p r o m i s e d further s p e c i m e n s and information by M r . P a r k e r , who has been unsparing i n his e n d e a v o r s t o elucidate the m y s t e r y , whilst he h a s been at the s a m e t i m e e x t r e m e l y l i b e r a l in the m a t t e r of d i s t r i b u t ing s p e c i m e n s . So m u c h f o r the f a c t s . E v e r y s p e c i m e n I have e x a m i n e d has proved to be of a n i m a l o r i g i n , showing that the Kentucky s h o w e r was a v e r i t a b l e "meat" s h o w e r . A s t o whence i t c a m e I have n o t h e o r y . M r . P a r k e r i n f o r m s me that the f a v o r i t e t h e o r y in the l o c a l i t y i s , that it p r o c e e d e d f r o m a flock of b u z z a r d s w h o , a s i s their c u s t o m , s e e i n g one o f their c o m p a n i o n s d i s g o r g e h i m self, i m m e d i a t e l y followed suit. In fact, such an o c c u r r e n c e has been actually s e e n to o c c u r , so that it would s e e m that the whole m a t t e r is capable of a r e a s o n a b l e and s i m p l e explanation, and we m a y expect to hear of s i m i l a r d o w n f a l l s in other l o c a l i t i e s .

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GFT-001 THUNDERBOLTS 1884.

GFT-001

Anonymous; Cornhill Magazine, ns 5 0 : 5 1 3 - 5 2 8 ,

T h i s is a long and c o n d e s c e n d i n g a r t i c l e , written as if s c i e n c e knew e v e r y t h i n g . T h e "noble s a v a g e , " in p a r t i c u l a r , c o m e s in f o r s o m e h a r d knocks; and, it s e e m s to be the w r i t e r ' s intent to a s s e r t that all who did not s u b s c r i b e to the s c i e n c e of 1884 were also savages. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the d i s c o v e r y o f radioactivity w a s only 1 2 y e a r s away. T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t i c l e b y C a r u s - W i l s o n (vol. G3) i s m o r e o p e n - m i n d e d , though not n e c e s s a r i l y m o r e c o r r e c t ! The s u b j e c t of thunderbolts is a v e r y fascinating one, and all the m o r e so b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e no such things in e x i s t e n c e at all as thunderbolts of any s o r t . L i k e the s n a k e s of I c e l a n d , t h e i r whole h i s t o r y m i g h t , f r o m the p o s i t i v e point of v i e w at l e a s t , be s u m m e d up in the s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t of t h e i r u t t e r nonentity. But d o e s that do away in the l e a s t , I should l i k e to know, with their i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t and i m p o r t a n c e ? Not a bit of it. It only adds to the m y s t e r y and c h a r m of the whole s u b j e c t . D o e s any one feel as keenly i n t e r e s t e d in any r e a l living c o b r a o r anaconda a s i n the n o n - e x i s t e n t g r e a t s e a - s e r p e n t ? A r e g h o s t s and v a m p i r e s l e s s attractive o b j e c t s of p o p u l a r study than c a t s and d o n k e y s ? C a n the p r e s e n t King of A b y s s i n i a , i n t e r v i e w e d by our own c o r r e s pondent, equal the r o m a n t i c c h a r m of P r e s t e r John, or the b u t c h e r in the next s t r e e t r i v a l the p e r s o n a l i t y o f Sir R o g e r C h a r l e s Doughty T i c h b o r n e , B a r o n e t ? N o , the r e a l fact is this: if t h e r e w e r e thunderbolts, the question of t h e i r nature and action would be a wholly dull, s c i e n t i f i c , and p r i g g i s h one; it is their unreality a l o n e that i n v e s t s t h e m with all the m y s t e r i o u s w e i r d n e s s of p u r e fiction.

But if s e e i n g is b e l i e v i n g , it is equally t r u e , as all who h a v e looked into the phenomena of s p i r i t u a l i s m and 'psychical r e s e a r c h ' (modern E n g l i s h f o r g h o s t hunting) know t o o w e l l , that b e l i e v i n g is s e e i n g a l s o . T h e o r i g i n of the faith in thunderbolts m u s t be looked for (like the o r i g i n of the faith in g h o s t s and ' p s y c h i c a l phenomena') far b a c k in the h i s t o r y of o u r r a c e . The noble s a v a g e , at that e a r l y p e r i o d when wild in w o o d s he r a n , naturally noticed the e x i s t e n c e of thunder and lightning, b e c a u s e thunder and lightning a r e things that f o r c i b l y obtrude t h e m s e l v e s upon the attention of the o b s e r v e r , h o w e v e r little he m a y by nature be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i n c l i n e d . Indeed, the noble s a v a g e , s l e e p i n g naked on the b a r e ground, i n t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s w h e r e thunder o c c u r s a l m o s t e v e r y night on an a v e r a g e , w a s s u r e to be p r e t t y often awaked f r o m h i s peaceful s l u m b e r s by the t o r r e n t s of rain that habitually a c c o m p a n y t h u n d e r s t o r m s in the happy r e a l m s o f e v e r l a s t i n g d o g - d a y s . P r i m i t i v e m a n w a s thereupon c o m p e l l e d to do a little philosophising on h i s own account as to the c a u s e and o r i g i n of the r u m b l i n g and flashing which he s a w so constantly around h i m . Naturally enough, he concluded that the sound m u s t be the v o i c e of s o m e b o d y ; and that the f i e r y shaft, w h o s e e f f e c t s he s o m e t i m e s noted upon t r e e s , a n i m a l s , and h i s f e l l o w - m a n , m u s t b e the s o m e b o d y ' s a r r o w . Now, this i d e a about the a r r o w s is i t s e l f v e r y significant of the mental attitude of p r i m i t i v e m a n , and of the way that m e n t a l attitude h a s c o l o u r e d all subsequent thinking and s u p e r s t i t i o n upon this v e r y s u b j e c t . C u r i o u s l y enough, to the p r e s e n t day the conception of the thunderbolt is e s s e n t i a l l y one of a b o l t - — that is to s a y , an a r r o w , or at l e a s t an a r r o w h e a d . A l l existing thunderbolts (and t h e r e a r e plenty of t h e m lying about c a s u a l l y in country h o u s e s and l o c a l m u s e u m s ) a r e m o r e o r l e s s a r r o w - l i k e i n shape and a p p e a r a n c e ; s o m e o f t h e m ,

G2-67

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indeed, as we s h a l l see b y - a n d - b y , a r e the actual stone a r r o w h e a d s of p r i m i t i v e m a n h i m s e l f in p e r s o n . Of c o u r s e the noble s a v a g e w a s h i m s e l f in the constant habit of shooting at a n i m a l s and e n e m i e s with a bow and a r r o w . W h e n , then, he t r i e d to fi'gure to h i m s e l f the a n g r y g o d , seated in the s t o r m - c l o u d s , who spoke with such a loud r u m b l i n g v o i c e , and killed t h o s e who d i s p l e a s e d him with h i s f i e r y d a r t s , he naturally thought of h i m as using in h i s cloudy h o m e the f a m i l i a r bow and a r r o w of this nether p l a n e t . To us n o w a d a y s , if we w e r e to begin f o r m i n g the i d e a f o r o u r s e l v e s all o v e r again de n o v o , it would be f a r m o r e natural to think of the thunder as the n o i s e of a b i g gun, of the lightning as the flash of the p o w d e r , and of the supposed 'bolt' as a s h e l l or b u l l e t . There is r e a l l y a r i d i c u l o u s r e s e m b l a n c e between a t h u n d e r s t o r m and a d i s c h a r g e of a r t i l l e r y . But the old conception d e r i v e d f r o m s o m a n y generations o f p r i m i tive m e n h a s held its own a g a i n s t such m e r e m o d e r n d e v i c e s a s gunpowder and r i f l e b a l l s ; and none of the o b j e c t s c o m m o n l y shown as thunderbolts a r e e v e r round: they a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d , w h a t e v e r their o r i g i n , b y the c o m m o n p e c u l i arity that they m o r e o r l e s s c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e a dart o r a r r o w h e a d . L e t us b e g i n , then, by c l e a r l y d i s e m b a r r a s s i n g o u r m i n d s of any l i n g e r i n g belief in the e x i s t e n c e of t h u n d e r b o l t s . T h e r e a r e a b s o l u t e l y no s u c h things known to s c i e n c e . T h e two r e a l phenomena that underlie the fable a r e s i m p l y thunder and lightning. A t h u n d e r s t o r m is m e r e l y a s e r i e s of e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e s between one cloud and a n o t h e r , or between c l o u d s and the earth; and t h e s e d i s c h a r g e s m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s t o our s e n s e s under two f o r m s — t o the eye as lightning, to the e a r as thunder. A l l that p a s s e s in each c a s e is a huge spark a c o m m o t i o n , not a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t . It is in p r i n c i p l e j u s t like the s p a r k f r o m an e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e ; but while the m o s t powerful m a c h i n e of human construction w i l l only s e n d a s p a r k for t h r e e f e e t , the e n o r m o u s e l e c t r i c a l apparatus p r o v i d e d f o r us by nature w i l l send one f o r f o u r , f i v e , or even ten m i l e s . P r i m i t i v e m a n naturally took t o the g r o s s e r and m o r e m a t e r i a l conception. He figured to h i m s e l f the thunderbolt as a b a r b e d a r r o w h e a d ; and the forked z i g z a g c h a r a c t e r of the v i s i b l e f l a s h , as it d a r t s rapidly f r o m point to point, s e e m e d a l m o s t inevitably t o s u g g e s t t o h i m the b a r b s , a s one s e e s t h e m r e p r e sented on a l l the G r e e k and R o m a n g e m s , in the r e d right hand of the a n g r y Jupiter. The thunderbolt b e i n g thus an accepted f a c t , it followed naturally that w h e n e v e r any d a r t - l i k e o b j e c t of unknown origin w a s dug up out of the ground, it w a s at once s e t down as b e i n g a thunderbolt; and, on the other hand, the frequent o c c u r r e n c e of such d a r t - l i k e o b j e c t s , p r e c i s e l y w h e r e one might expect to find t h e m in a c c o r d a n c e with the t h e o r y , n e c e s s a r i l y strengthened the b e l i e f itself. So c o m m o n l y a r e thunderbolts picked up to the p r e s e n t day that to d i s b e l i e v e in t h e m s e e m s to many country people a p i e c e of r i d i c u l o u s and stubborn s c e p t i c i s m . W h y , they've ploughed up d o z e n s of t h e m t h e m s e l v e s in their t i m e , and j u s t about the v e r y p l a c e w h e r e the thunderbolt s t r u c k the old e l m t r e e two years ago, too. The m o s t f a v o u r i t e f o r m of thunderbolt is the p o l i s h e d stone hatchet or 'celt' of the n e w e r stone age m e n . I have n e v e r h e a r d the v e r y rude chipped and unpolished a x e s of the o l d e r drift m e n or c a v e m e n d e s c r i b e d as thunderbolts: they a r e too rough and s h a p e l e s s e v e r t o attract attention f r o m any except p r o fessed archaeologists. Indeed, the wicked have been known to scoff at them f r e e l y as m e r e accidental l u m p s of b r o k e n flint, and to d e r i d e the notion of their being due in any w a y to d e l i b e r a t e human handicraft. T h e s e a r e the s o r t of people who would r e g a r d a grand piano as a fortuitous c o n c o u r s e of a t o m s . But the shapely stone hatchet of the l a t e r neolithic f a r m e r and h e r d s m a n is usually a beautifully p o l i s h e d w e d g e - s h a p e d p i e c e of s o l i d g r e e n s t o n e ; and its

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edge has been ground to such a d e l i c a t e s m o o t h n e s s that it s e e m s rather like a bit of n a t u r e ' s e x q u i s i t e w o r k m a n s h i p than a s i m p l e r e l i c of p r e h i s t o r i c m a n . T h e r e is s o m e t h i n g v e r y fascinating about the naif b e l i e f that the neolithic axe is a genuine unadulterated thunderbolt. Y o u dig it up in the ground e x a c t l y where y o u would expect a thunderbolt (if t h e r e w e r e such things) to b e . It is h e a v y , s m o o t h , w e l l s h a p e d , and neatly pointed at one end. If it could r e a l l y d e s c e n t in a r e d - h o t state f r o m the depths of the s k y , launched forth like a cannon-ball by s o m e f i e r c e d i s c h a r g e of heavenly a r t i l l e r y , it would c e r t a i n l y p r o v e a v e r y f o r m i d a b l e weapon indeed; and one could e a s i l y i m a g i n e it s c o r i n g the b a r k of s o m e aged oak, or t e a r i n g off the t i l e s f r o m a p r o j e c t i n g t u r r e t , e x a c t l y as the lightning is so w e l l known to do in this p r o s a i c workaday w o r l d of o u r s . In s h o r t , t h e r e is r e a l l y nothing on earth against the theory of the stone a x e being a t r u e thunderbolt, except the fact that it unfortunately happens to be a neolithic hatchet. A l l the w o r l d o v e r , this s i m p l e and e a s y belief, that the b u r i e d stone a x e is a thunderbolt, e x i s t s a m o n g Europeans and s a v a g e s a l i k e . In the W e s t of England, the l a b o u r e r s w i l l t e l l you that the t h u n d e r - a x e s they dig up f e l l f r o m the s k y . In B r i t t a n y , s a y s M r . T y l o r , the old m a n who m e n d s u m b r e l l a s at C a r n a c , b e s i d e the m y s t e r i o u s stone a v e n u e s of that g r e a t F r e n c h Stonehenge, inquires on his rounds for p i e r r e s de t o n n e r r e , which of c o u r s e a r e found with s u s p i c i o u s f r e q u e n c y in the i m m e d i a t e neighbourhood of p r e h i s t o r i c r e m a i n s . In the C h i n e s e E n c y c l o p a e d i a we a r e told that the 'lightning s t o n e s ' have s o m e t i m e s the shape of a hatchet, s o m e t i m e s that of a knife, and s o m e t i m e s that of a m a l l e t . And then, by a c u r i o u s m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n , the sapient author of that w o r k g o e s on to o b s e r v e that these lightning s t o n e s a r e u s e d by the w a n d e r ing M o n g o l s instead of copper and s t e e l . It n e v e r s e e m s to have s t r u c k his c e l e s t i a l intelligence that the M o n g o l s m a d e the lightning stones instead of digging t h e m up out of the e a r t h . So deeply had the idea of the thunderbolt buried i t s e l f in the r e c e s s e s of h i s s o u l , that though a neighbouring people w e r e still actually manufacturing stone a x e s a l m o s t under his v e r y e y e s , he r e v e r s e d mentally the entire p r o c e s s , and supposed they dug up the t h u n d e r b o l t s which he s a w them using, and e m p l o y e d them as c o m m o n h a t c h e t s . T h i s is one of the finest i n s t a n c e s on r e c o r d of the popular figure which g r a m m a r a r i a n s c a l l the h y s t e r o n p r o t e r o n , and ordinary folk d e s c r i b e as putting the c a r t b e f o r e the h o r s e . Just s o , while in s o m e p a r t s of B r a z i l the Indians a r e still l a b o r i o u s l y polishing their stone h a t c h e t s , in other p a r t s the p l a n t e r s a r e digging up the p r e c i s e l y s i m i l a r stone hatchets of e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s , and r e l i g i o u s l y p r e s e r v i n g them in their h o u s e s as undoubted thunderbolts. I have m y s e l f had p r e s s e d upon my attention as genuine lightning s t o n e s , in the W e s t Indies, the exquisitely polished g r e e n s t o n e tomahawks of the old C a r i b m a r a u d e r s . But then, in this m a t t e r , I am pretty much in the position of that p h i l o sophic s c e p t i c w h o , when he was asked by a lady whether he b e l i e v e d in g h o s t s , a n s w e r e d w i s e l y , ' N o , m a d a m , I have s e e n by far too many of t h e m . ' One of the finest accounts e v e r given of the nature of thunderbolts is that mentioned by A d r i a n u s T o l l i u s in his edition of 'Boethius on G e m s . ' He g i v e s i l l u s t r a t i o n s of s o m e neolithic a x e s and h a m m e r s , and then p r o c e e d s to state that in the opinion of p h i l o s o p h e r s t h e y . a r e generated in the sky by a fulgureous exhalation (whatever that m a y look like) conglobed in a cloud by a c i r c u m f i x e d h u m o u r , and baked h a r d , as it w e r e , by intense heat. The weapon, it s e e m s , then b e c o m e s pointed by the d a m p m i x e d with it flying f r o m the d r y p a r t , and leaving the other end d e n s e r ; while the exhalations p r e s s it so hard that it b r e a k s out through the cloud, and m a k e s thunder and lightning.

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THUNDERSTONES

Another and v e r y different f o r m of thunderbolt is the belemnite, a c o m m o n English f o s s i l often p r e s e r v e d in houses in the west country with the s a m e superstitious r e v e r e n c e as the neolithic hatchets. The very form of the b e l e m nite at once suggests the notion of a dart or l a n c e - h e a d , which has gained for it its scientific n a m e . At the present day, when all our g i r l s go to Girton and enter for the c l a s s i c a l t r i p o s , I need hardly translate the word belemnite 'for the benefit of the l a d i e s , ' as people used to do in the d a r k and unemancipated eighteenth century; but as our boys have left off learning Greek just as their s i s t e r s a r e beginning to act the 'Antigone'at private theatricals, I m a y perhaps be pardoned if I explain, 'for the benefit of the g e n t l e m e n , ' that the word is practically equivalent to j a v e l i n - f o s s i l . The belemnites a r e the internal s h e l l s of a s o r t of cuttle-fish which s w a m about in enormous numbers in the s e a s whose sediment f o r m s our modern l i a s , oolite, and gault. A great many d i f f e r ent species a r e known and have acquired charming n a m e s in v e r y doubtful Attic at the hands of profoundly learned geological investigators, but a l m o s t all a r e equally good representatives of the mythical thunderbolt. The finest s p e c i m e n s a r e long, thick, cylindrical, and gradually tapering, with a hole at one end as if on purpose to r e c e i v e the shaft. S o m e t i m e s they have petrified into iron pyrites or copper compounds, shining like gold, and then they make very noble thunderbolts indeed, heavy as lead, and capable of doing profound mischief if properly directed. At other t i m e s they have c r y s t a l l i s e d in transparent s p a r , and then they f o r m v e r y beautiful objects, as smooth and polished as the best lapidary could possibly make them. Belemnites a r e generally found in i m m e n s e numbers together, especially in the m a r l s t o n e q u a r r i e s of the Midlands, and in the lias cliffs of D o r s e t s h i r e . Y e t the quarrymen who find them never s e e m to have their faith shaken in the l e a s t by the enormous quantities of thunderbolts that would appear to have struck a single spot with such extraordinary frequency. This little fact a l s o tells rather hardly against the theory that the lightning never falls twice upon the s a m e p l a c e .

As if on purpose to confuse our already very vague ideas about thunderbolts, there is one special kind of lightning which really s e e m s intentionally to s t i m u late a m e t e o r i t e , and that is the kind known as fireballs or (more scientifically) globular lightning. A fireball generally appears as a sphere of light, s o m e t i m e s only as big as a Dutch c h e e s e , s o m e t i m e s as large as three feet in d i a m e t e r . It m o v e s along very slowly and d e m u r e l y through the a i r , remaining visible for a whole minute or two together ;• and in the end it generally bursts up with great violence, as if it w e r e a London railway station being experimented upon by Irish patriots. At Milan one day a fireball of this description walked down one of the s t r e e t s so slowly that a s m a l l crowd walked after it admiringly, to see where it was going. It made straight for a church steeple, after the common but sacrilegious fashion of all lightning, struck the gilded c r o s s on the topmost pinnacle, and then immediately vanished, like a Virgilian apparition, into thin air. A few y e a r s a g o , too, D r . Tripe was watching a very s e v e r e thunderstorm, when he saw a f i r e - b a l l come quietly gliding up to h i m , apparently r i s i n g f r o m the earth rather than falling towards it. Instead of running away, like a p r a c tical m a n , the intrepid doctor held his ground quietly and observed the fiery monster with scientific nonchalance. After continuing its course for s o m e time in a peaceful and regular fashion, however, without attempting to assault h i m , it finally darted off at a tangent in another direction, and turned apparently into forked lightning. A fireball, noticed among the Glendowan Mountains in Donegal, behaved even m o r e e c c e n t r i c a l l y , as might be expected from its Irish a n t e c e -

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dents. It first skirted the earth in a l e i s u r e l y way for s e v e r a l hundred y a r d s like a cannon-ball; then it struck the ground, ricocnetted, and once m o r e bounded along for another short spell; after which it disappeared in the boggy s o i l , as if it w e r e completely finished and done f o r . But in another m o m e n t it r o s e again, nothing daunted, with Celtic i r r e p r e s s l b i l i t y , s e v e r a l y a r d s away, pursued its ghostly c o u r s e a c r o s s a running s t r e a m (which s h o w s , at l e a s t , there could have been no witchcraft in it), and finally ran to earth for good in the opposite bank, leaving a round hole in the sloping peat at the spot where it buried itself. W h e r e it first s t r u c k , it cut up the peat as if with a knife, and made a broad deep trench which remained afterwards as a witness of its eccentric conduct. If the person who observed it had been of a s u p e r stitious turn of mind, we should have had h e r e one of the finest and m o s t t e r r i fying ghost s t o r i e s on the entire r e c o r d , which would have made an exceptionally splendid show in the Transactions of the Society for Psychical R e s e a r c h . Unfortunately, h o w e v e r , he was only a m a n of s c i e n c e , ungifted with the precious dower of poetical imagination; so he stupidly called it a r e m a r k a b l e fireball, m e a s u r e d the ground carefully like a c o m m o n engineer, and sent an account of the phenomenon to that f a r m o r e p r o s a i c periodical, the 'Quarterly Journal of the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . ' Another splendid apparition thrown away r e c k l e s s l y , f o r e v e r !

GFT-002

O B S E R V E D F A L L O F A N A E R O L I T E NEAR ST. A L B A N S

Bullen, G. E. ; Nature, 8 9 : 3 4 , M a r c h 14, 1 9 1 2 , and 8 9 : 6 2 , March 2 1 , 1 9 1 2 . During a heavy thunderstorm which ensued on Monday, M a r c h 4, between 2 . 3 0 p. m. and 4 . 1 5 p. m . , an aerolite was observed to fall at Colney Heath, near St. A l b a n s . The o b s e r v e r , who has placed the specimen in my hands for examination, stated that the stone fell within a few feet from where he was standing, and that it entered the ground for a distance of about 3 ft. Its fall was accompanied by an unusually heavy clap of thunder. The example weighs 5 l b . 1 4 - 1 / 2 o z . , and m e a s u r e s 6 - 3 / 4 in. x 5 - 5 / 8 in. at its greatest length and breadth r e s p e c t i v e l y . The m a s s is i r r e g u l a r l y ovate on the one side, and b r o ken in outline on the other. The actual surface throughout is fairly deeply pitted, and under magnification exhibits the usual chondritic structure of the c r y s t a l l i n e m a t t e r with interspersed p a r t i c l e s of what appears to be nickeliferous iron. In the following i s s u e c o m e s evidence that the "aerolite" was not m e t e o r i c in nature. If not m e t e o r i c , what was i t ? A thunder stone ? Under the above heading in the i s s u e of Nature for last week I reported upon the c i r c u m s t a n c e s and other details of a supposed fall of a meteorite during the s t o r m of M a r c h 4, as d e s c r i b e d to me by an o b s e r v e r , M r . H. L. G. Andrews, at Colney Heath, near St. Albans. I have now submitted the stone for examination to D r . G e o r g e T. P r i o r , of the British Museum (Natural History), who i n f o r m s me that it is not of meteoric origin.

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GFT-003

THUNDERSTONES
[METEORITE FALLS DURING THUNDERSTORM]

Anonymous; Nature, 8 1 : 1 3 4 , July 2 9 , 1 9 0 9 . M r . H. Garrett, writing f r o m Greensted Rectory by Ongar to the T i m e s (July 2 8 ) , s a y s : - "During the s e v e r e thunderstorm on the 13th inst. a m e t e o r i c stone fell in the stable yard h e r e with a t e r r i f i c explosion when within a few feet of the ground, embedding itself in the gravel about 8 inches, the ground around for s e v e r a l feet being perforated with s m a l l holes caused by the f r a g ments. The main part and fragments which we could collect weighed 1 l b . 13 o z . The fall was witnessed by my daughters, who w e r e sheltering about eight y a r d s a w a y . "

GFT-004

CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS 9 0 - 9 1 , 1860.

Anonymous; Report of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n ,

September 1 8 5 0 , B a r c e l o n a , Spain. At the beginning of the month; D r . Joaquin B a l c e l l s of B a r c e l o n a , relates the fall of a thunderstone ( ? ) . Sp. g r . 8 . 1 2 ; dark c o l o r e d , v e r y hard; conical f o r m ; made a hole in the ground. Said to contain no a r s e n i c ; s o m e s i l i c a and alumina and sulfurous iron. Certainly rather doubtful; and perhaps a nodule of p y r i t e s .

GFT-005

[ T H U N D E R S T O R M A N D METEOR?]

Anonymous; Nature, 4 3 : 5 9 0 , April 2 3 , 1 8 9 1 . The following cutting from the Sydney Morning H e r a l d — d a t e not stated has been sent to us for publication:-'The barque Killarney had both a s t o r m y and an extraordinary p a s s a g e , in one portion of which she stood a good chance of being placed on the l i s t of m i s s i n g v e s s e l s . At 9 p. m. on October 1 5 , 1 8 9 0 , when the barque was 50 m i l e s east of Kent's Group, there was a sudden shift of wind during a heavy thunderstorm. In the midst of a heavy clap a bulky m a s s was heard to fall into the s e a about 200 y a r d s from the v e s s e l . The r o a r of it coming through the air was quite distinct from that of the thunder, and spray was thrown fully 40 feet high on its reaching the water. The falling m a s s is believed to have been a m e t e o r . " T a l e s such as this perpetuate the thunderbolt belief.

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SECTION GL: LUMINOUS PHENOMENA
Unusual Rights in the sky a r e rather c o m m o n . Such lights w e r e the p r i m a r y b a s i s of the U F O rage of the 1 9 5 0 s and 1 9 6 0 s . Although m o s t strange lights are s i m p l e reflections or misinterpretations of c o m m o n events, there a r e still many luminous phenomena that a r e not readily explained in conventional t e r m s . It is in this section that these strange lights, glows, flashes, and other luminous structures are gathered. GLA A u r o r a - l i k e phenomena. G l o w s , bands, and shafts of light seen in the sky, s o m e t i m e s very c l o s e to the earth's surface, but with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s not found in the usual aurora. Ball lightning. E l e c t r i c d i s c h a r g e . G l o w s , f l a m e s , s p a r k s , and s p h e r e s of light that apparently, but not n e c e s s a r i l y , originate in electrical d i s c h a r g e s . Included a r e mountain-top g l o w s , St. E l m o ' s fire, earthquake lights, and tornado lights. Lightning. Unusual f o r m s of lightning (excluding ball lightning, which is in G L B ) . Silent lightning, lightning without clouds, and the "pranks" of lightning. M e t e o r - l i k e phenomena. Slow fireballs; fireballs that change c o u r s e or follow anomalous t r a j e c t o r i e s . Supposed m e t e o r s that c a u s e unexpected geophysical effects, such as strange sounds, odors, and precipitation. Nocturnal lights. Maneuvering lights, often appearing in the s a m e location y e a r after y e a r . Included a r e "spooklights" and w i l l - o ' wisps (ignis fatuus). Light w h e e l s . The luminous, wheel-like structures seen m o s t often in the Indian Ocean. A l s o , the apparently associated white, milky, a n d / o r phosphorescent s e a s .

GLB GLD

GLL

GLM

GLN

GLW

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LUMINOUS PHENOMENA

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AURORA-LIKE PHENOMENA
GLA-024 AURORAL PHENOMENA

GLA-026

Ingleby, C . M , ; N a t u r e , 2 3 : 3 6 3 , F e b r u a r y 17, 1881.

It is p e r h a p s worth a note that my d a u g h t e r s a w at F o l k e s t o n e a v e r y unusual p h e n o m e n o n on the evening of January 2 5 , a little b e f o r e 6 . 3 0 . S o m e d i s t a n c e to the left of O r i o n (for the night w a s c l e a r and s t a r r y ) she o b s e r v e d a s m a l l c l o u d of a bright golden hue, f r o m which s t r e a m e r s of g r e a t b r i l l i a n c y d a r t e d i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s , the c l o u d a l t e r n a t e l y paling and b r i g h t e n i n g . She d e s c r i b e s the s t r e a m e r s a s l i k e s m a l l m e t e o r s , l e a v i n g t r a i l s of light behind t h e m . The flashing of this c l o u d could be due to e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e s .

GLA-025

ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENON 1880.

B. ; Nature, 22:607, October 28,

L a s t evening ( O c t o b e r 21) at 5 : 4 5 p . m . I o b s e r v e d four huge radiating a r m s of faint white light, like the s p o k e s of a gigantic w h e e l , r i s i n g f r o m a c e n t r e apparently on the w e s t - s o u t h - w e s t h o r i z o n , and extending a l m o s t to the zenith. I s a y apparently on the w e s t - s o u t h - w e s t h o r i z o n , b e c a u s e an intervening h o u s e p r e v e n t e d me f r o m s e e i n g the nucleus of the d i v e r g i n g rays. The a s p e c t o f the phenomenon w a s m o r e s u g g e s t i v e o f a n a u r o r a than anything e l s e I know of, but the b e a m s of light s e e m e d to be quite s t a t i o n a r y , and although I fancied t h e i r b r i l l i a n c y i n c r e a s e d at one t i m e f o r a few m o m e n t s , I cannot be s u r e . O t h e r fainter r a y s appeared to me to divide the w e s t - s o u t h - w e s t sky with t h o s e I h a v e mentioned; but on that point I am a l s o not s u r e . The sun set at 4 : 5 3 p. m . , and twilight ended about 6 : 4 3 p . m . , at which t i m e the a p p e a r a n c e I h a v e attempted to d e s c r i b e was n o l o n g e r v i s i b l e . The s k y w a s h e a v i l y c l o u d e d . Superficially this o b s e r v a t i o n s e e m s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the sun; in other w o r d s , it is likely a r e f r a c t i o n p h e n o m e n o n .

GLA-026

U N U S U A L SKY APPEARANCE

Abbot, C. G. ; S c i e n c e, 81:294, M a r c h 2 2 , 1 9 3 5 . A c o r r e s p o n d e n t f r o m Vienna, V a . , w r i t e s that o n e i t h e r January 2 2 o r 2 3 , about 8 o' c l o c k in the evening, she s a w a light flashing in the southwest s o m e thing like lightning. It would f l a r e up s e v e r a l t i m e s , then die down. As she watched it, it b e c a m e v e r y vivid till it s e e m e d to c o m e f r o m a great b l a z i n g light, a l m o s t a ball of f i r e . A l l this t i m e it w a s m o v i n g around the h o r i z o n f r o m the southwest until it had a l m o s t r e a c h e d the s t a r t i n g point. She thought it p e r haps m o r e vivid when in the north, and that it s e e m e d to be dying away in the southeast. It appeared to be very l o w , j u s t showing above the foothills. I m y s e l f w a s driving along W i s c o n s i n Avenue in Washington on the evening in q u e s t i o n , with my wife, and we w e r e s t a r t l e d by what was probably the s a m e appearance. It r e s e m b l e d what is c a l l e d "heat lightning, " only that it s e e m e d to

G2-75

GLA-027

AURORA-LIKE PHENOMENA

be v e r y n e a r indeed and not a s s o c i a t e d with any n o i s e . T h e night; as I r e c a l l it, w a s v e r y c o l d and d r y , and I b e l i e v e on the t u r n b e t w e e n two c o n t r a s t i n g t y p e s of weather.

GLA-027

THE AURORA

Anonymous; Knowledge, 2 : 4 1 9 - 4 2 0 , November 2 4 , 1882. A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g a "magnificent a u r o r a " in conventional t e r m s , the following d e s c r i p t i o n of an unusual a s p e c t is p r e s e n t e d . N u m e r o u s a c c o u n t s of this event f r o m N a t u r e a r e quoted i n v o l u m e G l and the next entry. At about f i v e m i n u t e s p a s t s i x a singular phenomenon w a s o b s e r v e d . A cloud of whitish light, shaped l i k e t o r p e d o , p a s s e d f r o m the s o u t h - e a s t e r n to the n o r t h - w e s t e r n h o r i z o n ( s o m e accounts s a y f r o m e a s t t o w e s t , but the t r u e d i r e c t i o n w a s f r o m a l i t t l e e a s t of s o u t h - e a s t to a l i t t l e n o r t h of n o r t h - w e s t ) . It w a s of n e a r l y u n i f o r m b r i g h t n e s s . Its length w a s n e a r l y ninety d e g r e e s . (One o b s e r v e r s a y s that its s i z e , c o m p a r e d with that of the m o o n (which w a s shining b r i g h t l y at the t i m e ) , w a s as a h e r r i n g c o m p a r e d with a s i x p e n n y p i e c e ; but as he d o e s not n a m e the p r i c e of his i l l u s t r a t i v e h e r r i n g , the i l l u s t r a t i o n is not so s a t i s f a c t o r y as could be w i s h e d : d o e s he m e a n a penny h e r r i n g , or one of t h o s e w h i c h m a y be obtained, we u n d e r s t a n d , at two a p e n n y ? ) It p a s s e d a c r o s s the h e a v e n s in about two m i n u t e s . It is d e s c r i b e d as a c o m e t a r y body; but as it m o v e d a l m o s t e x a c t l y at r i g h t - a n g l e s to the m a g netic m e r i d i a n , t h e r e c a n b e v e r y little doubt i t w a s a n e l e c t r i c a l p h e n o m e n o n . T h e a p p e a r a n c e is akin to that s o m e t i m e s s e e n in high l a t i t u d e s , as the a u r o r a l s t r e a m e r s v a r y in p o s i t i o n , a g g r e g a t i o n , and l e n g t h , s e e m i n g to throw folds of b r i g h t n e s s , shaped l i k e the folds of a c u r t a i n , athwart the a u r o r a l a r c h .

GLA-028

T H E T R U E O R B I T O F T H E A U R O R A L M E T E O R O I D O F N O V E M B E R 17, 1882. 2 8 : 1 0 5 - 1 0 7 , May 3 1 , 1883. (GLA-007,

Groneman, H. J. H . ; Nature,

Several descriptions of this phenomenon a r e presented in Volume G l . G L A - 0 1 1 , G L A - 0 1 2 , G L A - 0 1 4 , and G L A - 0 1 5 )

A f t e r m a n y f r u i t l e s s e f f o r t s t o c o n c i l i a t e the apparently widely d i v e r g i n g data, given b y the n u m e r o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f this m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon; and after having b e e n m a n y t i m e s o n the s a m e point a s M r . H . D . T a y l o r (vol. x x v i i , p . 4 3 4 ) , who h a s g i v e n the f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t e c a l c u l a t i o n s o f this o r b i t , n a m e l y , "to g i v e up the r e c o n c i l i n g of such c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e , " I h a v e devoted m y E a s t e r h o l i d a y s t o new r e s e a r c h o n the t r u e o r b i t .

G2-76

AURORA-LIKE PHENOMENA

GLA-028

The details of G r o n e m a n ' s analysis a r e omitted. In e s s e n c e he attempted to find an orbit that was reasonably consistent with the observations. I hope that the o b s e r v e r s will be content with the degree of harmony between their observations and my r e s u l t s . I b e l i e v e that a s m a l l change in the direction of the orbit's plane will give still m o r e harmony between calculation and o b s e r vation, but the orbit found satisfies the chief o b s e r v e d facts, and g i v e s the g r e a t est divergence, where the observations have the s m a l l e s t s h a r p n e s s . I b e l i e v e I have proved by this r e s e a r c h that there existed, with the aurora of N o v e m b e r 1 7 , 1 8 8 2 , c o s m i c dust, p a s s i n g through the upper strata of our atmosphere with great velocity, and giving, according to the m o s t interesting observation of M r . Rand Capron (p. 8 4 ) , "the usual green line" of the aurora s p e c t r u m . Thus nature itself has b e e n so kind as to give an experiment that till now, and perhaps for e v e r , is beyond human power, for our means a r e not sufficient to throw p r o j e c t i l e s with s e v e r a l thousand m e t r e s velocity; and it is very r e m a r k a b l e that this experiment c o m e s at the s a m e t i m e as the interesting experiment of Prof. L e m s t r o m , showing that electric currents are able to give a development of light in our a t m o s p h e r e , p o s s e s s i n g the s a m e number of undulations in a second as the auroral light. Now our meteoroid being a part of an aurora, it gives a stronger proof of the origin of that phenomenon than Prof. L e m s t r o m ' s e x p e r i ment, the greatest attraction of which is that we are able to repeat it a r b i t r a r i l y and with our own m e a n s . Further, I have always maintained that e l e c t r i c i t y , excited e a s i l y by friction, m u s t be one of the c a u s e s of the auroral light ("Theorie C o s m i q u e de l ' A u r o r e P o l a i r e , " Journal d e s Spectroscopistes Italiens, 1 8 7 8 , vol. vii. chap, i i . ) , and it s e e m s to me very plausible that c o s m i c m a t t e r , approaching the earth, induces electric currents through the a i r . T h e r e f o r e I think that the r e s u l t s of Prof. L e m s t r o m are in full harmony with the idea of a c o s m i c origin of a u r o r a e . The orbit found d o e s not reach the surface of the earth, being at its nearest approach still 1 2 3 . 9 k i l o m e t r e s {1 m i l e equals 1 6 0 9 . 3 m e t r e s ; 1 G e r m a n g e o g r . m i l e equals 7 4 2 0 . 4 m e t r e s ) o r 1 6 . 7 geogr. m i l e s f r o m that s u r f a c e . The length of the orbit f r o m the Utrecht perpendicular line to the Utrecht horizon is 1, 4 8 3 , 070 m e t r e s , and this line being run over in 60 seconds, the mean relative velocity was 2 4 , 6 7 3 m e t r e s , 1 5 . 3 m i l e s , o r m o r e than 3 G e r m a n g e o g r . m i l e s . The dimensions of the "cosmic cloud" (length 4 0 ° , width 5 ° , as seen f r o m Ipswich) are: length equals 1 8 2 , 5 9 4 , width equals 2 1 , 9 2 1 m e t r e s . By these dimensions, probably too great f r o m irradiation, it must show at Utrecht an apparent length of 5 0 ° ; but t h e e x t r e m i t i e s w e r e tapered and therefore the length strongly influenced by the transparency of the a i r . It is therefore not strange that the apparent length at Utrecht was during s o m e few seconds 90 d e g r e e s . To conclude, I will r e m a r k that the proved existence of a c o s m i c cloud, p r e s e r v i n g its pretty sharp sides during so long a path as that f r o m Sweden to the Atlantic Ocean, notwithstanding its velocity of 2 4 7 k i l o m e t r e s , p r o v e s its particles to be nearly spherical. Otherwise these p a r t i c l e s should n e c e s s a r i l y have diverged sideways f r o m the orbit and spread into space. In connection with the fact observed by M r . P. Z e e m a n (p. 2 9 7 ) , that auroral clouds gave interference-phenomena, when coming before the m o o n ' s disk, and these latter phenomena requiring (Dagnin, "Traite de P h y s . , " i v . p. 446) the p r e s e n c e of nearly equal particles of dusty matter, M r . Z e e m a n ' s observation p r o v e s the s a m e property in the particles of the auroral cloud. Being nearly equal, but not perfectly, the tangential atmospheric r e s i s t a n c e must throw the s m a l l e s t particles backward, and this explains the oblong shape of the cloud.

G2-77

GLA-029
GLA-029

AURORA-LIKE PHENOMENA
OBSERVATIONS OF AN AURORAL BEAM, APRIL 22,1852

Herrick, E . C ; Report o f the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , part 2 , 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 , 1 8 3 2 . During the evening of T h u r s d a y , A p r i l 2 2 , 1 8 5 2 , t h e r e was seen at this place (New Haven, C o n n . , ) a display of the a u r o r a b o r e a l i s , not v e r y extensive, but yet of much interest, b e c a u s e it presented one phase of the phenomenon well suited for satisfactory observations of p a r a l l a x . At about half past seven o'clock there was in the north a shooting of s t r e a m e r s up to an altitude of 2 0 ° or 3 0 ° , through an amplitude of about 1 0 0 ° . The d i s play soon subsided into a general bright light. On going to the door about twenty minutes after nine, I saw in the northwest a s e g m e n t of an auroral a r c , belt, or b e a m , entirely isolated, m o d e r a t e l y brilliant, having well-defined m a r g i n s . T h e r e was at the t i m e a faint light in the north, but t h e r e was no other auroral appearance with which this b e a m could be confounded. As an opportunity so favorable as this for definite observation on an auroral phenomenon r a r e l y o c c u r s , I endeavored to note its exact position, with the t i m e , and now publish the results in the hope that they m a y meet the eye of other o b s e r v e r s . At 9h 2 5 m mean t i m e New Haven, the auroral b e a m stands up f r o m the w e s t e r l y horizon, about one d e g r e e wide, cutting with its southerly edge the star C a s t o r , and extending up to and terminating at the star 38 L y n c i s . T h e r e is nothing of the kind v i s i b l e at a g r e a t e r altitude, or in the east. Towards the easterly horizon, however, the view is obstructed by clouds and buildings. The whole b e a m slowly moved southward, but during the brief period of o b servation the change of position in the basal portion was s c a r c e l y perceptible. At 9h 31m the southerly edge cuts rau and epsilon G e m i n o r u m , and also Pollux. All above, the s t a r last named has faded: the sky is becoming hazy in this quarter, and the light of the b e a m rapidly fading. During this period the b e a m has been wholly isolated. T h e r e a r e still s o m e auroral indications on the northern horizon, without any special activity. My t i m e was certain within thirty s e c o n d s , and the b e a m m o v e d so slowly that an e r r o r of even a minute would be of little i m p o r t a n c e . B e a m s of light such as that d e s c r i b e d above have often been noted during earthquakes and as part of the Andes glow.

GLA-030

[WRIGGLING STREAM OF LIGHT]

Anonymous; Nature, 6 8 : 6 2 7 , October 2 9 , 1 9 0 3 . A correspondent, r e f e r r i n g to Prof. W. H. E v e r e t t ' s letter on rocket lightning in our l a s t i s s u e , d i r e c t s attention to a c l o s e l y s i m i l a r phenomenon o b served in London between 2 and 3 a. m. on the morning of October 1 6 . F r o m the south-eastern h o r i z o n of a c l e a r sky, a "wriggling s t r e a m " of bluish-white light shot up in a v e r t i c a l direction and b r o k e off short without spreading. It would be interesting to know if any other o b s e r v e r witnessed this display, and if a thunderstorm o c c u r r e d that night anywhere to the south-east of London within twenty or thirty m i l e s . Everett's letter is to be found in v o l . G 3 .

G2-78

AURORA-LIKE PHENOMENA
GLA-031 A U R O R A L PHENOMENA A T A L T A , IOWA

GLA-031

Hadden, David E . ; Popular A s t r o n o m y , 1 0 : 2 4 9 - 2 5 1 , 1 9 0 2 . About nine o'clock in the evening of M a r c h 29th, 1902 a bright auroral b e a m was o b s e r v e d in the southeast sky at an altitude of about 30 d e g r e e s . When first seen it was m o r e or l e s s obscured by light clouds and its true nature was hard to d e t e r m i n e . It was a perpendicular, pale narrow streak of light, about 5 d e g r e e s in length and about one-half degree in width, with the star in the constellation V i r g o , a l m o s t exactly in the middle of the b e a m . About 20 minutes l a t e r the clouds c l e a r e d away and the beam was a beautiful object, r e s e m b l i n g strongly a fine c o m e t of a pale greenish-white light, ten minutes l a t e r it reached its m a x i m u m brightness when it was a deep y e l l o w to orange c o l o r and had moved about a d e g r e e farther north. Underneath, towards the horizon was a dark region, above which was a faint auroral glow. Five m i n utes l a t e r the phenomenon disappeared and did not appear again. Its position in the southeast quadrant of the sky was unusual, and many people supposed the light to be a c o m e t . It is a noteworthy coincidence that a l a r g e bright region of faculae was observed nearly at the east limb of the Sun in north heliographic latitude 30 d e g r e e s , the following day. During the past twelve y e a r s a l a r g e number of auroras have been o b s e r v e d and studied at this station, and during the y e a r s of increased sunspot activity, the frequency and brilliancy of the auroral displays were much augmented. In looking o v e r my observing note book I found a number of instances where auroral b e a m s with little or no motion w e r e o b s e r v e d , and as such phenomena have been often mistaken for c o m e t s by the public and a m a t e u r s , a short account of those I observed m a y be of interest. On the night of July 13th, 1892 following a brilliant display of Northern Lights, a superb b e a m of greenish light r e s e m b l i n g a long narrow fish was visible from C o m a B e r e n i c e s to Leo M a j o r and remained stationary until it gradually faded out. July 16, 1 8 9 2 , a beam of light spread athwart the sky f r o m northwest to southeast which was nearly stationary. On July 15th, 1893 a bright beam of light stretching f r o m the northwest sky to L y r a near the zenith, was supposed at the t i m e by many newspapers and s o m e a s t r o n o m e r s to be s o m e r e m a r k a b l e change in c o m e t b which was d i s c o v e r e d about a week previously, and was receiving much attention by the p r e s s and public. On the night of May 3 r d , 1899 a fine c o m e t - l i k e b e a m of light was observed in the northwest sky at an altitude of about 18 d e g r e e s , this r e s e m b l e d v e r y much the photographs of B r o o k s ' c o m e t of 1 8 9 3 . June 28th, 1 8 9 9 bright c o m e t - l i k e b e a m s of light were visible in the northeast sky at a height of about 45 d e g r e e s , l a t e r , swiftly moving parallel b a r s were observed near the s a m e region. On January 20th, 1900 following a slight auroral display in the northern sky, a fine, bright b e a m of light extended horizontally from the west to south horizon at a height of about 18 or 20 d e g r e e s . In nearly all the above c a s e s Northern Lights either preceded or followed the b e a m phenomena, but in the c a s e of the streak seen recently, no disturbance was at any t i m e to be seen in the northern sky at this station. In Monthly Notices, V o l . 56 for M a r c h 1 8 9 6 , P r o f e s s o r H. H. T u r n e r , Sir W. J. H e r s c h e l , W. H. Robinson and others call attention to a curious light

G2-79

GLA-032

AURORA-LIKE PHENOMENA

s e e n in England on M a r c h 4th of that y e a r , which they supposed to be the z o d i a c al light, p r o b a b l y owing to its position in the w e s t e r n s k y , and the d i r e c t i o n of the s t r e a k which, if p r o l o n g e d , would p a s s through the P l e i a d e s . In K n o w l e d g e for A p r i l and M a y 1 8 9 6 , a n u m b e r of c o r r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o r e f e r to the s a m e phenomenon, and v a r i o u s l y a s c r i b e it to the z o d i a c a l light, a m e t e o r t r a c k or Sun p i l l a r . T h e r e is no doubt in my mind f r o m the d e s c r i p t i o n s given and the b e h a v i o r of the light that it w a s one of the n u m e r o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the a u r o r a . In Nature f o r M a r c h 28th, 1 8 9 6 D r . B r a u n e r , of P r a g u e , c a l l s attention to l u m i n o u s s t r e a k s o b s e r v e d by h i m on the 13th of the s a m e month, and under the heading " S o m e L u m i n o u s A p p e a r a n c e s in the Sky" in Publications of the A s t r o nomical Society o f the P a c i f i c , V o l . I X , N o . 5 4 , W . H . S . Monck g i v e s a n account of a n u m b e r of i n s t a n c e s in which s i m i l a r s t r e a k s of light w e r e r e ported b y v a r i o u s o b s e r v e r s , and w e r e m i s t a k e n f o r c o m e t s , m e t e o r s , e t c . , and which the author d o e s not feel satisfied w e r e a u r o r a l . In looking o v e r the U. S. Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w f o r M a r c h 1 8 9 6 , I find that the d a t e s on which the n u m b e r of r e p o r t s of a u r o r a s e s p e c i a l l y e x c e e d e d the a v e r a g e w e r e M a r c h 4th, 6th, 11th, 13th, and 14 and this would s e e m to indicate c o n c l u s i v e l y that the lights w e r e a u r o r a l in c h a r a c t e r and that while the d i s p l a y s w e r e typical N o r t h e r n Lights o v e r wide a r e a s , i n other p l a c e s , probably dependent on l o c a l conditions, p e c u l i a r i t i e s in the shape of s t r e a k s and b e a m s of light p r e v a i l e d . The subject is interesting and worthy of c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n and study on the part of a m a t e u r and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s t r o n o m e r s and m e t e o r o l o g i s t s .

GLA-032

OBSERVATION OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA AT SIRAH ISLAND, ADEN, 7 O C T O B E R 1957 F. ; M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Magazine, 87:278, September 1958.

Hirst,

N.

At 1915 h o u r s l o c a l t i m e a v e r y p a l e g r e e n g l o w w a s o b s e r v e d in the southe r n sky, o v e r the Indian O c e a n . T h e g l o w w a s m a r k e d b y a v e r y faint i l l d e f i n e d b o u n d a r y about 2 5 d e g r e e s a b o v e the s o u t h e r n h o r i z o n l o w e r i n g t o about 2 0 d e g r e e s o n the s o u t h - w e s t e r n h o r i z o n . I t w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e e the southern h o r i z o n a s v i s i o n w a s o b s c u r e d b y r o c k s r i s i n g t o about 600 feet high. T h e p h e n o m e n a l a s t e d f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1915 (when i t w a s first o b s e r v e d ) to 2130 h o u r s when it faded c o m p l e t e l y . About 2125 hours a russetc o l o u r e d band o f light w a s o b s e r v e d l o w d o w n o n the s o u t h e r n h o r i z o n j u s t b e f o r e the g l o w faded c o m p l e t e l y . T h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e p e r i o d t h e r e w e r e o c c a s i o n a l r a y s of light m o s t l y o r a n g e in c o l o u r at infrequent intervals. These n e v e r r o s e to a b o v e 3 d e g r e e s a b o v e the s o u t h e r n h o r i z o n . Stars in the sky at about 1 5 d e g r e e s a b o v e the h o r i z o n w e r e s e e n t o b e c h a n g i n g c o l o u r quite f r e q u e n t l y ( m o s t l y r e d and g r e e n ) . A t t i m e s the c o l o u r o f the s t a r s w a s o b s e r v e d to be particularly bright, predominantly green. T h e g l o w w a s at its brightest b e t w e e n 1 9 1 5 a n d 1 9 3 0 h o u r s but a f t e r 1 9 3 0 h o u r s the g l o w w a s o b s e r v e d t o b r i g h t e n o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r p e r i o d s not e x c e e d i n g f i v e m i n u t e s . The weather at the t i m e w a s f i n e . There was a bright moon almost overhead. There was no c l o u d , a l i g h t w i n d and the s e a w a s p r a c t i c a l l y c a l m .

G2-80

BALL LIGHTNING
GLB-076 [ROD-SHAPED BALL LIGHTNING]

GLB-078

Gaddis, Vincent H. ; M y s t e r i o u s F i r e s and Lights, David McKay C o . , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 7 , p. 5 4 . In m o s t r e p o r t s , ball lightning p e r f o r m s silently, but sounds a r e s o m e t i m e s heard. In 1 9 5 9 , M r s . Lillian M a c k , of K a n s a s City, M i s s o u r i , was in h e r h o m e durinh an afternoon thunderstorm when she heard a sound like "crushing g l a s s . " An object about two feet long and one inch in d i a m e t e r c a m e flying like a spent a r r o w into the r o o m where it hovered while forming the shape of a b a l l . After a minute, it d i s s o l v e d , and "while dissolving we all heard the sound of breaking g l a s s . . .but no g l a s s was b r o k e n . . . sparks flew f r o m the falling d u s t - l i k e stuff and the (object) looked like hot m e t a l .

GLB-077

FIREBALLS

Petrie, W . M . F l i n d e r s ; Nature, 3 0 : 3 6 0 , August 1 4 , 1 8 8 4 . The following account I have received f r o m a lady at Bruhl near Cologne, July 2 6 ; — " 8 . 2 2 . A l a r g e fireball of s c a r l e t fire a l m o s t as l a r g e as a h a r v e s t moon just sailed along and upwards, at a varying but m o s t v e r y rapid rate, until, at a great height, it remained for s o m e minutes almost or quite stationary; then after s o m e uncertain m o v e m e n t s r o s e again, and rising, b e c a m e s m a l l e r until it finally disappeared E v e r y one who saw it s e e m e d petrified with a m a z e m e n t . " T h i s is of interest f r o m the long t i m e that the ball was v i s i b l e , and its being seen by s e v e r a l people While living lately at San (Tanis), thirty-two m i l e s south-west of Port Said, t h e r e o c c u r r e d a m o s t r e m a r k a b l e thunderstorm on May 1 2 , lasting f r o m 1 . 1 5 till 4 p. m T h e thunder was not in loud, reverberating p e a l s , but was a continuous rushing, gusty, swishing sound; the noise rising and falling just like a gusty, tearing, high wind, without any c r a s h e s or explosive b u r s t s , and with v e r y little bumping or knocking sounds. It only lightened once or twice during that half hour, and t h e r e was but a faint b r e e z e of wind. To the best of my belief the thunder was s i m i l a r during the whole t i m e of the s t o r m , though with m o r e explosive sounds and m o r e lightning in the early part, It is i m p o s s i b l e to r e f e r such a s t o r m to the ordinary instantaneous, sharp d i s c h a r g e s with e c h o e s , as the sound had no c h a r a c t e r of a r e v e r b e ration; it appears to be due to a continuous d i s c h a r g e like that f r o m a point. The s t o r m was quite local, only extending a few m i l e s . Since returning to England I have a l s o heard thunder which was apparently not f r o m an instantaneous d i s c h a r g e , as it began lightly and waxed louder for two or three seconds, until a loud c r a s h of the main d i s c h a r g e took place The latter descriptions r e s e m b l e those of "slow" lightning found in G L L .

GLB-078

E X T R A O R D I N A R Y ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENON

Hannay, J. B. ; Nature, 2 5 : 1 2 5 , D e c e m b e r 8, 1 8 8 1 .

G2-81

GLB-079

BALL LIGHTNING

J. B. Hannay transmitted the following paragraph from the Glasgow Evening Citizen of N o v e m b e r 2 5 , 1 8 8 1 : Those on board the Campbelton Steamer Kinloch (Capt. K e r r ) , which left Greenock on its usual run about half-past eleven o'clock on Tuesday morning after the s t o r m that raged during the night, had a somewhat extraordinary experience while passing down the Firth. The v e s s e l was enveloped in a dense shower of hail, and for s o m e t i m e it was awfully dark, and occasionally the v e s s e l was lit up by vivid flashes of lightning. One of the flashes was very bright, and its shape was something like that of the a r t e r i e s of the human body, with a central column all shattered and broken. About noon, while opposite the Cloch Lighthouse, and not far f r o m the shore, the captain observed i m m e d i a t e l y o v e r the ship what appeared to be a s e r i e s of c l e a r b a l l s of lightning, each about a foot in length, and r e s e m b l i n g a chain, except that they were disconnected. This phenomenon was quickly succeeded by an explosion in the funnel of the s t e a m e r , and s e v e r a l b a l l s of fire upon the bridge running about, and then bounding off into the water. The first i m p r e s s i o n of the s p e c tators was that something had exploded on b o a r d , but on inquiry it was founa that this w a s not the c a s e . The mate stated, however, that a ball of lightning had a l m o s t struck him where he stood. A fireman rushed upon deck to s e e what had happened, as the e n g i n e - r o o m was filled with s m o k e , and a choking sensation was experienced below. The explanation appears to be that a portion of the lightning had p a s s e d down the funnel until its f o r c e was spent by the fire, and the sudden r e c o v e r y of the draught of the funnel afterwards accounted for the loud report that was heard. The captain, in his long experience at sea, never encountered such a phenomenon b e f o r e , a n d it m a y be taken as an indication of the extraordinary atmospheric f o r c e s which had been at work during the s t o r m , and which s e e m e d to centre in this locality.
(

GLB-079

NOTICES OF EARTHQUAKE-SHOCKS FELT IN GREAT BRITAIN . . . .

Milne, David; Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 31:92-122, 1841. The b a l l s of fire noted in the following entries f r o m Milne's catalog may have been true ball lightning or possibly m e t e o r s . The detonations and whizzing noises are heard with both phenomena. Even the electric shocks felt in the Derby incident a r e ascribed at t i m e s to both ball lightning and m e t e o r s . 1750 ; England. The sound preceding the concussions, r e s e m b l e d the d i s charge of s e v e r a l cannon, or distant thunder in the a i r , and not a subterranean explosion. F l a s h e s of lightning were observed an hour (before?) and a vast ball of fire N e a r London, there was continued and confused lightning till within minute or two of shock; dogs howled; fish jumped three feet out of water; sound in air, preceded concussions; flashes of lightning and a ball of fire were seen, just before explosion, (p. 98) N o v e m b e r 18, 1795; Leeds, B r i s t o l , Norwich, England. Immediately before shock, a whizzing gust of wind. A tremulous motion in the earth preceded and followed the shock. The b a r o m e t e r for t h i r y - s i x hours preceding the shock, had varied r e m a r k a b l y , —on 17th, it was 3 0 . 2 3 . On 18th it sunk to 2 8 . 6 3 ; and just before the shock it was 2 8 . 8 [In Derby and Nottingham] A ball of fire was seen to p a s s o v e r the town of Derby, when the shock was felt. The Rev. Mr.

G2-82

BALL LIGHTNING

GLB-080

G r e g o r y relates that about six hours b e f o r e the shock his "attention was much struck with the aspect of the sky in the S. and S E . q u a r t e r s . In this direction, a cloud v e r y black and lowering extended i t s e l f o v e r this part of the h e m i s p h e r e . The m a r g i n of the cloud, which was nearly parallel to the horizon, was fringed, to the extent of at l e a s t 4 0 ° , f r o m the S. towards the E . , and to the breadth, perhaps, of 1 1 / 2 ° , with a very bright light, which had v e r y much the appearance of white satin. The light was shaded, to its whole extent, as it w e r e with a veil of'a deep muddy purple c o l o u r . The white light, seen below this gloomy purple haze, and farther contrasted by the v e r y dark surface of so extensive and lowering a cloud f o r m e d a v e r y striking appearance. " — " I w a s fully persuaded that this luminous appearance was occasioned by e l e c t r i c light, with which I concluded the cloud to be highly charged. " At 8 P. M. "every extraordinary appearance had now vanished, the night was dark and g l o o m y , the air quite c a l m and m i l d . At l l 20we w e r e all e x t r e m e l y surprised and a l a r m e d at a sudden blast (rather than e x plosion, b e c a u s e it had not that sharp c o m p r e s s e d elastic tone I annex to the idea of an explosion) which burst out instantaneously somewhat below the zenith to the W . , and which, as I c o n j e c t u r e s f r o m the direction in which the sound was heard, s e e m e d to rush through the air towards the E. with great velocity, and to m e e t with considerable r e s i s t a n c e to its motion; for it m a d e a whizzing noise as it p a s s ed o v e r u s . At the instant the blast burst out, it w a s "accompanied with a v e r y loud, deep-toned, hollow, sullen sound, not altogether unlike a deep groan. "— "The first shock felt to me so t r e m u l o u s , that I could not f o r m any judgment c o n cerning its direction; my chair was shaken with a kind of vertiginous motion. The second shock s e e m e d to c o m e f r o m the N . , perhaps a few points to the W. of it. "
n

Another gentleman at Derby, though he did not o b s e r v e the m e t e o r b e f o r e m e n t ioned, "perceived at the instant of the concussion, a r e m a r k a b l e coruscation p r o ceeding f r o m the S W . quarter of the heavens, and producing a g l e a m s i m i l a r to a distant flash of lightning, but of longer continuance. " Many p e r s o n s at Derby "felt something like an e l e c t r i c a l s h o c k . " 112) (pp. Ill—

GLB-080

A PECULIAR LIGHTNING PHENOMENON

W i n c h e s t e r , G e o r g e ; Science, 7 0 : 5 0 1 - 5 0 2 , N o v e m b e r 2 2 , 1 9 2 9 . The author r e l a t e s how on August 2 8 , 1 9 2 9 , near P e o r i a , Illinois, he and h i s brother w e r e in a c a r in a thunderstorm when a brilliant flash of lightning took place. T h e c a r was shaken and the occupants felt an e l e c t r i c shock The flash appeared to be just on our right in an open pasture c r o s s e d by what was once an o s a g e hedge, but now only a few s m a l l t r e e s of that hedge r e m a i n e d at intervals of twenty to thirty feet. About six feet f r o m the trunk of one of these hedge t r e e s we o b s e r v e d a ball of s m o k e about two feet above the ground. T h e ball appeared to be about eighteen inches in d i a m e t e r and perfectly s p h e r i c a l . The c o l o r of this s m o k e , if it was s m o k e , was a yellowish brown quite s i m i l a r to the s m o k e given off by burning s t r a w . The ball began i m m e d i a t e l y to diffuse into the surrounding a i r just as the s m o k e f r o m an exploding shell. T h r e e days l a t e r , they returned to the spot to look for evidence of the lightning d i s c h a r g e but found nothing.

G2-83

GLB-081
GLB-081

BALL LIGHTNING

O F SPOTS B E F O R E T H E E Y E S

M a u e r , Edgar F . ; Science, 1 1 6 : 6 9 3 , D e c e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 5 2 . At the height of the flying s a u c e r c r a z e , M a u e r , a medical doctor, wonders if flying s a u c e r s might not originate in the eye of m a n . Spots or motes before the eye (called m u s c a e voliantes) a r e shadows cast upon the retina by c e l l s normally found in the vitreous fluid. The spots a r e stimulated by exposure to uniform bright s u r f a c e s and even digestive d i s o r d e r s . Anyone who has o b s e r v e d this visual phenomenon will r e c a l l that the object seen is brilliant and that it m o v e s e r r a t i c a l l y , its e r r a t i c motion being a c o m pound effect related to the motion of the shadow on the retina and a s s o c i a t e d m o v e m e n t s of the eyeball and head. T h e s e objects a l s o a g r e e with s o m e " o b s e r vations" m a d e on flying d i s k s in that it is i m p o s s i b l e to judge their distance or speed. Another visual phenomenon which m a y be observed in the dark, as well as in the daylight, is the scintillating s c o t o m a . Scotomata m a y be of various c o l o r s but otherwise a r e of uniform appearance as judged by the descriptions given by many p e r s o n s suffering f r o m m i g r a i n e . They a r e of fairly consistent duration, usually lasting about 20 m i n , with an initial period of increasing density, then of stable appearance until they fade away. They a r e thought to be of c e r e b r a l origin. It is thus likely, in the opinion of the w r i t e r , that flying disks a r e m o t e s in the e y e s of a dyspeptic m i c r o c o s m or perhaps s o m e abnormal cortical d i s c h a r g e s in the m i g r a i n o u s . T h e s e c o m m e n t s apply to b a l l lightning and other bright luminous phenomena.

GLB-082

BALL L I G H T N I N G A N D PLASMOIDS

Silberg, Paul A . ; Journal o f Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 6 7 : 4 9 4 1 - 4 9 4 2 , N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 2 . (Copyright by the A m e r i c a n Geophysioal Union)

In a d i s c u s s i o n of ball lightning, Hill [1960J suggests that the duration of the luminosity of a fireball is one of the m o r e important considerations. M o r e o v e r , he suggests that if no outside s o u r c e of energy is present a p l a s m a state could not exist for longer than a few m i l l i s e c o n d s at m o s t . It is not completely c l e a r how this conclusion is arrived at, since no theoretical considerations of the decay m e c h a n i s m s of the p l a s m a state w e r e presented. It i s , t h e r e f o r e , of interest to report a fairly well known and documented 'fireball' phenomenon that is occasionally and accidentally formed aboard certain types of U. S. s u b m a r i n e s . This phenomenon c o r r e s p o n d s in s o m e ways to s o m e of the phenomena reported as ball lightning (which m a y f o r m in a s i m i l a r fashion). In s u b m a r i n e s there are usually two sets of batteries and two generators to charge them. The g e n e r a t o r s a r e connected through a r e v e r s e current relay, and they 'disconnect' in such a manner that either generator can be connected to either battery bank. The main contacts of the circuit b r e a k e r are made of silver, with conventional copper extensions and a blow-out c o i l . ' At t i m e s , a

G2-84

GLB-081
GLB-081

BALL LIGHTNING

O F SPOTS B E F O R E T H E E Y E S

M a u e r , Edgar F . ; Science, 1 1 6 : 6 9 3 , D e c e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 5 2 . At the height of the flying s a u c e r c r a z e , M a u e r , a medical doctor, wonders if flying s a u c e r s might not originate in the eye of man. Spots or m o t e s b e f o r e the eye (called m u s c a e voliantes) a r e shadows c a s t upon the retina by c e l l s normally found in the vitreous fluid. The spots a r e stimulated by exposure to uniform bright s u r f a c e s and even digestive d i s o r d e r s . Anyone who has o b s e r v e d this visual phenomenon will r e c a l l that the object seen is brilliant and that it m o v e s e r r a t i c a l l y , i t s e r r a t i c motion being a c o m pound effect related to the motion of the shadow on the retina and a s s o c i a t e d m o v e m e n t s of the eyeball and head. T h e s e objects a l s o agree with s o m e " o b s e r vations" m a d e on flying d i s k s in that it is i m p o s s i b l e to judge their distance or speed. Another visual phenomenon which m a y be observed in the dark, as well as in the daylight, is the scintillating s c o t o m a . Scotomata m a y be of various c o l o r s but otherwise are of uniform appearance as judged by the descriptions given by many p e r s o n s suffering f r o m m i g r a i n e . They a r e of fairly consistent duration, usually lasting about 20 m i n , with an initial period of increasing density, then of stable appearance until they fade away. They a r e thought to be of c e r e b r a l origin. It is thus likely, in the opinion of the w r i t e r , that flying disks a r e m o t e s in the e y e s of a dyspeptic m i c r o c o s m or perhaps s o m e abnormal cortical d i s c h a r g e s in the m i g r a i n o u s . T h e s e c o m m e n t s apply to ball lightning and other bright luminous phenomena.

GLB-082

BALL L I G H T N I N G A N D PLASMOIDS

Silberg, Paul A . ; Journal o f Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 6 7 : 4 9 4 1 - 4 9 4 2 , N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 2 . (Copyright by the A m e r i c a n Geophysical Union)

In a d i s c u s s i o n of ball lightning, Hill [ I 9 6 0 ] suggests that the duration of the luminosity of a fireball is one of the m o r e important considerations. M o r e o v e r , he suggests that if no outside s o u r c e of energy is present a p l a s m a state could not exist for longer than a few m i l l i s e c o n d s at m o s t . It is not completely c l e a r how this conclusion is arrived at, since no theoretical considerations of the decay m e c h a n i s m s of the p l a s m a state w e r e presented. It i s , t h e r e f o r e , of interest to report a fairly well known and documented 'fireball' phenomenon that is occasionally and accidentally formed aboard certain types of U. S. s u b m a r i n e s . This phenomenon c o r r e s p o n d s in s o m e ways to s o m e of the phenomena reported as ball lightning (which m a y form in a s i m i l a r fashion). In s u b m a r i n e s there a r e usually two sets of batteries and two generators to charge t h e m . The g e n e r a t o r s are connected through a r e v e r s e current relay, and they 'disconnect' in such a manner that either generator can be connected to either battery bank. The main contacts of the circuit b r e a k e r are made of silver, with conventional copper extensions and a blow-out c o i l . ' At t i m e s , a

G2-84

BALL LIGHTNING

GLB-083

highly c h a r g e d b a t t e r y bank h a s b e e n a c c i d e n t a l l y connected a c r o s s a 'dead' generator. T h e r e v e r s e c u r r e n t r e l a y then d i s c o n n e c t s the c i r c u i t . An arc is u s u a l l y f o r m e d a c r o s s the s i l v e r e l e c t r o d e s , and the b l o w - o u t c o i l d i r e c t s the arc onto the c o p p e r e l e c t r o d e e x t e n s i o n s t o m i n i m i z e the s i l v e r e l e c t r o d e e r o s i o n . U s u a l l y the a r c is ' b l o w n - o u t . ' H o w e v e r , when the amount of c h a r g e left in the b a t t e r i e s c r e a t e s a sufficiently intense c u r r e n t through the a r c , a g r e e n f i r e b a l l w i l l 'float' off the c o n t a c t s into the engine r o o m . The lifetimes of t h e s e p l a s m o i d s a r e of the o r d e r of a s e c o n d . T h e g r e e n c o l o r is attributed t o the c o p p e r f r o m which the e x t e n s i o n s o f the s i l v e r e l e c t r o d e s a r e m a d e . No appreciable damage has been reported f r o m these 'engine-room p l a s m o i d s . ' H o w e v e r , i t h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d that a t h r e s h o l d o f c u r r e n t o r p o w e r i s r e quired b e f o r e a p l a s m o i d will f o r m . D u r i n g the 'Guppy R e c o n v e r s i o n P r o g r a m ' in 1 9 4 7 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, t e s t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d on the r e v e r s e c u r r e n t g e a r of the U. S. S. C u t l a s s (Hull S S 4 7 8 ) , and a f i r e b a l l w a s g e n e r a t e d in the engine r o o m u s i n g 2 6 0 v o l t s and 1 5 6 , 0 0 0 a m p e r e s d i r e c t c u r r e n t . T h i s g i v e s a peak p o w e r o f about 4 0 m e g a w a t t s . Switching t i m e s o f the o r d e r o f 0 . 1 t o 0 . 0 1 s e c o n d a r e standard with m e c h a n i c a l switching, so that an e n e r g y of the o r d e r of 0. 4 to 4 m e g a j o u l e s i s the e s t i m a t e d e n e r g y r a n g e i n which this p l a s m o i d f o r m s . The e s t i m a t e d d i a m e t e r a p p e a r s t o v a r y between 4 t o 6 i n c h e s o r f r o m 1 0 t o 1 5 c m .

The r e m a i n d e r of the p a p e r d i s c u s s e s the c o m p u t a t i o n of the e n e r g y density of b a l l lightning.

GLB-083

THE DANCING SUN

O s b o r n e , C h a r l e s ; Catholic W o r l d , 1 6 9 : 2 0 8 - 2 1 5 , June 1 9 4 9 . T h i s is an e x c e r p t f r o m a d e s c r i p t i o n by a M i s s G o r d o n of the f a m o u s " M i r a c l e of F a t i m a , " October 13, 1917, in Portugal. ' T h e C o v a d a I r i a , I m u s t t e l l you" ( M i s s G o r d o n w a s well w a r m e d u p t o h e r subject now, and the o t h e r s n e v e r b r e a t h e d a word) "is a l a r g e b a s i n - l i k e h o l l o w in the mountains you know it w e l l , " she s a i d , a d d r e s s i n g h e r h o s t , "and when we got t h e r e it w a s packed with p e o p l e , thousands and thousands of t h e m they s a y t h e r e w e r e 7 0 , 0 0 0 — a n d j u s t a s w e a r r i v e d s o m e b o d y told t h e m t o c l o s e t h e i r u m b r e l l a s which m o s t of t h e m d i d . I thought this w a s m a d f o r it w a s s t i l l raining hard they m u s t h a v e got a s drenched a s I w a s . I t w a s t e r r i b l y d a r k . T h e c l o u d s w e r e thick in the sky and t h e r e s e e m e d to be no s i g n of a b r e a k in the weather. "Then suddenly e v e r y head s e e m e d t o b e l o o k i n g i n one d i r e c t i o n , straight upward and a l l at once the rain stopped 1 r e m e m b e r p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i s sudden stoppage of the r a i n . It w a s uncanny. J u s t as if s o m e o n e had turned off a tap in the sky then I s a w the c l o u d s t e a r a p a r t . " M i s s G o r d o n fumbled f o r w o r d s to try to m a k e h e r meaning c l e a r . " Y e s — t h e y t o r e apart, " s h e continued. "They didn't j u s t b r e a k a s u s u a l l y happens after a s t o r m , it w a s as if two hands had c l a w e d a b i g h o l e in the c l o u d s l e a v i n g an e x p a n s e of blue -sky, and in the m i d d l e of it the sun a p p e a r e d . But it w a s not e x a c t l y l i k e the sun it w a s j u s t as bright as the sun is on a fine day but

G2-85

GLB-083

BALL LIGHTNING

this t i m e you could look straight at it. We all did. It was the c o l o r of stainless steel like that knife t h e r e . " And M i s s Gordon picked up one of the knives on the table and contemplated it for a m o m e n t . "Just like that, but v e r y , very bright." " W e l l , this was q u e e r enough, but I r e m e m b e r thinking that it wasn't worth coming all that way to s e e . I was still feeling rather m i s e r a b l e and soaking wet. But we continued looking up and then I thought I saw the sun turning around on itself. How can I d e s c r i b e i t ? " Again she c h o s e her w o r d s carefully. " W e l l , like a giant Catherine wheel, first slowly, then increasing until eventually it spun around at a t e r r i f i c rate and began to throw out great b e a m s of light, all d i f f e r ent c o l o r s . The r o c k s and the ground and the people looked ghastly. Some w e r e blue, others g r e e n and orange and r e d , every c o l o r of the rainbow. I rubbed my e y e s . I shut them and opened them again but it was still the s a m e , and e v e r y body e l s e s e e m e d to be seeing it too. My companions and those around me w e r e just as amazed as I w a s . "This lasted for about five minutes I ' m not exaggerating and then the sun stopped. We exchanged ideas with the people in the crowd about u s . Nobody could give a reasonable explanation. 'It's a m i r a c l e , ' they all said, 'a sign f r o m G o d . ' Then while we w e r e talking and b e c o m i n g v e r y excited, the sun started again. Once m o r e it began to spin round on itself to dance, as the people all around me w e r e calling it, and then, after about four or five minutes it stopped again. T h i s t i m e , I w a s s u r e I had not been mistaken. And then, while I w a s t r y ing to figure it all out in my mind, the sun, for the third t i m e , began to r e v o l v e . Then suddenly, the sun which all this t i m e had been a peculiar s i l v e r c o l o r changed into a deep blood red and while keeping its swift r o t a t i o n . . . . " At this point, M i s s Gordon, who all the t i m e had sat with downcast e y e s as if addressing the plate b e f o r e her on the table, and without the slightest effort on her part to i m p r e s s h e r audience, suddenly b e c a m e animated and standing up and stretching h e r a r m s to their full height, she made as if she held a l a r g e football in her cupped hands which she tugged away f r o m its m o o r i n g s in the atmosphere and brought down on the heads of h e r audience. "The s u n , " she went on, "blood red in c o l o r , s e e m e d to detach itself f r o m the firmament and c a m e hurtling down on the heads of the people present. They thought the end of the world had c o m e , and so did I. It was a terrifying m o m e n t . Pandemonium broke out. Everybody was shrieking at once, calling for m e r c y and pity. Many of the women present w e r e crying out such things as 'Stop the W a r , ' 'Give u s P e a c e , ' 'Send m y husband h o m e a g a i n , ' 'Bring our boys b a c k . ' It s e e m e d to me that the crowd, at any rate those around about where I was standing, w e r e s e i z e d with panic. Some fell on their f a c e s in the mud, praying out loud, 'God save m e , ' 'Mother have pity on u s , ' and so forth. Others w e r e praising God and our Lady. But it didn't have that effect on m e . I never was a very emotional p e r s o n , but it happened just as I have described it to you. I saw, without the slightest doubt, the sun dance. "Altogether, these events took f r o m twenty minutes to half an hour and finally the sun which had s e e m e d to fall on the heads of the crowd, getting b i g g e r and b i g g e r in s i z e as it fell, climbed back again in the s a m e zigzag fashion, and then shone out as it n o r m a l l y d o e s on a c l e a r day. The clouds broke up quite naturally, and for the r e s t of the day the weather was fine. "One peculiar thing which I noticed as did many other people to whom I spoke was that our clothes which had been soaking wet w e r e suddenly made d r y , leaving us with a pleasant, c o m f o r t a b l e feeling. "I'm afraid the m i r a c l e of the sun didn't make must i m p r e s s i o n on m e . It happened, right enough, and that I can swear to, but the thing that effected me m o s t was having my clothes dried for m e . But then you s e e , I'm not an educated p e r s o n and I don't know much about these things. "

G2-86

BALL LIGHTNING

GLB-084

It took the other t h r e e s o m e few minutes to r e a l i z e that the story was finished. Then, they all wanted to fire questions at M i s s Gordon at once. "Couldn't it have been m a s s hysteria, or a m a s s optical i l l u s i o n ? " asked Charles. "I thought that at one t i m e , " broke in the l a w y e r , who had obviously heard the story b e f o r e , "but I found out that this s o l a r phenomenon was a l s o seen by many people in many different p l a c e s , s o m e of them as f a r as ten m i l e s away, so that s e e m s t o r u l e that o u t . " "The m o s t r e m a r k a b l e thing to m e , " put in M a r g a r e t , "is the fact of anything happening just as t h o s e three children said it would. What I m e a n to say is that leaving aside the nature of the m i r a c l e , it d o e s s e e m odd that something should have happened which those little children foretold t h r e e months e a r l i e r , giving the exact date and t i m e , so that the vast crowd of people turned up to s e e it. I do wish you would t e l l us m o r e about that." M i s s Gordon w a s about to reply when their host answered for her: "Oh, you'll find all that in the books on Fatima, " he said. "I'll give you a copy of one t o m o r r o w , and you'll s e e that the whole story r e v o l v e s round these children to whom our Lady appeared in six s u c c e s s i v e occasions in 1 9 1 7 , giving them various m e s s a g e s concerning the state of the world at that t i m e and the fate awaiting m e n if they did not amend their l i v e s . T h e r e ' s a terrific amount in it which we cannot go into now, but the m i r a c l e of the sun was p e r f o r m e d to p r o v e to those 7 0 , 0 0 0 people present that our Lady did appear to the children and that they w e r e not repeating s o m e story out of their imagination. In addition to the psychic aspects, the luminous object a l s o had a strong r e s e m b l a n c e to ball lightning and modern s o - c a l l e d " U F O s . "

GLB-084

L I G H T N I N G S T R I K E 23 A P R I L 1964

Vidler, G. T. ; M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Magazine, 9 3 : 2 5 4 , August 1 9 6 4 . During the afternoon of Thursday, 23 April 1 9 6 4 , a Varsity aircraft of the Meteorological R e s e a r c h Flight, Farnborough, was flying in a l a r g e c u m u l o nimbus situated south of Bedford. The b a s e of the cloud was at 2 5 0 0 - 3 1 0 0 feet with patches of stratus at 1200 feet A thunderstorm was in p r o g r e s s with frequent lightning and heavy rain. At 1410 G M T , when the aircraft was at 3 0 0 0 feet in heavy rain just below the cloud b a s e , a brilliant flash of white light and a loud bang was observed. The inside of the aircraft was then illuminated with a s h i m m e r i n g whitish-blue light for a couple of seconds from the starboard side. The pilot, on the other hand, reported that the loud bang m o m e n t a r i l y p r e ceded the flash. He then saw a ball of blue light about the s i z e of a football on the starboard wing tip. This ball lasted for about two seconds before vanishing. T h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l m o r e flashes of lightning, but none in the i m m e d i a t e vicinity of the aircraft. After landing, a number of s m a l l burns w e r e found on both the starboard and port wing tips and a l s o on the underneath of the fuselage. The navigation light on the starboard wing tip had been s m a s h e d and the aircraft c o m p a s s when tested indicated an e r r o r in reading of about 10 d e g r e e s .

G2-87

GLB-085
GLB-085

BALL LIGHTNING
REMARKABLE METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA IN AUSTRALIA

Jensen, H . I . ; Nature, 6 7 : 3 4 4 - 3 4 5 , February 1 2 , 1 9 0 3 . On Wednesday, N o v e m b e r 1 3 , 1 9 0 2 , we experienced here in A u s t r a l i a s o m e m o s t extraordinary m e t e o r o l o g i c a l phenomena. F o r the previous five or six d a y s , exceedingly hot, d r y weather had p r e v a i l e d , owing to winds blowing f r o m the Australian interior, where a huge anticyclone was resting, in a coastward direction, the winds taking in Queensland and New South W a l e s a w e s t e r l y , and in Victoria a northerly, direction. The hot weather culminated in t e r r i f i c d u s t s t o r m s in Queensland, New South W a l e s , V i c t o r i a and South A u s t r a l i a , and during these s t o r m s "fireballs" w e r e seen hovering in the a i r . On the s e a , "red rain" was experienced by s e v e r a l passing v e s s e l s . The following is an abstract of what happened:Melbourne, Wednesday, N o v e m b e r 1 3 . W e a t h e r phenomenal, great heat, d u s t - s t o r m s , in all p a r t s of V i c t o r i a . At Boort, great f i r e b a l l s fell in the street, throwing up sparks as they e x ploded. The whole a i r appeared to be on fire; intervals of complete d a r k n e s s ; lanterns had to be used in daytime, and fowls went to r o o s t . At Longdale, a h o u s e set on fire by a fireball. Balls of fire burst on the poppet heads of the New B a r a m b o g i e m i n e , Chiltern, Victoria, putting the timbering of the shaft on f i r e . A l m o s t every m e t e o r o l o g i cal station in V i c t o r i a sent in s i m i l a r r e p o r t s — f i r e b a l l s , darkness in daytime, and people stumbling about with lanterns. Sydney. On N o v e m b e r 1 4 , M r . Bruggman, of P a r r a m a t t a , was p a r a l y s e d by a fireball bursting o v e r his head. Harden, Wednesday, N o v e m b e r 1 3 , During a s t o r m yesterday at M u r r a m burrah, a huge "fireball" hovered o v e r the houses for a considerable t i m e and then disappeared.

GLB-086

[VIOLET BALL SURROUNDED WITH RAYS]

Anonymous; Nature, 4 2 : 4 5 8 , September 4 , 1 8 9 0 . The C a u c a s u s p a p e r s relate an interesting c a s e of globular lightning which was witnessed by a party of g e o d e s i s t s on the s u m m i t of the Bohul Mountain, 1 2 , 0 0 0 feet above the sea. About 3 p. m . , dense clouds of a dark violet colour began to r i s e f r o m the g o r g e s beneath. At 8 p. m . , t h e r e was rain, which was soon followed by hail and lightning. An e x t r e m e l y bright violet ball, surrounded with r a y s which w e r e , the party s a y s , about two y a r d s long, struck the top of the peak. A second and a third followed, and the whole s u m m i t of the peak was soon c o v e r e d with an electric light which l a s t e d no l e s s than four h o u r s . The party, with one exception, crawled down the slope of the peak to a better sheltered p l a c e , situated a few y a r d s beneath. The one who r e m a i n e d was M. Tatosoff. He w a s considered dead, but proved to have been only injured by the first stroke of lightning, which had p i e r c e d his sheepskin coat and shirt, and burned the skin on his chest, s i d e s , and back. At midnight the second c a m p was struck by globular lightning of the s a m e c h a r a c t e r , and two p e r s o n s slightly felt its effects. Obviously e l e c t r i c d i s c h a r g e effects accompanied the "ball lightning."

G2-88

BALL LIGHTNING
GLB-087 IN SUPPORT OF A PHYSICAL E X P L A N A T I O N OF BALL L I G H T N I N G N a t u r e , 2 3 2 : 6 2 5 , August 2 7 , 1 9 7 1 .

GLB-087

Wittmann, A . ;

T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t o p r e s e n t additional e v i d e n c e i n favour of the e x c l u s i o n of explanations of b a l l lightning in t e r m s of, (a) the retinal a f t e r i m a g e h y p o t h e s i s , (b) the i n t e n s e point d i s c h a r g e h y p o t h e s i s and (c) the burning m a t e r i a l h y p o t h e s i s . Altschuler l i s t s these in his s u m m a r y of possible explanations. D u r i n g a d i n n e r on the evening of July 6, 1 9 7 1 , at O r s e l i n a , n e a r L o c a r n o , S w i t z e r l a n d , I o b s e r v e d a f l a s h of lightning which s t r u c k an unidentified t a r g e t n e a r the r o o f of a building about 2 0 0 m a w a y . An intense point d i s c h a r g e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d the f l a s h and w a s v i s i b l e c l e a r l y at the t a r g e t for 1 or 2 s. I i m m e d i a t e l y t o l d the o t h e r p e o p l e at the d i n n e r ( P r o f e s s o r E. H. S c h r o t e r and D r . E . W i e h r f r o m Gottingen and M r . C . Kuhne f r o m Oberkochen) o f m y o b s e r vation b e c a u s e they w e r e not l o o k i n g out of the window at the t i m e . T h i s o c c u r r e n c e w a s u n m i s t a k a b l y different f r o m another lightning event, which I o b s e r v e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago and which I c o n s i d e r to h a v e b e e n a r a r e event of actual b a l l lightning. At that t i m e a t h u n d e r s t o r m a c c o m p a n i e d by heavy r a i n took p l a c e in the a r e a of Neustadt n e a r C o b u r g , G e r m a n y . I w a s sitting with s o m e o t h e r people (among t h e m M r . C . F o r s t e r f r o m B e r l i n ) right behind a ground floor window so that I c o u l d l o o k at the w e a t h e r ; the field of v i e w out to the s t r e e t w a s l i m i t e d by the f r a m e of the window. Suddenly, at a height of about 16 m above the ground and at a s h o r t r a n g e of about 24 m, I s a w a s p h e r i c a l p l a s m a b a l l c o l o u r e d bright y e l l o w - w h i t e . This object appeared to h a v e a d i a m e t e r of 50 to 1 0 0 c m . It m o v e d v e r t i c a l l y d o w n w a r d s with a s p e e d of about 4 m a , and i t s path ended in the t o p b r a n c h e s of a t r e e , at a height of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 m. On touching the t r e e the ball instantly d i s i n t e g r a t e d into eight t o t w e l v e s m a l l e r s p h e r e s . T h e s e w e r e the s a m e c o l o u r a s the l a r g e one and e a c h had a d i a m e t e r to 12 to 15 c m . T h e y fell to the g r o u n d , guided by the o u t e r c o n t o u r of the t r e e , and m o v e d v e r t i c a l l y during the l a s t few m e t r e s in the a b s e n c e of b r a n c h e s . On r e a c h i n g the ground (an asphalt roadway and a neighbouring footpath) the s p h e r e s instantly d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e r e w a s no n o i s e apart f r o m that of the rain and no lightning a s s o c i a t e d with the p r i m a r y plasma-like sphere. T h r e e t o five m i n u t e s a f t e r w a r d s , the s a m e phenomenon o c c u r r e d again i n p r e c i s e l y the s a m e way a s b e f o r e , indicating that the c o n d i tions needed to p r o d u c e and guide the p r i m a r y s p h e r e w e r e still maintained or r e - e s t a b l i s h e d during the t i m e that had e l a p s e d . I m m e d i a t e l y after the r a i n had stopped, I went out into the s t r e e t to l o o k for f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e . There were c i r c u l a r p a t c h e s of m e l t e d asphalt on the wet asphalt c o v e r of the roadway which showed the i n t e r f e r e n c e c o l o u r s o f this l a y e r s . Their diameters were each 12 t o 1 5 c m and they o b v i o u s l y m a r k e d the i m p a c t a r e a s o f the s m a l l e r s p h e r e s . T h i s event w a s d e s c r i b e d s i m i l a r l y b y a l l the w i t n e s s e s . B e c a u s e roadway asphalt i n g e n e r a l c o n t a i n s B - 8 0 bitumen a thermoplast f r o m which liquid c o m p o n e n t s d i s i n t e g r a t e a t about 1 7 0 ° C one m a y v e r y roughly c a l c u l a t e the m i n i m u m amount of e n e r g y needed to p r o d u c e the o b s e r v e d patches. A s s u m i n g that a w a t e r l a y e r o f t h i c k n e s s 0 . 5 m m a t 2 0 ° C w a s e v a p o r ated and that an asphalt l a y e r of t h i c k n e s s 1 mm w a s then heated to 1 7 0 ° C , and a s s u m i n g a m e a n d e n s i t y of 1. 0 g c m * and a m e a n s p e c i f i c heat c = 0. 46 c a l o r i e g " f o r B - 8 0 , one m a y e a s i l y c a l c u l a t e the e n e r g y d e n s i t y o f the p l a s m a spheres to be at l e a s t 1. 9 x 1 0 J m ~ .
3 p 1 7 3

A g a i n , f r a g m e n t a t i o n of b a l l lightning is o b s e r v e d and c o m p u t a t i o n s indicate v e r y high e n e r g y d e n s i t i e s .

G2-89

GLB-088
GLB-088

BALL LIGHTNING
GLOBULAR LIGHTNING

Ryan, G. M. ; Nature, 5 2 : 3 9 2 , August 2 2 , 1 8 9 5 . On June 2 1 , about 6 p. m . , D r . W a l l i s , M r . T a y l o r and m y s e l f w e r e in our d r a w i n g - r o o m on the ground floor, taking s h e l t e r f r o m a passing s t o r m ; they w e r e seated, and I stood five p a c e s f r o m t h e m . The d o o r s w e r e all c l o s e d against the s t o r m , and I went out and, for cool a i r , opened one. On returning, I saw a globular light, about the s i z e of the full moon in the air between W a l l i s and T a y l o r , and a l m o s t instantly I heard in the r o o m a terrific clap of thunder like a cannon. I suffered afterwards f r o m acute pain down the left side of my face. T a y l o r , who had an iron-headed golf stick in his hand, felt a twinge up his right a r m , and a sensation as of singeing in his h a i r . W a l l i s felt nothing at all. We all experienced a sulphurous s m e l l . In the adjoining r o o m , leaning against one c o r n e r , w e r e two M a r t i n i - H e n r y r i f l e s in leather c a s e s . One was untouched. The stock of the other was a l m o s t shattered, splinters lying about the r o o m . The l e a t h e r covering of the splintered rifle w a s torn, but the m e t a l part of the rifle quite unhurt. At the point of the wall where the m u z z l e of the shattered rifle touched the wall, there was a hole 5 x 2 - 1 / 2 and 1 - 1 / 2 to 2 inches deep. The wall is of mud and p l a s t e r . In the r o o m above w e r e two h o l e s in one wall; that i s , the wall above that in which the hole appeared b e l o w . T h e s e h o l e s w e r e s m a l l e r than the one below. Just b e l o w the two h o l e s stood a wooden c a s e , iron-bound, and at its foot the matting w a s torn up, but the floor and the c a s e w e r e untouched. In the second r o o m above, that i s , the r o o m o v e r that in which I had seen the globular lightning, the wall near the ceiling was cracked for six or eight feet. This was all the damage done that we could find.

GLB-089

BALL LIGHTNING

Wooding, E . R . ; Nature, 1 9 9 : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , July 2 0 , 1 9 6 3 . Wooding suggests that ball lightning m a y be a vortex ring of p l a s m a .

GLB-090

AN OCCURRENCE OF 'BALL L I G H T N I N G '

Falkner, M. F. ; M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Magazine, 9 3 : 9 5 , M a r c h 1 9 6 4 . On the evening of Wednesday, 6 N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 3 , at approximately 1 1 . 5 p. m. my father saw in his b e d r o o m , in the centre of the r o o m , a s m a l l , e g g - s h a p e d ball of brilliant light. Within the space of a few s e c o n d s , this s m a l l ball of light spread itself to f o r m a sheet of darkish green light as wide as the r o o m itself (approximately 12 feet). This curtain of light then moved towards my father and turned g r e y i s h colour. The whole sight then vanished as suddenly as it appeared, with a v e r y loud bang, s i m i l a r to the report f r o m a rifle. The light was witnessed only by my father but the bang was heard by both my brother, f r o m a neighbouring b e d r o o m and my m o t h e r , who was downstairs in the kitchen. The b e d r o o m light was on and it was raining at the t i m e . We would not believe that this phenomenon had o c c u r r e d if it were not for the fact that the v e r y loud bang was heard by three people who w e r e each in different r o o m s at the t i m e .

G2-90

BALL LIGHTNING
GLB-091 BALL LIGHTNING

GLB-092

|

F i n k e l s t e i n , D a v i d , and Rubinstein, Julio; P h y s i c a l R e v i e w , 1 3 5 : 3 9 0 - 3 9 6 , July 2 0 , 1964. A b s t r a c t . A p l a s m o i d m o d e l for b a l l lightning is e x a m i n e d . The usual v i r i a l t h e o r e m s h o w s that confinement b y s e l f - f i e l d a l o n e i s inconsistent with c o n s e r v a t i o n l a w s f o r e n e r g y and m o m e n t u m ; a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s h o w s that the p r e s e n c e o f a i r p r e s s u r e r e m o v e s this i n c o n s i s t e n c y and g i v e s a n upper bound t o the s t o r e d e n e r g y . T h i s upper bound i s m u c h l e s s than the e n e r g i e s r e ported for s o m e o c c u r r e n c e s . F o r p e r m i s s i b l e e n e r g i e s the kinetic t e m p e r a t u r e and d e n s i t y of the p l a s m a c a n be c h o s e n so that it will not be d e g r a d e d by internal C o u l o m b c o l l i s i o n s o r d i s s i p a t e d b y c y c l o t r o n radiation f o r s o m e seconds. I t i s h o w e v e r n e c e s s a r y t o i n s u l a t e the p l a s m a f r o m the a i r . A selffield that is able to do this will g i v e up the total s t o r e d e n e r g y to o h m i c heat in the a i r boundary in a m u c h s h o r t e r t i m e than is r e p o r t e d . It is concluded that the p l a s m o i d m o d e l i s i m p o s s i b l e and that e n e r g y m u s t b e supplied t o the b a l l during its e x i s t e n c e if the o r d e r of magnitude of the r e p o r t e d e n e r g i e s and t i m e s are accepted. T h e r e f o r e a new m o d e l is e x a m i n e d . The high dc e l e c t r i c f i e l d s a s s o c i a t e d with lightning s t o r m s a r e invoked as e n e r g y s o u r c e , and an i d e a l i z e d nonlinear conduction p r o b l e m i s shown t o a d m i t b a l l - l i k e s o l u t i o n s . This leads to a b a l l lightning m o d e l of a l o w - c u r r e n t g l o w d i s c h a r g e in an a t m o s p h e r i c dc field, A r e g i o n of h i g h e r conductivity r e s u l t s in a l o c a l i n c r e a s e of the e l e c t r i c field and c u r r e n t d e n s i t y sufficient to p r o d u c e a g l o w d i s c h a r g e , which p r o v i d e s the h i g h e r conductivity and is thus s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t . If this m o d e l is a p p r o p r i a t e , then b a l l lightning h a s n o r e l e v a n c e t o c o n t r o l l e d - f u s i o n p l a s m a r e s e a r c h .

GLB-092

A SO-CALLED THUNDERBOLT 1892.

Lodge, Oliver J. ; Nature, 4 6 : 5 1 3 - 5 1 4 , September 29,

During a s h o r t s t o r m in L i v e r p o o l this s u m m e r , I noticed one flash as p e c u l i a r l y s h a r p and noisy, and subsequently in the c o r r e c t b e a r i n g f r o m my house the ground w a s r e p o r t e d as having b e e n s t r u c k by a thunderbolt. I e x a m i n e d the p l a c e , which w a s on the g r e e n s w a r d of a l a k e , w h e r e the ground was p e n e t r a t e d by a n u m b e r of f a i r l y c l e a n - c u t a l m o s t v e r t i c a l h o l e s down which a w a l k i n g - s t i c k could be t h r u s t . P e o p l e s h e l t e r i n g near the lake r e p o r t ed a b a l l of f i r e and a g r e a t s p l a s h up of the w a t e r . T h e odd c i r c u m s t a n c e about the d a m a g e w a s that it o c c u r r e d on a s i m p l e g r a s s s l o p e , about half w a y b e t w e e n a tall b o a t - h o u s e on the one side and a drinking fountain standing on m o r e e l e v a t e d ground o n the o t h e r . S m a l l t r e e s a l s o w e r e i n the n e i g h b o u r hood, and t h e r e w a s no apparent c a u s e why the flash should h a v e s e l e c t e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r spot; though indeed it w a s not within any of the o r d i n a r i l y a c c e p t e d " a r e a s of p r o t e c t i o n . " A g e n t l e m a n M r . Hewitt p r o p o s e d digging f o r the m e t e o r , and although fairly c o n v i n c e d that it w a s nothing but an o r d i n a r y f l a s h , we thought it j u s t p o s s i b l e that an accidental m e t e o r i t e might h a v e f a l l e n during the t h u n d e r s t o r m ; in which event a flash down the r a r e f i e d a i r of its t r a i l would be a natural c o n s e q u e n c e . It m a y be j u s t p o s s i b l e that the popular b e l i e f in thunderbolts h a s s o m e such foundation. At any r a t e the e x c a v a t i o n w a s m a d e , with the r e s u l t of p r o v i n g that it w a s an o r d i n a r y f l a s h and that the lightning m a d e u s e of a s u r f a c e d r a i n - p i p e , about four feet d e e p , to get at the w a t e r of the l a k e .

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GLB-093
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BALL LIGHTNING
OPTICAL AND ACOUSTICAL DETECTION OF BALL LIGHTNING

W a g n e r , Gunther A . ; Nature, 2 3 2 : 1 8 7 , July 1 6 , 1 9 7 1 . The recent c o n t r o v e r s y about ball lightning stimulates me to report an observation of such an event, which o c c u r r e d in September 1 9 6 3 . This event o c c u r r e d at approximately 11 a. m . , in the entrance hall of the Plockenhaus, a restaurant below the Plockenpass in the Carnic A l p s ( A u s t r i a ) . Students f r o m a field t r i p of the Geology Department of the Universitat H e i d e l b e r g w e r e staying inside this restaurant b e c a u s e of a thunderstorm with heavy rain. S o m e of the students w e r e sitting in the guest r o o m and s o m e w e r e standing in the entrance hall. The outside d o o r s of the house w e r e open. The door between the guest r o o m and the entrance hall w a s , as I r e m e m b e r , c l o s e d . The floor of the entrance hall c o n s i s t s of heavy l i m e s t o n e plates. A l s o in the entrance hall was a St. B e r n a r d dog, lying on the floor. Suddenly, through the open outside d o o r s , a whitish yellow ball appeared just above the floor. It was slightly l a r g e r than a tennis ball, and its speed was about that of a walking person. The light ball m o v e d about 2 m in the direction of the dog and finally exploded with a loud bang, like a gun shot. The dog jumped away as it saw the moving light b a l l . A l l the people in the entrance hall (about five) s a w the ball and heard the bang. People f r o m the guest r o o m c a m e out to ask what happened, b e c a u s e they had heard the bang. I do not r e m e m b e r feeling any radiation heat f r o m the bang, nor s m e l l i n g anything after the explosion. W e , the b y s t a n d e r s , explained this event as a "Kugelblitz" (ball lightning). The optical observation by s e v e r a l people, the reaction of the dog, and the acoustic perception of the people in the adjacent r o o m a r e hard to explain by the optical illusion hypothesis for ball lightning.

GLB-094

[TAPERED BALL L I G H T N I N G ]

Anonymous; Nature, 4 6 : 5 4 8 , October 6, 1 8 9 2 . A curious instance of globular, lightning is r e f e r r e d to in the M e t e o r o l o g i s c h e Zeitschrlft for September 1 8 9 2 . On August 7, during a thunderstorm at A l t e n markt, near F u r s t e n f e l d , while the priest w a s administering the s a c r a m e n t , the church was struck by lightning, followed by a loud explosion. A panic i m m e d i ately ensued, and the congregation rushed out, notwithstanding the a s s u r a n c e s of the p r i e s t that t h e r e was no danger. T h e r e was nothing to show how the lightning entered the church, but it is supposed it was by the conductor leading f r o m the steeple. It is said to have been a l a r g e globe, tapering towards the upper part, and after the explosion it left a strong sulphurous s m e l l . The explosion was v e r y loud and shook the building.

GLB-095

BALL LIGHTNING

Jensen, J . C . ; P h y s i c s , 4 : 3 7 2 - 3 7 4 , October 1 9 3 3 . This article is essentially identical with that G L B - 0 1 6 with the addition of s o m e spectacular photographs.

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BALL LIGHTNING
GLB-096 LIGHTNING

GLB-096

Goodlet, B. L . ; Institute of Electrical Engineers, Journal, 81 1 - 2 6 , 1 9 3 7 . (A lengthy d i s c u s s i o n of the paper by various authors follows the paper p r o p e r . ) Only that portion of the paper and those c o m m e n t s relating to ball lightning are quoted below. See G L L - 0 3 1 for m o r e of this a r t i c l e . (f) Ball and Bead Lightning. Ball lightning is s o m e t i m e s regarded as a subjective phenomenon. Although the accounts of many eye witnesses a r e undoubtedly imaginative, there is a m a s s of evidence to show that it r e a l l y d o e s occur. Recently D r . Walther Brand of M a r b u r g collected s o m e 6 0 0 accounts of ball lightning, of which 2 1 5 w e r e sufficiently detailed to inspire confidence in their accuracy. F r o m these 2 1 5 accounts D r . Brand deduced the principal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the phenomenon. A translation of his s u m m a r y is given below. (i) Ball lightning (also t e r m e d a fireball or thunder bolt) is a ball-shaped (occasionally pear-shaped) electrical discharge of long duration which o c c u r s occasionally during thunderstorms. Ball lightning o c c u r s most frequently towards the end of a thunderstorm and is m o r e frequent in winter. Its activity is l e s s than that of ribbon lightning. (ii) Ball lightning generally appears as a red luminous ball of 1 0 - 2 0 c m . diameter surrounded by a blue contrast region and with a hazy outline. The b a l l s m a y , however, be a blinding white and the outline is s o m e t i m e s quite sharp. (iii) A hissing, humming, or fluttering noise is usually heard. (iv) On disappearing, fireballs often l e a v e a s h a r p - s m e l l i n g m i s t , which appears brown by transmitted light, blue by reflected light, and white when the air is saturated. (v) The duration of the phenomenon v a r i e s f r o m a fraction of a second to several minutes. The m o s t usual duration is 3 - 5 s e c . (vi) A fireball m a y appear by descending out of the b a s e of a cloud; it may also f o r m as a floating ball, in free air or attached to s o m e object. Very often ball lightning is preceded by an ordinary lightning flash, in which c a s e the ball appears at or c l o s e to the point struck; this initial flash i s , however, often absent. (vii) F i r e b a l l s m a y disappear silently, with a mild c r a c k , or with a blinding explosion when a number of short s t r e a m e r s shoot out of the ball in all d i rections. Occasionally the ball is extinguished by an ordinary lightning flash striking I t . (viii) The velocity of a fireball which falls f r o m the cloud b a s e to the ground is v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e (transition to ordinary lightning); c l o s e to the ground or in c l o s e d r o o m s fireballs usually move at about 2 m e t r e s per sec. A fireball m a y remain stationary for a t i m e and an "attached" (aufsitzende) fireball can r e m a i n , boiling and emitting sparks, in its initial position until it disappears (transition to St. E l m o ' s f i r e ) . S o m e t i m e s a fireball appears to be moved by an a i r current but in general its movement is independent of the wind. (ix) Occasionally s e v e r a l fireballs appear round a place which has been struck by ordinary lightning. A single l a r g e fireball m a y burst into s e v e r a l s m a l l e r ones. V e r y occasionally two b a l l s appear one above the other, bound together by a string of s m a l l e r b a l l s , or such a string may appear attached to a single fireball [transition to true bead lightning (perlschnur b l i t z ) ] . (x) "Floating" (freischwebende) and "attached" (aufsitzende) fireballs appear to behave quite differently, although they can change into one another. Floating b a l l s suggest a discharge of high voltage and s m a l l current; attached

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BALL LIGHTNING

b a l l s s u g g e s t a d i s c h a r g e of l o w e r voltage but l a r g e c u r r e n t . (xi) "Floating" f i r e b a l l s have the r e d c o l o u r of m e t e o r i t e t r a c k s in the lower atmosphere. T h e y shun good c o n d u c t o r s and g e n e r a l l y c h o o s e a path through good c o n d u c t o r s and g e n e r a l l y c h o o s e a path through the a i r . They a r e attracted t o w a r d s c l o s e d s p a c e s (i. e. h o u s e s ) which they enter through the open window or d o o r , s o m e t i m e s even through s m a l l c r a c k s ; the c h i m n e y , with its conducting but non-inductive g a s e s , is a favourite path, so that f i r e b a l l s frequently a p p e a r in the kitchen f r o m out of the f i r e p l a c e . A f t e r c i r c l i n g the r o o m s e v e r a l t i m e s the fireball l e a v e s by s o m e a i r path, often the one by which it e n t e r e d . Floating b a l l lightning is not d a n g e r o u s to human b e i n g s even when it a p p e a r s in the m i d d l e of a g r o u p of p e r s o n s ; it a p p e a r s to avoid t h e m like it avoids good c o n d u c t o r s . O c c a s i o n a l l y a fireball m a k e s two or t h r e e v e r t i c a l o s c i l l a t o r y m o v e m e n t s with an amplitude f r o m a few c e n t i m e t r e s to s e v e r a l metres. W h e n t h e s e v e r t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e c o m b i n e d with a t r a n s l a t o r y m o tion the ball a p p e a r s to p r o g r e s s in hops. Often the motion is confined to a single d e s c e n t f r o m the c l o u d s to within a few m e t r e s above ground, followed by an i m m e d i a t e r e - a s c e n t . (xii) "Attached" f i r e b a l l s a r e of a blinding b r i l l i a n c e and white or blue in colour. T h e y attach t h e m s e l v e s to good c o n d u c t o r s , p r e f e r r i n g the highest points, or r o l l along such c o n d u c t o r s (e. g. roof gutters) They heat the o b j e c t s to which they a r e attached or along which they r o l l . T h e y c a u s e s e v e r e burns on the human body when they m o v e o v e r it ( o c c a s i o n a l l y under the clothes) and produce lethal e f f e c t s . (xiii) T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a "floating" into an "attached" fireball usually o c c u r s by its making a dart to a good conductor in the vicinity. On touching the conductor it m a y e i t h e r d i s a p p e a r , quietly or with an e x p l o s i o n , or it m a y c o n tinue as an "attached" f i r e b a l l . F i r e b a l l s which fall f r o m the c l o u d s usually hit the ground and e x p l o d e . (xiv) T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of an "attached" into a "floating" fireball o c c u r s by the ball s i m p l y r i s i n g f r o m its support and floating u p w a r d s , usually along an inclined path, t o w a r d s the c l o u d s . In g e n e r a l such b a l l s a r e extinguished v e r y shortly a f t e r w a r d s . No s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y of ball lightning h a s so far b e e n d e v e l o p e d . As the phenomenon cannot be o b s e r v e d at will it is l i k e l y to r e m a i n a m y s t e r y for s o m e time to c o m e . The m o s t r e a s o n a b l e speculation i s probably that o f Prof. W . M . Thornton that a fireball is a m a s s of o z o n e produced by the d i s c h a r g e , which suddenly r e v e r t s t o oxygen with e x p l o s i v e v i o l e n c e . Other theories are d i s c u s s e d in B r a n d ' s book and in a s e r i e s of p a p e r s by E. M a t h i a s . Bead lightning is a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - k n o w n phenomenon. A recent letter published in Nature s t a t e s that in one c a s e 20 to 30 b e a d s about 3 inches in d i a m e t e r and spaced about 2 ft. apart l a s t e d about half a second after an i n t e n s e flash. T h i s account is t y p i c a l , (pp. 1 0 - 1 1 )

W r i t t e n c o m m e n t s submitted by e n g i n e e r s and s c i e n t i s t s follow:

F o r m a n y y e a r s I have held the opinion that the "balls" of ball lightning a r e m a s s e s of nitrogen o x i d e s f o r m e d by the lightning. On v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s I have published the idea, e. g. in a l e t t e r in the Y o r k s h i r e P o s t of the 20th O c t o b e r , 1 9 2 3 . In this p a p e r u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e a r e t h r e e r e f e r e n c e s to the c o l o u r of the ball: (1) b a l l lightning g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r s as a red l u m i n o u s b a l l ; (2) f i r e b a l l s often l e a v e a s h a r p - s m e l l i n g m i s t , which a p p e a r s brown; (3) floating f i r e -

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GLB-096

b a l l s have the red c o l o u r o f m e t e o r i t e t r a c k s i n the l o w e r a t m o s p h e r e . Surely these are confirmations. Quite obviously the b a l l s a r e not e l e c t r i c , f o r the paper s a y s "Floating b a l l lightning is not d a n g e r o u s to human beings even when it a p p e a r s in the m i d d l e of a g r o u p " but l a t e r it s a y s " T h e y heat the o b j e c t s to which they a r e attached or along which they r o l l . T h e y c a u s e s e v e r e b u r n s on the human body when they m o v e o v e r it. " I s u g g e s t that the r e f e r e n c e to the s h a r p - s m e l l i n g m i s t and to the action of the b a l l on the body c o n f i r m the e x p l a n a tion I have s u g g e s t e d , n a m e l y that the ball is a m a s s of nitrogen o x i d e s . Y e t the author s a y s "No s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y of ball lightning h a s so far b e e n d e v e l o p e d , " and then g o e s on to r e f e r to a speculation of Prof. W. M. Thornton "that a f i r e ball is a m a s s of o z o n e produced by the d i s c h a r g e . " In other w o r d s , P r o f . Thornton g o e s p a r t of the way; why not the whole w a y , I cannot understand, f o r ozone will not explain the c o l o u r s and will not explain the burning effect, w h e r e as nitrogen dioxide d o e s explain t h e m both. In the R e f e r e n c e s and in s o m e footnotes the author m e n t i o n s a r t i c l e s and l e t t e r s which have a p p e a r e d in Nature, but he m a k e s no r e f e r e n c e to what I maintain is the v e r y r e a s o n a b l e explanation that I g a v e in Nature of the 24th N o v e m b e r , 1 9 2 3 . M r . S . J . Rust s u g g e s t s that earthquakes m a y b e m o r e c l o s e l y connected with radioactivity than is g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , and e m a n a t i o n s m a y i n c r e a s e the potential o f a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c i t y v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . The following a r e s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g side i s s u e s on this question: (1) A t t e m p t s at i n c r e a s i n g r a i n f a l l , or staving off hail, by gunpowder e x p l o s i o n s (at which s c i e n t i s t s have laughed) m a y b e a t t i m e s p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , b e c a u s e they upset the e l e c t r i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m of the a i r . (2) At the beginning of the W a r , c e r t a i n n e w s p a p e r s attributed the a b n o r m a l rainfall to the firing of cannon, but l a t e r t h e r e w a s d r y w e a t h e r w i t h out c e s s a t i o n of the firing. T h i s m a y be explained if we attribute the rainfall to e l e c t r i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s effective at the beginning of o p e r a t i o n s , but r e a c t i n g as the cannonading b e c o m e s habitual. (3) T h e old country notion that a m e t e o r i t e is a thunderbolt h a s b e e n ridiculed, but a m e t e o r i t e rushing to earth at a t i m e when an anticyclone has given hot d r y w e a t h e r , and an e l e c t r i f i e d a t m o s p h e r e , m a y upset the e l e c t r i c a l equilibrium sufficiently to p r o d u c e a s t o r m . (Comment by E. K i l b u r n Scott, p. 31) L a s t s u m m e r we had an e x p e r i e n c e of a floating f i r e b a l l at the w o r k s adjoining my o f f i c e . The b a l l c a m e s l o w l y out of a c l o s e d r o o m which h a s 2 - f t . w a l l s on all t h r e e s i d e s and is used as a drying s t o v e . It w a s p e a r - s h a p e d and of a dull r e d c o l o u r , and as it floated l a z i l y out of the d o o r of the d r y i n g s t o v e , a c r o s s a wooden landing and o v e r the top of a m o t o r l o r r y , t h e r e w e r e short s t r e a m e r s of red f l a m e c o m i n g out f r o m it in all d i r e c t i o n s . Eventually, when it reached about 3 ft. f r o m the ground, it b u r s t with a t r e m e n d o u s bang. By this t i m e the rain had s t a r t e d . Simultaneously with the a p p e a r a n c e of this fireball the c i r c u i t b r e a k e r on the lighting s y s t e m w a s tripped and t h e r e w a s an outbreak of f i r e . T h i s o c c u r r e d on the opposite s i d e of the 2 - f t . wall f r o m the r o o m where the fireball had c o m e through, at a point where the lighting w i r e s p a s s e d within a few inches of the lightning c o n d u c t o r c o m i n g down f r o m the m i l l stack. I m a d e a v e r y careful e x a m i n a t i o n a f t e r w a r d s but I could find no sign of anything having gone through the wall into the r o o m w h e r e the f i r e ball s t a r t e d , yet I feel s u r e t h e r e m u s t have b e e n s o m e connection between the two. ( C o m m e n t b y A . B . M a l l i n s o n , p . 4 6 )

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GLB-097
GLB-097

BALL LIGHTNING
A SO-CALLED THUNDERBOLT

Hewitt, G e o r g e H . ; N a t u r e , 4 6 : 5 1 4 , S e p t e m b e r 2 9 , 1 8 9 2 . During a t h u n d e r s t o r m on the afternoon of Sunday, July 3, 1 8 9 2 , what is d e s c r i b e d a s a "ball o f f i r e " w a s s e e n b y s e v e r a l p e r s o n s t o d e s c e n d t o the ground, n e a r the south end of the l a k e in Sefton P a r k ; and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s a c o l u m n of w a t e r , about sixty feet high, w a s shot up f r o m the l a k e . On e x a m i n i n g the spot w h e r e the b a l l of fire w a s s e e n to d e s c e n d , s e v e r a l c l e a n cut h o l e s w e r e o b s e r v e d , and a sod was a l s o found at a little d i s t a n c e f r o m the spot. A few d a y s a f t e r w a r d s an excavation w a s c a r e f u l l y m a d e . T h e sod b e i n g r e m o v e d , the h o l e s w e r e t r a c e d down to a s u r f a c e d r a i n pipe four feet b e l o w the s u r f a c e . At this d r a i n the h o l e s t e r m i n a t e d , and the pipe w a s found s h a t t e r ed. T h e i m p o r t a n t h o l e s w e r e found t o b e s i x , the l a r g e s t b e i n g s e v e n i n c h e s in d i a m e t e r , the o t h e r s about two i n c h e s . No m e t e o r i c m a t t e r w a s found, but it s e e m s c u r i o u s that this effect w a s brought about by a flash of lightning only, in an open s p a c e of sloping g r a s s , when t h e r e w e r e t r e e s and h o u s e s c l o s e b y .

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T O W A R D A T H E O R Y OF BALL LIGHTNING

Lowke, J . J . , e t al; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 7 4 : 6 8 8 7 - 6 8 9 8 , 1 9 6 9 . C o m p i l e r ' s S u m m a r y : T h i s is a highly t h e o r e t i c a l p a p e r with e s s e n t i a l l y no o b s e r v a t i o n a l data. T h e authors s u r m i s e that ball lightning m a y be a p l a s m a initiated by o r d i n a r y lightning.

GLB-099

[BOUNCING BALL LIGHTNING]

A n o n y m o u s ; Nature, 4 6 : 6 2 , M a y 19,, 1 8 9 2 . S c i e n c e of A p r i l 29 p r i n t s the following account of a f i r e b a l l , by C. C. B a y l e y : - "A telephone w i r e w a s supported on c e d a r p o s t s 20 feet high and 20 r o d s a p a r t . During A u g u s t , 1 8 8 9 , we had a t h u n d e r s t o r m , during which t h e r e was a s h a r p and h e a v y c r a s h . S e v e r a l of the p o l e s w e r e found to h a v e b e e n s t r u c k , and p o r t i o n s to h a v e b e e n taken out through t h e i r entire length. One of t h e s e p o r t i o n s , of the s i z e of a m e d i u m r a i l , w a s thrown into an adjoining field s o m e r o d s f r o m the p o l e . P o r t i o n s f r o m the o t h e r s w e r e s m a l l e r and m o r e or l e s s shattered. N e a r the s o u t h e r n m o s t pole s t r u c k , a f a m i l y w e r e i n a h o u s e with d o o r s and windows open, and a l u m i n o u s b a l l s e e m e d to l e a p f r o m the w i r e , p a s s through the open d o o r and a window, and p u r s u e its c o u r s e s o m e r o d s through the open s p a c e behind the h o u s e . A boy in the r o o m g r a s p e d h i s thumb and c r i e d out, ' I ' m s t r u c k , ' and M r . Hewett felt a sensation of n u m b n e s s in h i s left a r m f o r s o m e t i m e . A g i r l s e i z e d h e r shawl and rushed out of the house to c h a s e the b a l l . She r e p o r t e d that she p u r s u e d it s o m e d i s t a n c e , while it bounded lightly along, until it s e e m e d to be d i s s i p a t e d in the a i r without an explosion. The s i z e of the b a l l w a s about that of the two f i s t s , and its v e l o c i t y about that of a b a l l thrown by the hand. "

G2-96

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE
GLD-045 SUMMER LIGHTNING

GLD-045

G e i k i e , A r c h . ; Nature, 6 8 : 3 6 7 - 3 6 8 , August 2 0 , 1 9 0 3 . | Although a good d e a l has b e e n written on the subject of " s u m m e r lightning, " it m a y not be superfluous to d e s c r i b e a d i s p l a y of the phenomenon which o c c u r r e d h e r e l a s t evening on a s c a l e far s u r p a s s i n g anything which it had b e e n my good fortune to w i t n e s s b e f o r e . T h e r e had b e e n s e v e r a l t h u n d e r s t o r m s in the d i s t r i c t during the p r e v i o u s five or s i x d a y s , and a few p e a l s w e r e h e a r d and heavy r a i n fell in the e a r l y afternoon of the day b e f o r e (August 1 3 ) . But the s k y c l e a r e d rapidly t h e r e a f t e r , and the evening and night of that day w e r e c l o u d l e s s , e v e r y peak and c r e s t standing out s h a r p l y defined in the c l e a r a i r . Yesterday w a s still f i n e , but w a r m e r and l e s s b r a c i n g than v i s i t o r s h e r e e x p e c t . Late i n the afternoon w i s p s of white m i s t began to gather round the s u m m i t of the Jungfrau, and s t r e a k s of thin c l o u d took shape in the h i g h e r a i r a b o v e the g r e a t mountain r i d g e that extends f r o m the S i l b e r h o r n to the B r e i t h o r n . About 8 p. m I noticed a faint q u i v e r i n g light o v e r h e a d , s u p p l e m e n t e d by o c c a s i o n a l f l a s h e s o f g r e a t e r b r i l l i a n c e and different c o l o u r . T h e s e manifestations rapidly inc r e a s e d in d i s t i n c t n e s s , and continued to p l a y only along the opposite m o u n t a i n r i d g e , not extending into the r e g i o n s b e y o n d , so far as t h e s e could be s e e n f r o m h e r e , though I h a v e s i n c e l e a r n t that an independent s e r i e s of f l a s h e s w a s seen around the Schilthorn on this side of the v a l l e y Not a single peal of thunder w a s at any t i m e audible. A long bank of cloud f o r m e d at a h i g h e r l e v e l than the s u m m i t s of the m o u n t a i n - r i d g e , and at s o m e d i s t a n c e on the further side of it, so that the s t a r s , e l s e w h e r e b r i l l i a n t , w e r e hidden along the s t r i p of sky above the c r e s t . As one watched the display it was e a s y to distinguish m o r e definitely the two kinds of d i s c h a r g e . One of them took the f o r m of a faintly l u m i n o u s r e d d i s h or pink light, which shot with a t r e m u l o u s s t r e a m e r - l i k e motion in h o r i z o n t a l b e a m s that p r o c e e d e d apparently f r o m left to right, as if their starting point l a y s o m e w h e r e about the b a c k o f the Jungfrau. These s t r e a m e r s so closely r e s e m b l e d the a u r o r a b o r e a l i s that, had they appeared a l o n e , one would have b e e n inclined to w o n d e r whether the "northern l i g h t s " had not h e r e m a d e an i n c u r s i o n into m o r e southern latitudes. So feeble w e r e they when they sped a c r o s s the c l e a r sky that the s t a r s w e r e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e through t h e m . S o m e t i m e s they quivered on the far side of the cloud, lighting up its e d g e s and sheeting beyond it a c r o s s the still unclouded b l u e . At other t i m e s they appeared on this side of the cloud, and showed the d a r k outline of the mountains in c l e a r r e l i e f against the l u m i n o u s b a c k g r o u n d . T h e y so rapidly s u c c e e d e d each other that they m i g h t be said to be continuous, a faint pinkish l u m i n o s i t y s e e m i n g to r e m a i n a l w a y s v i s i b l e , though pulsating in rapid v i b r a t i o n s of h o r i z o n t a l s t r e a m e r s . The b r i g h t e r d i s c h a r g e s w e r e not only far m o r e b r i l l i a n t , but m u c h m o r e momentary. T h e y had a pale b l u i s h - w h i t e c o l o u r , and c a m e and went with the rapidity of o r d i n a r y lightning. But they w e r e c l e a r l y connected with the m o u n tains, and not r e f l e c t i o n s f r o m a s e r i e s of distant f l a s h e s S o m e t i m e s they a r o s e on the other side of the g r e a t r i d g e , allowing i t s j a g g e d c r e s t to be s e e n against the illuminated s u r f a c e of the c l o u d b e y o n d , but l e a v i n g all the p r e c i p i c e s and s l o p e s on this side in shade. In other c a s e s they c l e a r l y showed t h e m s e l v e s on this side of the mountains, lighting up e s p e c i a l l y the s n o w b a s i n s and g l a c i e r s with the d a r k c r a g s around t h e m . Nothing, of the nature of forked lightning w a s o b s e r v e d a m o n g t h e m In one i n s t a n c e the flash or h o r i zontal band of vivid light, a m i l e or two in length, s e e m e d to shoot upward f r o m the slope at the b a s e of the p r e c i p i c e s of the S i l b e r h o r n , as if it s p r a n g out of the ground, having a sharply defined and b r i l l i a n t b a s e , rapidly d i m i n i s h i n g in intensity upward, and vanishing b e f o r e r e a c h i n g h a l f - w a y up to the c r e s t .

I
1

G2-97

GLD-046

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

But the m o s t s i n g u l a r feature of the m o r e b r i l l i a n t white d i s c h a r g e s w a s to be s e e n when one of the g r e a t c o u l o i r s of snow or a portion of a g l a c i e r r e m a i n ed for a minute or two continuously l u m i n o u s with a faint b l u i s h - w h i t e light. A f t e r an i n t e r v a l the s a m e or another p o r t i o n , p e r h a p s s e v e r a l m i l e s distant, J would g l e a m out in the s a m e way. My f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n was that this r a d i a n c e f could only be a r e f l e c t i o n f r o m s o m e illuminated part of the cloud. But I could not s a t i s f y m y s e l f of the e x i s t e n c e of any continuously bright p o r t i o n s of the c l o u d . M o r e o v e r , the l u m i n o s i t y of the snow and i c e r e m a i n e d l o c a l and s p o r a d i c , as if the b e a m of a s e a r c h - l i g h t had b e e n d i r e c t e d to one s p e c i a l part of the mountain d e c l i v i t y , and then after a while to another. W h i l e watching one of t h e s e p a t c h e s of illumination, I noticed a bright point of light at the top of one of the b a s i n s of neve on the s l o p e s of the Mittaghorn. It quickly v a n i s h e d , but soon r e a p p e a r e d , and then as r a p i d l y w a s l o s t again. I thought that it w a s p r o b a b l y a s t a r b r i e f l y e x p o s e d through r i f t s in the c l o u d , though its position s e e m e d r a t h e r b e l o w that of the m o u n t a i n - c r e s t . Half an hour l a t e r , h o w e v e r , a s i m i l a r bright light appeared about the s a m e p l a c e , m o r e diffused than the f i r s t , and having a s o m e w h a t elongated shape. W h e t h e r it was r e a l l y a s t a r seen through the d i s t o r t i n g m e d i u m of a w r e a t h of m i s t , or a f o r m of St. E l m o ' s fire clinging to s o m e peak on the p r e c i p i c e , could not be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m its momentary visibility I l e a r n t this m o r n i n g that other o b s e r v e r s who could watch at the s a m e t i m e the mountain r i d g e s on each s i d e of the Lauterbrunnen v a l l e y noticed that s h e e t lightning w a s a l s o playing about the Schilthorn, but quite independently of that on the Jungfrau r a n g e , the one mountain b e i n g d a r k , while the other w a s i l l u m i n ated. The d i s t a n c e of the two e l e c t r i c c e n t r e s f r o m each other is between five and s i x m i l e s . T h e whole d i s p l a y l a s t evening afforded an a d m i r a b l y c o m p l e t e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the e r r o n e o u s n e s s of the notion f o r m e r l y prevalent that s u m m e r lightning is only the r e f l e c t i o n of distant o r d i n a r y lightning, and of the truth of i the m o r e r e c e n t v i e w s as to the nature of the phenomenon. I m a y add that, as the lightning i n c r e a s e d , the a i r , which had p r e v i o u s l y been n e a r l y c a l m , f r e s h e n e d into a strong b r e e z e , which blew f r o m the southwest down the v a l l e y , but died down after the illumination faded away. The cloud above the mountain b e g a n to a s s u m e i r r e g u l a r dark c u m u l u s s h a p e s , and the sky b e c a m e g e n e r a l l y o v e r c a s t . JSarly this m o r n i n g rain was falling h e a v i l y . The mountains h a v e b e e n all day shrouded in dripping cloud, and the deluge still c o n t i n u e s . G e i k i e s e e m s t o d e s c r i b e e l e c t r i c d i s c h a r g e effects r a t h e r then "lightning" p e r s e . As with the A n d e s G l o w , t h e r e s e e m s to be a s i m i l a r i t y to auroral phenomena. T h e p l a c e was M u r r e n , G e r m a n y , August 1 4 , 1 9 0 3 .

GLD-046

LIGHTNING OBSERVATIONS BY SATELLITE

S p a r r o w , J . G . , and N e y , E . P . ; N a t u r e , 2 3 2 : 5 4 0 - 5 4 1 , August 2 0 , 1 9 7 1 . T h i s paper p r e s e n t i n g d a t a taken b y the O S O - 2 and O S O - 5 s a t e l l i t e s a l s o contains h i n t s of e l e c t r i c a l action high above the earth under the heading "spurious e v e n t s . " On s o m e o c c a s i o n s apparent "lightning s t r o k e s " w e r e detected that could not be a s s i g n e d as such b e c a u s e at the t i m e the f i e l d s of view of the t e l e s c o p e s w e r e well above the E a r t h . S o m e of t h e s e w e r e detected by as m a n y as t h r e e

G2-98

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

GLD-047

k W

p h o t o m e t e r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y when the p h o t o m e t e r s w e r e looking above the s a t e l lite. T h e d e c a y t i m e indicates that the signal p r o b a b l y originated f o r w a r d of o r i n the p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r p r e a m p l i f i e r s y s t e m s . B e c a u s e the e l e c t r o n i c s a s s o c i a t e d with each p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r a r e i s o l a t e d f r o m each other (although s h a r i n g the p r i m a r y s p a c e c r a f t power) it is unlikely that t h e s e apparent i n c r e a s es a r e electronic in nature. F u r t h e r m o r e , i f the i n c r e a s e s w e r e initiated b y feedback through the s p a c e c r a f t b a t t e r i e s then all s i x p h o t o m e t e r s would p r o b a bly show s i m i l a r effects. T h i s h a s o c c u r r e d a t o t h e r t i m e s when n o i s e i s p r e s e n t in the data but in t h e s e c a s e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t i m e constant is not s e e n in each p h o t o m e t e r s i g n a l . On the o c c a s i o n s under d i s c u s s i o n , only t h o s e p h o t o m e t e r s v i e w i n g in the a n t i - s a i l d i r e c t i o n and not t h o s e v i e w i n g in the opposite d i r e c t i o n h a v e b e e n affected. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f s p u r i o u s r e f l e x i o n s f r o m the front light b a f f l e s of e a c h p h o t o m e t e r (for e x a m p l e , f r o m lightning m e t e o r s and s o on) c a n p r o b a b l y b e e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e o f the l a r g e attenuation in the s c a t t e r e d signal c o m p a r e d with the d i r e c t signal when the p h o t o m e t e r s v i e w c l o s e t o the M o o n . The distribution o f t h e s e s i g n a l s o v e r the E a r t h ' s s u r face is a p p r o x i m a t e l y r a n d o m , s u g g e s t i n g that the s o u r c e is not lightning. Single o c c u r r e n c e s a r e s e e n about once e v e r y ten o r b i t s . No acceptable m e c h a n i s m h a s y e t b e e n found t o explain t h e s e a n o m a l o u s d a t a s p i k e s . T h e s e i n c r e a s e s , which s e e m t o b e due t o s h o r t duration (-C 0 . 1 s ) "light" f l a s h e s , a r i s e f r o m p r o c e s s e s o t h e r than lightning and m u s t b e e l i m i n a t e d f r o m the data b e f o r e any d i s c u s s i o n of lightning d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n be e n t e r e d into. T h i s has e f f e c t i v e l y b e e n done b y accepting a s s t o r m s only t h o s e o c c a s i o n s when two o r m o r e s t r o k e s w e r e o b s e r v e d . I n t h i s way s o m e seventy o c c a s i o n s when one s t r o k e only w a s s e e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b y the two t e l e s c o p e s fields of v i e w w e r e on the E a r t h have been eliminated. when t h e i r

^ S i n c e the s a t e l l i t e ' s i n s t r u m e n t s c o u l d not m e a s u r e d i s t a n c e , have been n e a r b y or d e e p in the e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e .

the f l a s h e s might

GLD-047

[CLOUD OF FIRE]

A n o n y m o u s ; London T i m e s , N o v e m b e r 3 0 , 1 8 2 5 . A v e r y r e m a r k a b l e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l phenomenon t o o p l a c e on the 3d of this month in the f o r e s t of C a l e n h o v e n , in the a r r o n d i s s e m e n t of T h i o n v i l l e . A w a g g o n e r , returning f r o m S i e r c k t o F i l s t r o f f , w a s p a s s i n g through the f o r e s t b e tween s i x and s e v e n o ' c l o c k in the evening. He a r r i v e d within t h r e e q u a r t e r s of a l e a g u e of L a u m e s f e l d , when, during a violent s t o r m , a c c o m p a n i e d with thunder, the f o r e s t a p p e a r e d to be suddenly on fire f r o m one e x t r e m i t y to the o t h e r , and continued so f o r a q u a r t e r of an h o u r . The h o r s e s b e i n g t e r r i f i e d , b e c a m e violently r e s t i v e , and one of t h e m b r e a k i n g h i s h a r n e s s , took flight and r a n to the v i l l a g e , w h e r e , b e i n g met b y s e v e r a l p e r s o n s , they c o n j e c t u r e d s o m e accident had b e f a l l e n the c o n d u c t o r . T h e y p r o c e e d e d i m m e d i a t e l y to the f o r e s t , and on approaching it p e r c e i v e d a cloud of fire t r a v e r s i n g the h o r i z o n in a d i r e c t i o n f r o m north to south. The m o s t d e n s e and profound d a r k n e s s s u c c e e d e d this apparition. The w a g g o n e r whom they w e r e in s e a r c h of, r e s p o n d e d to t h e i r c a l l s , and w a s d i s c o v e r e d in such a state of t e r r i b l e apprehension, that s o m e t i m e e l a p s e d b e f o r e h e could r e c o v e r h i m s e l f sufficiently t o a n s w e r t h e i r q u e s t i o n s and explain the c a u s e of his h o r r o r . — - J o u r n a l de M o s e l l e .

G2-99

GLD-048
GLD-048

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE
[STRONG LUMINOSITY, PECULIAR CLOUDS] 3 2 : 3 7 5 , August 2 0 , 1 8 8 5 .

Anonymous; Nature,

At about midnight on July 29 a r e m a r k a b l e p h e n o m e n o n w a s s e e n at ™ Jonkoping (Sweden), o v e r l a k e W e t t e r n . A s t r o n g l u m i n o s i t y w a s suddenly s e e n i n the n o r t h , w h e r e s o m e v e r y p e c u l i a r c l o u d s — l o o k i n g l i k e i c e b e r g s w e r e s e e n a l m o s t t o touch the w a t e r . F r o m these clouds electrical d i s c h a r g e s continually p r o c e e d e d , i m p a r t i n g t o t h e m a b l u i s h , p h o s p h o r e s c e n t l i g h t , s o m e what ruddy n e a r the w a t e r and i n t e n s e l y y e l l o w at t h e i r s i d e s . It s e e m e d l i k e a constant d i s c h a r g e of f i r e w o r k s f r o m the l a k e . It w a s r e m a r k a b l e that the l i g h t — a s i s g e n e r a l l y the c a s e with a n e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e i n the a t m o s p h e r e — did not a s s u m e the f o r m of bunches of s t r e a m e r s , but at one t i m e f l a r e d up intensely and a t o t h e r s f o r m e d n a r r o w bands a c r o s s the c l o u d s . A b o v e the latter t h e r e w a s a faint b l u i s h r e f l e c t i o n . T h e lake l a y a s c a l m a s a m i r r o r , and though an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n w a s u n c o m m o n in t h e s e p a r t s , the w e s t e r n s h o r e s e e m e d c l o s e to the town, while the e a s t e r n d i s a p p e a r e d in the c l o u d s . Except the e l e c t r i c i t y - l a d e n clouds in the north the sky w a s c l e a r , s t a r s s h o n e , and the full m o o n w a s b r i g h t . B e l o w the l a t t e r the sky s e e m e d faintly r e d , c o m p a r e d with the intense e l e c t r i c light. A t K a t r i n e h o l m the s a m e phenomenon w a s s e e n in the n o r t h e a s t . H e r e an i n t e n s e g l a r e w a s s e e n a b o v e a c l o u d , a s s u m i n g the a p p e a r a n c e of two gigantic l u s t r o u s t r e e s , which r e m a i n e d thus f o r half an h o u r , when it changed into a v a r i e t y of f o r m s . T h e r e w a s no n o i s e a c c o m p a n y i n g the p h e n o m e n o n , w h i c h l a s t e d in both p l a c e s f o r about one h o u r . It is not p r o b a b l e that the p h e n o m e n o n could h a v e b e e n of a u r o r a l n a t u r e on account of the b r i g h t n e s s under a full m o o n .

GLD-049

[ E A R T H Q U A K E LIGHTS]

A n o n y m o u s ; N a t u r e , 9 0 : 5 5 0 , January 1 6 , 1 9 1 3 . Shortly after the g r e a t V a l p a r a i s o earthquake of A u g u s t 1 6 , 1 9 0 6 , attention was d i r e c t e d t o c e r t a i n l u m i n o u s p h e n o m e n a that w e r e o b s e r v e d b e f o r e , a t the t i m e of, and after the earthquake. The o b s e r v a t i o n s h a v e r e c e n t l y b e e n a n a l y s e d by Count de M o n t e s s u s de B a l l o r e , the d i r e c t o r of the Chilean S e i s m o l o g i c a l Office (Bollettino o f the Italian S e i s m o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . x v i . , p p . 7 7 - 1 0 2 ) . The total n u m b e r o f r e c o r d s c o l l e c t e d i s 1 3 6 . O f t h e s e 4 4 a r e d e c i s i v e l y , and 1 6 i m p l i c i t l y , negative; i n 3 8 c a s e s s o m e l i g h t s o f a n indefinite c h a r a c t e r w e r e noticed; i n the r e m a i n i n g 3 8 r e c o r d s the o b s e r v a t i o n o f l u m i n o u s p h e n o m e n a is m o r e or l e s s explicit. M a n y o f the negative r e c o r d s a r e c o m m u n i c a t e d b y p e r s o n s a c c u s t o m e d t o scientific i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and i n s o m e c a s e s c o n t r a d i c t a l l e g e d o b s e r v a t i o n s of lights at the s a m e p l a c e s . It d o e s not follow that the lights, when o b s e r v e d , w e r e connected with the e a r t h q u a k e , f o r , in the c e n t r e and south of C h i l e , a s t o r m rated during the night of the earthquake, and it w a s f r o m this part of the d i s t u r b e d a r e a , and not f r o m the epicentral d i s t r i c t , that m o s t o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s c a m e . Count d e M o n t e s s u s t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s that, for the V a l p a r a i s o earthquake at any r a t e , the c o n n e c t i o n of the l u m i n o u s p h e n o m e n a with the earthquake is not p r o v e n .

G2-100

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE
GLD-050 E A R T H Q U A K E S A N D T H E I R CAUSES

GLD-050

Lake, John J . ; English Mechanic, 2 1 : 5 1 - 5 2 , A p r i l 2 , 1 8 7 5 . I L a k e firmly believed in the electrical nature of earthquakes and quoted the following observations to p r o v e his point. The earthquakes of 1 6 9 2 , in Jamaica, and 1 6 9 3 , in Sicily, present v e r y strong evidences of general electric disturbance in the globe at those t i m e s . One evening in F e b r u a r y , 1 6 9 2 , at A l a r i , in Sicily, the village s e e m e d to the country people to be in f l a m e s . The f i r e , as they imagined, began by little and i n c r e a s e d for about a quarter of an hour, when all the houses in the place appeared to be enveloped in one flame which lasted about six minutes and then began to decay, as f r o m want of m o r e fuel. Many who ran to render a s s i s t a n c e , observed this i n c r e a s e as they passed along the road, but on entering the village found all to be a delusion. Such appearances of fire and light o c c u r in other localities subject to earthquake, e . g . , at C o w r i e , Perthshire, one morning before daybreak, in 1 8 4 2 , the light is stated to have been so brilliant that b i r d s were distinguished on the t r e e s . Again in Sicily, about the 15th of M a y , f o l l o w ing the incident at A l a r i , two hours before sunset, the atmosphere being v e r y c l e a r , the heavens appeared on a sudden all on fire, without any flashes of lightning or the least noise of thunder. T h i s lasted at Syracuse about a quarter of an hour, when t h e r e appeared in the a i r o v e r the city two bows, the c o l o u r s e x t r e m e l y bright, after the usual manner, and a third with the e x t r e m i t i e s inverted, and, as not a single cloud was visible in any part of the sky, the a b n o r mal state of the atmosphere is c l e a r . It was also during this s u m m e r that the unusually s e v e r e thunderstorm occurred at Geneva that so materially affected the future c a r e e r of the celebrated Robert B o y l e . The earthquakes at J a m a i c a began on the 17th June, and their greatest violence s e e m s to have been spent in the mountains. T e r r i f i c noises were heard amongst them at Port Royal during the last shock, and they were so torn and rent as to present a v e r y shattered appearance and quite new f o r m s . In this month Etna emitted extraordinarily loud n o i s e s for three days together. A singular c i r c u m s t a n c e during this catastrophe at J a m a i c a was the derangement of the wind. The l a n d - b r e e z e often failed, and the s e a - b r e e z e blew all night, w h e r e a s the l a n d - b r e e z e should blow all night, and the s e a - b r e e z e all day. There was an earthquake on the 8th September, 1 6 9 2 , in Europe, but I have not yet been able to find out the locality. Space will not admit or m o r e than noticing s o m e special phenomena of the Sicilian earthquakes, 1 6 9 3 . On the 10th of January the Castle of Augusta was blown up by the lightning firing the power m a g a z i n e . At Minco, on the 11th, the shock was attended by "a mighty s t o r m of lightning, thunder, and hail that lasted six h o u r s . " The Archbishop's palace at Monreal was set on fire by the lightning. Etna emitted great n o i s e s , f l a m e s , and a s h e s , during the shocks that overthrew Catania, but there does not appear to have been an eruption. Furia, situated amongst l i m e s t o n e q u a r r i e s , disappeared, and at s e v e r a l parts of the hill the r o c k s , which w e r e previously a l m o s t as white as Geneva m a r b l e , had changed, and in the clefts m a d e by the earthquake had b e c o m e of a burnt colour, as if fire and powder had been employed to rend them asunder. Millitello s e e m s to have been d e s t r o y e d before the 11th of January, for the country people, who dwelt on the neighbouring ridge of mountains, affirmed that it was not to be seen on the morning of that day, to which t i m e , f r o m 12 o'clock on the 8th, it had been concealed in a thick fog. During the interval the mountain that l a y on the north side of the town had been split asunder one portion overwhelming Millitello, so that not an inhabitant escaped. Francofonte, built chiefly of wood,

G2-101

GLD-051

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

e s c a p e d with l i t t l e d a m a g e f r o m the s h o c k s , but w a s fired by lightning; the s p i r e of the c h u r c h wood c o v e r e d with lead burnt down, and the nunnery of the C a r m e l i t e s e n t i r e l y d e s t r o y e d so suddenly, that five of the nuns w e r e stifled in their b e d s . The l a r g e s t part of the inhabitants of L u o c h e l a e s c a p e d by flying f r o m the town on the sudden d i s a p p e a r a n c e of the c a s t l e , situated on a r i s i n g ground. R a g u s a e x p e r i e n c e d s h o c k s on the 8th with violent thunder and lightning. At Specufurno, on the 10th, " f r o m m o r n i n g till night, t h e r e w a s n e v e r h e a r d so violent a s t o r m of thunder and lightning, as if heaven and earth had b e e n m i x i n g together;" the townhouse and s e v e r a l other h o u s e s w e r e d e s t r o y e d by it. The p e a s a n t s on the neighbouring h i l l s o b s e r v e d that this lightning had burnt the v i n e s s o that n o c r o p could b e e x p e c t e d f o r the s e a s o n . The earthquake of London, 1 7 4 9 , a l s o exhibited s t r o n g s y m p t o m s of e l e c t r i c action. T h e y e a r abounded with thunder and lightning, c o r u s c a t i o n s frequently appeared in the a i r , and the a u r o r a r e m o v e d to the south, showing upon two o c c a s i o n s unusual c o l o r s . D r . Stephen H a l e s h e a r d a rushing in h i s h o u s e which ended in an e x p l o s i o n in the a i r as f r o m a s m a l l cannon, and attributed it to the e s c a p e of the fluid by the s t e e p l e of the church of St. M a r t i n ' s - i n - t h e - F i e l d s , adjoining. The R e v . J. H. M u r r a y r e f e r s to the e l e c t r i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s on the e a s t c o a s t of South A m e r i c a , c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s with the g r e a t earthquakes on the w e s t c o a s t i n 1 8 6 8 , and c o n s i d e r s them r e l a t e d . H e d e s c r i b e s one s t o r m , j u s t at the t i m e of the earthquake, as giving "an idea of what the b o m b a r d m e n t of Sebastopol m u s t h a v e b e e n l i k e . " The p h e n o m e n a o f seaquake a r e o f a s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r . We have o u r s e l v e s s e e n e l e c t r i c c l o u d s thrown into a u r o r a l f o r m s c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y with the d i s t u r b a n c e of the s e a at another l o c a l i t y . E x a m p l e s m i g h t be e x t e n s i v e l y m u l t i p l i e d , but the above would s e e m s u f f i cient to s h o w that a leading c a u s e of earthquake is e l e c t r i c action, and that v o l c a n o e s s o m e t i m e s p r o d u c e the s a m e b y d i r e c t c o n v u l s i o n , and a t o t h e r s b y d i s turbing the e l e c t r i c e q u i l i b r i u m of a l o c a l i t y , (p. 52) A n o t h e r p o r t i o n o f this a r t i c l e i s p r e s e n t e d i n G Q E - 0 1 2 .

GLD-051

METEROLOGICAL PHENOMENON

M a c k e n z i e , T . ; N a t u r e , 3 3 : 2 4 5 , January 1 4 , 1 8 8 5 . L e a v i n g the p o r t of K i n g s t o n , J a m a i c a , at dusk on N o v e m b e r 2 3 , 1 8 8 5 . the night w a s fine and s t a r l i t o v e r h e a d , but about 8 p. m. a heavy bank of cloud o b s c u r e d the i s l a n d , and all around the u p p e r e d g e s of this c l o u d - b a n k b r i l l i a n t f l a s h e s o f light w e r e i n c e s s a n t l y b u r s t i n g forth, s o m e t i m e s tinged with p r i s m a t i c h u e s , while i n t e r m i t t e n t l y would shoot v e r t i c a l l y u p w a r d s continuous d a r t s of light d i s p l a y i n g p r i s m a t i c c o l o u r s i n which the c o m p l e m e n t a r y tints, c r i m s o n and g r e e n , o r a n g e and b l u e , p r e d o m i n a t e d . S o m e t i m e s t h e s e d a r t s of light w e r e p r o j e c t e d but a s h o r t d i s t a n c e above the c l o u d - b a n k , but at o t h e r s they a s c e n d e d to a c o n s i d e r a b l e altitude, r e s e m b l i n g r o c k e t s m o r e than lightning. T h i s state of m a t t e r s continued until about 9. 30 p. m. , when all d i s p l a y of light c e a s e d . As I have n e v e r s e e n such a phenomenon in any other part of the w o r l d , I have d e e m e d it an unusual o c c u r r e n c e , and worthy of r e c o r d .

G2-102

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE
GLD-052 TORNADOES: PUZZLING-PHENOMENA A N D PHOTOGRAPHS

GLD-052

Shepard, R o g e r N. , et al; S c i e n c e , 1 5 5 : 2 7 + , January 6, 1 9 6 7 ; and 1 5 5 : 1 0 3 7 , F e b r u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 6 7 . (Copyright 1 9 6 7 b y the A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the A d v a n c e m e n t of Science) Different e y e w i t n e s s e s s e e m t o h a v e g i v e n r a t h e r s i m i l a r a c c o u n t s o f " L u m i n o u s p h e n o m e n a in nocturnal t o r n a d o e s " (Vonnegut and W e y e r , 9 S e p t . , p. 1 2 1 3 [ G L D - 0 1 5 ] , and of c e r t a i n t y p e s of s o - c a l l e d unidentified flying o b j e c t s . " J. V a l l e e ' s book on " U F O ' s , " A n a t o m y of a P h e n o m e n o n ( R e g n e r y , C h i c a g o , 1 9 6 5 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , i n c l u d e s a n u m b e r of r e p o r t s of s l o w - m o v i n g o r s t a t i o n a r y , often " c i g a r - s h a p e d , " o b j e c t s o r "clouds" with s o m e o r all o f the f o l l o w i n g , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : v e r t i c a l orientation; surrounding s m o k e o r l u m i n o u s h a z e , o r m u l t i c o l o r e d o r rotating l i g h t s ; s m a l l e r , b r i g h t l y l u m i n o u s b a l l s o r d i s k - s h a p e d o b j e c t s that t y p i c a l l y e m e r g e f r o m the l o w e r end o f the l a r g e r o b j e c t and then fall o r drift t o w a r d the ground o r v e e r away somet i m e s a p p a r e n t l y at g r e a t s p e e d . S o m e t i m e s , but not a l w a y s , such a p h e n o m e non is d e s c r i b e d as m a k i n g its initial a p p e a r a n c e out of a bank of c l o u d s . Simil a r l y , in c o n n e c t i o n with t o r n a d o e s , Vonnegut and W e y e r ' s w i t n e s s e s s p e a k of such things as a v e r t i c a l l u m i n o u s c o l u m n , a blue h a l o or rotating l i g h t s , "orange b a l l s of f i r e " i s s u i n g f r o m the b o t t o m or "cone point" of the e l e v a t e d funnel, and e v e n a bright white, blue and y e l l o w b a s k e t b a l l - s i z e d o b j e c t floating along 5 feet ( 1 . 5 m) above the ground. I s n ' t it p o s s i b l e , then, that t h e s e p h e nomena a s s o c i a t e d with t o r n a d o e s , p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n s t a n c e s f o r "ball l i g h t n i n g , " and at l e a s t s o m e sightings of alleged " U F O ' s " or "flying s a u c e r s , " all r e f l e c t b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r s o r t s o f e l e c t r i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s i n the a t m o s p h e r e ? ( R o g e r N. Shepard) In W e y e r ' s photo of "unusual illuminated v e r t i c a l p i l l a r s , " the fact that the p o w e r and phone l i n e s c r o s s i n g the f o r e g r o u n d a l s o appear l i g h t e r in the a r e a of the " p i l l a r s , " plus the fact that he did not o b s e r v e the p i l l a r s v i s u a l l y while m a k i n g the e x p o s u r e s u g g e s t s that t h e s e s t r e a k s a r e due to nonuniform application o f the d e v e l o p e r , such a s s o m e t i m e s happens when s i n g l e r o l l s a r e d e v e l o p e d in s m a l l t a n k s , the d e v e l o p e r being p o u r e d in after the film has b e e n inserted. To m e , the p i l l a r s appear to extend down into the i m m e d i a t e f o r e g r o u n d , but the p e r c e p t i o n is a l m o s t s u b l i m i n a l . If the f i l m w e r e m i n e , I would m a k e a l i g h t e r print of m u c h h i g h e r c o n t r a s t . If this c a u s e d the extension of the p i l l a r s into the i m m e d i a t e f o r e g r o u n d to b e c o m e fully evident, I would c o n c l u d e that the p i l l a r s w e r e c a u s e d by d e v e l o p e r and not by t o r n a d o e s . M a n y "flying s a u c e r s " o r i g i n a t e in the d a r k r o o m as the r e s u l t of such p r o c e s s i n g a c c i d e n t s . But s o m e t i m e s foreground m a t e r i a l is p r e s e n t which a l s o s h o w s a c h a n g e in g a m m a w h e r e it c r o s s e s the light blob that h a s b e e n identified as a flying s a u c e r , and so identifies the b l o b as a p r o c e s s i n g fault. N o n e t h e l e s s , this w a s a fascinating a r t i c l e ! ( W i l l i a m R. W e l l s )

Our initial r e a c t i o n , upon being shown a photographic print of the i l l u m i n a ted v e r t i c a l p i l l a r s by Edmond Dewan, w a s p r o b a b l y that of m o s t r e a d e r s : that the effect could quite e a s i l y be an a r t i f a c t either of e x p o s u r e or p r o c e s s i n g . On reading of the guillotine method of e x p o s u r e , a n u m b e r of p o s s i b i l i t i e s s u g g e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s for the p r e s e n c e of an e x p o s u r e artifact, such a s , a background light p a s s i n g through the g a p s between the f i n g e r s , or r e f l e c t e d light f r o m a ring on one of the f i n g e r s . T h i s l a t t e r situation looked v e r y p o s s i b l e in view of the s t r a y illumination p r e s e n t f r o m a window adjacent to the one through which the e x p o s u r e s w e r e m a d e . O b v i o u s l y studying the print

G2-103

GLD-052

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

could only l e a d to f a i r l y e m p t y speculation and any r e a l c o n c l u s i o n s could only be b a s e d on t e s t s conducted on the original negative. L a t e r Vonnegut m a d e the original negative available to us for d e n s i t o m e t r i c study and the r e s u l t s indicate that the l u m i n o u s p i l l a r s a r e not an artifact but a r e a l e x p o s u r e . We c a n , of c o u r s e , s a y nothing about the nature of the o c c u r r e n c e of the p i l l a r s . A s t r i p of film w a s loaned to us containing the i n t e r e s t i n g f r a m e 11 plus f r a m e s on e i t h e r s i d e . T h e p i l l a r s existed only in the n o r m a l f r a m e a r e a of the f i l m and did not extend outside this as they m i g h t have if c a u s e d by a light leak in the c a m e r a , or f r o m c e r t a i n t y p e s of faulty d e v e l o p m e n t techniques. No s i m i l a r p h e n o m e n a e x i s t e d in any of the other f r a m e s . The b r i g h t p i l l a r on the left hand side of the photograph a p p e a r s to c r o s s the f r a m e down to the r e g i o n of the h o u s e s . We conducted a d e n s i t o m e t r i c study, u s i n g an i s o d e n s i t r a c e r of this and other r e g i o n s of the negative. In the i s o d e n s i t o m e t e r is coded into a repeating s e r i e s of s y m b o l s . The t h r e e - s y m b o l c y c l i c c o d e c o n s i s t s of a s e g m e n t of a line, a s e r i e s of c l o s e l y s p a c e d d o t s , and a blank s p a c e . H e n c e the d i r e c t i o n of the change in density c a n be d e t e r mined u n a m b i g u o u s l y . O n c e the scan is c o m p l e t e d , the i n s t r u m e n t a u t o m a t i c a l l y s t e p s o v e r a p r e d e t e r m i n e d distance and r e s c a n s along a line p a r a l l e l to the first s c a n . T h i s p r o c e s s is repeated o v e r the a r e a of i n t e r e s t . W h e n the set of s c a n s is c o m p l e t e d , the c o n t o u r s of equal d e n s i t y in the negative a r e readily r e c o g n i z a b l e . T h e interpretation can be g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d if the d a s h - d o t s p a c e c o d e is repeated in four different c o l o r s . F i g u r e 1 (top) s h o w s the a r e a that was t r a c e d and (center) shows the r e s u l tant plot. Both the photograph and the t r a c e a r e 2 0 x e n l a r g e m e n t . The p i l l a r of light r e a c h e s down to the roof line but d o e s not d e p r e s s the contours of the r o o f as it would if the p i l l a r extended in front of the h o u s e s . F i g u r e 1 (bottom) shows a 2 0 0 x t r a c e of the region including the roof and c h i m n e y . Again the f l a t n e s s of the roof c o n t o u r s is apparent. T h e i n t e r s y m b o l density d i f f e r e n c e is 0. 01 density units and the scanning a p e r t u r e is 100 Apparently the p i l l a r g o e s behind the house or s t o p s suddenly at the roof l i n e . The latter explanation is just too unlikely e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the roof line is not flat. Any faulty e x p o s u r e or d e v e l o p m e n t technique would not give this r e s u l t . A further detailed study w a s m a d e of the s t r u c t u r e of the two l u m i n o u s pillars. F i g u r e 2 shows the t r a c e at 20x with a density i n c r e m e n t of 0. 0 1 2 and with a 1 0 0 - j j 2 a p e r t u r e . The appropriate portion of the photograph at the s a m e magnification i s shown for c o m p a r i s o n . The w i r e s d o c r o s s the p i l l a r s but a r e not r e s o l v e d at this scanning a p e r t u r e s i z e . Structure is apparent in the p i l l a r with a m a x i m u m high up.. A s i m i l a r r e s u l t is apparent in the other p i l l a r of light on the right hand side of the photograph as indicated in Fig. 3. The indications a r e that the l u m i n o u s p i l l a r s constitute a genuine e x p o s u r e and a r e not an artifact of either e x p o s u r e or d e v e l o p m e n t . Unfortunately no information w a s a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e of the f i l m so that the b r i g h t n e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p i l l a r s cannot be d e t e r m i n e d quantitatively. H o w e v e r , qualitatively the information in F i g s . 2 and 3 is meaningful. Could the l u m i n o u s p i l l a r s b e c a u s e d b y r e f l e c t e d g r o u n d - b a s e d l i g h t s ? The m a x i m u m in each p i l l a r l o o k s t o o high up f o r that. T h i s short note indicates the validity of the p i c t u r e s and s h o w s the u s e f u l n e s s of this p a r t i c u l a r d e s i t o m e t r i c technique in quantizing photographic density for the study and evaluation of photographic r e s u l t s . Of c o u r s e , this w o r k c a n give no indication of the nature or c a u s e of the p i l l a r s . (Brian J. T h o m p s o n and Ronald H. Johnson) The intermittent l u m i n o s i t y o c c u r r e d after the tornado had developed; t h e r e f o r e , it s e e m s to be a side effect rather than a c a u s e . The partial vacuum in the eye of a tornado (which is c a p a b l e of lifting an automobile) p r o v i d e s the path of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e f o r e l e c t r i c i t y between the o v e r h e a d s t o r m c l o u d s and the

G2-104

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

GLD-053

earth. It might act as an enormous vacuum tube, somewhat s i m i l a r to a g e i s s l e r , neon, or fluorescent light tube, conducting v e r y low density electric current wherever there is a sufficient accumulation of electricity in the clouds to m a k e the jump to earth. The d i s c h a r g e is reported to last only a few s e c o n d s ; a l s o , s o m e o b s e r v e r s w e r e within the luminous area with no ill effects. The partial vacuum in the tornado, together with the difference in potential between the earth and clouds, appears to be the direct cause of this illuminated path of the d i s c h a r g e . It is conceivable that spiraling supersonic winds in the eye of the tornado actually throw the a i r from the center toward the wall of the c o r e so hard that additional vacuum is produced in the center. This augments the partial vacuum produced by the thermodynamic p r o c e s s at work in the s y s t e m . (Samuel B l a k e s l e e Roberts) E a r l y ideas s i m i l a r to R o b e r t s ' w e r e advanced by Robert Hare in 1 8 4 0 when he was p r o f e s s o r of c h e m i s t r y at the University of Pennsylvania. In d i s c u s s i n g the tornado p r o b l e m , he offered a translation of suggestions m a d e by P e l t i e r , the French physicist f A m e r . J. Sci. and the A r t s 3 8 , 73 (1840)1: . . . .Flashes and fiery balls of sparks accompanying the tornado, a s m e l l of sulfur r e m a i n s for s e v e r a l days in the h o u s e s , in which the curtains a r e found discolored. Everything p r o v e s that the tornado is nothing e l s e than a conductor f o r m e d of the clouds which s e r v e s as a p a s s a g e for a continual d i s c h a r g e of electricity f r o m above. While we hope that eyewitnesses will continue to report in as great detail as p o s s i b l e what they see at the t i m e of a tornado, we think it is c l e a r that the m o s t important thing that needs to be done is to obtain good photographic e v i dence of what is going on. It is our own opinion that we have certainly not established that the photograph indeed r e p r e s e n t s the two tornadoes, but it s e e m s that an atmospheric phenomenon of s o m e kind is probably present and that f u r ther studies a r e d e s i r a b l e . (Bernard Vonnegut and J a m e s R. W e y e r )

GLD-053

SEEING T H E INSIDE OF A T O R N A D O

Justice, A l o n z o A. ; Monthly Weather Review, 5 8 : 2 0 5 - 2 0 6 , May 1 9 3 0 . Although the incidents h e r e i n set forth o c c u r r e d nearly two y e a r s ago, it is thought that they are sufficiently interesting to be reported even at this date. It was just 16 months to a day f r o m the t i m e the events happened that the w r i t e r heard a direct account of them f r o m the man whose extraordinary experience f o r m s the b a s i s of this s t o r y . M r . W i l l K e U e r , a f a r m e r of near Greensburg, K a n s . , is the man to whom r e f e r e n c e is m a d e , and the following is substantially his story: It was on the afternoon of June 2 2 , 1 9 2 8 , between 3 and 4 o'clock. I was out in my field with my family looking o v e r the ruins of our wheat c r o p which had just been completely d e s t r o y e d by a h a i l s t o r m . I noticed an u m b r e l l a shaped cloud in the west and southwest and f r o m its appearance suspected that there was a tornado in it. The a i r had that peculiar o p p r e s s i v e n e s s which nearly always p r e c e d e s the coming of a tornado. But my attention being on other m a t t e r s , I did not watch the approach of the cloud. However, its nearness soon caused me to take another look at it. I saw at once that my suspicions were c o r r e c t , for hanging from the g r e e n i s h - b l a c k b a s e of the cloud was not just one tornado, but t h r e e .

G2-105

GLD-053

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

One of the t o r n a d o e s was a l r e a d y p e r i l o u s l y n e a r and apparently headed d i r e c t l y for o u r p l a c e . I l o s t no t i m e t h e r e f o r e in h u r r y i n g with my f a m i l y to our cyclone c e l l a r . The f a m i l y had e n t e r e d the c e l l a r and I w a s in the doorway just about to enter and c l o s e the d o o r when I decided that I would take a l a s t look at the approaching t o r n a d o . I have seen a n u m b e r of t h e s e things and have n e v e r b e c o m e p a n i c - s t r i c k e n when near t h e m . So I did not l o s e my head now, though the approaching tornado w a s indeed an i m p r e s s i v e sight. The surrounding country is l e v e l and t h e r e was nothing to obstruct the v i e w . T h e r e was little or no rain falling f r o m the c l o u d . T w o of the t o r n a d o e s w e r e s o m e d i s t a n c e away and looked t o m e like g r e a t r o p e s dangling f r o m the c l o u d s , but the near one was shaped m o r e like a funnel with ragged c l o u d s surrounding it. It appeared to be much l a r g e r and m o r e e n e r g e t i c than the o t h e r s and it occupied the central p o s i t i o n of the cloud, the g r e a t c u m u l u s d o m e being d i r e c t ly o v e r it. As I paused to look I s a w that the l o w e r end which had b e e n sweeping the ground w a s beginning to r i s e . I knew what that meant, so I kept my position. I knew that I w a s c o m p a r a t i v e l y safe and I knew that if the tornado again dipped I could d r o p down and c l o s e the d o o r b e f o r e any h a r m could be done. Steadily the tornado c a m e on, the end g r a d u a l l y r i s i n g above the ground. I could have stood t h e r e only a few s e c o n d s but so i m p r e s s e d was I with what was going on that it s e e m e d a long t i m e . At l a s t the g r e a t shaggy end of the funnel hung d i r e c t l y o v e r h e a d . Everything was as still as death. T h e r e was a strong g a s s y odor and it s e e m e d that I could not b r e a t h e . T h e r e was a s c r e a m i n g , h i s s i n g sound c o m i n g d i r e c t l y f r o m the end of the funnel. I looked up and to my a s t o n i s h m e n t I saw right up into the heart of the tornado. There w a s a c i r c u l a r opening in the c e n t e r of the funnel, about 50 or 100 feet in d i a m e t e r , and extending straight upward for a d i s t a n c e of at l e a s t one half m i l e , as b e s t I could judge under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The w a l l s of this opening w e r e of rotating c l o u d s and the whole was m a d e b r i l l i a n t l y v i s i b l e by constant f l a s h e s of lightning which z i g z a g g e d f r o m side to s i d e . Had it not b e e n for the lightning I could not have s e e n the opening, not any d i s t a n c e up into it anyway. Around the l o w e r r i m of the great v o r t e x s m a l l t o r n a d o e s w e r e constantly f o r m i n g and breaking away. T h e s e looked like t a i l s as they writhed t h e i r way around the end of the funnel. It was t h e s e that m a d e the h i s s i n g noise. I noticed that the d i r e c t i o n of rotation of the g r e a t whirl was a n t i c l o c k w i s e , but the s m a l l t w i s t e r s rotated both w a y s s o m e one way and s o m e another. The opening w a s e n t i r e l y hollow e x c e p t f o r something which I could not e x a c t l y m a k e out, but s u p p o s e that it was a detached wind c l o u d . T h i s thing was in the c e n t e r and w a s moving up and down. The tornado w a s not traveling at a great s p e e d . I had plenty of t i m e to get a good v i e w of the whole thing, inside and out. It c a m e f r o m the d i r e c t i o n of G r e e n s b u r g , which town is 3 m i l e s w e s t and 1 m i l e north of my p l a c e . Its c o u r s e w a s not in a straight line, but it z i g z a g g e d a c r o s s the country, in a general n o r t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . A f t e r it p a s s e d my p l a c e it again dipped and s t r u c k and d e m o l i s h e d the house and b a r n of a f a r m e r by the n a m e of E v a n s . The Evans f a m i l y , like o u r s e l v e s , had b e e n out looking o v e r their h a i l e d - o u t wheat and s a w the tornado coming. Not having t i m e to reach t h e i r c e l l a r they took refuge under a s m a l l bluff that faced to the l e e w a r d of the approaching t o r n a d o . T h e y lay down flat on the ground and caught hold of s o m e plum b u s h e s which fortunately g r e w within their r e a c h . As it w a s , they felt t h e m s e l v e s lifted f r o m the ground. M r . Evans said that he could s e e the w r e c k a g e of his h o u s e , among it being the cook s t o v e , going round and round o v e r h i s h e a d . The e l d e s t child, a girl

G2-106

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

GLD-054

of 1 7 , b e i n g the m o s t e x p o s e d , had h e r clothing c o m p l e t e l y t o r n off. But none of the f a m i l y w e r e h u r t . I am not the f i r s t one to l a y c l a i m s to having s e e n the i n s i d e of a t o r n a d o . I r e m e m b e r that in 1 9 1 5 a tornado p a s s e d n e a r M u l l i n v i l l e and a h i r e d m a n on a f a r m o v e r which the tornado p a s s e d had taken r e f u g e in the b a r n . As the tornado p a s s e d o v e r the b a r n , the d o o r w a s blown open and the m a n s a w up into it, and this o n e l i k e the one I s a w , w a s h o l l o w and lit up by lightning. As the h i r e d m a n w a s not w e l l known, no one paid much attention to what he s a i d .

A f t e r l e a v i n g the E v a n s f a r m it continued to "bounce" (as one w i t n e s s d e s c r i b e d it) i t s way a c r o s s the e a s t e r n half of K i o w a County and w a s l a s t h e a r d of in P r a t t County. It left a path h e r e and t h e r e w h e r e it s t r u c k the ground, not of w r e c k e d b u i l d i n g s , f o r t h e r e w e r e no m o r e buildings in i t s path after the E v a n s f a r m , but of t o r n - u p g r o u n d . It t o r e h o l e s and plowed f u r r o w s f r o m a f e w inches d e e p to s e v e r a l feet d e e p . M r . C o r n s said that he s a w a f u r r o w which it plowed a c r o s s a field of wheat. T h e f u r r o w w a s f r o m 2 to 3 feet wide and as deep as the ground had been p l o w e d , about 6 i n c h e s . T h e dirt w a s thrown o v e r on each s i d e of the f u r r o w j u s t as it m i g h t have b e e n if a p l o w had m a d e i t . A f a r m e r w h o s e land had b e e n m a r k e d by the t o r n a d o said that it m a d e a f u r r o w "deep enough to b u r y a h o r s e i n . " M r . W i l l i a m C o b b , resident o f G r e e n s b u r g and o w n e r o f a n u m b e r o f f a r m s in Kiowa County, said that the tornado c r o s s e d one of h i s p a s t u r e s of b u f f a l o g r a s s sod and that it plowed a f u r r o w a m i l e long in p l a c e s f r o m 4 to 6 feet deep, and that the whole thing looked like "where t h e r e had b e e n a g r a d i n g f o r a r a i l r o a d . " The d i r t w a s piled along the s i d e of the f u r r o w , j u s t as if thrown there by hand or p l o w or d r a g g e d t h e r e by s c r a p e r s . It w a s r e p o r t e d that f a r m e r s u s e d s c r a p e r s and h o r s e s t o l e v e l u p the ground w h e r e the t o r n a d o had d i s t u r b e d it. T h e e x c a v a t i o n s f o r m e d b y this t o r n a d o indicate e x t r e m e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d and i n tense forces.

GLD-054

T O R N A D O E S A T B L A C K W E L L , O K L A . , M A Y 25, 1955

M o n t g o m e r y , Floyd C . ; Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w , 8 3 : 1 0 9 , 1 9 5 5 . The following r e p o r t s apply t o t o r n a d o e s s e e n n e a r B l a c k w e l l o n M a y 2 5 , 1955.

One lady who took c o v e r under a s t a i r w a y ended up o n e - h a l f block away still under the s t a i r w a y , which w a s all that w a s left of h e r t w o - s t o r y h o u s e . She t e l l s me the s t o r m w a s a b l a c k wall and the lightning went up f r o m the ground to the cloud not f r o m the cloud to the g r o u n d . I stood in the d o o r of my s t o r m c e l l a r and watched the s t o r m go through town. T h e wind at my p l a c e , nine b l o c k s w e s t of the m a i n path, w a s a dead calm. T h e s t o r m sounded l i k e a r o a r i n g freight train going through open c o u n t r y , only l o u d e r . As the funnel was d i r e c t l y e a s t of m e , the fire up n e a r the top of the funnel l o o k e d like a c h i l d ' s Fourth of July pin wheel. It was s o m e thing I will not forget for a long t i m e .

G2-107

\
GLD-055
GLD-055

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE
[ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN VOLCANIC REGION]

A n o n y m o u s ; N a t u r e , 6 6 : 3 7 8 , August 1 4 , 1 9 0 2 . D r . Hans R e u s c h , d i r e c t o r of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of N o r w a y , has sent us a l e t t e r r e c e i v e d b y h i m f r o m D r . W . J . B r a n c h , o f B a s s e - T e r r e , St. K i t t s , one of the L e e w a r d I s l a n d s , containing an account of the effects o b s e r v e d t h e r e during the r e c e n t v o l c a n i c eruptions in M a r t i n i q u e and St. Vincent. T h e v o l c a n o Mount M i s e r y , the h i g h e s t point of the i s l a n d , exhibited a few indications of s y m p a t h y with Mont P e l e e and the S o u f r i e r e , but no r e m a r k a b l e e f f e c t s w e r e noticed at the t i m e of the eruptions of t h e s e v o l c a n o e s . A fortnight after the d e s t r u c t i o n of St. P i e r r e , h o w e v e r , a loud e x p l o s i o n w a s h e a r d by l a b o u r e r s working on the s i d e of Mount M i s e r y ; f l a m e s s e e m e d to l e a p out of the ground, and a s t r o n g wind swept b y , overturning two s m a l l h o u s e s . At the s a m e t i m e a h e a v y t h u n d e r s t o r m o c c u r r e d , with vivid lightning f l a s h e s . Though the actions of Mont P e l e e and the S o u f r i e r e a r e apparently in s y m p a t h y , D r . B r a n c h ' s i d e a is "that Mount M i s e r y is m o r e in league with the v o l c a n o e s of Guadeloupe, M o n t s e r r a t , D o m i n i c a and St. L u c i a . T h e i r h i s t o r y in the past as w e l l as in the p r e s e n t t i m e s e e m s t o m e t o favour t h i s i d e a . "

The f l a m e s i s s u i n g f r o m the ground m a y have the s a m e o r i g i n a s t h o s e s o m e t i m e s s e e n during e a r t h q u a k e s .

GLD-056

METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENON

W e s t , C h a r l e s ; N a t u r e , 3 3 : 2 4 5 - 2 4 6 , January 1 4 , 1 8 8 5 . I shall be obliged if you will a l l o w me to r e c o r d in y o u r c o l u m n s the following account of s o m e r e m a r k a b l e phenomena w i t n e s s e d during a voyage f r o m S u n d e r land to London, and I t r u s t that if you a r e good enough to i n s e r t this l e t t e r , it m a y b e the m e a n s o f e l i c i t i n g s o m e explanation f r o m y o u r s e l f o r y o u r r e a d e r s a s t o the c a u s e s producing such s t r a n g e e f f e c t s . Capt. H e r r i n g , of the s. s. Fenton, reports to me as follows:" W e left Sunderland at 3 p. m. on the 7th i n s t . bound for London, wind w e s t s o u t h - w e s t , with snow s q u a l l s and strong s e a ; t o w a r d s midnight wind i n c r e a s e d , and the s q u a l l s c y c l o n i c . When between F l a m b o r o u g h Head and S c a r b o r o u g h , the v e s s e l b e c a m e enveloped with p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e , the m a s t - h e a d s exhibiting the c u r i o u s phenomenon known by s a i l o r s as ' C o m p o s a n t s ' (corpus santi), which in this i n s t a n c e w e r e shaped like a t o p , about two feet at the widest p a r t , r e s e m b l i n g a bunch of m i s t l e t o e i l l u m i n a t e d . T h e standing r i g g i n g and all protruding o b j e c t s w e r e in like m a n n e r i l l u m i n a t e d , and the m o s t e x t r a o r d i n a r y effect w a s p r o d u c e d when the m a t e , who w a s on the b r i d g e with me at the t i m e , r a i s e d h i s head above the c a n v a s w e a t h e r - s h e e t i n g ; the whole of h i s h a i r , e x p o s e d , and b e a r d w e r e i n stantly i l l u m i n a t e d , and in like m a n n e r h i s hands when elevated b e c a m e p h o s p h o r e s c e n t on the outline of h i s m i t t e n s . When under c o v e r of the sheeting t h e r e w a s no a p p e a r a n c e of p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e ; it would t h e r e f o r e appear that the effect of the wind produced the phenomenon. T h e w e a t h e r t o w a r d s m o r n i n g m o d e r a t e d , and brilliant f l a s h e s of lightning w e r e s e e n to the e a s t w a r d . "

G2-108

LIGHTNING
GLL-031 LIGHTNING

GLL-031

Goodlet, B . L . ; Institute o f E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r s , J o u r n a l , 8 1 - 1 - 2 6 , 1 9 3 7 . A lengthy d i s c u s s i o n of the p a p e r by v a r i o u s authors f o l l o w s the p a p e r p r o p e r . O n l y those p o r t i o n s of the p a p e r relating to the unusual a s p e c t s of lightning a r e quoted b e l o w . See G L B - 0 9 6 for m o r e o f this a r t i c l e . (d) T h e L o c a l i z a t i o n of Lightning F l a s h e s in C e r t a i n R e g i o n s . A q u e s t i o n often debated is whether or not c e r t a i n identifiable l o c a l i t i e s r e c e i v e an undue p r o p o r t i o n of lightning s t r o k e s ; in other w o r d s , d o e s lightning s h o w a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s and i f s o what a r e the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s which d i s tinguish such l o c a l i t i e s ? A s m u c h n o n s e n s e h a s b e e n talked o n this m a t t e r i t will b e d i s c u s s e d i n s o m e d e t a i l . C o n s i d e r a c i r c u l a r a r e a , s a y , 1 0 m i l e s i n d i a m e t e r . I t i s w e l l known that the m e a n annual n u m b e r o f s t o r m s o v e r such a n a r e a v a r i e s w i d e l y a c c o r d i n g t o its p o s i t i o n o n the g l o b e . T h u n d e r s t o r m s a r e frequent i n the t r o p i c s but a l m o s t unknown in the p o l a r r e g i o n s . In a g i v e n latitude s t o r m s a r e m o r e frequent on land than at s e a , m o r e frequent in mountains than o v e r p l a i n s , and e x c e e d ingly r a r e o v e r d e s e r t s . T h e r e a s o n s f o r this v a r i a t i o n a r e a l s o f a i r l y w e l l understood. T h e a b s e n c e o f s t o r m s i n the p o l a r r e g i o n s i s due t o the d r y n e s s of the a i r and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g the n e c e s s a r y v e r t i c a l l a p s e r a t e of temperature. F o r equal i n s o l a t i o n a i r o v e r land b e c o m e s h o t t e r than a i r o v e r w a t e r , s o that the l a p s e r a t e i s g r e a t e r ; m a r s h land, f a r m land, and f o r e s t land all d i f f e r in their h e a t - a b s o r b i n g p o w e r and evaporation r a t e . In mountain c o u n t r y , convection is a s s i s t e d by the heating of the s l o p e s ( v a l l e y b r e e z e ) and the upward deflection o f w a r m d a m p winds. Thunderstorms over d e s e r t s a r e r a r e b e c a u s e o f the l a c k o f m o i s t u r e f o r cloud f o r m a t i o n . The f r e quency of t h u n d e r s t o r m s o v e r an a r e a i s , h o w e v e r , only a rough index of the lightning h a z a r d , s i n c e t h u n d e r s t o r m s v a r y g r e a t l y i n duration and s e v e r i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , t r o p i c a l s t o r m s , though frequent and s e v e r e , a r e h i g h e r up in the a t m o s p h e r e (owing to the g r e a t e r height of the t r o p o p a u s e n e a r the equator) and the p r o p o r t i o n of ground s t r o k e s s e e m s to be s m a l l e r than for s t o r m s in temperate regions. T h e p h r a s e " l o c a l i z a t i o n of lightning f l a s h e s " i s , h o w e v e r , u s u a l l y g i v e n a m o r e restricted meaning. I t i s widely b e l i e v e d that t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n o b j e c t s and points which a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y l i a b l e to be s t r u c k by lightning w h e n e v e r a s t o r m is o v e r h e a d . A b e l i e f of c o n s i d e r a b l e antiquity, * for which t h e r e is m u c h e v i d e n c e , is that lightning s t r i k e s the h i g h e s t o b j e c t s in the vicinity. Sir J a m e s F r a z e r attributes the w o r s h i p o f the oak c o m m o n t o m o s t A r y a n r a c e s o f E u r o p e to the fact ( ? ) that the oak is s t r u c k by lightning m o r e frequently than any o t h e r t r e e and is t h e r e f o r e favoured by the thunder god. It is a c o m m o n b e l i e f that o u t c r o p s of i r o n s t o n e "attract" the lightning and that the r e m a i n s of the y u l e l o g , if kept throughout the y e a r , will p r e v e n t a h o u s e being s t r u c k . More scientific b e l i e f s at p r e s e n t u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n a r e : (i) That lightning " p r e f e r s " t o s t r i k e soil o f high conductivity, s o that m a r s h e s , e t c . , a r e e s p e c i a l l y d a n g e r ous, (ii) That c h i m n e y s of i o n i z e d a i r which "attract" the lightning e x i s t o v e r c e r t a i n kinds of ground r i c h in r a d i o a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s .

* "Seest thou h o w God with h i s lightning s m i t e s a l w a y s the b i g g e r a n i m a l s and will not s u f f e r t h e m to w a x insolent, while t h o s e of a l e s s e r bulk c h a f e h i m n o t ? How l i k e w i s e h i s b o l t s fall e v e r o n the highest h o u s e s and the t a l l e s t t r e e s ? " (The H i s t o r y o f H e r o d o t u s , Book 7 , c h a p . 1 0 . )

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The e v i d e n c e in f a v o u r of l o c a l i z a t i o n of lightning f l a s h e s c o m e s m a i n l y f r o m the r e c o r d s of e l e c t r i c i t y undertakings. Thus L e h m a n n found that in 9 y e a r s a c e r t a i n 8 0 - k m . line r e c e i v e d 43 s t r o k e s , of which 26 fell on one s e c tion 6. 3 k m . in length. Investigations showed that this section of the line w a s t r a v e r s e d by underground s p r i n g s . It m u s t be r e m a r k e d that e v i d e n c e of this kind is not c o n c l u s i v e u n l e s s it c a n be shown that the n u m b e r and s e v e r i t y of the s t o r m s o v e r the p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n a r e no g r e a t e r than for the line as a whole. M o r e o v e r , e l e c t r i c i t y undertakings e s t i m a t e the n u m b e r of lightning s t r o k e s f r o m the n u m b e r of line f l a s h o v e r s ; it is known that many s t r o k e s do not c a u s e flashover and that l o c a l i z a t i o n of f l a s h o v e r s c a n be c a u s e d by v a r i a tions in the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the line itself. The responsible engineers also differ c o n s i d e r a b l y in t h e i r i d e a s on the r e a s o n for such l o c a l i z a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , examination of all available data h a s left the author with the conviction that the e x i s t e n c e of "danger s p o t s , " s t r u c k m o r e frequently for a given s t o r m e x p o s u r e , is a fact and not an illusion. The s u g g e s t i o n that g e o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s influence the distribution of lightning s t r o k e s a p p e a r s f i r s t i n A r a g o ' s "Notice Scientifique s u r l e T o n n e r r e " ( 1 8 3 8 ) . C o l . J. T. Bucknill, R. E. , in 1 8 8 1 m a d e the s t a t e m e n t "that lightning is m o s t to be f e a r e d by t h o s e who l i v e on w e l l - c o n d u c t i n g a r e a s , even of l o w elevation, and l e a s t to be f e a r e d by t h o s e who l i v e on non-conducting a r e a s . " The m o d e r n v i e w is that the d a n g e r spots a r e l o c a t e d w h e r e t h e r e is a discontinuity in the geological formation. Thus Shipley found d a n g e r s p o t s a s s o c i a t e d with c e r t a i n o u t c r o p s on the N i g e r i a n plateau, while L e h m a n n found d a n g e r spots a s s o c i a t e d with underground s p r i n g s . An interesting e x p e r i m e n t b e a r i n g on this m a t t e r has been r e c e n t l y m a d e by Stekolnikov. A m e t a l dish is filled with s o i l , a s m a l l hill is r a i s e d above the a v e r a g e l e v e l , and a m e t a l ball is b u r i e d in the vicinity of this h i l l . W h e n the dish f o r m s one e l e c t r o d e of an i m p u l s e s p a r k gap, s p a r k s p a s s to the hill when the s o i l conductivity is high but to the b u r i e d b a l l when the s o i l conductivity is l o w . In the opinion of the author the s o i l conductivity h y p o t h e s i s is well supported. The a i r - i o n i z a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s has b e e n the subject of an e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i gation in F r a n c e quite r e c e n t l y . A G e r d i e n a i r - c o n d u c t i v i t y m e t e r w a s mounted on a m o t o r l o r r y , and m e a s u r e m e n t s of a i r conductivity w e r e m a d e at a n u m b e r of points o v e r a l a r g e t r a n s m i s s i o n s y s t e m . The distribution of lightning s t r o k e s o v e r this s y s t e m w a s then examined for c o r r e l a t i o n with the distribution of a i r conductivity. No c o r r e l a t i o n w a s found with the total conductivity ( i . e . total ion content) of the a i r , but it was concluded that lightning did tend to fall m o r e f r e quently at points w h e r e the conductivity due to negative ions was g r e a t e r than the conductivity due to p o s i t i v e i o n s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s identified high n e g a t i v e ion conductivity with the p r e s e n c e of a negative s p a c e c h a r g e and pointed out that on S i m p s o n ' s t h e o r y the lightning channel, being p o s i t i v e , would tend to be drawn to such r e g i o n s . The a u t h o r ' s c r i t i c i s m of this work is twofold: F i r s t , the conductivity m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e all m a d e during fine w e a t h e r ; it is explicitly stated that during s t o r m s violent fluctuations o c c u r and that e i t h e r p o s i t i v e - or n e g a t i v e ion conductivity m a y be in e x c e s s . T h i s m e a n s that the v a l u e s of conductivity and conductivity r a t i o m e a s u r e d in fine w e a t h e r a r e no c r i t e r i o n of t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s in s t o r m y w e a t h e r . But if a i r ionization has any influence on the path of the lightning s t r o k e it m u s t s u r e l y be the ionization actually existing at the t i m e , not that m e a s u r e d , s a y , 3 months p r e v i o u s l y under different conditions. M o r e o v e r , ionization at ground l e v e l is not the s a m e as ionization in the a t m o s p h e r e . Secondly, a i r conductivity is due p r i n c i p a l l y to the s m a l l ions of high m o b i l i t y , w h e r e a s s p a c e change depends m o r e on the l a r g e ions p r e s e n t . A g r e a t e r n e g a t i v e - i o n conductivity is not c o n c l u s i v e proof of a negative s p a c e c h a r g e . Since

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the lightning l e a d e r i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y negative, S i m p s o n ' s t h e o r y i s b e s i d e the point. What is the r e a l truth on this whole question of the l o c a l i z a t i o n of lightning f l a s h e s ? The author would suggest: F i r s t , that t h e r e a r e undoubtedly m a n y l o c a l i t i e s w h e r e the configuration and nature of the ground f a v o u r s the f o r m a t i o n of a s t o r m . Second, that the lightning flash is guided v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l y by the distribution of s p a c e c h a r g e of o p p o s i t e sign b e l o w the c l o u d , p r o d u c e d by point discharge. A n y o b j e c t giving a c o p i o u s point d i s c h a r g e , e. g. a m a s t or lightning conductor, is therefore particularly liable to be struck. T h i r d , that lightning f l a s h e s tend to fall at p l a c e s w h e r e t h e r e is a discontinuity of conductivity in the s o i l , e . g . o n f a u l t s , o u t c r o p s , r i v e r b a n k s , underground s p r i n g s , b u r i e d p i p e s , e t c . (pp. 8 - 9 ) (v) Effect of lightning on living c r e a t u r e s . D i r e c t s t r o k e s will not be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , s i n c e it is unlikely that any l i v i n g c r e a t u r e c a n s u r v i v e the c l o s e proximity of a 50 0 0 0 - a m p e r e arc. T h e l e s s - d i r e c t effects a r e m o r e i n t e r e s t ing. T h e phenomenon known as St. E l m o ' s fire has already b e e n m e n t i o n e d . In the intense field at the top of a mountain this d i s c h a r g e is o b s e r v e d f r o m m e t a l l i c o b j e c t s c a r r i e d on the p e r s o n , although the c u r r e n t s flowing a r e u s u a l l y h a r d l y perceptible. T h e s e c u r r e n t s a r e , h o w e v e r , g r e a t l y intensified i n the v i c i n i t y o f a lightning l e a d e r s t r o k e m o v i n g t o w a r d s the e a r t h . The sudden i n c r e a s e in t h e s e p o i n t - d i s c h a r g e c u r r e n t s due to a nearby l e a d e r s t r o k e i s , in the a u t h o r ' s opinion, the explanation of many c u r i o u s s h o c k s r e c e i v e d f r o m m e t a l t o o l s and d o m e s t i c u t e n s i l s when a flash s t r i k e s c l o s e b y . T h i s effect m u s t not be c o n fused with s h o c k s due to the r e l e a s e of an induced c h a r g e on an o b j e c t due to a flash p e r h a p s half a m i l e away; induced s h o c k s p r o c e e d only f r o m o b j e c t s of c o n s i d e r a b l e e l e c t r o s t a t i c c a p a c i t a n c e such as an unearthed w i r e l e s s a e r i a l or a s u r v e y o r ' s chain. Earth c u r r e n t s c a n be a s o u r c e of g r e a t d a n g e r . If a c u r r e n t of 50 0 0 0 a m p e r e s e n t e r s the soil at a point and s p r e a d s out u n i f o r m l y in all d i r e c t i o n s the c u r r e n t d e n s i t y , and hence the v o l t a g e - d r o p , along the ground s u r f a c e will be a p p r e c i a b l e e v e n at a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e f r o m the flash. The f u r r o w s which s o m e t i m e s radiate f r o m the point actually s t r u c k show that the v o l t a g e d r o p m a y be sufficient to p r o d u c e actual d i s c h a r g e s through the s o i l . The v o l t a g e between two points on the earth s e p a r a t e d by the length of an a n i m a l ' s stride m a y t h e r e f o r e be quite sufficient to p a s s an a p p r e c i a b l e c u r r e n t up one l e g and down the other. T h e r e a r e m a n y c a s e s of c a t t l e - k i l l i n g which c a n be explained in no other m a n n e r . W h e n 1 2 6 sheep out of a flock of 152 a r e killed by a s i n g l e flash it is hardly c o n c e i v a b l e that they w e r e all hit by the m a i n channel. A n o t h e r d a n g e r to cattle a r i s e s f r o m w i r e f e n c e s . A w i r e c a r r i e d on the top of wooden p o s t s 4 ft. high is f a i r l y w e l l insulated and, if s t r u c k , will p r o b a b l y r i s e to a high v o l t a g e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e on each s i d e of the s t r o k e . Cattle leaning against such a fence m a y t h e r e f o r e be killed. In the s a m e way telephone l i n e s c a n introduce a d a n g e r o u s v o l t a g e into d w e l l i n g s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l w e l l - a u t h e n t i c a t e d c a s e s of lightning s t r i k i n g a pond or r i v e r and killing f i s h e s t h e r e i n . At f i r s t the author w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y p u z z l e d by this fact s i n c e the c u r r e n t which could be p a s s e d through a fish in w a t e r s e e m e d t o b e t o o s m a l l t o b e lethal. A p p a r e n t l y , h o w e v e r , the c u r r e n t r e q u i r e d to kill a fish is f a i r l y s m a l l , b e c a u s e the l a r g e South A m e r i c a n e l e c t r i c eel which g i v e s a s h o c k of about 7 a m p e r e s at 15 v o l t s k i l l s all fishes within about a y a r d of itself. Lightning c u r r e n t s a r e of c o u r s e much g r e a t e r than t h i s , even under w a t e r , so that p e r h a p s the killing of f i s h e s is not so s u r p r i s i n g . It is a l s o p o s s i b l e that the e x p l o s i o n wave radiating in the water f r o m the point s t r u c k m a y have s o m e t h i n g to do with the m a t t e r . It is of c o u r s e quite e a s y to p r o d u c e

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(pp. 9-10)

luminous d i s c h a r g e s in c l e a n w a t e r by m e a n s of an i m p u l s i v e v o l t a g e ,

GLL-032

THE DODGE, NEBRASKA, " F I R E B A L L "

J e n s e n , J . C . ; S c i e n c e , 8 3 : 5 7 4 - 5 7 5 , June 1 2 , 1 9 3 6 . During the evening of June 2 4 , 1 9 3 5 , f a m e r s south of D o d g e , N e b r a s k a , r e p o r t e d intense light e n t e r i n g the windows on all s i d e s of t h e i r h o u s e s . A loud e x p l o s i v e noise followed. T h e day had b e e n h o t , - w i t h a t h u n d e r s t o r m n e a r b y , but no rain fell in the i m m e d i a t e a r e a . A few d a y s l a t e r a h o l e w a s found in a c o r n f i e l d . A p a r t y , which included two s c i e n t i s t s , e x c a v a t e d the h o l e . The dirt w a s found thrown b a c k f r o m all s i d e s of the 8 - i n c h h o l e at the c e n t e r f o r a d i s t a n c e of about 3 feet and heaped up about 6 i n c h e s above the l e v e l of the surrounding g r o u n d . T h e h o l e extended downward 8 feet a l m o s t v e r t i c a l l y , with an a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r of 8 i n c h e s , then b e c a m e s m a l l e r f o r the next 7 feet and v a r i e d s o m e w h a t f r o m the p e r p e n d i c u l a r . At a depth of 15 feet the d i a m e t e r had b e e n reduced to about 4 i n c h e s and b r a n c h e d out in 3 d i r e c t i o n s into 2 - i n c h h o l e s , which w e r e followed f o r 3 or 4 feet into the bank w h e r e they d i s a p p e a r e d . At this l e v e l the c l a y b e c a m e v e r y m o i s t , and it w a s evident that the w a t e r l e v e l w a s being approached. The c l a y showed s i g n s of fusion at a n u m b e r of p o i n t s , and the i n s i d e of the h o l e had a c o r r u g a t e d a p p e a r a n c e , as though m o i s t c l a y had b e e n f o r c e d violently b a c k by high p r e s s u r e . No e v i d e n c e s of any m a t e r i a l of different c o m p o s i t i o n than the c l a y i t s e l f w e r e found, and t h e r e w e r e no t r a c e s either in the h o l e or outside of it of m a t e r i a l which might h a v e b e e n of m e t e o r i c o r i g i n . T h e investigating g r o u p concluded that although the e y e - w i t n e s s account s u g g e s t e d a m e t e o r i t e , the hole w a s actually c a u s e d by lightning. T h e s i z e and length of the h o l e , h o w e v e r , w e r e r e g a r d e d a s phenomenal for lightning.

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REMARKABLE FORM OF LIGHTNING 1 8 : 2 7 8 , July 1 1 , 1 8 7 8 .

Lawrence, E. J. ; Nature,

I am a b l e to c o n f i r m the fact that lightning o c c a s i o n a l l y t a k e s the "punctuated" f o r m d e s c r i b e d b y M r . Joule i n N a t u r e , v o l . x v i i i . p . 2 6 0 . Some forty y e a r s a g o , in a t h u n d e r s t o r m which I had the good fortune to w i t n e s s at Ampton, in Suffolk, the lightning (with heavy rain) w a s a l m o s t i n c e s s a n t f o r half an hour or m o r e , and about a q u a r t e r of the f l a s h e s (speaking f r o m m e m o r y only) p r e s e n t e d this unusual a p p e a r a n c e . I h a v e often looked out f o r it s i n c e , but only o n c e with s u c c e s s , and then it only showed i t s e l f in a single flash out of many. On both o c c a s i o n s the "punctuated" f l a s h e s p r e s e n t e d in g e n e r a l a c u r v e d or sinuous line without s h a r p a n g l e s ; and two or t h r e e of t h e m in the f i r s t mentioned s t o r m appeared t o m y e y e a s c l o s e d c u r v e s , one a n a l m o s t p e r f e c t figure of 8; but their d a z z l i n g b r i g h t n e s s m a d e it i m p o s s i b l e to s p e a k to this with c e r t a i n t y .

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METEOR-LIKE PHENOMENA
GLM-032 T E K T I T E S A N D T H E C R Y I L L I D SHOWER

GLM-032

O ' K e e f e , John A. ; Sky and T e l e s c o p e . 2 1 : 4 - 8 , January 1 9 6 1 . O ' K e e f e w a s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n r e l a t i n g the f a m o u s 1 9 1 3 m e t e o r p r o c e s s i o n to the o r i g i n of t e k t i t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f i r s t p o r t i o n of the a r t i c l e r e p r e s e n t s an e x c e l l e n t s u m m a r y of the work of Chant and M e b a n e . T h e r e w e r e o b v i o u s l y many p e c u l i a r a s p e c t s t o this s p e c t a c u l a r event. See G L M - 0 1 5 f o r a r e p o r t o n an apparent second sighting of t h e s e o b j e c t s the next d a y . Other e n t r i e s d e a l i n g with the 1 9 1 3 p r o c e s s i o n m a y be found by c o n s u l t i n g the index.

T h e C y r i l l i d s attracted the attention of a s t r o n o m e r s when they p a s s e d o v e r T o r o n t o on that night in 1 9 1 3 . A c c o r d i n g to Prof. C. A. Chant of the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o : " A t about 9 : 0 5 on the e v e n i n g in q u e s t i o n t h e r e suddenly a p p e a r e d in the n o r t h w e s t e r n sky a f i e r y r e d body which q u i c k l y g r e w l a r g e r as it c a m e n e a r e r , and which was then s e e n t o b e followed b y a long t a i l . . . . I n the s t r e a m i n g of the tail behind, as w e l l as in the c o l o r , both of the head and the t a i l , it r e s e m b l e d a rocket; but, unlike the r o c k e t , the body showed no i n d i c a tion of dropping to the e a r t h . On the c o n t r a r y it m o v e d f o r w a r d on a p e r f e c t l y h o r i z o n t a l path with p e c u l i a r , m a j e s t i c , dignified d e l i b e r a t i o n ; and continuing in its c o u r s e , without the l e a s t apparent sinking t o w a r d s the e a r t h , it m o v e d on to the s o u t h - w e s t w h e r e it s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r e d in the d i s t a n c e . . . . " B e f o r e the a s t o n i s h m e n t a r o u s e d b y this f i r s t m e t e o r had s u b s i d e d , other b o d i e s w e r e s e e n c o m i n g f r o m the n o r t h - w e s t , e m e r g i n g f r o m p r e c i s e l y the s a m e p l a c e a s the first o n e . Onward they m o v e d a t the s a m e d e l i b e r a t e p a c e , i n t w o s o r t h r e e s o r f o u r s , with t a i l s s t r e a m i n g behind, though not s o l o n g nor s o b r i g h t a s i n the f i r s t c a s e . T h e y all t r a v e r s e d the s a m e path and w e r e headed f o r the s a m e point in the s o u t h - e a s t e r n s k y . . . . "Several r e p o r t that n e a r the m i d d l e of the g r e a t p r o c e s s i o n w a s a fine l a r g e s t a r without a t a i l , and that a s i m i l a r body brought up the r e a r . . . . "Just a s the b o d i e s w e r e vanishing, o r s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , t h e r e w a s h e a r d in m a n y p l a c e s a distinct r u m b l i n g sound, l i k e distant thunder or l i k e a c a r r i a g e p a s s i n g o v e r rough r o a d s o r o v e r a b r i d g e . I n s o m e c a s e s t h r e e such s o u n d s , following at s h o r t i n t e r v a l s , w e r e h e a r d ; while a n u m b e r of people felt a shaking of the earth or of the h o u s e . "The e n t i r e t i m e occupied b y the d i s p l a y cannot b e d e t e r m i n e d a c c u r a t e l y , but [was] p e r h a p s 3 . 3 m i n u t e s . " T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a t T o r o n t o w e r e supplemented b y o t h e r s f r o m a s f a r w e s t w a r d in Canada as the vicinity of R e g i n a , Saskatchewan. In the e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , Chant obtained accounts of the s a m e group of b o d i e s f r o m B e r m u d a . He noticed that the r e g i o n s f r o m which he had r e p o r t s lay along an a r c of great c i r c l e , with o b s e r v e r s to the e a s t of the c i r c l e s e e i n g the s h o w e r in the w e s t , and t h o s e w e s t of the c i r c l e s e e i n g it in the e a s t . On this b a s i s , Chant put f o r w a r d the idea that the o b j e c t s w e r e natural s a t e l l i t e s of the e a r t h . In the following y e a r s , new data filled out the a r c o v e r which the C y r i l l i d s were seen. F i r s t , W . F . Denning d i s c o v e r e d s o m e shipboard o b s e r v a t i o n s that extended the arc to t w i c e its o r i g i n a l length, into the South Atlantic off C a p e Sao R o q u e , B r a z i l . Next, W . H . P i c k e r i n g located t h r e e m o r e s h i p b o a r d sightings which filled the g a p b e t w e e n N e w Y o r k and B e r m u d a . F i n a l l y , i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 5 4 t o the p r e s e n t , A . D . M e b a n e h a s l o c a t e d s e v e r a l d o z e n accounts in the f i l e s of n e w s p a p e r s in M i n n e s o t a , W i s c o n s i n , M i c h i g a n , N e w Y o r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a , and New J e r s e y . These last are especially w e l c o m e b e c a u s e they fill significant g a p s in the picture given by Chant, and

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METEOR-LIKE PHENOMENA

a s s u r e us that the phenomenon w a s actually continuous o v e r its whole extent. In p a r t i c u l a r , they indicate that detonations of the kind h e a r d in T o r o n t o c o n t i n ued at l e a s t 2 0 0 m i l e s to Towanda, P e n n s y l v a n i a . F r o m the o b s e r v a t i o n s , it can be shown that the C r y i l l i d s w e r e m o v i n g about the earth in n e a r l y c i r c u l a r o r b i t s . To s e e t h i s , i m a g i n e instead that they w e r e moving in m e t e o r i c paths of low v e l o c i t y with r e s p e c t to the earth. Such o r b i t s would be n e a r l y p a r a b o l i c in the vicinity of o u r planet. T h e d i a g r a m s h o w s a c r o s s section of the e a r t h in the plane of the g r e a t c i r c l e along which the C r y i l l i d s w e r e seen and a s u p p o s e d p a r a b o l i c path. In this c a s e , the orbital p e r i g e e would have b e e n at C a p e Sao Roque and the b o d i e s would have b e e n t r a v e l i n g p a r a l l e l to the h o r i z o n , as o b s e r v e d t h e r e . At T o r o n t o , on the other hand, m e t e o r s following such an orbit would fall at an angle of about 30 d e g r e e s with r e s p e c t to the h o r i z o n . T h i s flatly c o n t r a d i c t s the o b s e r v a t i o n s , which, as Chant e m p h a s i z e d , point with r e m a r k a b l e unanimity to horizontal flight in this area. F u r t h e r , the fact that the individual m e t e o r s w e r e s e e n for p e r i o d s of a minute o r s o indicate that t h e i r flight w a s n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l . Meteors are g e n e r a l l y i n v i s i b l e above heights of 1 0 0 0 k i l o m e t e r s and b e l o w 30 k i l o m e t e r s . If the C y r i l l i d s had b e e n t r a v e l i n g downward at an angle of 30 d e g r e e s to the h o r i z o n t a l , t h e i r v i s i b l e paths would have b e e n s o m e 140 k i l o m e t e r s long. T h e i r period of v i s i b i l i t y would have b e e n only 12 s e c o n d s , at the p a r a b o l i c v e l o c i t y o f 1 1 . 2 k i l o m e t e r s p e r second, ignoring a t m o s p h e r i c d e c e l e r a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , the p a r a b o l i c solutions, with p e r i g e e near C a p e Sao Roque, will not w o r k . And if we m o v e the p e r i g e e n o r t h - w e s t along the path, then the m e t e o r s would have r e a c h e d the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e too s o o n and have b e e n unobservable from Brazil. If we m o v e the p e r i g e e f a r t h e r to the southeast, the angle at T o r o n t o g e t s even s t e e p e r . I n c r e a s i n g the v e l o c i t y has the s a m e effect, as the orbit b e c o m e s h y p e r b o l i c . If we l e s s e n the v e l o c i t y , h o w e v e r , the orbit b e c o m e s s a t e l l i t i c . T h i s l a s t is the only p o s s i b l e way to r e c o n c i l e the orbit with the o b s e r v a t i o n s . F r o m the p h y s i c a l point of view, the n a r r o w n e s s of the belt along which the C y r i l l i d s w e r e s e e n is hard to understand u n l e s s they w e r e following one another in s i m i l a r o r b i t s . If this w a s an o r d i n a r y m e t e o r s h o w e r , the s w a r m c a u s i n g it would have to be v e r y thin about 100 m i l e s a c r o s s and s o m e two or t h r e e thousand m i l e s long. F u r t h e r m o r e , the s w a r m would just have happened to strike the earth so that its plane coincided with the c e n t e r of the planet. B e c a u s e of the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of such' a shower s t r u c t u r e , and our p r e c e d i n g a r g u m e n t s , we conclude that the o b j e c t s of the m e t e o r p r o c e s s i o n of F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 4 3 , w e r e in face s a t e l l i t e s of the earth.

T w o a t t e m p t s have b e e n m a d e to find e v i d e n c e of a s e c o n d revolution of the C y r i l l i d s . T h e m a p at the right is f r o m e x a m i n i n g about 2 0 0 United States m e t r o p o l i t a n n e w s p a p e r s , p r i n c i p a l l y d a i l i e s f r o m about 120 c i t i e s practic a l l y the entire c o l l e c t i o n of the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s . T w o doubtful s t o r i e s fall off the c h a r t , but on the g r e a t c i r c l e e s t a b l i s h e d by Chant. They w e r e reported in n e w s p a p e r s of F e b r u a r y 15th in New Y o r k and Philadelphia f r o m the c r e w s of s h i p s docking t h e r e . Both give i n c o r r e c t d a t e s f o r the s h o w e r , and one is obviously i n a c c u r a t e . W h e t h e r t h e s e points a r e included or not, it is c l e a r f r o m the m a p that accounts of the s h o w e r a r e to be found only along the Chant t r a c e . A s s u m i n g that the C y r i l l i d s w e r e earth s a t e l l i t e s , we might expect s o m e of them to m a k e m o r e than one t r i p around. T h e next revolution, with a p e r i o d of 9 1 - 1 / 2 m i n u t e s , would have c a r r i e d t h e m o v e r the M i d d l e W e s t , above the populated r e g i o n s of N e b r a s k a , Iowa, and M i s s o u r i . In the chart a b o v e , the

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GLM-034

r e s u l t s of a c o n c e n t r a t e d s e a r c h along this p r o j e c t e d path a r e c o m p a r e d with the w o r k o f M e b a n e along the Chant t r a c e . Many of these newspapers w e r e e x a m i n e d b y m e ; the r e s t b y r e l i a b l e i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e c o m m e n d e d b y state h i s t o r i cal s o c i e t i e s . I v e r i f i e d my ability to l o c a t e such i t e m s by c h e c k i n g n e w s p a p e r s along the Chant t r a c e , e v e n l o c a t i n g a few s t o r i e s that had b e e n o v e r l o o k e d by the e d i t o r s with w h o m M e b a n e c o r r e s p o n d e d . But in the a r e a of the e x p e c t e d s e c o n d p a s s i n g , none of us w a s able to l o c a t e a s i n g l e a r t i c l e r e f e r r i n g to the s h o w e r , with the t r i v i a l e x c e p t i o n o f s o m e r e p r i n t i n g s o f a w i r e - s e r v i c e d i s patch f r o m B u f f a l o , New Y o r k . T h e s e negative r e s u l t s , m a n y f r o m a r e a s o f c l e a r w e a t h e r o n that night, l e a d t o two i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n s : T h e y r e e m p h a s i z e the idea, f i r s t stated b y Chant, that the C y r i l l i d s w e r e v i s i b l e only on and n e a r a g r e a t c i r c l e ; and they m a k e it v e r y unlikely that any substantial part of the C y r i l l i d s h o w e r s u r v i v e d for another c i r c u i t of the e a r t h .

GLM-033

LIGHTNING PHENOMENON

G o d w i n - A u s t e n , W . H . ; N a t u r e , 2 8 : 1 7 3 , June 2 1 , 1 8 8 3 . W h i l e watching the i n c e s s a n t play of vivid lightning during the p r o g r e s s of a t h u n d e r s t o r m which w a s raging c l o s e by in the country t o w a r d s N o v a r a , A r o n a being j u s t on the northern l i m i t , my wife o b s e r v e d the following c u r i o u s specta^ c l e , the account of which she wrote down i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s : - At 9. 35 p. m. on Sunday, June 3, a m e t e o r - l i k e o b j e c t w a s s e e n to p a s s apparently f r o m south to north (window facing due e a s t ) , c o m i n g f r o m the side of the s t o r m and d i s appearing behind a m a s s of cloud which capped the high hill of Monte V a l G r a n d e above L a g o V a r e s e . It w a s oblately spheroid in f o r m and apparently about the s i z e of a f i r e - b a l l o o n , and with the v e l o c i t y of a r o c k e t w a s t r a v e l l i n g s l o w l y , for it left no v i s i b l e t r a c k . It w a s of a b r i g h t , c l e a r , whitish y e l l o w , with a bright, pale g r e e n c o l o u r showing on the northern side when it p a s s e d behind the d a r k cloud. It w a s about t h r e e t i m e s as high above the h o r i z o n as the l o w h i l l s opposite A r o n a , and t r a v e r s e d an angle of 4 5 ° h o r i z o n t a l l y f r o m the point w h e r e first s e e n to its d i s a p p e a r a n c e . The next day (June 4) when v i s i t i n g friends at the V i l l a F r a u z o s i n e , near T u t r a , we a s c e r t a i n e d that this m e t e o r like body had a l s o been s e e n by two or t h r e e p e r s o n s who w e r e sitting on a t e r r a c e watching the b r i l l i a n t lightning to the south; they o b s e r v e d it m o v i n g a l s o f r o m south to north, d i s a p p e a r i n g behind the mountains to the northward.

GLM-034

[PECULIAR METEORITE AT MARSEILLES]

Anonymous; Nature, 4 : 4 5 4 , October 5, 1 8 7 1 . L e s M o n d e s g i v e s the p a r t i c u l a r s of a r e m a r k a b l e m e t e o r i t e o b s e r v e d at M a r s e i l l e s by M. C o g g i a , on the 1st of A u g u s t . It m a d e its a p p e a r a n c e at lOh. 4 3 m . , M a r s e i l l e s m e a n t i m e , at a point situated near the c e n t r e of the t r i a n g l e f o r m e d by § Serpentis and & and u Ophiuchi. T h e c o u r s e was r e m a r k a b l y s l o w , in an e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n ; at lOh. 4 5 m . 3 0 s . it p a s s e d between and \x<i Sagittarii, and a t lOh. 4 6 m . 3 5 s . i t a l m o s t occulted Saturn. T h e c o u r s e b e -

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METEOR-LIKE PHENOMENA

c a m e then still s l o w e r ; at lOh. 4 9 m . 5 0 s . it p a s s e d a l i t t l e b e l o w r Sagittarii, and at lOh. 5 0 m . 4 0 s . south of the s t a r f of the s a m e c o n s t e l l a t i o n . At lOh. 5 2 m . 3 0 s . it p a s s e d b e t w e e n i and B C a p r i c o r n i , w h e r e it r e m a i n e d for a m o m e n t s t a t i o n a r y , then changing its c o u r s e , it took a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n , l e a v i n g at lOh. 5 7 m . 5 0 s . the s t a r V A q u a r i i 1° 3 0 ' to the w e s t and again stopping, at lOh. 5 9 m . 3 0 s . , a little s o u t h - w e s t of £ A q u a r i i . Regaining its original e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , it then p a s s e d 0 A q u a r i i , stopping again n e a r A q u a r i i , and then fell rapidly in a p e r p e n d i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n near S C a p r i c o r n i , and leaving to the e a s t the a l m o s t full m o o n . It finally d i s a p p e a r e d a little north o f 0 P i s e , a u s t r a l , a t l l h . 3 m . 2 8 s . T h e d i a m e t e r , which w a s a t f i r s t about 1 5 \ d i m i n i s h e d r a p i d l y , w a s a little o v e r 4 when i t approached Saturn, and finally had s c a r c e l y m o r e than the apparent s i z e of V e n u s . During its p e r p e n d i c u l a r fall to the h o r i z o n , it g a v e out vivid s c i n t i l l a t i o n s .
1

It is the " m e t e o r i t e ' s " change of c o u r s e that m a k e s the o b s e r v a t i o n worthwhile recording here. See a l s o the following two i t e m s .

GLM-035

E X T R A O R D I N A R Y METEOR SEEN AT M A R S E I L L E S

Coggia, D r . ; Chemical News, 2 4 : 1 9 3 , October 2 0 , 1 8 7 1 . Dr. Coggia. O n August 1 l a s t , a t 1 0 . 4 3 p . m . M a r s e i l l e s m e a n t i m e ( 5 ° 2 2 ' 19" E. of London), the author o b s e r v e d a l a r g e b l o o d - r e d c o l o u r e d m e t e o r i t e , which m o v e d s l o w l y in a d i r e c t i o n f i r s t w e s t and next north, having b e e n l o s t sight of at 1 1 ° 3' 2 8 " p. m. The d i a m e t e r (apparent) w a s about 1 5 ' at f i r s t , but d e c r e a s e d to 0. 4 ' . B e f o r e being l o s t sight of, this m e t e o r i t e appeared to e m i t incandescent s p a r k s .

GLM-036

THE MARSEILLES METEORITE

Herschel, A. S. ; Nature, 4 : 5 0 3 - 5 0 4 , October 2 6 , 1 8 7 1 . It will p r o b a b l y o c c u r to m o s t of y o u r r e a d e r s , as it i m m e d i a t e l y s u g g e s t e d itself to m e , on reading in y o u r j o u r n a l of the 5th inst. a d e s c r i p t i o n f r o m L e s M o n d e s of a r e m a r k a b l e m e t e o r i t e o b s e r v e d at M a r s e i l l e s by M. C o g g i a , on the 1st of August l a s t , that the bright object having an apparent d i a m e t e r , at f i r s t of about 1 5 ' , and at l a s t of a little o v e r 4 ' , w h o s e uncertain c o u r s e was noted for eighteen m i n u t e s by the s t a r s , was r e a l l y nothing m o r e e x t r a o r d i n a r y than a f i r e - b a l l o o n ; or it m a y , p o s s i b l y , have b e e n s o m e d e s c r i p t i o n of b r i g h t e r signal-light. T h e planet Saturn, and the other s t a r s named in the d e s c r i p t i o n , w e r e all at the low altitude above the h o r i z o n , at which a f i r e - b a l l o o n , and other bright s i g n a l - l i g h t s of o r d i n a r y s i z e , floating at an o r d i n a r y height in the a i r , would h a v e about the apparent d i a m e t e r of the " m e t e o r i t e . " Its a p p a r ent diminution in s i z e w a s , a l s o , p e r h a p s , e i t h e r the effect of its i n c r e a s i n g distance or of its g r a d u a l l y fading light. After alternately remaining stationary, and changing its apparent c o u r s e two or t h r e e t i m e s , it at l a s t fell rapidly in a perpendicular direction. The burning tow, or other i n f l a m e d s u b s t a n c e with which it was inflated, a p p e a r s to have detached i t s e l f f r o m , o r , it m a y b e , to have set fire to the b a l l o o n , s i n c e it was r e m a r k e d that during its p e r p e n d i c u l a r fall to the h o r i z o n it g a v e out vivid s c i n t i l l a t i o n s . See the p r e c e d i n g two e n t r i e s for further d i s c u s s i o n .

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NOCTURNAL LIGHTS
GLN-029 IGNIS F A T U U S

GLN-030

G i l l m o r , Daniel S . , e d . ; Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Bantam Books, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1969. In s w a m p s and m a r s h e s , methane, CHA (and a l s o phosphine P H ) , is r e l e a s e d by decaying organic m a t t e r . When the methane ignites, either by spontaneous combustion or by e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e s produced during t i m e s of thunderstorm activity, luminous globes which float above the s w a m p can be seen. T h e s e are not p l a s m a effects, but r e s e m b l e them in appearance. They a r e called Ignis Fatuus (foolish f i r e ) , j a c k - o - l a n t e r n s , w i l l - o - t h e - w i s p , or simply swamp (or m a r s h ) g a s . The c o l o r s a r e reported t o b e yellow, s o m e t i m e s red o r blue. T h u n d e r s t o r m s and other e l e c t r i c a l activity around swamps s e e m to stimulate this effect. Occasionally o b s e r v e r s have placed their hands into these luminescent g a s e s without feeling any heat. Dry r e e d s did not catch f i r e . Copper rods did not heat up. Occasionally however paper was ignited, (p. 736) (Martin D. Altschuler)
3

A swamp is a place of rotting vegetation and decomposition. Swamps are not a province of a s t r o n o m e r s . Y e t , the famous Dutch a s t r o n o m e r , Minnaert, in his book, "Light and Colour in the Open A i r , " d e s c r i b e s lights that have been seen in s w a m p s by the a s t r o n o m e r , B e s s e l , and other excellent o b s e r v e r s . The lights r e s e m b l e tiny flames s o m e t i m e s seen right on the ground and s o m e t i m e s r i s i n g and floating above it. The f l a m e s go out in one place and suddenly appear in another, giving the illusion of motion. The c o l o r s are s o m e t i m e s yellow, s o m e t i m e s red, and s o m e t i m e s b l u e - g r e e n . No heat is felt, and the lights do not burn or c h a r the ground. They can appear for hours at a stretch and s o m e t i m e s for a whole night. G e n e r a l l y , there is no s m e l l and no sound except for the popping sound of little explosions such as when a gas burner ignites. The rotting vegetation produces m a r s h gas which can be trapped during the winter by i c e . When the spring thaw o c c u r s , the gas may be r e l e a s e d in s o m e quantity. The f l a m e , Minnaert s a y s , is a f o r m of chemical l u m i n e s c e n c e , and its low temperature is one of its peculiar features. Exactly how it o c c u r s is not known and could well be the subject of further investigation, (p. 540) (E. U. Condon)

GLN-030

THE LIGHTS OF SUMMERVILLE 1 5 : 1 6 - 1 7 , July 1962

Fuller, C u r t i s ; Fate,

Since we have mentioned fireballs we feel constrained to tell you about the strange lights that have intrigued the residents of S u m m e r v i l l e , S. C . , since last D e c e m b e r . The Charlotte, N. C. News reported in m i d - M a r c h that the light was d i s covered by young p e r s o n s on a date on Sheep Island Road, which is built o v e r an old railroad right-of-way through swampy land near S u m m e r v i l l e . The light changes c o l o r and shape as it scoots up and down the road, s o m e t i m e s high, s o m e t i m e s , low. It has been chased by automobiles at speeds up to 60 m . p . h. but never has been caught. One young man said he saw the light sitting on the hood of his c a r . Another heard the faint tinkling of a bell. When the light appeared the bell began to ring like m a d .

G2-117

GLN-031
GLN-031

NOCTURNAL LIGHTS
LUMINOUS APPEARANCE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 1:12:380, 1827.

W e b s t e r , N . ; A m e r i c a n Journal o f S c i e n c e ,

I n V o l . x i , N o . 2 , o f the Journal o f S c i e n c e and A r t s , M r . C . Atwater has c o m m u n i c a t e d an account of a spot or s p o t s , n e a r the h o r i z o n , appearing as if lighted, and giving r i s e to a b e l i e f that t h e r e w a s a g r e a t f i r e in that d i r e c t i o n . He r e m a r k s that he h a s often noticed t h e s e light s p o t s in Ohio, but not on the e a s t of the A l l e g h a n i e s . I would only r e m a r k that I have o b s e r v e d s i m i l a r phenomena in N e w England. I r e c o l l e c t one i n s t a n c e , when I r e s i d e d at A m h e r s t , in H a m p s h i r e County, M a s s . a bright light in the North E a s t , near the h o r i z o n , appeared as the light of a building on fire a p p e a r s at night at the d i s t a n c e of s e v e r a l m i l e s . I expecte d , in that i n s t a n c e , e v e r y hour to h e a r that s o m e building in Shutesbury or N e w S a l e m , had b e e n burnt; and so strong was my b e l i e f of it, that I r e p e a t e d l y asked my n e i g h b o r s whether they had heard of any such event. At l a s t I m e t a g e n t l e m a n who had j u s t c o m e f r o m one of t h o s e t o w n s , who told me he had h e a r d of no f i r e in that q u a r t e r , which convinced me that the phenomenon was merely atmospheric.

GLN-032

STRANGE LIGHTS IN WALES

R . , A . ; Notes and Q u e r i e s , 5 : 3 : 3 0 6 , A p r i l 1 7 , 1 8 7 5 A g e n t l e m a n w r i t e s f r o m P w l l h e l i , a c o a s t town in C a r n a r v o n s h i r e , to the Field newspaper of Feb. 2 0 , as follows:"Some few d a y s ago we w i t n e s s e d h e r e what we have n e v e r seen b e f o r e c e r t a i n l i g h t s , eight in n u m b e r , extending o v e r , I should say, a d i s t a n c e of 8 m i l e s ; all s e e m e d to k e e p t h e i r own ground, although m o v i n g in h o r i z o n t a l , p e r pendicular, and z i g - z a g d i r e c t i o n s . S o m e t i m e s they w e r e of a light blue c o l o u r , then like the bright light of a c a r r i a g e l a m p , then a l m o s t like an e l e c t r i c light, and going out a l t o g e t h e r , in a few minutes would appear again d i m l y , and c o m e up as b e f o r e . One of my k e e p e r s , who is n e a r l y 70 y e a r s of a g e , h a s not, nor has any one e l s e in this vicinity, s e e n the s a m e b e f o r e . C a n any of y o u r n u m e r ous r e a d e r s i n f o r m m e whether they a r e w i l l - o ' - t h e - w i s p s , o r w h a t ? W e have seen t h r e e at a t i m e a f t e r w a r d s on four or five o c c a s i o n s . " Surely we a r e not going to have a repetition of the " F i e r y Exhalation" m e n tioned by E v e l y n in h i s D i a r y , 22nd A p r i l , 1 6 9 4 , and fully d i s c u s s e d in G i b s o n ' s continuation of C a m d e n . T h e s e "Mephitic V a p o u r s , " as they w e r e c a l l e d , o c c u r r e d o n the s a m e c o a s t . T h e s e strange l i g h t s should be r e l a t e d to those s e e n during the 1 9 0 5 r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l , as described in G L N - 0 0 2 .

G2-118

LIGHT WHEELS
GLW-007 REPORT OF AN UNUSUAL PHENOMENON AT SEA

GLW-007

Pringle, Edward H. ; Nature, 2 0 : 4 0 2 - 4 0 3 , August 2 1 , 1 8 7 9 . As the unusual phenomena o b s e r v e d in the P e r s i a n Gulf, d e s c r i b e d in N a t u r e , v o l . x x . p . 2 9 1 , [ G L W - 0 0 5 ] h a s hitherto c a l l e d forth n o r e m a r k s , I venture t o put f o r w a r d a s u g g e s t i o n that m a y be of s e r v i c e in elucidating the m a t t e r . F i r s t , I would o b s e r v e that the s o - c a l l e d p a r a l l e l w a v e s w e r e p r o b a b l y a r c s of l a r g e concentric c i r c l e s , whose c o m m o n centre lay south-south-west of H. M. S. V u l t u r e ' s f i r s t , and e a s t of h e r l a s t , p o s i t i o n . The d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s w a s about a knot and a half, t h e r e f o r e the v e s s e l w a s n e v e r n e a r e r t h i s c e n t r e than about half a m i l e , and a short a r c of a c i r c l e of this radius might well b e d e e m e d straight. T h e a c c o m p a n y i n g d i a g r a m , drawn f r o m the data, shows the position of the c e n t r e of d i s t u r b a n c e , and of the l u m i n o u s w a v e s , with r e l a t i o n to the c o u r s e of the ship, taking the above v i e w , which I think is b o r n e out by the c h a r a c t e r of the s e c o n d s e r i e s of l u m i n o u s w a v e s through which H. M. S. V u l t u r e p a s s e d . M o s t living c r e a t u r e s p o s s e s s i n g p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e have m o r e o r l e s s c o n trol o v e r its d i s p l a y . In the c a s e of the f i r e - f l y , the light that one e m i t s c a l l s forth a l m o s t instantaneously a n s w e r i n g f l a s h e s f r o m o t h e r s . N o d w e l l e r i n the t r o p i c s c a n have failed to o b s e r v e the m a n n e r in which t r e e s a r e lit up by the s i m u l t a n e o u s flash of thousands of f i r e - f l i e s , and the period of d a r k n e s s that i n t e r v e n e s b e f o r e the next flash. If then we c o n s i d e r the Vulture to h a v e p a s s e d through a shoal (if I m a y so t e r m it) of a n i m a l c u l a e , p o s s e s s i n g the p o w e r of exhibiting p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , and exciting each other to do s o , the i m p u l s e t r a v e l l i n g f r o m one to another at the r a t e of 125 feet a s e c o n d , and the

Diagram showing intersections of luminous waves from GLW-007. Scale: 1 inch = 50 feet.

G2-119

GLW-008

LIGHT WHEELS

display of light to the dark interval bearing the ratio 1 to 3 (in t i m e , 1 / 5 of a second to 3 / 5 ) , we have accounted for the phenomena so far as the luminous waves a r e concerned. What w e r e the central disturbances that originated the action, it is i m p o s sible to s a y , though it is e a s y to imagine s e v e r a l c a u s e s of irritation, that would not have been detected by the s i m p l e observations taken on board the vessel. The luminous waves of the s m a l l e r s e r i e s "meeting the parallel waves f r o m south-east did not c r o s s , but appeared to obliterate each other at the moving point of c o n t a c t . " The above is difficult to explain, if the luminosity of the waves was obliterated at the actual intersections. It can however be readily shown that c l o s e to the intersections are s p a c e s where the phosphorescence of the animalculae would have to be displayed for twice as long a period as in other positions, and we have but to admit a want of energy to meet this c a l l , and dark s p a c e s will appear in each s y s t e m of w a v e s , immediately following the p a s s a g e of the c r o s s i n g wave. This would certainly give the appearance of one wave obliterating the other. A second d i a g r a m explains this simply. Here a portion of ocean is divided into numbered s q u a r e s of 25 feet, and the advance of the 2 5 ' luminous waves, 7 5 ' apart is shown in two following positions. It will be seen that spaces numbered 4 and 13 fall s u c c e s s i v e l y under the i m p u l s e s . Similarly, in the next 2 5 ' advance of the waves, would all those numbered 12 and 1 5 , and so on, the assumed dark s p a c e s following in the wake of each intersection, as it p u r sues its diagonal c o u r s e .

GLW-008

REPORT O F A N U N U S U A L P H E N O M E N O N O B S E R V E D A T SEA

M o s s , Edward L . ; Nature, 2 0 : 4 2 8 , August 2 8 , 1 8 7 9 . I can supply a second instance of the "unusual phenomenon observed at s e a , " communicated by the Hydrographer of the Navy to Nature, vol. xxi, p. 2 9 1 . [GLW-005] One night in A p r i l , 1 8 7 5 (I cannot give the exact date, as my notes w e r e lost in the ship) H. M. S. Bulldog was lying b e c a l m e d in a g l a s s y sea off a point of land a few m i l e s north of V e r a C r u z , when a line of light appeared along the northern horizon, and unaccompanied by the least breath of wind, swept towards and past the ship, in a s e r i e s of swift luminous pulsations, p r e c i s e l y s i m i l a r to those described by M r . Pringle. Acting on the old s e a formula, "observed a phenomenon, caught a bucketful, " we dipped up s o m e of the water, and found noctilucae and crustaceans in it. T h e s e m a y have supplied the luminosity, but if so, the exceedingly swift-travelling cause of their stimulation would still r e main unaccounted f o r . A squall accompanied by incessant thunder and lightning overtook the ship the s a m e night.

GLW-009

[MORE WHEELS OF LIGHT]

Anonymous; Nature, 8 6 : 9 0 , March 16, 1 9 1 1 . The meteorological chart of the Indian Ocean for M a r c h , issued by the Meteorological C o m m i t t e e , quotes several c a s e s of phosphorescent s e a s that

G2-120

LIGHT WHEELS

GLW-010

have b e e n o b s e r v e d i n recent y e a r s . A m o n g the m o s t interesting i s one f o r warded to the Danish M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Institute by Captain Gabe in the Strait of M a l a c c a i n June, 1 9 0 9 . Luminous w a v e s w e r e o b s e r v e d t r a v e l l i n g f r o m w e s t to e a s t , and gradually a s s u m e d the f o r m of long a r m s , with dark i n t e r v a l s between t h e m . T h e s e i s s u e d f r o m an apparent f o c u s , around which they rotated, which s e e m e d to be on the h o r i z o n . An illustration of the phenomenon shows that the b e a m s of light w e r e s o m e w h a t c u r v e d , the c o n c a v e edge being in the d i r e c t i o n of rotation ( c l o c k w i s e ) . The b r i g h t n e s s l a s t e d about a q u a r t e r of an hour. A s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r c a s e of r o t a t o r y light s y s t e m was o b s e r v e d by Captain B r e y e r in August l a s t n e a r the Natuna I s l a n d s , but the d i r e c t i o n of rotation round the apparent focus in this i n s t a n c e w a s a n t i - c l o c k w i s e .

GLW-010

PHOSPHORESCENCE ON A SCOTTISH LOCH

J a m i e s o n , T h o s . ; N a t u r e , 7 9 : 3 0 9 , January 1 4 , 1 9 0 9 . T h e r e m a y be s o m e connection between the following phenomenon and the "white s e a s " and "wheels of light. " A r e m a r k a b l e illumination w a s o b s e r v e d about eight y e a r s a g o on a c e r t a i n part of L o c h Bulig (which l i e s in the n o r t h - w e s t e r n boundary of A b e r d e e n s h i r e ) . As it a p p e a r s to be the only known o c c u r r e n c e of p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e on a Scottish l o c h , y o u r r e a d e r s m a y be i n t e r e s t e d in it. It appeared in the f o r m of i n n u m e r able brilliant l i g h t s , snooting rapidly on the s u r f a c e of the water, but many leaping one or two feet above it- It lasted for about a minute, and w a s repeated t w i c e at i n t e r v a l s of about ten m i n u t e s . T h e effect was v e r y striking, the b r i l l i a n c e being a l m o s t d a z z l i n g . It s e e m e d that it could not be accounted for in any other way than by phosphorescent a n i m a l c u l a e , disturbed probably by a shoal of fish which a r e known to inhabit the l o c h . Inquiry elicited the information that n e a r where the lights w e r e seen a soft bank stretched out f r o m the side t o w a r d s the c e n t r e of the loch. I have been d e s i r o u s since that t i m e to gather s o m e of the d e p o s i t , if p o s s i b l e , for e x a m ination, but only a few months ago was I able to c a r r y out my intention. I found it w a s a m a t t e r of no little difficulty, as the loch at that part is about 25 feet d e e p , and though it is usually quite smooth it s o m e t i m e s is somewhat rough. The first attempt w a s a f a i l u r e , the day being squally, the waves 2 or 3 feet high, and the s t r o n g wind and c u r r e n t r e n d e r e d it difficult to l o c a t e the bank and c o l l e c t s p e c i m e n s . The second attempt, h o w e v e r , was s u c c e s s f u l , and I found that the b o t t o m w a s g e n e r a l l y stony, but gave p l a c e to soft m a t e r i a l just above w h e r e the l i g h t s had b e e n s e e n . I c o l l e c t e d two quantities of the d e p o s i t , and found that it c o n s i s t e d of sand m i x e d with a l a r g e quantity of c a r b o n a c e o u s m a t t e r , m o s t l y in the f o r m of s m a l l r o l l s , half an inch to one inch long. M i c r o scopic examination showed that t h e s e r o l l s contained a n i m a l s encased like tubicolous annelids; they w e r e quite active, e m e r g i n g f r o m the tube, g r a s p i n g black p a r t i c l e s , and then retreating; s o m e w e r e e n c a s e d in p a r c h m e n t - l i k e tubes, through which the rapid actions of the animal could be distinctly seen; one w a s found with a t r a n s p a r e n t tunic, hanging by a ring f r o m the neck, r e s e m b l i n g _OxyeJlnrj £OS^alis_ (Hydrophilideae); I still have this s p e c i m e n . Along with t h e s e and other a n i m a l s w e r e n u m e r o u s d i a t o m s , n e m a t o d e s , &c. A s s o m e of t h e s e a n i m a l s belong to c l a s s e s which a r e known to be p h o s p h o r e s c e n t , it s e e m s that t h e i r p r e s e n c e in the deposit is sufficient to account for the r e m a r k a b l e appearance s e e n . T h i s w a s c o n f i r m e d by finding that the sand c o n 1

G2-121

GLW-011

LIGHT WHEELS

tained m u c h m o r e phosphate than sand u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s ; a l s o , by t e s t i n g with a m m o n i u m m o l y b d a t e s o m e of the b l a c k m a t t e r , including one of the b l a c k r o l l s containing an a n i m a l , after a few h o u r s a distinct y e l l o w p r e c i p i t a t e was found, but only in the vicinity of the b l a c k r o l l . I should think that this d e p o s i t would f o r m an i n t e r e s t i n g p r e s e r v e f o r z o o l o g i s t s , and t h e r e f o r e I r e l a t e the c i r c u m s t a n c e , and shall be glad to give any further i n f o r m a t i o n to anyone who m a y d e s i r e it.

GLW-011

A W H I T E , OR M I L K Y SEA

Pidgeon, D a n ; N a t u r e , 5 8 : 5 2 0 - 5 2 1 , S e p t e m b e r 2 9 , 1 8 9 8 . I left B o m b a y f o r England in January 1 8 8 1 , on b o a r d the P. and O. s. s. S u m a t r a (Captain B r i s c o e ) , and on F e b r u a r y 1, the v e s s e l being then in N. l a t . 1 4 and E . l o n g . 5 3 ° (not far f r o m the position d e s c r i b e d b y y o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t ) had an opportunity of w i t n e s s i n g the phenomenon known as the "Milky S e a , " r a r e l y s e e n except i n t h e s e w a t e r s . The following e x t r a c t f r o m m y b o o k , "An E n g i n e e r ' s H o l i d a y , " d e s c r i b i n g and explaining the a p p e a r a n c e , m a y i n t e r e s t M r . Barrett:u

"The whole o c e a n , f r o m the ship to the v i s i b l e h o r i z o n , looked as if it w e r e c o v e r e d with s n o w , w h o s e s u r f a c e evidently shone by the r e f l e c t e d light of the s k y , for V e n u s , being v e r y b r i g h t , t h r e w a distinguishable line of r a d i a n c e a c r o s s i t , w h i l e the p h o s p h o r e s c e n t c r e s t s of w a v e s w e r e now and then s e e n b r e a k i n g a b o v e the l a y e r of shining m a t t e r w h i c h o v e r l a i d the w a t e r . "A c u r r e n t , a l w a y s encountered north of S o c o t r a , s e t the ship, on the day in q u e s t i o n , fourteen m i l e s to the northward of h e r c o u r s e . This stream was crowded with l a r g e m e d u s e , v i s i b l e not only during the d a y , but a l s o at night, when, b e i n g t h e m s e l v e s n o n - l u m i n o u s , they appeared a s whirling b l a c k d i s c s in the g e n e r a l p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e of the s h i p ' s w a k e . The ship's o f f i c e r s fully b e l i e v e d that this c u r r e n t b r i n g s with it, b e s i d e s j e l l y f i s h , e n o r m o u s quantities of d e c a y e d and p h o s p h o r e s c e n t m a t t e r to w h o s e p r e s e n c e they attributed the a p p e a r a n c e of the ' M i l k y S e a . ' "The f a c t , h o w e v e r , that the s e e m i n g s n o w r e f l e c t s light, and is broken through by quite s m a l l w a v e s , d i s p o s e s of this explanation, and we soon c o n vinced o u r s e l v e s that the phenomenon is r e a l l y due to a thin l a y e r of m i s t lying on the w a t e r , e x a c t l y r e s e m b l i n g one of those l o c a l fogs which e v e r y one has s e e n , and w h i c h m a y give to a v a l l e y or even a slight d e p r e s s i o n the a p p e a r a n c e of being snowed up. It o c c u r s when the s e a is c o l d e r than the a t m o s p h e r e , and the l a t t e r s t i l l and h e a v i l y loaded with aqueous v a p o u r . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a l a y e r of air i m m e d i a t e l y in contact with the w a t e r is chilled b e l o w the dew point and b e c o m e s m i s t y , while that above r e m a i n s t r a n s p a r e n t : the upper s u r f a c e of such a f o g , which is only a few inches thick, being s e e n by the r e f l e c t e d light of the s k y " ("An E n g i n e e r ' s H o l i d a y , " v o l . i i , p. 314). The t e m p e r a t u r e of the s e a on the night in question w a s 7 0 F . , while that of the a i r w a s 7 9 ° , an unusual amount of d i f f e r e n c e in the A r a b i a n s e a . W a t e r , brought on d e c k by a bucket, showed no s i g n s of m i l k i n e s s , though c r o w d e d as usual with v a r i o u s p h o s p h o r e s c e n t o r g a n i s m s .
U

G2-122

SECTION GM: MAGNETIC A N D ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA
T h e "strange phenomena r e p o r t e d h e r e a r e o b s e r v e d m a i n l y with i n s t r u m e n t s ; the o b s e r v e r s , c o n s e q u e n t l y , a r e usually s c i e n t i s t s . A few exceptions exist where individuals have felt e l e c t r i c s h o c k s . T h e perturbations and a n o m a l i e s of magnetic and e l e c t r i c a l fields, such as those apparently c a u s e d by m e t e o r i t e s , m a y lead to unexpected insights r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r actions between s e e m i n g l y unrelated geophysical phenomena. *GMA Atmospheric electricity. F l o w o f c h a r g e through the a t m o s p h e r e a s r e l a t e d to t h u n d e r s t o r m s , a u r o r a s , earthquakes and s i m i l a r e v e n t s . Earth c u r r e n t s . F l o w of c h a r g e in the e a r t h ' s c r u s t due to sundry

*GME

g e o p h y s i c a l phenomena. *GMG Magnetic anomalies. Unexpected v a r i a t i o n s o f the t e r r e s t r i a l m a g netic field in t i m e and s p a c e . M a g n e t i c and e l e c t r i c a l perturbations apparently c a u s e d b y m e t e o r i t e s . S o l a r , l u n a r , and planetary c o r r e l a t i o n s .

GMM GMS

• T h i s s u b s e c t i o n not r e p r e s e n t e d i n V o l u m e G 2 .

G2-123

MAGNETIC A N D ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA

G2-124

METEORITE EFFECTS
GMM-001 OBSERVED M A G N E T I C EFFECTS F R O M METEORS

GMM-002

Jenkins, Alvin W . , et al; Journal of Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 6 5 : 1 6 1 7 - 1 6 1 9 , May 1 9 6 0 . (Copyright by the A m e r i c a n Geophysical Union) A c o r r e l a t i o n between geomagnetic fluctuations and meteoric activity was reported by Kalashnikov, who used sensitive fluxmeters and a photographic r e cording technique. In his work, he noted an i n c r e a s e in the number of p u l s e s in the vertical component o v e r the dates of m e t e o r s h o w e r s . Hawkins, using m o r e sensitive equipment also sensitive to the vertical component, attempted to c o r r e l a t e p u l s e s with visual m e t e o r s . H i s r e s u l t s w e r e negative, indicating only such c o r r e l a t i o n as might be expected statistically. A real d i s c r e p a n c y thus e x i s t s between the results of these two w o r k e r s . Hawkins h a s pointed out, however, that Kalashnikov's results m a y not be significant, since the c o r r e l a tion he noted is not much greater than that expected to occur accidentally. A p r e l i m i n a r y analysis of data recently available f r o m the I G Y p r o g r a m concerned with subaudio fluctuations in the geomagnetic field s e e m s to indicate that m e t e o r ic activity and the average level of the fluctuations a r e related. The subaudio p r o g r a m is a study of geomagnetic fluctuations in the 1- to 5 0 - c p s r a n g e . T h r e e mutually perpendicular c o i l s a r e used to detect variations in the magnetic field. The resulting electrical signals are amplified and r e corded on magnetic tape. The tape is l a t e r played back through filters which analyze each signal into six approximately octave frequency bands. The filtered signals a r e rectified and integrated for the 15 minutes of recording t i m e p r o vided each hour, resulting in a single number indicative of the average level of the geomagnetic fluctuations for each frequency band for each hour. The p r o g r a m has been active for m o r e than a y e a r , with five recording stations g a t h e r ing data. Only recently, however, has the reduction equipment been put into operation, so that only a s m a l l fraction of the data so far appears in reduced form. A striking feature of the activity l e v e l s thus far available is the o c c u r r e n c e of occasional l a r g e i n c r e a s e s in the frequency band centered at 1. 5 c p s . In particular, the data f r o m the Denver, Colorado, recording station show an i n c r e a s e in this band of about 5 or 6 t i m e s the usual level on the night of D e c e m b e r 1 2 - 1 3 , 1 9 5 9 . Since this is a l s o approximately the expected t i m e of the m a x i m u m of the Geminid m e t e o r shower, a connection between the two events was suggested. The article concludes with data and graphs which tend to support a connection b e tween m e t e o r s and geomagnetic fluctuations.

GMM-002

[ELECTRIC EFFECTS OF METEORITES]

G i l l m o r , Daniel S . ; Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Bantam Books, New Y o r k , 1 9 6 9 . During the fall of one of the l a r g e s t b o l i d e s , near Sikhote-Alin, near V l a d i v o s t o k (USSR), an electrician on a telephone pole received a strong electric shock f r o m disconnected wires at the instant the bolide b e c a m e v i s i b l e . The shock may have been due to other c u a s e s , but the possibility of strong electromagnetic effects is not ruled out. (p. 745) (Martin D. Altschuler)

i

G2-125

GMM-003

METEORITE EFFECTS

M e t e o r s a r e known to leave ionized t r a i l s , but it d o e s not s e e m reasonable that electric induction effects could be transmitted o v e r such distances. Earthquakes, ball lightning, etc. have produced s i m i l a r effects.

GMM-003

MAGNETIC MICROPULSATIONS ACCOMPANYING METEOR A C T I V I T Y

Campbell, W a l l a c e H . ; Journal of Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 6 5 : 2 2 4 1 - 2 2 4 5 , August 1 9 6 0 . Only the abstract and experimental procedure a r e reproduced below. A b s t r a c t . I n c r e a s e d activity of magnetic micropulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds and magnetic flux densities of 20 to 3 2 0 m was found to accompany the ^ Aquarid, $ Aquarid, and P e r s e i d m e t e o r showers in 1 9 5 8 . Conflicting reports a r e d i s c u s s e d . P r o c e d u r e . Magnetic field oscillations w e r e m e a s u r e d continuously from March through September 1958 at a California d e s e r t site, 3 3 ° 2 1 . 5*N, 1 1 6 ° 1 7 ' W . The detection s y s t e m had a north-axis loop antenna with 2 1 , 586 turns of 2 - m e t e r diameter and a band p a s s with 3 - d b points at 0. 04 and 0. 4 c / s . The limiting sensitivity was 20 mjf. Of 4 8 0 8 hours sampled, 60 per cent had m i c r o pulsations with periods of 5 to 30 seconds.

GMM-004

A N A N A L Y S I S O F T H E M A G N E T I C EFFECT FROM METEOR SHOWERS

Green, Richard G. ; Journal of Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 7 2 : 2 3 0 9 - 2 3 1 3 , May 1, 1 9 6 7 . A b s t r a c t . Magnetic effects due to the p a s s a g e of the Geminid m e t e o r s through the ionosphere were computed using an equation derived by Chapman and Ashour. The observed micropulsation activity at J i c a m a r c a , P e r u , and Kingston, Rhode Island, was compared with the predicted value. No striking similarity was found either in magnitude or phase. An amplitude comparison shows an observed result 150 t i m e s greater than predicted for J i c a m a r c a and five t i m e s greater than predicted for Kingston. The b e s t c o m p a r i s o n of p r e dictions with data was restricted to a phase m a x i m a at 2300 and 0 5 3 0 L T .

G2-126

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
GMS-001 INFLUENCE OF MOON ON MAGNETIC NEEDLE

GMS-002

Bache, A . D . ; A m e r i c a n Journal of Science, 8 1 : 9 8 - 1 0 3 , 1 8 6 1 , and 8 4 : 3 8 1 - 3 8 7 , 1862. C o m p i l e r ' s Summary: The reported effects are s m a l l , barely beyond the probable error.

GMS-002

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MOON ON GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

Bigg, E . K . ; Journal o f Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 6 8 : 1 4 0 9 - 1 4 1 3 , March 1 , 1 9 6 3 . A b s t r a c t . It is shown that o c c u r r e n c e s of geomagnetic disturbances of various intensities a r e not uniformly distributed in lunar phase. There is a tendency for s t o r m s to occur preferentially near first and third quarters and to avoid dates corresponding to new moon. The position of the moon has also been correlated with the rate of incoming m e t e o r s and with rainfall. See Subsections G M S and G W S .

180* W

90-W

6*
Lunar positions

90* E

IBVE

The distribution in lunar phase of magnetic disturbances. (Figure 4 from GMS-002)

G2-127

GMS-003
GMS-003

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
CONCERNING LUNAR MODULATION OF GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY

B e l l , B . , and Defouw, R . J . ; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 9 : 3 1 6 9 - 3 1 7 4 , August 1, 1964. Abstract. T h e b e h a v i o r o f the d a i l y K index o f m a g n e t i c activity i s i n v e s t i gated as a function of l u n a r p h a s e by the m e t h o d of s u p e r p o s e d e p o c h s . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s a slight but s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant enhancement of g e o m a g netic d i s t u r b a n c e during s e v e r a l d a y s following full m o o n and, with m a r g i n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a slight diminution of d i s t u r b a n c e during s e v e r a l d a y s p r e c e d i n g full m o o n . A s m a l l dip in K , found at the p h a s e of new m o o n , is shown to be without s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .
p p

GMS-004

A SUPPOSED D E P E N D E N C E OF G E O M A G N E T I C S T O R M I N E S S ON L U N A R PHASE

Davidson, T . W . , and M a r t y n , D . F . ; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 9 : 3 9 7 3 3 9 7 9 , O c t o b e r 1 , 1 9 6 4 . (Copyright b y the A m e r i c a n G e o p h y s i c a l Union) A b s t r a c t . T h e g e o m a g n e t i c daily p l a n e t a r y i n d i c e s f r o m 1 9 3 2 t o 1 9 6 1 , and a l s o the s t a r t i n g d a y s o f great magnetic s t o r m s f r o m 1 8 4 0 t o 1 9 5 4 , a r e e x a m i n e d for p o s s i b l e dependence on l u n a r p h a s e . It is c o n c l u d e d , in a g r e e m e n t with B a r t e l s but c o n t r a r y to the findings of B i g g , that t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e of any such dependence. C o n c l u s i o n . It is concluded, in a g r e e m e n t with B a r t e l s , that t h e r e is no significant v a r i a t i o n with lunar p h a s e of e i t h e r (a) the daily g e o m a g n e t i c p l a n e t a r y index, or of (b) the t i m e of c o m m e n c e m e n t of m a j o r magnetic s t o r m s . In v i e w of t h e s e findings it would appear p r o f i t l e s s to e x a m i n e the p o s s i b l e d e p e n dence of G r e e n w i c h ' s m a l l ' s t o r m s on l u n a r p h a s e , s i n c e they e x e r t a strong influence o n the A i n d i c e s . I t would a p p e a r highly d e s i r a b l e that authors s e e k ing to e s t a b l i s h the e x i s t e n c e of p e r i o d i c i t e s in g e o p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n a should c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n e the s t a t i s t i c a l significance of t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s : sound m e t h o d s o f a s s e s s i n g this w e r e c l e a r l y laid down b y B a r t e l s t h r e e d e c a d e s ago and have b e e n u s e d with s u c c e s s ' b y Chapman and o t h e r s in the ensuing y e a r s .
p

GMS-005

A S E A R C H FOR C O R R E L A T I O N BETWEEN K A N D T H E L U N A R PHASE
p

M i c h e l , F . C . , e t al; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 9 : 4 1 7 7 - 4 1 8 1 , O c t o b e r 1 , 1964. One o f the f i r s t scientific a c t i v i t i e s s e e m s t o date f r o m p r e h i s t o r y , n a m e l y , the s e a r c h f o r c o r r e l a t i o n between the motion of h e a v e n l y b o d i e s and a l m o s t any other o b s e r v a b l e phenomenon, ranging f r o m p o l i t i c a l events t o b i o l o g i c a l functions. T h i s a c t i v e field of e n d e a v o r h a s continued up to the p r e s e n t . This note d i f f e r s s o m e w h a t , p e r h a p s , f r o m the g e n r e in being an account of an u n s u c c e s s f u l s e a r c h ; we r e p o r t it h e r e in the h o p e s of d i v e r t i n g attention and effort into m o r e p r o d u c t i v e channels i n a c c o r d with B a r t e l s ' recent a n a l y s i s .

G2-128

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GMS-007

T h e first p a r a g r a p h quoted above insinuates that s c i e n t i s t s s e a r c h i n g f o r lunar effects on g e o p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n a a r e akin to a s t r o l o g e r s , supposing this to be insulting. In any event the u n s u r p r i s i n g c o n c l u s i o n of this p a p e r is that no c o r r e lation e x i s t s b e t w e e n the lunar p h a s e and the g e o m a g n e t i c p a r a m e t e r K .
p

GMS-006

L U N A R INFLUENCES ON THE FREQUENCY OF MAGNETIC STORMS

B i g g , E . K . ; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 9 : 4 9 7 1 - 4 9 7 4 , D e c e m b e r 1 , 1 9 6 4 B i g g has b e e n c r i t i c i z e d for his attempts to find c o r r e l a t i o n s between g e o p h y s i c a l phenomena and the p o s i t i o n s of the m o o n and p l a n e t s . In this paper he r e p l i e s to attacks on h i s s t a t i s t i c s . Only his c o n c l u s i o n s a r e quoted. C o n c l u s i o n s . I h a v e attempted in this d i s c u s s i o n to m a k e it c l e a r that an adequate s t a t i s t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e a l i t y of l u n a r effects on m a g n e t i c s t o r m s i s not a s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a s c r i t i c s h a v e c l a i m e d . The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a good s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t is o b v i o u s , but it m u s t be l e s s s u p e r f i c i a l than t h o s e so f a r a t t e m p t e d . The m i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s of a test a r e that it should: 1. E x a m i n e all a s p e c t s of the s u p p o s e d modulation. 2. G i v e an upper l i m i t to the magnitude of the supposed effect if it f a i l s to detect it. 3. Contain only j u s t i f i a b l e a s s u m p t i o n s about the r a n d o m n e s s of the data. I t a l s o s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n s i d e r the e v i d e n c e f r o m all r e l e v a n t s e t s of data taken t o g e t h e r , in addition to d i s s e c t i n g them individually. F u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e a l i t y of the m o o n ' s influence can then p r o c e e d in two w a y s . One is to c o m p a r e effects in independent data which should be subject to the s a m e influences a p r o c e d u r e which r e q u i r e s that a p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e s i s should b e adopted. T h e other i s t o s e a r c h for a n o m a l i e s i n m a g n e tic field o r e l e c t r o n concentration m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m s p a c e p r o b e s o r a r t i f i cial s a t e l l i t e s , which c a n be a s s o c i a t e d with the position of planets or the moon. T h e final a n s w e r on the r e a l i t y of the influences will c o m e f r o m t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s r a t h e r than f r o m s t a t i s t i c s .

GMS-007

V A R I A T I O N S O F G E O M A G N E T I C A C T I V I T Y W I T H L U N A R PHASE

Stolov, H a r o l d L . , and C a m e r o n , A . G . W . ; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 9 : 4 9 7 5 - 4 9 8 2 , December 1, 1964. Abstract. An a n a l y s i s of 31 y e a r s of Kp data s u g g e s t s a v a r i a t i o n of g e o magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e with l u n a r p h a s e . A g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e in g e o m a g n e t i c activity of about 4% begins after full m o o n and l a s t s for s e v e n d a y s . A general d e c r e a s e in g e o m a g n e t i c activity of about 4% is found for the s e v e n d a y s p r e ceding full m o o n . A study of r a n d o m i z e d data indicates that the p r o b a b i l i t y that t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s should h a v e o c c u r r e d by c h a n c e is l e s s than 5%. The effect is found to be a s s o c i a t e d with the Kp data d e r i v e d f r o m p e r i o d s of g e o magnetic quiet conditions; it is not evident in the data f r o m disturbed p e r i o d s .

G2-129

GMS-008
GMS-008

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

P L A N E T A R Y EFFECTS ON MAGNETIC A C T I V I T Y

Atkinson, G e r a l d ; A m e r i c a n G e o p h y s i c a l Union, T r a n s a c t i o n s , 4 5 : 6 3 0 - 6 3 1 , D e c e m ber 1964. Statistical e v i d e n c e indicates that the p o s i t i o n s of the M o o n , M e r c u r y , and Venus affect magnetic activity frequency o b s e r v e d at the Earth, and the position of the E a r t h affects the frequency of blue c l e a r i n g s on M a r s . T h i s study s h o w s that t h e s e e f f e c t s m a y be explained as a r e s u l t of the action of shock and b o w w a v e s f o r m e d by t h e s e b o d i e s in the s u p e r s o n i c a l l y s t r e a m i n g interplanetary plasma. The attenuation of l a r g e kinetic e n e r g y v a r i a t i o n s in the s t r e a m i n g p l a s m a behind such b o d i e s is shown to be equal to the s q u a r e of the r a t i o of the M a c h n u m b e r u p s t r e a m t o the M a c h n u m b e r d o w n s t r e a m . F o r typical s o l a r induced activity, t h i s i m p l i e s an attenuation coefficient of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 / 2 1 / 3 , It is a l s o shown that an activity i n c r e a s e is e x p e c t e d in the b o w w a v e . The o b s e r v a t i o n a l data fit a m o d e l with bow w a v e s of M a c h n u m b e r s 2. 5 and 15 c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the two w a v e s predicted by the t h e o r y . The M o o n ' s effect v a r i e s f r o m that of the planets in a m a n n e r that can be explained by its c l o s e n e s s to the m a g n e t o s p h e r e . Studies like that above s h o w a s u r p r i s i n g l y tight-knit s o l a r s y s t e m with m a n y h i t h e r to unsuspecting interacting e f f e c t s . See a l s o data on the effect of planetary p o s i t i o n s upon s h o r t - w a v e propagation. (Subsection G E T )

GMS-009

EVIDENCE OF A SOLAR INFLUENCE ON THE ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS AT MAUNA LOA OBSERVATORY 1967.

C o b b , W i l l i a m E . ; Monthly W e a t h e r Review, 9 5 : 9 0 5 - 9 1 1 ,

T h i s paper p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e of the effects of s o l a r activity on a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c tricity. Although the focus is on t h u n d e r s t o r m s , it is p o s s i b l e that the s a m e f o r c e s m a y affect such phenomena a s the A n d e s G l o w , a u r o r a - l i k e activity, w h e e l s of light, etc. Only the pertinent ( i . e . , "strange") p o r t i o n s a r e quoted. 5. Studies of Other I n v e s t i g a t o r s

The s o l a r - t e r r e s t r i a l relationship found at Mauna L o a has b e e n found by others. One of the e a r l i e s t investigations w a s that of B a u e r who c o l l e c t e d potential gradient r e c o r d s in Europe for the y e a r s 1 8 8 6 to 1 9 2 3 and found that the e l e c t r i c field i n c r e a s e d during p e r i o d s of i n c r e a s e d " s u n - s p o t t e d n e s s . " Much m o r e r e c e n t l y , R e i t e r m a d e a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m s e v e r a l mountain s i t e s in c e n t r a l Europe and reported a peak i n c r e a s e of about 5 percent for both the e l e c t r i c field and the a i r - e a r t h c u r r e n t , u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g about 4 d a y s after a s o l a r f l a r e . Reiter's measurements from 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 6 0 were m a d e during the m o r e active y e a r s o f the 1 1 - y r . s o l a r c y c l e . I t i s significant that the m o n i t o r e d a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c c l i m a t e at two widely s e p a r a t e d m o u n tain tops in G e r m a n y and Hawaii have both r e v e a l e d the s a m e s o l a r - t e r r e s t r i a l correlation. 6. Global T h u n d e r s t o r m A c t i v i t y and the A i r - E a r t h Conduction C u r r e n t

Investigations of the e a r t h - i o n o s p h e r e e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t u l t i m a t e l y involve as the controlling p a r a m e t e r the global t h u n d e r s t o r m activity. As stated e a r l i e r ,

G2-130

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GMS-009

the c u r r e n t flow within the e a r t h - i o n o s p h e r e e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t i s , a c c o r d i n g to the c l a s s i c a l c o n c e p t , c o n t r o l l e d and maintained by the global t h u n d e r s t o r m activity. Through the y e a r s t h e r e have been s e v e r a l r e p o r t s relating t h u n d e r s t o r m frequency and s o l a r activity. Septer, B r o o k s , Flohn, and R e i t e r have all found e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e c o r r e l a t i o n , that i s , an i n c r e a s e in t h u n d e r s t o r m f r e q u e n c y during i n c r e a s e d s o l a r activity. M o r e r e c e n t l y , S a r t o r , (in this i s s u e ) , has found e v i d e n c e r e l a t i n g the o c c u r r e n c e of s p o r a d i c E with heavy t h u n d e r s t o r m precipitation. T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s above, c o n c e r n i n g i n c r e a s e d t h u n d e r s t o r m activity and the s o l a r f l a r e - a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p found at Mauna L o a and in Europe by R e i t e r , r e p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e that both the earth i o n o s phere conduction c u r r e n t and the global t h u n d e r s t o r m activity a r e i n c r e a s e d b y c o r p u s u l a r s o l a r radiation penetrating the e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e . T h e a i r - e a r t h conduction c u r r e n t i s g o v e r n e d b y the b a s i c O h m ' s l a w r e l a t i o n s h i p , j = E A , w h e r e j is the a i r - e a r t h c u r r e n t , E is the e l e c t r i c field, and X is the conductivity. As explained in s e c t i o n 3, it is this t h u n d e r s t o r m g e n e r a t e d "supply c u r r e n t " which m a i n t a i n s the c h a r g e balance on the p o s i t i v e l y c h a r g e d equivalent potential l a y e r and the negatively c h a r g e d earth. What influence an i n c r e a s e in the b a s i c c u r r e n t flow h a s on the t h u n d e r s t o r m activity is not known. It would be s u r p r i s i n g , h o w e v e r , if an i n c r e a s e of 75 p e r c e n t in the a i r - e a r t h c u r r e n t , such as o c c u r r e d during a 6 - h r . period in July 1 9 6 1 , did not affect the t h u n d e r s t o r m activity either as a r e s u l t of an i n c r e a s e d efficiency of the individual s t o r m s or as an i n c r e a s e in the total n u m b e r of s t o r m s . Any i n c r e a s e in the upward d i r e c t e d positive c u r r e n t beneath and above a t h u n d e r s t o r m would s e e m l i k e l y t o enhance those i n t e r i o r t h u n d e r s t o r m e l e c t r i c a l p r o c e s s e s inherent in the s e p a r a t i o n of c h a r g e and the formation of rain. The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d in this r e p o r t strongly s u g g e s t s that c o r p u s c u l a r s o l a r radiation exhibits a s m a l l but significant e x t e r n a l influence on the e a r t h i o n o s p h e r e e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t which is o t h e r w i s e c o n t r o l l e d and maintained by the global t h u n d e r s t o r m activity. The m e a s u r e d i n c r e a s e in the f a i r - w e a t h e r a i r - e a r t h c u r r e n t following s o l a r f l a r e s m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e accompanied b y an i n c r e a s e in the return flow of p o s i t i v e c h a r g e to the equivalent potential l a y e r and this return current will f o r the m o s t part take place in r e g i o n s of t h u n d e r s t o r m activity. It has been e s t i m a t e d that as m a n y as 3, 6 0 0 t h u n d e r s t o r m s a r e continually in e x i s t e n c e . Quite l i k e l y , t h e r e a r e as m a n y potential s t o r m s which approach but n e v e r r e a c h the t h u n d e r s t o r m s t a g e . The global t h u n d e r s t o r m activity has n e v e r b e e n adequately m e a s u r e d . Hopefully, satellite detection of s p h e r i c s will s o o n p r o v i d e a continuous m e a s u r e m e n t of this m o s t i m p o r tant a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c p a r a m e t e r and h e l p in explaining the s o l a r - t e r r e s t r i a l phenomenon d i s c u s s e d h e r e . 7. Summary

The m o n i t o r e d a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c e l e m e n t s at Mauna L o a O b s e r v a t o r y have p r o v i d e d good evidence of a d i r e c t s o l a r influence on s o m e of the e l e c tric e l e m e n t s r e c o r d e d at the mountain O b s e r v a t o r y . In the m a j o r i t y of o c c u r r e n c e s , both the a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c field and the a i r - e a r t h conduction current w e r e i n c r e a s e d above t h e i r m e a n v a l u e s following s o l a r f l a r e s . At p r e s e n t , t h e r e is not s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation of the phenomenon. The a n s w e r s lie in a b e t t e r understanding of the effect of s o l a r c o r p u s c u l a r radiation on the e a r t h - i o n o s p h e r e e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t . The evidence found at Mauna L o a in Hawaii and at Z u g s p i t z e in G e r m a n y s u g g e s t s that a t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c m e a s u r e m e n t s m a d e f r o m i s o l a t e d m o u n -

G2-131

GMS-010

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

tain s i t e s a r e m o r e l i k e l y to r e s p o n d to s o l a r e f f e c t s and changes within the earth-ionosphere spherical condenser. B e c a u s e t h e s e mountains extend w e l l into the m o r e highly conducting a t m o s p h e r e , the t r a n s f e r of c h a r g e b e t w e e n the i o n o s p h e r e and the mountain tops t a k e s p l a c e with g r e a t e r e a s e than f r o m ionosphere to sea level. It is important that such m e a s u r e m e n t s be continued through both "quiet" and "disturbed" s o l a r c y c l e s .

GMS-010

THE LUNAR INFLUENCE ON RADIO-AURORA

F o r s y t h , P. A. ; Journal of A t m o s p h e r i c and T e r r e s t r i a l P h y s i c s , 3 2 : 2 5 1 - 2 5 5 , February 1970. C o m p i l e r ' s S u m m a r y : F o r s y t h notes that a 2 9 . 5 - d a y p e r i o d i c i t y d o e s exist for r a d i o - a u r o r a but that it s e e m s to be a c h a n c e interaction of other w e l l - k n o w n periodicities.

GMS-011

GRAVITY WAVES:

CORRELATION WITH GEOMAGNETIC STORMS

M e t z , W i l l i a m D . ; S c i e n c e , 1 8 0 : 1 1 6 1 - 1 1 6 2 , June 1 5 , 1 9 7 3 . M e t z , a staff w r i t e r f o r S c i e n c e , s u m m a r i z e s c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e l a t i v e t o the purported detection of gravitational w a v e s . T h e f i r s t r e p o r t of gravitational radiation w a s m a d e in 1 9 6 9 by Joseph W e b e r , who had c o n s t r u c t e d a s p e c i a l d e t e c t o r at the U n i v e r s i t y of M a r y l a n d . In 1 9 7 2 , h o w e v e r , R u s s i a n s c i e n t i s t s noted that W e b e r ' s e v e n t s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d with g e o m a g n e t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s . M e t z then g o e s o n to d e s c r i b e a recent e x p e r i m e n t . L a s t month J. A. T y s o n , C. G. M a c l e n n a n , and L. J. L a n z e r o t t i at the B e l l L a b o r a t o r i e s , M u r r a y Hill, N e w J e r s e y , evaluated the c o r r e l a t i o n of a much l a r g e r s a m p l e o f W e b e r ' s data with v a r i o u s g e o p h y s i c a l , m e t e o r o l o g i c a l , and other p h e n o m e n a ( 2 ) . The s a m p l e they analyzed c o n s i s t e d of 2 6 2 g r a v i t a tional radiation events o b s e r v e d o v e r a 4 - m o n t h p e r i o d ending 22 D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 9 , and is m u c h l a r g e r than any s a m p l e of r a w data W e b e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s h a v e published. The g e o m a g n e t i c c o r r e l a t i o n did not d i s a p p e a r when m o r e data w e r e studied. The S c i e n t i s t s at B e l l L a b o r a t o r i e s found a r e l a t i v e l y high c o r r e l a t i o n , at 2. 7 standard d e v i a t i o n s , with the g e o m a g n e t i c index, that m e a s u r e s c h a n g e s in the ring c u r r e n t s c i r c l i n g the e a r t h in the m a g n e t o s p h e r e , and a l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n , at 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s , with the g e o m a g n e t i c activity index at F r e d e r i c k s b u r g , V i r g i n i a . C o r r e l a t i o n s at 2 standard deviations w e r e a l s o found with s u n s p o t s and e a r t h q u a k e s . M e t z g o e s on to note that W e b e r ' s equipment c o n t a i n s a l m o s t no magnetic m a t e r i a l and would s e e m to be a p o o r d e t e c t o r of m a g n e t i c v a r i a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , it is pointed out that to date other r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e not b e e n able to duplicate W e b e r ' s r e s u l t s . C o m p i l e r ' s c o m m e n t : L i t t l e can b e m a d e out o f the s p a r s e r e s u l t s obtained s o f a r , but the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that s o m e hitherto u n r e c o g n i z e d f o r c e i s r e l a t e d t o many geophysical phenomena.

G2-132

SECTION GQ: CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS
Earthquakes a r e far f r o m being completely understood. F a i r l y convincing c o r r e lations exist between earthquake and s o l a r activity and even the position of the moon. F u r t h e r m o r e , earthquakes are often accompanied by b i z a r r e sounds, lights, and magnetic effects. Some seemingly sound r e p o r t s connect earthquakes to the appearance of m e t e o r s and unusual weather. Such is the stuff of section G Q . GQE Earthquake phenomena. Earthquake lights, sounds, odors, and physiological effects on men and animals. Correlations of earthquakes with m e t e o r s , fog, darkness, precipitation, etc. (Some earthquake lights are included in G L D . ) Fault phenomena. E l e c t r i c a l , magnetic, and thermal anomalies associated with fault lines. Correlation of faults with other g e o physical phenomena. Geographical correlations. Predilection of earthquakes and other crustal motions for certain patterns, such as great c i r c l e s and antipodal relationships. Solar, lunar, and planetary c o r r e l a t i o n s . P o s s i b l e connections between s o l a r activity and earthquakes. Effects of lunar and planetary position. Relation to t i m e of y e a r and t i m e of day.

*GQF

*GQG

GQS

*This subsection not represented in Volume G 2 .

G2-133

CRUSTAL

MOVEMENTS

G2-134

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
GQE-020 EARTHQUAKES A N D ELECTRICITY

GQE-020

P a r n e l l , A r t h u r ; Journal o f S c i e n c e , 2 0 : 6 9 7 - 7 0 6 , D e c e m b e r 1883,and 2 1 : 1 - 1 0 , January 1 8 8 4 . T h i s is a wonderful old a r t i c l e , and the author is so convinced of h i s t h e s i s . Generous s e c t i o n s dealing with s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s and t r e n d s a r e quoted, but m u c h philosophy h a s b e e n d e l e t e d . It is an e x c e l l e n t period p i e c e . T h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s equally i m p r e s s e d with the b e l i e f that e l e c t r i c i t y i s the t r u e s o u r c e of earthquake phenomena, and he had a l r e a d y published his v i e w s on the m a t t e r (in connection with t h u n d e r s t o r m s ) b e f o r e he was a w a r e of the e x i s t e n c e of another w o r k e r in the s a m e field; and he now p r o p o s e s to submit a slight h i s t o r i c a l notice of s o m e of the s u g g e s t i o n s that h a v e at d i f f e r ent t i m e s b e e n advanced in connection with the a s s o c i a t i o n between earthquakes and e l e c t r i c i t y . The m o s t ancient a l l u s i o n s to the subject a r e p r o b a b l y those contained in the S c r i p t u r e s . A f t e r the a r r i v a l of the c h i l d r e n of I s r a e l in the w i l d e r n e s s at the foot of Mount Sinai, on t h e i r j o u r n e y f r o m Egypt to Canaan, "it c a m e to p a s s on the third day in the m o r n i n g that t h e r e w e r e thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud upon the Mount, and the v o i c e of the t r u m p e t exceeding loud; so that all the people that w a s in the c a m p t r e m b l e d . And M o s e s brought forth the people out of the c a m p to m e e t with G o d ; and they stood at the nether part of the Mount. And Mount Sinai was a l t o g e t h e r on a s m o k e , b e c a u s e the L o r d d e s c e n d e d upon it in f i r e ; and the s m o k e thereof ascended as the s m o k e of a furnace, and the whole Mount quaked g r e a t l y " (Exodus x i x . , 1 6 - 1 8 ) . We thus s e e how the giving of the Old L a w to the c h o s e n people was u s h e r e d in by grand p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ; and the t h u n d e r s t o r m and earthquake which they i n c l u ded would a p p e a r to be intimately c o m b i n e d in one c o m m o n s o u r c e . Now let us turn to a v e r y different portion of the Holy W r i t to s c e n e s of exquisite i m a g e r y foreshadowing by s i g n and m e t a p h o r the eve of a New L a w and of a new o r d e r of things: "I s a w the s e v e n a n g e l s which stood b e f o r e God; and to t h e m w e r e g i v e n s e v e n t r u m p e t s . And another angel c a m e and stood at the a l t a r , having a golden c e n s e r ; and t h e r e was g i v e n unto h i m much i n c e n s e that he should o f f e r it with the p r a y e r s of all saints upon the golden a l t a r which was b e f o r e the t h r o n e . And the s m o k e of the i n c e n s e which c a m e with the p r a y e r s of the saints ascended up b e f o r e God out of the a n g e l ' s hand. And the angel took the c e n s e r and filled it with fire of the a l t a r , and c a s t it into the earth; and t h e r e w e r e v o i c e s and thunderings and lightnings and an earthquake" (Rev. v i i i , 2 - 5 ) . A g a i n , "The seventh angel sounded, , . . and the t e m p l e of God w a s opened in heaven, and t h e r e w a s s e e n in h i s t e m p l e the ark of h i s t e s t a m e n t ; and t h e r e w e r e lightnings and v o i c e s and thunderings and an earthquake and great h a i l " ( R e v . x i . , 1 9 ) . And again, "The seventh angel poured out h i s vial into the a i r ; and t h e r e c a m e a great v o i c e out of the t e m p l e of heaven f r o m the throne, saying, It is done. And t h e r e w e r e v o i c e s and thunders and lightnings; and t h e r e was a g r e a t earthquake, such as w a s not since m e n w e r e upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake and so g r e a t " (Rev. x v i . , 1 7 , 1 8 ) . It s e e m s i m p o s s i b l e to doubt that the I n s p i r e r of t h e s e t h r e e p a s s a g e s looked on l i g h t nings and earthquakes as b e i n g b r a n c h e s of one and the s a m e agency. D e s c e n d i n g now to s e c u l a r h i s t o r y we find the following r e m a r k a b l e extract f r o m P l i n y ' s w r i t i n g s , quoted by A l e x a n d e r Von Humboldt in h i s f a m o u s " C o s m o s " : T h i s quotation is in Latin and is not r e p r o d u c e d .

G2-135

GQE-020

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

In this l a s t sentence the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t h u n d e r s t o r m s and earthquakes is clearly recognised. And whilst in ignorance of the e x i s t e n c e of the f o r c e of e l e c t r i c i t y , it is by no m e a n s u n r e a s o n a b l e that the frequent o c c u r r e n c e of earthquakes i m m e d i a t e l y after a period of s u l t r y a t m o s p h e r i c c a l m should have originated the idea s u g g e s t e d in the first s e n t e n c e , that they w e r e c a u s e d by the b u r s t i n g forth of the i m p r i s o n e d winds. (After a l l , who knows even now but that winds m a y in s o m e r e s p e c t be due to e l e c t r i c a l a c t i o n ? ) In m o d e r n t i m e s it would appear that D r . Stukeley w a s the first p e r s o n who advanced the v i e w that earthquakes w e r e p r o b a b l y c a u s e d by e l e c t r i c i t y . This w a s on the o c c a s i o n of the earthquakes that happened in 1 7 4 9 and 1 7 5 0 , at London and at Daventry (in N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Stukeley's p a p e r s w e r e read b e f o r e the Royal Society on M a r c h 22nd, 1 7 4 9 , and on D e c e m b e r 2nd, 1 7 5 0 . He»shows that during t h e s e y e a r s thunder, lightning, a u r o r a e , and m e t e o r s had been r e m a r k a b l y prevalent throughout England, and the whole of h i s a r g u m e n t s a r e w e l l worthy of study. But whilst Stukeley was thus urging this t h e o r y a p h i l o s o p h e r in the South of E u r o p e w a s at the s a m e t i m e , and without any knowledge of Stukeley's l a b o u r s , p r o c e e d i n g on the s a m e c o u r s e . T h i s southern p h y s i c i s t w a s a native of T u r i n and a R o m a n Catholic p r i e s t . His n a m e w a s G i a m b a t t i s t a B e c c a r i a . I n 1 7 5 3 h e w r o t e "Dell E l e t t r i c i s m o artificiale e naturale, " and in 1 7 5 8 " L e t t e r e d e l l E l e t t r i c i s m o . " If the theory of the e l e c t r i c a l o r i g i n of earthquakes should e v e r gain acceptance it is to this great m a n that the honour should be a w a r d e d . Of h i m the following r e m a r k a b l e t e s t i m o n y i s given b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r y , the w e l l - k n o w n D r . P r i e s t l e y : "All that w a s done by the F r e n c h and English e l e c t r i c i a n s with r e s p e c t to lightning and e l e c t r i c i t y fell f a r short of what was done by Signor B e c c a r i a at T u r i n " ( H i s t . , 3 1 5 ) . A g a i n , i n r e g a r d t o e x p e r i m e n t s m a d e b y savants for a s c e r t a i n ing the e l e c t r i c i t y in the a i r , "Signor B e c c a r i a m a d e , h o w e v e r , the m o s t extensive and a c c u r a t e e x p e r i m e n t s on this s u b j e c t " ( H i s t . , 3 3 8 ) . And again, in connection with the h e t e r o d o x v i e w s of M r . W i l s o n r e g a r d i n g pointed lightn i n g - r o d s , he alludes to Signor B e c c a r i a as one "whose o b s e r v a t i o n s and e x p e r i ence with r e s p e c t to lightning give a weight to h i s opinion s u p e r i o r to that of any m a n whatever" ( H i s t . , 3 7 3 ) : and this he w r i t e s at a t i m e (1775) when B e n j a m i n Franklin w a s , so to speak, in the zenith of h i s physical f a m e . B e c c a r i a a p p e a r s t o have m a d e e x p e r i m e n t s and r e s e a r c h e s o n T e r r e s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i t y f o r a p e r i o d of s o m e twenty-five or thirty y e a r s , and he b e c a m e f i r m l y rooted in the b e l i e f that not only w e r e l i g h t n i n g - s t r o k e s (or thunderbolts) due to the e a r t h ' s e l e c t r i c i t y , but that a l s o e a r t h q u a k e s , a u r o r a e , and w h i r l winds w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m the s a m e c a u s e . It is m o s t noteworthy that he, one of the great p i o n e e r s of e l e c t r i c i t y , one of the m e n who attended at i t s birth, the man who above all h i s f e l l o w s minutely s e a r c h e d into its operations and effects in r e g a r d to N a t u r e , and the m a n who, of all the great l a b o u r e r s in the e l e c t r i c a l v i n e y a r d (living as he did in Italy, a land which probably f a r beyond other European l a n d s , g i v e s f a c i l i t i e s to the natural philosopher for studying the action both of the thunderbolt and of the earthquake), had the g r e a t e s t natural opportunities f o r a r r i v i n g at the truth, should h a v e thus d e l i b e r a t e l y r e corded h i s convictions r e s p e c t i n g the e l e c t r i c a l s o u r c e of earthquakes. And it is equally r e m a r k a b l e that these convictions should have b e e n d e l i b e r a t e l y r e j e c t e d by a l m o s t e v e r y one of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and s u c c e s s o r s . F o r to this day t h e r e is h a r d l y a scientific man in E u r o p e who entertains even B e c c a r i a ' s view as to the e a r t h - s p r u n g nature of l i g h t n i n g - s t r o k e s . How then c a n we expect that, in the a b s e n c e of this e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y step, the whole d e v e l o p m e n t of B e c c a r i a ' s theory could e v e r have b e e n a d o p t e d ? We have a l r e a d y drawn attention to a g r e a t E n g l i s h philosopher of those t i m e s , v i z . , D r . J o s e p h P r i e s t l e y , F . R . S . , who wrote "The H i s t o r y and P r e s e n t

G2-136

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GQE-020

State of E l e c t r i c i t y , with Original Experiments, the fourth edition of which appeared in 1 7 7 5 . On the mind of P r i e s t l y the r e s e a r c h e s and opinions of B e c c a r i a had evidently made a strong i m p r e s s i o n , and it was in no faltering spirit that P r i e s t l e y supported the views of his great m a s t e r . The "Queries and Hints" on t e r r e s t r i a l electricity modestly propounded by P r i e s t l e y a r e of a v e r y pregnant nature. He s a y s , "May not the void space above the clouds be always occupied with an electricity opposite to that of the e a r t h ? And may not the thunder, earthquakes, & c . , be occasioned by the rushing of the e l e c t r i c fluid between them whenever the redundancy in either is e x c e s s i v e ? Is not the A u r o r a B o r e a l i s , and other electrical m e t e o r s which a r e remarkably bright and frequent before earthquakes, s o m e evidence of t h i s ? " . . . "Is not the earth in a constant state of moderate e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n ? " . . . "And is it not probable that earthquakes, hurricanes, & c . , as well as lightning, a r e the c o n sequences of a too powerful electricity in the e a r t h ? " . . . "Supposing e a r t h quakes to be caused by the discharge of a redundant electricity f r o m the s u r f a c e of the earth, might they not be prevented in countries subject to them by kites flying v e r y high, and wires in the strings so as to p r o m o t e an e a s y c o m m u n i cation between the earth and the upper regions of the a t m o s p h e r e ? " — ( H i s t . , 459.) The next English writer to advert to the question appears to have been W i l l i a m Nicholson, who in 1787 wrote "An Introduction to Natural Philosophy. " He adduces experience to combat the idea that earthquakes can be occasioned by subterranean explosions. But apparently he alludes to explosions of vapour, for he mentions the notion as "the c o m m o n opinion." His notice is valuable as tending to show one of the p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s for the rejection, by the p h y s i c i s t s of those d a y s , of the theory of an electrical origin; for doubtless the only action they would conceive to result therefrom would be that of a subterranean e x p l o sion somewhat akin to a subterranean explosion between two clouds. Since, however (as Nicholson shows) facts demonstrated that the operation of e a r t h quakes was chiefly of a superficial nature, the upheaval of the ground that must inevitably attend an explosion f r o m below was probably deemed to be by no means in accordance with observation, and the e l e c t r i c a l theory was therefore discredited. But to physicists of the present day conversant with the important c l a s s of e l e c t r i c a l discharges known as l e a k s the surface nature of the action of earthquakes would appear to present a stamp of confirmation, rather than a s tumbl ing-bl oc k. A long interval now ensues, and Humboldt's " C o s m o s " would s e e m to be the next important work that dealt with the question. The English translation (by Colonel, afterwards Sir Edward, Sabine, F. R. S.) of this "Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe" was published in 1 8 4 7 . B e s i d e s the quotation f r o m Pliny to which we have already alluded, much valuable information on the s u b j e c t of earthquakes is furnished by Humboldt. He s a y s : — " A c t i v e volcanoes m a y be regarded as s a f e t y - v a l v e s for the country in their immediate vicinity" ( i . , 2 0 2 ) . . . . "The destruction of Lisbon, of C a r a c a s , of L i m a , of C a s h m e e r in 1 5 5 4 , and of so many towns of Calabria, Syria, and A s i a Minor, shows that on the whole the m o s t violent shocks do not usually take place in the vicinity of still active volcanoes" ( i . , 2 0 2 ) . In allusion to the substances ejected at t i m e s f r o m the earth such as hot water, s t e a m , noxious g a s e s , mud, s m o k e , and flames he s a y s , "Do gaseous fluids i s s u e f r o m the interior of the earth and mingle with the a t m o s p h e r e ? Or are t h e s e meteorological p r o c e s s e s the effects of a disturbance of the electricity of the atmosphere by the earthquake?" ( i . , 2 0 5 ) . In regard to the association of earthquakes with thunderstorms he s a y s , "On the c o a s t s of Peru, where rain s c a r c e l y e v e r falls, and where hail, lightning, and thunder are unknown, these atmospheric explosions are replaced by the s u b t e r -

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ranean thunder which a c c o m p a n i e s the t r e m b l i n g o f the earth" ( i . , 2 0 5 ) . L a s t l y , in r e s p e c t of the p r o b a b l e affinity between the heat, e l e c t r i c i t y , and earthquakes: "If, on the one hand, the internal heat of o u r planet m a y be connected with the e x c i t e m e n t of e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c c u r r e n t s and the evolution of t e r r e s t r i a l light a u r o r a e ) a c c o m p a n y i n g a m a g n e t i c s t o r m , it is a l s o a principal s o u r c e of g e o logical phenomena" ( i . , 189). A great n a m e in s e i s m o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e now c l a i m s our r e c o g n i t i o n . To the late M r . R o b e r t M a l l e t , F . R . S . , S c i e n c e i s m u c h indebted for h i s m a g n i f i cent r e c o r d o f the e a r t h q u a k e s that have o c c u r r e d between B . C . 1 6 0 6 and A . D . 1850 a l i s t that c o m p r i s e s no f e w e r than 6 8 3 1 i n s t a n c e s of t e r r a n e a n c o n v u l sion. T h i s account, t o g e t h e r with m o s t of h i s r e s e a r c h e s in the field of e a r t h quake p h y s i c s , i s contained i n v a r i o u s R e p o r t s m a d e t o the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n during the y e a r s 1 8 5 0 to 1 8 5 4 i n c l u s i v e . H e r e a f t e r we shall p r e s e n t a s e l e c t i o n f r o m M a l l e t ' s incidents; let u s now notice s o m e o f h i s d i c t a . I n r e g a r d t o p a r t i c u l a r s h o c k s which have c a u s e d f i s s u r e s to open in the e a r t h , and fire and s m o k e to issue therefrom, he says: " T h e e x p e r i m e n t s o f B e c q u e r e l and o t h e r e l e c t r i c i a n s h a v e shown that when f r a c t u r e in a s o l i d t a k e s p l a c e a powerful e l e c t r i cal d i s t u r b a n c e is the c o n s e q u e n c e . T h i s will be g r e a t in p r o p o r t i o n as the s u r f a c e and m a s s f r a c t u r e d a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s l a r g e . When therefore a fracture of a m i l e l o n g and of m a n y feet in depth is f o r m e d , . . . the d i s t u r b a n c e of e l e c t r i c e q u i l i b r i u m m a y be expected to e x c e e d that of a h e a v y t h u n d e r s t o r m , and m a y quoad this p a r t of earthquake phenomena r e a l i s e the d r e a m s of the o l d e r p h i l o s o p h e r s who thought that an earthquake w a s a t h u n d e r s t o r m u n d e r ground. In this then I b e l i e v e is to be found the usual s o u r c e of the f l a m e or flash s e e n suddenly to a p p e a r and vanish at the mouth of the rent" ( F i r s t R e p o r t , p. 5 4 ) . He thinks that the s m o k e o b s e r v e d is probably in all c a s e s dust. On the s u b j e c t of the m a l a i s e that frequently (as with t h u n d e r s t o r m s ) p r e cedes earthquakes: " A n i m a l s , including p i g s , oxen, h o r s e s , m u l e s , d o g s , g e e s e , p o u l t r y , show p r e s e n t i m e n t s o f c o m i n g s h o c k s b y t h e i r u n e a s y m a n n e r . Human b e i n g s have s o m e t i m e s a tendency b e f o r e s h o c k s to g i d d i n e s s , h e a d a c h e , and nausea" ( F i r s t R e p o r t , p. 6 8 ) . He q u o t e s Von Hoff in the following i m portant p a s s a g e : "In all r e l a t i o n s between this earth and its a t m o s p h e r e the f o r m e r is to be c o n s i d e r e d as the principal and the l a t t e r only as its appendage. The a t m o s p h e r e is the child of the earth, and is supported by it" ( F i r s t R e p o r t , p. 7 1 ) . And again, in r e s p e c t of the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between earthquakes and t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e t i s m , Von Hoff loquitur: "In many i n s t a n c e s in which an opportunity of o b s e r v i n g the magnetic needle during an earthquake h a s p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f a n a l t e r a t i o n i n its d i r e c t i o n "for the t i m e h a s been o b s e r v e d . " . . . " M o r e r e m a r k a b l e , h o w e v e r , a r e the c h a n g e s in the d i r e c t i o n of the dip and variation n e e d l e s , which take p l a c e at a d i s t a n c e f r o m the p l a c e w h e r e the earthquake w a s o b s e r v e d , and at a p l a c e w h e r e the shock i t s e l f is not p e r c e p t i b l e ; a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n P a r i s o n the 19th F e b r u a r y and 3 1 s t M a y , 1 8 2 2 , s i m u l taneously with an earthquake which o c c u r r e d in Savoy and s o m e of the southern p a r t s of F r a n c e . If this o b s e r v a t i o n should be e s t a b l i s h e d by o t h e r s c a r e f u l l y m a d e , the e x i s t e n c e could not be denied of a connexion between t e r r e s t r i a l v u l c a n i s m and t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e t i s m . " M a l l e t h i m s e l f supplies the following r e m a r k a b l e conception: " T h u s , then, ignorant as we a r e of all within the outer s u r f a c e or skin of our globe (and of how m u c h of i t s e x t e r i o r , f o r the o c e a n s h r o u d s t w o - t h i r d s o f i t f r o m our e y e s ? ) , w e a r e c o m p e l l e d t o s e e the c l o s e connexion of t h e s e mighty heating p o w e r s in which ignition is p r e s e n t on the v a s t e s t s c a l e , yet without c o m b u s t i o n , with the f o r c e s of t e r r e s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i t y and m a g n e t i s m , f o r c e s which a r e t h o s e alone that within range of our o b s e r v a t i o n a r e m u t u a l l y c o n v e r t i b l e and both c o n v e r t i b l e into heat. Currents of both we know a r e e v e r p a s s i n g , with v a r i a b l e activity, through e n o r m o u s

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v o l u m e s of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t , the different p a r t s of which p o s s e s s v e r y different conducting p o w e r s . C a n i t b e that t h e s e c u r r e n t s , constrained! t o p a s s through n a r r o w and bad c o n d u c t o r s at v a s t depths in s o m e f o r m a t i o n s , ignite t h e m in t h e i r p r o g r e s s ? W i l l it be found that the g r e a t l i n e s of volcanic activity (as d r e a m e d by Bylandt) a r e in s o m e way connected with those of t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e tism? a r e p o s s i b l y n o r m a l s t o the s u r f a c e c u r v e s o f equal m a g n e t i c i n t e n s i t y ? A glance at one of G a u s s ' s m a g n e t i c m a p s , and at another of the g r e a t b a n d s of active v o l c a n o e s on o u r planet, a l m o s t f o r c e s the m i n d into such c o n j e c t u r e s " (First Report, p. 77). Y e t this b r i l l i a n t s p e c u l a t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e fallen e n t i r e ly to the ground, f o r the author of it c o n s i s t e n t l y attributed the c a u s e of e a r t h quakes e i t h e r "to the sudden f o r m a t i o n of s t e a m f r o m w a t e r p r e v i o u s l y in a state of r e p u l s i o n f r o m the heating s u r f a c e s " ( F i r s t R e p o r t , p. 8 0 ) , or "to the p a s s a g e of a wave of e l a s t i c c o m p r e s s i o n c a u s i n g e a c h p a r t i c l e of earth of p e r f o r m a v i b r a t o r y m o v e m e n t " (Quart. R e v . , July, 1 8 8 1 ) . I n the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t f o r 1 8 5 1 i s a c o m m u n i c a t i o n b y M r . R . Budge, F. R. G. S. , r e g a r d i n g the g r e a t earthquake which took p l a c e in Chili during h i s r e s i d e n c e t h e r e i n that y e a r . A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the event, he s t a t e s that he cannot understand earthquake p h e n o m e n a u n l e s s e l e c t r i c i t y b e the agent ( B . A . R . 1 8 5 1 , p . 8 5 ) . I n the s a m e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s R e p o r t f o r 1 8 5 2 the w e l l - k n o w n D r . B u i s t , of B o m b a y , in a l e t t e r to P r o f . Baden P o w e l l , F. R. S . , dated July 2 4 t h , 1 8 5 2 , s a y s , "It is now well e s t a b l i s h e d that in India, at all e v e n t s , earthquakes a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s a c c o m p a n i e d by furious s t o r m s of thunder, lightning, and rain; it is difficult to t r a c e the c a u s e of c o i n c i d e n c e s s o r e m a r k a b l e i n the c o m m o t i o n s o f the earth and the a i r " ( B . A . R . 1 8 5 2 , p . 2 3 9 ) . A g a i n , i n t h i s A s s o c i a t i o n ' s R e p o r t for 1 8 6 4 , the R e v . E . B . E l l m a r d e s c r i b e s a shock that o c c u r r e d at L e w e s , in S u s s e x , on the 2 1 s t A u g u s t 1 8 6 4 , and w a s p r e c e d e d by copious s h o w e r s (after t h r e e m o n t h s of drought), a c c o m panied by a g r e a t wave f r o m N. W. to S. E . , and followed by a t h u n d e r s t o r m , with vivid lightning, m u c h hail, and two w a t e r s p o u t s . He then quotes a l e t t e r f r o m D r . N i c h o l s o n , of T r a m f i e l d , who s a y s that he h a s frequently e x p e r i e n c e d s h o c k s in the W e s t Indies after a long drought, and that he is inclined to attribute s o m e o f t h e s e s h o c k s t o e l e c t r i c i t y a s propounded b y D r . Stukeley ( B . A . R . 1 8 6 4 , Trans. 16). In h i s "Heat c o n s i d e r e d as a M o d e of M o t i o n " ( 1 8 6 3 ) Prof. John T y n d a l l , F. R. S . , quoting P r o f . D o v e , of B e r l i n , in r e g a r d to the earthquake at C a r a c a s , of M a r c h 26th, 1 8 1 2 , g r a p h i c a l l y d e p i c t s P l i n y ' s i d e a of a f o r c e i m p r i s o n e d b e neath the s u r f a c e of the e a r t h , and s t r u g g l i n g to obtain f r e e d o m . " M a r c h 2 6 t h , 1 8 1 2 , b e g a n as a day of e x t r a o r d i n a r y heat in C a r a c a s ; the air w a s c l e a r , and the f i r m a m e n t c l o u d l e s s . It w a s G r e e n T h u r s d a y , and a r e g i m e n t of t r o o p s of the line stood u n d e r a r m s in the b a r r a c k s of the Q u a r t e r San C a r l o s ready to join in the p r o c e s s i o n . The people s t r e a m e d to the c h u r c h e s . A loud s u b t e r ranean thunder w a s h e a r d , and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s followed an earthquake shock so violent that the c h u r c h of A l t a G r a c i a , 1 5 0 feet in height, b o r n e by p i l l a r s 15 feet thick, f o r m e d a heap of c r u s h e d rubbish not m o r e than 6 feet high. In the evening the a l m o s t full m o o n looked down with m i l d l u s t r e upon the ruins of the town under which lay the c r u s h e d b o d i e s of u p w a r d s of 1 0 , 0 0 0 of its inhabitants. But e v e n h e r e t h e r e w a s no exit granted to the e l a s t i c f o r c e s underneath. F i n a l l y , on A p r i l 27th, they s u c c e e d e d in opening once m o r e the c r a t e r of M o r n e G a r o u , which had b e e n c l o s e d for a century; and the earth f o r a d i s t a n c e equal to that f r o m V e s u v i u s to P a r i s rung with the thunder-shout of the l i b e r a t e d p r i s o n e r " (p. 1 7 2 ) . The a n o m y m o u s w r i t e r of an a r t i c l e in "Blackwood's M a g a z i n e " f o r July, 1 8 6 9 , entitled " A N e w T h e o r y o f Earthquakes and V o l c a n o e s , " m u s t now b e noticed. The "new" theory advanced is the e l e c t r i c a l origin of earthquakes;

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and the w r i t e r had evidently neither h e a r d of the l a b o u r s of Stukeley and B e c c a r i a , nor had he e x a m i n e d the writings of M a l l e t , Humboldt, and Pliny. T h e p a p e r i s , h o w e v e r , of great i n t e r e s t , and the following a r e s o m e of the author's c o n c l u sions: "It i s the e a r t h which i s the chief c a u s e o f all o u r t h u n d e r s t o r m s . " . . . "The a t m o s p h e r e p l a y s a s e c o n d a r y r o l e c o m p a r e d with the solid e a r t h . " . . . "It is the condition of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t which f o r m s the m a i n e l e m e n t of e l e c t r i c a l a c t i o n . " . . . " W e m a y aptly d e s c r i b e earthquakes as t h u n d e r s t o r m s in the e a r t h . " . . . " V o l c a n o e s a r e vents which the s u b t e r r a n e a n e l e c t r i c action m a k e s f o r itself, o r f o r its e f f e c t s , i n t h o s e r e g i o n s o r l o c a l i t i e s w h e r e i t i s s t r o n g e s t or m o s t p e r m a n e n t . " [End of f i r s t i n s t a l l m e n t ] I n " A P r a c t i c a l T r e a t i s e o n Lightning P r o t e c t i o n , " b y Henry W . Spang (Philadelphia, 1 8 7 7 ) , i t i s stated that M r . C r o m w e l l V a r l e y , F . R . S . (whose l a m e n t e d death h a s r e c e n t l y taken p l a c e ) , w a s of opinion that s o m e earthquakes a r e due to s u b t e r r a n e o u s e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e s . He had found that powerful p o s i t i v e c u r r e n t s rushed through the A n g l o - A m e r i c a n c a b l e s t o w a r d s England a few m i n u t e s b e f o r e and a few m i n u t e s after the s h o c k s of M a r c h 17th, 1 8 7 1 (p. 2 9 ) . I n " N a t u r e " (No. 2 4 7 , v o l . x . , 1874) M r . H . H . Howorth e x p r e s s e s h i s opinion that the earth is shrinking about i t s equatorial r e g i o n , and is being thrust out in the d i r e c t i o n of the P o l e s ; and he thinks that the distribution of this f o r c e m a y c o r r e s p o n d with that of t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e t i s m . He q u o t e s f r o m D r . Z o l l n e r ' s p a p e r in the "Philosophical M a g a z i n e , " w h e r e i n it is stated that K r i e l h a s given many i n s t a n c e s of the c o i n c i d e n c e of earthquakes with m a g n e t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s . -Volcanoes a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o M r . Howorth, the m e d i a t e r e s u l t s of the shrinking of the earth; "earthquakes, on the c o n t r a r y , a r e its i m m e d i a t e r e s u l t s , and g o f a r t o p r o v e that t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e t i s m i s t o b e c o r r e l a t e d with the f o r c e which is shrinking the earth. " The a r t i c l e in the " Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w " f o r July, 1 8 8 1 , already mentioned, s t a t e s that the m o s t c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s and a c c o m p a n i m e n t s of earthquakes a p p e a r to be t h e i r s u d d e n n e s s , the stifling heat and e l e c t r i c state of the a t m o s p h e r e , and the sudden r o a r as of distant a r t i l l e r y . D r . Schmidt, the G o v e r n m e n t A s t r o n o m e r at A t h e n s , in h i s r e s e a r c h e s on the G r e c i a n earthquakes of 1 8 4 0 t 6 ^ 1 8 7 8 , a r r i v e s at the r e s u l t that the g r e a t o n e s had a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a d i r e c t i o n f r o m N. E. to S. W. The r e v i e w e r s a y s that the s a m e fact h a s a l s o been noticed in r e g a r d to s e v e r e s h o c k s in A m e r i c a in 1 8 7 0 ; and he then a s k s "Is not this the line of path habitually followed by e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t s ? " A f t e r further d i s c u s s i o n on the p h y s i c a l action of e a r t h q u a k e s , he s a y s "Considering the i r r e s i s t i b l e f o r c e , the u n m e a s u r e d rapidity, the quick repetition, and the long duration of the s h o c k s , what known agent in N a t u r e , we would a s k , except E l e c t r i c i t y , is c a p a b l e of producing at the s a m e t i m e such s i n g u l a r e f f e c t s in the s e a and such t r e m e n d o u s r e s u l t s on l a n d ? " L y e l l and other authors have m e n t i o n e d , but without laying on the o c c u r r e n c e the s t r e s s it d e s e r v e s , the state of the a t m o s p h e r e b e f o r e an earthquake as d e n s e l y c h a r g e d with e l e c t r i c i t y . " T h e vicinity of hot s p r i n g s , v o l c a n o e s , and mud l a k e s , r e g i o n s of intense heat and c e n t r e s of the e l e c t r i c influence, a r e the s p e c i a l haunts of the earthquake, and S c i e n c e h a s pretty well p r o v e d that heat and e l e c tricity a r e c o n v e r t i b l e . " A l l the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n s e p a r a b l y connected with earthquakes point to the c o n c l u s i o n "that an earthquake is the r e s u l t of d i s c h a r g e s of t e r r e s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i t y a c c u m u l a t e d in the b o w e l s of the e a r t h , which we know to be a r e s e r v o i r of e l e c t r i c m a t t e r . " An earthquake shock "is a d i r e c t b l o w not differing probably f r o m that of a lightning s t r o k e . " "Even if it be p r o v e d that the s o l i d s t r a t a beneath the s u r f a c e and the mountain m a s s e s above it a r e unfavourable to the t r a n s m i s s i o n of e l e c t r i c e n e r g y , t h e r e a r e plenty of c r a c k s and f i s s u r e s in i t s solid s u b s t a n c e s through which it m a y

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shoot f o r t h . In the w a t e r s of o c e a n it finds a r e a d y conductor, for the way in which ships on the s e a a r e affected by i t .
1 1

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which a c c o u n t s

T h e attention of e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r s is invited to c o n s i d e r whether it m a y not be p o s s i b l e to invent s o m e s p e c i e s of apparatus "capable of a v e r t i n g the c a l a m i t y f r o m its habitual h a u n t s . " T h e r e v i e w e r h o p e s that m e n o f S c i e n c e intent upon the c o l l e c t i o n and s t o r a g e of e l e c t r i c f o r c e will not n e g l e c t "that s t o r e h o u s e of u n l i m i t e d e n e r g y a l r e a d y filled within the b o s o m of the e a r t h , " and he t r u s t s that they m a y be able to d e v i s e m e a n s f o r preventing the fearful d i s a s t e r s l i a b l e to be o c c a s i o n e d by earthquake s h o c k s . We have given but a b r i e f s u m m a r y of the salient points of this c o g e n t l y - r e a s o n e d p a p e r , which d e a l s with the s u b j e c t in a v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a n n e r , and is e s p e c i a l l y powerful in t r e a t i n g on the g e o l o g i c a l portion of the question. In A p r i l , 1 8 8 2 , the p r e s e n t w r i t e r published a s m a l l work on "The A c t i o n of Lightning, " c o m p l e t e d by h i m in A p r i l , 1 8 8 1 . He w a s unfortunately unaware of the r e s e a r c h e s c o n c e r n i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n of e l e c t r i c i t y and earthquakes m a d e by the authors he has mentioned, or the short a l l u s i o n s m a d e to the s u b j e c t in h i s w o r k would probably have b e e n m o r e c o p i o u s and d e c i d e d . He v e n t u r e s , h o w e v e r , t o r e s u b m i t t h e s e few r e f e r e n c e s a s being p e r h a p s entitled, in t h e i r m e a s u r e , to take part as links in the chain of l i t e r a r y effort under investigation. T h e p a s s a g e s a r e a s follows: " W e appear t o have p r i m a f a c i e grounds for b e l i e v i n g that the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e is r e a l l y the c o l l e c t i n g plate of the t e r r e s t r i a l c o n d e n s e r ; . . . but the q u e s t i o n s now a r i s e , what is the o r i g inal s o u r c e of the e a r t h ' s e l e c t r i c i t y ? and how d o e s its s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i t ? In o u r p r e s e n t state of knowledge it s e e m s to be i m p o s s i b l e to get beyond c o n j e c ture in r e p l y i n g to such q u e s t i o n s . Supposing, h o w e v e r , that we take up the opposite v i e w , that the c l o u d s f o r m the c o l l e c t i n g plate, the t a s k of attempting to p r o v e how they originate and c o l l e c t t h e i r e l e c t r i c i t y would appear to be e v e n m o r e h o p e l e s s ; f o r although w e r e a s o n a b l y infer that the c l o u d s a r e c o l l e c t o r s of e l e c t r i c i t y , we do not know the fact f o r c e r t a i n . . . . But we do know with certainty s e v e r a l important f a c t s r e g a r d i n g the e a r t h ' s e l e c t r i c a l constitution; one is that it is a g r e a t h o l d e r of e l e c t r i c i t y ; . . . another, that t e r r e s t r i a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , such as w a t e r s p o u t s , e a r t h q u a k e s , and volcanic e r u p t i o n s , a r e connected with the actions o f e l e c t r i c i t y o r m a g n e t i s m . " . . . " A s t o how the earth . . . b e c a m e a magnet we a r e p r a c t i c a l l y in total i g n o r a n c e . The fact, h o w e v e r , that it is s i m u l t a n e o u s l y both a h o l d e r of e l e c t r i c i t y and a m a g n e t is w e l l worthy of attention; and so a l s o is the fact that phenomena undoubtedly e l e c t r i c a l , i . e . , e a r t h - c u r r e n t s and a u r o r a e , a r e invariably a c c o m p a n i e d b y magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e s . " . .• . " M a y we not c o n c e i v e the subtle f o r c e u s u a l l y c a l l e d m a g n e t i s m t o b e nothing but e l e c t r i c i t y , i . e . , e l e c t r i c i t y bound o r m a n i fested in a p e c u l i a r m a n n e r , and m a g n e t i s m i t s e l f as only a p r o p e r t y or i n f l u ence . . . appertaining to c e r t a i n b o d i e s and p e r m i t t i n g this p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n ? " . . . "On this p r i n c i p l e , then, the earth is a magnetic b o d y l i k e steel or i r o n , and what is known as its m a g n e t i s m b e c o m e s an additional p r o o f of the p r e s e n c e and activity of its e l e c t r i c i t y , and strengthens the probability that the globe is i t s e l f the o r i g i n a t o r of t h u n d e r s t o r m s and of all other e l e c t r i c a l p h e n o m e n a known to o c c u r in connection with it. That the s e p a r a t e d a g e n c i e s c o m p o s i n g this e l e c t r i c i t y should be in constant motion in the magnetic field or o r b f r o m the Equator t o w a r d s the P o l e s is what is to be expected; . . . hence . . . w e have m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f motion (rendered i r r e g u l a r b y induction and b y g e o l o g i c a l c a u s e s ) in the shape of e a r t h - c u r r e n t s . The polar a c c u m u l a t i o n s of e l e c t r i c i t y . . . would explain the attraction of the e a r t h ' s p o l e s on t h o s e of other m a g n e t s . To the s a m e fact of d e n s e accumulation of e l e c t r i c i t y at or n e a r the magnetic and t e r r e s t r i a l p o l e s . . . would be attributed the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of silent continuous d i s c h a r g e s . . . s e e n under the f o r m of a u r o r a e . And it

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is c o n c e i v a b l e that the e l e c t r i c i t i e s , in t h e i r m o t i o n s . . . t o w a r d s the p o l e s , a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r c e d . . . t o a c c u m u l a t e for a t i m e a t c e r t a i n p l a c e s o n the s u r f a c e ; and when t h i s should o c c u r in r e g i o n s w h e r e c l o u d s . . . w e r e f r e quently p r e s e n t , the n e c e s s a r y conditions f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t of t h u n d e r s t o r m s would apparently be obtained. L a s t l y , if the . . . accumulations should o c c u r in c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t . . . insulated f r o m each other, and b e l o w though not f a r r e m o v e d f r o m the s u r f a c e , and e s p e c i a l l y in r e g i o n s w h e r e clouds . . . w e r e habitually absent (as in Chili and L o w e r P e r u ) , t h e r e would appear to be p o s s i b l e c a u s e s for the o c c u r r e n c e of earth e x p l o s i o n s m a n i f e s t e d by earthquakes" (pp. 1 5 6 - 1 6 0 ) . In r e g a r d to the t e r m e x p l o s i o n h e r e u s e d the w r i t e r is now inclined to c o n s i d e r the nature of an earthquake d i s c h a r g e as an e l e c t r i c a l l e a k r a t h e r than as an e l e c t r i c a l e x p l o s i o n . In the "Athenaeum" of July 8th, 1 8 8 2 , a r e v i e w of the l a s t - m e n t i o n e d w o r k w a s given. The r e v i e w e r noticed the p o r t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t e r r e s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i t y in the following t e r m s : "The e a r t h - s p r u n g lightnings which so constantly f o r m an attendant phenomenon on volcanic e r u p t i o n s , and the s u b t e r r a n e a n thunder which at t i m e s r e s e m b l e s the a r t i l l e r y f i r e of a naval e n g a g e m e n t , a r e at once facts that support the view given in this book of the functions of the t e r r e s t r i a l c o n d e n s e r , and hints that the diligent pursuit of the enquiry m a y yield much v a l u a b l e information as to the g e n e r a l theory of e l e c t r i c s t o r m s , a e r i a l , s u p e r - t e r r e s t r i a l , or s u b - t e r r e s t r i a l . " . . . "It is f r o m the c o - o r d i n a tion of the indications given by the b a r o m e t e r , the s e i s m o m e t e r , and the v a r i ous appliances for m e a s u r i n g e l e c t r i c and m a g n e t i c f o r c e and d i r e c t i o n , that we m u s t hope to a r r i v e in due t i m e at the t r u e theory of e l e c t r i c s t o r m s , of which we take thunder and lightning to be one f o r m and earthquake a n o t h e r . " The last e x t r a c t in our s e r i e s is one f r o m an a r t i c l e on " T h e City of E a r t h q u a k e s , " in the "Atlantic Monthly M a g a z i n e " for M a r c h , 1 8 8 3 , by M r . H o r a c e D- W a r n e r , a C i v i l E n g i n e e r who w a s p r e s e n t at C a r a c a s during the l a s t e a r t h quake t h e r e , on S e p t e m b e r 6th, 1 8 8 2 . It a p p e a r s that it w a s accompanied by a c o a s t wave, and that s e r i o u s d a m a g e was a l m o s t wholly confined to the r i v e r suburb, the higher p o r t i o n s of the town, built on a r o c k y s u b s t r a t u m , being u n touched. He s a y s that "a native of V e n e z u e l a would laugh at the idea that a t e r r e m o t o is an upheaval of the ground. The m o v e m e n t of dislodged r o c k s , the disjointment of h o u s e - w a l l s and their way of falling, the m o t i o n s of a tidal wave during the p r o g r e s s of an earthquake, all p r o v e that the shock is a l a t e r a l push. " T h i s s t a t e m e n t s e e m s to c o r r o b o r a t e the idea a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d , in r e f e r e n c e to the w r i t i n g s of M r . W i l l i a m Nicholson in 1 7 8 7 , that the shock is probably a d i s c h a r g e not of the concentrated nature of an e x p l o s i o n , but r a t h e r that due to a sudden e s c a p e of a c c u m u l a t e d f o r c e f r o m the ground o v e r an a r e a of s o m e extent, a theory to which the facts attendant on e l e c t r i c a l leak d i s c h a r g e s a r e eminently f a v o u r a b l e . In o r d e r to strengthen the i d e a of the e l e c t r i c a l o r i g i n of earthquakes we will now submit a l i s t of s o m e of t h o s e events the r e c o r d s of which show that they w e r e p r e c e d e d , a c c o m p a n i e d , or followed, by s t o r m s of thunder and lightning. The incidents, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e annotated, a r e s e l e c t e d f r o m M a l l e t ' s R e p o r t s . T h e s e t a b l e s a r e too long to r e p r o d u c e . They include r e c o r d s of 6 earthquakes p r e c e d e d by t h u n d e r s t o r m s , 45 a c c o m p a n i e d by t h u n d e r s t o r m s , and 22 followed by thunderstorms. The y e a r 1 7 5 0 during which, on S e p t e m b e r 30th, the shock at Daventry, in N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e , o c c u r r e d was r e m a r k a b l e for thunder and lightning throughout England ( P r i e s t l e y , Host. , 3 5 6 ) . In 1 8 2 2 "an e x t r a o r d i n a r y n u m b e r of violent t h u n d e r s t o r m s , accompanied by earthquakes and simultaneous e r u p -

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GQE-021

tions of Mount V e s u v i u s , " o c c u r r e d in F r a n c e and o v e r a g r e a t part of the Continent ( A n d e r s o n o n Lightning, p . 7 6 ) . I n July, 1 8 2 9 , e a r t h q u a k e s o c c u r r e d in Hungary and in Spain, and r e m a r k a b l e t h u n d e r s t o r m s in m a n y p a r t s of E u r o p e ( M a l l e t ) . In 1 8 8 0 , and again in 1 8 8 3 , t h u n d e r s t o r m s and e a r t h q u a k e s were v e r y prevalent in many countries. To the above l i s t s it m a y p e r h a p s be i n t e r e s t i n g to add a few m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i s t i c s , g a t h e r e d f r o m the r e c o r d s of earthquake incidents, c o l l e c t e d by the w r i t e r for a n a l y s i s , up to the p r e s e n t d a t e . M o s t of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s n a m e d a r e p r o b a b l y c l o s e l y connected with the action of t e r r e s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i t y . It is t o b e u n d e r s t o o d that e i t h e r s h o r t l y b e f o r e o r during, o r shortly after the o c c u r r e n c e of s h o c k s , t h e s e additional phenomena w e r e among the attendant c i r c u m stances. The n u m b e r o f s e p a r a t e earthquake c a s e s f r o m which they a r e gleaned amounts to 4 9 0 . No. of c a s e s . 156 T h u n d e r , detonations, and r u m b l i n g s I s o l a t e d r u s h e s o r c u r r e n t s o f wind, o r h i s s i n g 31 sounds, giving the idea of an e s c a p e of f o r c e 28 W a v e s o r c o m m o t i o n s o f the s e a 23 Aurorae 73 Meteors 2 I g n e s fatui Lightning f l a s h e s in the a t m o s p h e r e ( e x c l u s i v e of thunderstorms) F l a m e s seen to issue from fissures Magnetic disturbances T e m p e s t s , hail, and rain ( e x c l u s i v e of t h u n d e r s t o r m s ) Whirlwinds Snowstorms 15 10 22 62 7 8

GQE-021 Watt,

E A R T H Q U A K E IN DOMINICA 1879.

Edmund; N a t u r e , 2 0 : 4 3 1 - 4 3 2 , S e p t e m b e r 4 ,

A s e v e r e s h o c k of earthquake w a s felt h e r e [ L e e w a r d Islands] at 1. 20 A. M. y e s t e r d a y (Sunday) the 10th instant, and at i n t e r v a l s , until 1. 5 2 , t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l t r e m u l o u s m o v e m e n t s o f the e a r t h . The n o i s e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g the f i r s t shock r e m i n d e d me of the c l a t t e r which is s o m e t i m e s h e a r d on b o a r d an o c e a n going s t e a m e r in v e r y rough weather, when a heavy s e a s t r i k e s the ship, and all the c r o c k e r y laid out f o r dinner is suddenly thrown f r o m the "fiddles" and b r o k e n into p i e c e s on the f l o o r of the saloon. A f t e r the f i r s t shock t h e r e w a s an interval of p e r f e c t quiet until 1. 3 0 , when s u b t e r r a n e a n n o i s e s like the d i s c h a r g i n g or b o o m i n g of distant guns attracted my attention, and then, at i n t e r v a l s v a r y i n g f r o m two to five m i n u t e s ' duration, I counted s i x of t h e s e d i s c h a r g e s , and following each d i s c h a r g e t h e r e c a m e a gentle t r e m u l o u s m o v e m e n t . I m m e d i a t e l y after the l a s t m o v e m e n t , heavy rain fell, and at 1 . 5 5 t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l f l a s h e s of v e r y vivid lightning a c c o m p a n i e d by loud p e a l s of thunder. The rain continued to fall during all y e s t e r d a y and l a s t night.

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GQE-022

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
EARTHQUAKE LIGHTNING

Finkelstein, David, and P o w e l l , J a m e s ; Nature, 2 2 8 : 7 5 9 - 7 6 0 , N o v e m b e r 2 1 , 1 9 7 0 . In s o m e p a r t s of the w o r l d , earthquakes a r e often a c c o m p a n i e d by ball lightning, s t r o k e lightning and sheet lightning. T h e only c a u s a l connexion that s e e m s p o s s i b l e i s that the s e i s m i c s t r a i n s o f the earthquake s o m e h o w c a u s e an e l e c t r i c field in the a i r , which in turn p r o d u c e s b a l l lightning and s t r o k e and sheet lightning. What i s the m e c h a n i s m o f this " s e i s m o e l e c t r i c e f f e c t " ? It is s u g g e s t e d by T e r a d a that the s t r e a m i n g potential of s u b t e r r a n e a n c a p i l l a r y flow o f w a t e r c a u s e s t h e s e e l e c t r i c f i e l d s . W e e s t i m a t e , h o w e v e r , that the s e i s m i c s t r e s s e s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o d u c e b r e a k d o w n fields b y this m e c h a n i s m a r e s e v e r a l o r d e r s o f magnitude g r e a t e r than e x i s t during e a r t h q u a k e s . E l e c t r o s t a t i c g e n e r a t i o n b y dust, which i s p r o b a b l y important i n v o l c a n o lightning, is not significant in t h e s e e a r t h q u a k e s . W e p r o p o s e that the p i e z o e l e c t r i c effect i n the E a r t h ' s c r u s t c a u s e s the electric field. T h e only significant p i e z o e l e c t r i c constituent of the c r u s t s e e m s to be quartz. T h e m e r e p r e s e n c e o f q u a r t z i s not sufficient; t h e r e m u s t b e the right kind of long r a n g e c r y s t a l l i n e o r d e r or t e x t u r e , for e x a m p l e , m 3 : m or » m . T h e e x i s t e n c e and magnitude o f just such o r d e r a r e known f r o m p i e z o electric prospecting for quartz-bearing o r e s . The range of order relevant to the s e i s m o e l e c t r i c effect is the wavelength of s e i s m i c w a v e s ("-2 k m ) . Natural g e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of this s i z e m a y exhibit effective p i e z o e l e c t r i c coefficients of the o r d e r of s e v e r a l p e r cent that of x cut single c r y s t a l quartz. The long r a n g e o r d e r i m p l i e d b y these m e a s u r e m e n t s i s p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t of the s t r e s s h i s t o r y s h a r e d by r o c k s in one tectonic unit. At the r e l e v a n t t e m p e r a t u r e s the z a x e s of q u a r t z c r y s t a l s tend to line up along the principal d i r e c t i o n (eigenvector) of g r e a t e s t s t r e s s . In one r o c k , for e x a m p l e , 50 p e r cent of the z a x e s a r e within 6 . 4 d e g r e e s of the principal s t r e s s d i r e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p r o c e s s e s which can then o r d e r the x a x e s of the z o r d e r e d quartz g r a i n s . S e c o n d a r y s t r e s s e s m a y o r d e r the flats o f q u a r t z g r a i n s b y m e c h a n i c a l action, thus o r d e r i n g the x a x e s up to s e n s e . An o r d e r i n g of t h e i r s e n s e s o c c u r s in the e l i m i n a t i o n of Dauphine twinning by a shift in the d i r e c t i o n o f principal s t r e s s . In r o c k with a m e a n p i e z o e l e c t r i c coefficient s e v e r a l p e r cent that of x cut s i n g l e c r y s t a l q u a r t z , and with typical s e i s m i c s t r e s s c h a n g e s 3 0 - 3 0 0 b a r s , a n earthquake m a k e s an a v e r a g e e l e c t r i c field of 5 0 0 - 5 , 0 0 0 V cm"*-. F o r d i s t a n c e s of the o r d e r of half the s e i s m i c wavelength, the g e n e r a t e d voltage is 5 x 1 0 ^ to 5 x 1 0 ^ V, which is c o m p a r a b l e with the v o l t a g e r e s p o n s i b l e for lightning in s t o r m s . T h e i m p e d a n c e p r e s e n t e d to this g e n e r a t o r by a thin s t r a t u m of c o n ductive s o i l or by conduction through the r o c k i t s e l f d o e s not significantly load it at typical s e i s m i c f r e q u e n c i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , the North Idu peninsula earthquake of N o v e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 3 0 , the b e s t d o c u m e n t e d i n s t a n c e of s e i s m o e l e c t r i c i t y (over fifteen hundred s i g h t i n g s ) , o c c u r r e d in a r e g i o n with w i d e s p r e a d quartz r i c h l a v a f l o w s . T h e g e o l o g y and p e t r o l o g y of this a r e a h a v e b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y t r e a t e d by Kuno; near M t . Hakone, the a p p r o x i m a t e c e n t r e of earthquake lightning, m o s t of the l a v a flows contain between 15 and 30 p e r cent by weight of f r e e s i l i c a , u s u a l l y in the f o r m of q u a r t z . S o m e r o c k s contain u p t o 4 3 p e r cent f r e e q u a r t z . T h e r o c k s a r e u s u a l l y c r y s t a l l i n e and r a r e l y g l a s s y . In addition to t h e s e l a v a flows t h e r e a r e many r e g i o n s with e x p o s e d d i k e s and plugs which contain l a r g e amounts of quartz and which h a v e c r y s t a l l i z e d v e r y s l o w l y . One p a r t i c u l a r q u a r t z d i o r i t e plug north of M t .

G2-144

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

GQE-023

Hakone f o r m s a w h o l e mountain, Y a g u r a - d a k e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 km a c r o s s . T h i s plug is only a few km north of the a c t i v e Hakone fault along which t h e r e was e x t e n s i v e s l i p p a g e during the earthquake of N o v e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 3 0 . The whole North Idu r e g i o n has b e e n undergoing tectonic p r o c e s s e s s i n c e the l a t e T e r t i a r y with consequent s t r o n g regional s h e a r i n g s t r e s s e s . Thus we conclude that e x t e n s i v e l o n g r a n g e o r d e r i n g of q u a r t z r i c h r o c k s has p r o b a b l y taken p l a c e in this r e g i o n . These calculations make certain predictions possible. W e expect that field m e a s u r e m e n t s will show ground v o l t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s in the North Idu r e g i o n during e a r t h q u a k e s , d i f f e r e n c e s s o m e t i m e s l a r g e enough t o c a u s e a t m o s pheric e l e c t r i c d i s c h a r g e s . I t s u r p r i s e s u s that while minute p i e z o m a g n e t i c fields of s e i s m i c o r i g i n h a v e b e e n e x p l o r e d , no attention s e e m s to h a v e b e e n paid t o such g r o s s p i e z o e l e c t r i c f i e l d s . T h e r e should a l s o b e v e r y l o w f r e q u e n c y e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c radiation f r o m s e i s m o e l e c t r i c w a v e s ranging f r o m 10 H z , the a p p r o x i m a t e upper f r e q u e n c y of s e i s m i c w a v e s , to well b e l o w 1 H z , and f r o m t r a n s i e n t s t r e s s c h a n g e s at higher frequencies. The s e i s m i c w a v e s p r o v i d e an effective 1 km** antenna c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t of s o m e 1 to 10 A with a s p e c t r a l m a x i m u m near 1. 5 H z , the a p p r o x i m a t e m a x i m u m f o r s e i s m i c w a v e s . T h e radiation t a k e s p l a c e into the a t m o s p h e r i c c a v i t y w h o s e fundamental frequency is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 H z . E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c radiation f r o m 1. 5 Hz s e i s m i c w a v e s will be of l o w p o w e r (<<1 W ) but radiation f r o m h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y t r a n s i e n t s will b e much m o r e intense. T h e r e w i l l a l s o b e e l e c t r i c a l p r e c u r s o r s t o earthquakes r e s u l t i n g f r o m c h a n g e s in s t r e s s n e a r earthquake f o c i . T h e r e is a tradition in Japan of p r e dicting e a r t h q u a k e s , s o m e t i m e s with g r e a t saving of l i f e , f r o m unusual c l e a r sky lightning. It m a y be p o s s i b l e to put this kind of prediction on a m o r e s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s using m o r e s e n s i t i v e and quantitative e l e c t r i c m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s than earthquake lightning.

GQE-023

EARTHQUAKE AT ANCHOR

A n o n y m o u s ; Journal of the F r a n k l i n Institute, 2 3 : 3 0 8 , 1 8 3 7 . T h e following notes, m a d e on b o a r d H. M. S. V o l a g e , while at anchor in C a l l a o R o a d s , during the s e v e r e earthquake which o c c u r r e d in M a r c h , 1 8 2 8 , a r e of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t . We understand, that part of the chain c a b l e of the V o l a g e which was e x p o s e d to its e f f e c t s , f r o m being then in u s e , is now in the p o s s e s s i o n o f that l e a r n e d g e n t l e m a n , M r . F a r a d a y . M a r c h 3 0 , 1 8 2 8 . The m o r n i n g c l e a r , and a light b r e e z e f r o m the s o u t h w a r d . At 7h. 2 8 m . a b l a c k thin cloud p a s s e d o v e r the ship, with v e r y h e a v y distant thunder. At the s a m e m o m e n t we felt the s h o c k of a s e v e r e earthquake. I should think it continued seventy or eighty s e c o n d s . The ship t r e m b l e d v i o lently, and the only thing I c a n c o m p a r e it to i s , the ship being placed on t r u c k s , and d r i v e n with rapidity o v e r c o a r s e paved ground. T h e ship w a s m o o r e d with two c h a i n - c a b l e s , and on weighing the anchors a few d a y s after, we found 56 links of the b e s t b o w e r c a b l e m u c h injured; the i r o n had the a p p e a r ance of being m e l t e d , and nearly o n e - s i x t h of the link was d e s t r o y e d . This p i e c e w a s 30 f a t h o m s f r o m the a n c h o r , and 20 f a t h o m s f r o m the ship. The b o t t o m w a s soft m u d , in which the c a b l e w a s b u r i e d . During the earthquake the w a t e r alongside was full of little b u b b l e s ; the breaking of t h e m sounded like r e d - h o t iron put into w a t e r . The city of L i m a suffered c o n s i d e r a b l y , and a

G2-145

GQE-024

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

number of lives w e r e lost. T h i s s e v e r e shock was felt f o r nearly one hundred m i l e s north and south of L i m a . W a s the black cloud connected with the event in a causal f a s h i o n ?

GQE-024

T H E E A R T H Q U A K E O F 1811 A T NEW M A D R I D , M I S S O U R I

Dudley, T i m o t h y ; Smithsonian Institution Annual R e p o r t , 1 8 5 8 , G o v e r n m e n t Printing Washington, 1 8 5 9 . pp. 4 2 1 - 4 2 4 . Hot w a t e r and "soot" d e p o s i t s a c c o m p a n y s o m e of the great e a r t h q u a k e s , following e x c e r p t s d e m o n s t r a t e . as the

W h e r e the t r a v e l l e d , beaten road ran one d a y , on the next might be found s o m e l a r g e f i s s u r e c r o s s i n g it, half filled with muddy, torpid w a t e r . It w a s d a n g e r o u s to t r a v e l after d a r k , f o r no one knew the c h a n g e s which an hour might effect in the f a c e of the country, and yet so g e n e r a l w a s the t e r r o r that m e n , w o m e n , and children fled to the highlands to avoid being engulphed in one c o m m o n grave. One f a m i l y , in t h e i r e f f o r t s to r e a c h the highlands by a road they all w e r e well acquainted with, unexpectedly c a m e to the b o r d e r s of an e x t e n s i v e lake; the land had sunk, and w a t e r had flowed o v e r it or gushed up out of the earth and f o r m e d a new l a k e . The opposite s h o r e they felt confident could not be far distant, and they t r a v e l l e d on in tepid w a t e r , f r o m twelve to forty inches in depth, of a t e m p e r a t u r e of 100 d e g r e e s , or o v e r blood heat, at t i m e s of a warmth to be u n c o m f o r t a b l e , for the d i s t a n c e of four or five m i l e s , and r e a c h e d the highlands in safety, (p. 4 2 2 ) The weather was w a r m and s m o k y , and had been so for s o m e d a y s , not a breath of air s t i r r i n g , and so thick and s m o k y that the Kentucky s h o r e , one m i l e distant, could not be seen at a l l . They w e r e in a b a l m y Indian s u m m e r . The m o r n i n g after the f i r s t shock, a s s o m e m e n w e r e c r o s s i n g the M i s s i s s i p p i , they s a w a b l a c k s u b s t a n c e floating on the r i v e r , in s t r i p s four or five r o d s in breadth by twelve or fourteen r o d s in length, r e s e m b l i n g soot f r o m s o m e i m m e n s e c h i m n e y , o r the c i n d e r s f r o m s o m e gigantic s t o v e - p i p e . I t w a s s o thick that the w a t e r c o u l d not be s e e n under it. On the Kentucky side of the r i v e r t h e r e e m p t i e s into the M i s s i s s i p p i r i v e r two s m a l l s t r e a m s , one called the Obine, the other the F o r k e d D e e r . Lieutenant Robinson, a recruiting officer in the United States a r m y , visited that part of Kentucky lying between t h o s e two r i v e r s in 1 8 1 2 , and states that he found n u m b e r l e s s little mounds thrown up in the e a r t h , and where a stick or a broken l i m b of a t r e e l a y a c r o s s t h e s e mounds they w e r e all burnt in two p i e c e s , which went to prove to the people that t h e s e c o m m o t i o n s w e r e caused by s o m e internal action of f i r e , (p. 423) W a s this heat of g e o t h e r m a l or e l e c t r i c a l o r i g i n ?

G2-146

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
GQE-025 AUDUBON'S ACCOUNT OF THE NEW M A D R I D EARTHQUAKE

GQE-026

Fuller, M . L . ; Science, 2 1 : 7 4 8 - 7 4 9 , May 1 2 , 1905. T h e following quotation i s f r o m Audubon's j o u r n a l s . T r a v e l i n g through the B a r r e n s of Kentucky * * * in the month of N o v e m b e r [ 1 8 1 2 ] , I w a s j o g g i n g on one afternoon, when I r e m a r k e d a sudden and s t r a n g e d a r k n e s s r i s i n g f r o m the w e s t e r n h o r i z o n . A c c u s t o m e d t o our h e a v y s t o r m s o f thunder and r a i n I took no m o r e notice of it, as I thought the s p e e d of my h o r s e might enable me to get u n d e r s h e l t e r of the roof of an acquaintance, who l i v e d not f a r distant, b e f o r e it should c o m e u p . I had p r o c e e d e d about a m i l e , when I h e a r d what I i m a g i n e d to be the distant r u m b l i n g of a violent t o r n a d o , on which I s p u r r e d my s t e e d , with a w i s h to g a l l o p as fast as p o s s i b l e to a p l a c e of s h e l t e r ; but it would not do, the animal knew b e t t e r than I what w a s f o r t h c o m i n g , and instead of going f a s t e r , so n e a r l y stopped that I r e m a r k e d he p l a c e d one foot a f t e r another on the ground, with as much p r e c a u t i o n as if walking on a s m o o t h sheet of i c e . I thought he had suddenly foundered, and, speaking to h i m , w a s on the point of d i s m o u n t i n g and l e a d i n g h i m , when he all of a sudden fell a - g r o a n i n g p i t e o u s l y , hung h i s head, s p r e a d out h i s four l e g s a s i f t o s a v e h i m s e l f f r o m falling, and stood s t o c k s t i l l , continuing to g r o a n . I thought my h o r s e w a s about to d i e , and would h a v e sprung f r o m h i s b a c k had a minute m o r e e l a p s e d , but at that instant all the s h r u b s and t r e e s b e g a n to m o v e f r o m t h e i r v e r y r o o t s , the ground r o s e and fell in s u c c e s s i v e f u r r o w s , l i k e the ruffled w a t e r s of a l a k e , and I b e c a m e b e w i l d e r e d in my i d e a s , as I t o o plainly d i s c o v e r e d that all t h i s awful c o m m o t i o n in nature w a s the r e s u l t of an e a r t h q u a k e . * * * The fearful c o n v u l s i o n , h o w e v e r , l a s t e d only a few m i n u t e s , and the h e a v e n s again b r i g h t e n e d a s quickly a s they had b e c o m e o b s c u r e d ; m y h o r s e brought h i s feet to t h e i r natural position, r a i s e d h i s head, and galloped off as if l o o s e and frollicking without a r i d e r . * * *

M o s t interesting,

of c o u r s e ,

i s the " s t r a n g e d a r k n e s s " p r e c e d i n g the quake.

GQE-026

T H E NEW M A D I R D E A R T H Q U A K E

Shepard, Edward M . ; Journal o f G e o l o g y , 1 3 : 4 5 - 6 2 , F e b r u a r y 1 9 0 5 . The c i r c u m s t a n c e of the earthquake h a s b e e n g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d by v a r i o u s o b s e r v e r s , and an e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t e m e n t s in r e g a r d to it h a s b e e n published b y D r . G . C . B r o a d h e a d . I n o r d e r that the phenomena m a y b e m o r e vividly r e c a l l e d b y a l l , w e quote f r o m t h e s e e x t r a c t s : A l e t t e r f r o m L. B r i n g i e r , which had been published in the A m e r i c a n Journal o f S c i e n c e , V o l . I l l , 1 8 2 1 , s t a t e s that the shock w a s felt f o r 2 0 0 m i l e s around. T h e r e s e e m e d to be a blowing out of the e a r t h , bringing up c o a l , wood, sand, e t c . , a c c o m p a n i e d with a r o a r i n g and whistling p r o d u c e d by the i m p e t u o s i t y of the a i r e s c a p i n g f r o m its confinement, which s e e m e d t o i n c r e a s e the h o r r i d d i s o r d e r of t r e e s being blown up, c r a c k e d , and split, and falling by thousands at a time. The s u r f a c e settled, and a b l a c k liquid r o s e to the b e l l y of the h o r s e s , which stood m o t i o n l e s s , struck with panic. A f t e r w a r d the whole s u r f a c e r e m a i n e d c o v e r e d with h o l e s , which r e s e m b l e d s o m a n y c r a t e r s o f v o l c a n o e s , surrounded with a ring of c a r b o n i z e d w o o d , and sand which r o s e for about 7 feet. A few m o n t h s after, t h e s e w e r e sounded and found to e x c e e d 20 feet in

G2-147

GQE-027

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

depth. N o w it is c o v e r e d with ponds and sand h i l l s or m o n t i c u l e s , which a r e found w h e r e the e a r t h w a s f o r m e r l y l o w e s t . T h e r e s e e m e d to be a tendency to c a r b o n i z a t i o n in all v e g e t a b l e s soaking in the p o n d s , produced by t h e s e eruptions. A lake w a s produced 27 m i l e s w e s t of the M i s s i s s i p p i , with t r e e s standing in the w a t e r 3 0 feet d e e p . Another i n t e r e s t i n g account of the earthquake is g i v e n by G o d f r e y L e S i e u r , an old inhabitant of N e w M a d r i d County. He s a y s that The f i r s t s h o c k c a m e a t 2 a . m . , D e c e m b e r 1 6 , 1 8 1 1 , and was s o s e v e r e that big h o u s e s and c h i m n e y s w e r e shaken down, and at h a l f - h o u r i n t e r v a l s light s h o c k s w e r e felt until 7 a. m . , when a r u m b l i n g like distant thunder w a s h e a r d , and in about an instant the e a r t h b e g a n to totter and shake so that p e r s o n s could neither stand nor walk. The e a r t h w a s o b s e r v e d to r o l l in w a v e s a few feet high, with v i s i b l e d e p r e s s i o n s between. By and by t h e s e s w e l l s b u r s t , throwing up l a r g e v o l u m e s of w a t e r , sand, and c o a l . S o m e was p a r t l y coated with what s e e m e d t o b e sulphur. When the s w e l l s b u r s t , f i s s u r e s w e r e left running in a northern and southern d i r e c t i o n , and p a r a l l e l f o r m i l e s . Some w e r e 5 m i l e s l o n g , 4 - 1 / 2 feet d e e p , and 10 feet w i d e . T h e r u m b l i n g appeared t o c o m e f r o m the w e s t and t r a v e l e a s t . Similar shocks were heard at intervals until January 7 , 1 8 1 2 , when another shock c a m e a s s e v e r e a s the f i r s t . T h e n all except two f a m i l i e s left, l e a v i n g behind t h e m all t h e i r p r o p e r t y , which proved to be a total l o s s , as a d v e n t u r e r s c a m e and c a r r i e d off their goods in flat b o a t s to Natchez and N e w O r l e a n s , as w e l l as all t h e i r stock which they c o u l d not s l a u g h t e r . On F e b r u a r y 17 there o c c u r r e d another s e v e r e shock, having the s a m e effect as the o t h e r s , and f o r m i n g fissure s and l a k e s . As the f i s s u r e s v a r i e d in s i z e , the w a t e r , c o a l , and sand w e r e thrown out to different heights of f r o m 5 to 10 feet. B e s i d e s long and n a r r o w f i s s u r e s , t h e r e w e r e o t h e r s o f a n oval o r c i r c u l a r f o r m , making long and d e e p b a s i n s s o m e 100 y a r d s wide, and d e e p enough to retain w a t e r in d r y s e a s o n s . The d a m a g e d and uptorn country e m b r a c e d an a r e a of 1 5 0 m i l e s in c i r c u m f e r e n c e , including the old town of Little P r a i r i e [now c a l l e d C a r u t h e r s v i l l e ] , as the c e n t e r , a l a r g e extent on each side of W h i t e w a t e r , c a l l e d Little R i v e r , a l s o both s i d e s of the St. F r a n c i s in M i s s o u r i and A r k a n s a s . R e e l f o o t L a k e , in T e n n e s s e e , sank 10 feet. (pp. 4 6 - 4 7 )

GQE-027

EVIDENCE OF LONG-PERIOD ACOUSTIC-GRAVITY WAVES LAUNCHED INTO T H E F R E G I O N B Y T H E A L A S K A N E A R T H Q U A K E O F M A R C H 28, 1964

R o w , Ronald V. ; Journal of G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 7 1 : 3 4 3 - 3 4 5 , January 1, 1 9 6 6 . E v i d e n c e of d i s t u r b a n c e s to the i o n o s p h e r e c a u s e d by the A l a s k a n e a r t h quake o f ( 0 3 3 6 U T ) M a r c h 2 8 , 1 9 6 4 , have b e e n published r e c e n t l y b y L e o n a r d and B a r n e s and D a v i e s and B a k e r . T h e data p r e s e n t e d by both p a i r s of authors a r e shown t o b e mutually c o m p a t i b l e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d that the l a r g e l o n g p e r i o d d i s t u r b a n c e s e e n on D o p p l e r r e c o r d s at B o u l d e r and v e r t i c a l sounder i o n o g r a m s at B o u l d e r and other l o c a t i o n s a r e a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of l o n g - p e r i o d ducted a c o u s t i c - g r a v i t y w a v e s launched into the i o n o s p h e r e n e a r the e p i c e n t e r . T h e coupling of e a r t h q u a k e s to the i o n o s p h e r e m a y be c o n n e c t e d with s o m e of the l u m i n o u s , e l e c t r i c a l , and m a g n e t i c e f f e c t s s o m e t i m e s r e p o r t e d . T h e light f l a s h e s and a u r o r a - l i k e d i s p l a y s s e e n during, after, and b e f o r e s o m e earthquakes and c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d "earthquake l i g h t s " m a y be related to the ionization effects d e s c r i b e d a b o v e .

G2-148

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
GQE-028 HOW E A R T H Q U A K E S A F F E C T A N I M A L S

GQE-028

A n o n y m o u s ; A m e r i c a n R e v i e w o f R e v i e w s , 6 9 : 1 0 3 , January 1 9 2 4 . W h i l e our m o d e r n s e i s m o g r a p h s a r e e x t r e m e l y d e l i c a t e , r e g i s t e r i n g the m o s t minute v i b r a t i o n s of the c r u s t of the e a r t h , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p h e n o m e n a connected with e a r t h q u a k e s , a c c o r d i n g to a r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r , which they a r e incapable o f r e c o r d i n g . A m o n g t h e s e a r e the b i o l o g i c a l effects p r o d u c e d upon a n i m a l s , which a r e all the m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g s i n c e they a r e frequently m a n i f e s t e d b e f o r e the shock i t s e l f i s r e g i s t e r e d . This curious c i r c u m s t a n c e s u g g e s t s the u n e a s y forebodings e x p e r i e n c e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o m e o b s e r v e r s b y v a r i o u s a n i m a l s c o n s i d e r a b l y in advance of an e l e c t r i c a l s t o r m . In the Journal of C o m p a r a t i v e P s y c h o l o g y D r . Hans von Hentig of M u n i c h g i v e s the r e s u l t s of h i s studies upon this s u b j e c t , which is of p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t j u s t now b e c a u s e of the v a s t c a t a c l y s m s which have o c c u r r e d within the l a s t twelve or fifteen m o n t h s , f i r s t in the N e w W o r l d and then in the Old. In the o b s e r v e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e both d o g s and f o x e s frequently display g r e a t r e s t l e s s n e s s a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e b e f o r e the o c c u r r e n c e of an earthquake. At other t i m e s on the c o n t r a r y they exhibit a s t r i k i n g l e t h a r g y , a n i m a l s o r d i n a r i l y k e e n s e n s e d and a l e r t appearing to be stupefied. Definite mental d i s t u r b a n c e s a r e often found f o r e x a m p l e , both the a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and the p e r s o n a l devotion of a dog to h i s m a s t e r m a y be g r e a t l y enhanced during the t r e m o r . Cats likew i s e often c a t e r w a u l with a l m o s t u n b e a r a b l e intensity b e f o r e the beginning of a n earthquake, p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e against t h e i r m a s t e r s o r even against e n t i r e s t r a n g e r s . In one c a s e a m o t h e r cat fetched h e r young o n e s as if seeking for human help. Even h a r e s appear to be so altered as to s h o w no f e a r of human kind. H o r s e s a r e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y affected, s o m e t i m e s throwing off the r i d e r , e v e n when the l a t t e r had not h i m s e l f felt the t r e m o r of the earth. H e r r von Hentig a l s o t e l l s us that after s e v e r e earthquakes the natives of the Sunday I s l a n d s a r e a c c u s t o m e d to t h r o w away the e g g s under b r o o d i n g h e n s , s i n c e they a r e c e r t a i n to contain dead c h i c k s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n by the way is one r e c o r d e d b y Pliny a s o c c u r r i n g after s t o r m s . F i s h appear t o b e g r e a t l y excited by e a r t h q u a k e s , leaping m a d l y above the s u r f a c e of the w a t e r , and the author is d i s p o s e d to think that this has m u c h to do with the singular m i g r a t i o n s often o b s e r v e d a m o n g f i s h e s and the fact that many e r s t w h i l e good fishing g r o u n d s , such as the North Sea, m a y be inexplicably d e s e r t e d f o r a t e r m of years. C r o c o d i l e s , which a r e o r d i n a r i l y a s mute a s l i z a r d s , g o r o a r i n g down out the bed of the r i v e r to take refuge in the p r i m e v a l f o r e s t , a thing actually s e e n by A l e x a n d e r v o n Humboldt. In Cuba a t a m e h o u s e snake is kept which f l e e s into the open b e f o r e e v e r y earthquake, thus giving warning to the h o u s e d w e l l e r s . B e e s a r e e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o e a r t h q u a k e s , l e a v i n g their h i v e s i n great e x c i t e ment long b e f o r e the shock is felt, quieting down only after the earthquake h a s passed over. D r . von Hentig c o n c l u d e s that a n i m a l s do not p o s s e s s any t r u e "premonition" but that when a sliding or d i s p l a c e m e n t in the e a r t h - c r u s t t a k e s p l a c e e n e r g i e s a r e set f r e e which a r e p e r c e i v e d by the s e n s o r y apparatus of a n i m a l s . In h i s b e l i e f t h e s e p h y s i c a l phenomena both p r e c e d e and follow as well as a c c o m p a n y the actual t r e m b l i n g of the e a r t h .

G2-149

GQE-029
GQE-029

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
NOTICES OF E A R T H Q U A K E SHOCKS FELT IN G R E A T B R I T A I N

M i l n e , David; Edinburgh N e w Philosophical J o u r n a l , 3 5 : p a g e s a s noted, 1 8 4 3 . In m a n y of the r e p o r t s which have been quoted, notice is taken of i m p r e s s i o n s still m o r e p e c u l i a r , a s connected with the e a r t h q u a k e - s h o c k s . A feeling of n a u s e a w a s e x p e r i e n c e d by m a n y individuals, and which is v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as r e s e m b l i n g " s e a - s i c k n e s s , " " s i c k n e s s , l i k e that felt b e f o r e fainting" "uneasy sensation, which I c a n c o m p a r e only to the f i r s t d i s a g r e e a b l e f e e l i n g s which u s u a l l y p r e c e d e a fit of s e a - s i c k n e s s , " "a m o s t p e c u l i a r s i c k i s h s e n s a t i o n , such as I n e v e r felt b e f o r e . " H e a d a c h e s w e r e p r o d u c e d , a s attested b y the R e v . M r . W a l k e r o n the 12th O c t o b e r , b y M r . Rutherfurd, W . S . , o n the 14th O c t o b e r 1 8 3 9 , and b y M r . Young of Crieff, on the 23d O c t o b e r 1 8 3 9 , all of whom a s c r i b e t h e s e as the effects of s h o c k s which o c c u r r e d on these d a y s . N e r v o u s s e n s a t i o n s of a m o r e indefinite kind a r e spoken to by v a r i o u s individuals. On the 14th O c t o b e r 1 8 3 9 , at the m o m e n t that the shock o c c u r r e d , an individual, though he was not a w a r e of its o c c u r r e n c e , e x p e r i e n c e d "an unusual feeling, which l e d him to suppose that s o m e i l l n e s s was impending. " M r . R o b e r t s o n , who felt the shock of 16th O c t o b e r at Glendevon, on the north s i d e of the O c h i l s , s a y s , "I r e m e m b e r having j u s t b e f o r e , felt as if s o m e s t r a n g e p r e s e n c e had been silently gathering round m e , and could not be shaken off. M r . L a u r i e , the p a r i s h s c h o o l m a s t e r of M o n z i e , s a y s , "the shock of the earthquake on 23d O c t o b e r , affected the n e r v e s d i s a g r e e a b l y , and left a painful i m p r e s s i o n . It r e m i n d s me vividly of the s h o c k f r o m an e l e c t r i c m a c h i n e . "
11

The conviction of t h e r e having been an e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e , was d e c i d e d l y entertained by a n u m b e r of individuals. T h u s , at A l v a , n e a r T i l l i c o u l t r y , two c l e r g y m e n felt as if e l e c t r i f i e d . M r . J e f f r e y , who felt the shock in the C a r s e of F a l k i r k , s a y s , "I m a y mention a c i r c u m s t a n c e which I have not s e e n taken notice of in any account of the l a t e earthquake, and it i s , that I am convinced it was a c c o m p a n i e d with an e l e c t r i c s h o c k . I w a s p e r f e c t l y c a l m and c o l l e c t e d at the t i m e when it c a m e on, and n e v e r had any doubt of what it w a s , n o r was I at all a l a r m e d f o r the c o n s e q u e n c e s . But the feeling produced upon my body, w a s exactly s i m i l a r to what an e l e c t r i c shock h a s in other c i r c u m s t a n c e s had upon m e . " M r . Stein, s u r g e o n at M e n s t r i e , near Stirling (in a report not b e f o r e quoted), s a y s , "I think the a t m o s p h e r e (on the 23d O c t o b e r 1839) w a s highly c h a r g e d with e l e c t r i c i t y , both b e f o r e and at the t i m e when the shock o c c u r r e d . " He s p e a k s of "the slightly redened or lurid a p p e a r a n c e of the a t m o s p h e r e t o w a r d s the S . and S E . , p a r t i c u l a r l y o b s e r v a b l e f o r s e v e r a l evenings p r e c e d ing the s h o c k of the 2 3 d . (pp. 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 )

GQE-030

THE M E N T A L EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKES

A n o n y m o u s ; P o p u l a r S c i e n c e Monthly, 1 9 : 2 5 7 - 2 6 0 , June 1 8 8 1 .

N o physical phenomena, h o w e v e r dreadful, s e e m t o p r o d u c e the s a m e s e n s e o f p a r a l y s i s as e a r t h q u a k e s . A c o r r e s p o n d e n t of Captain B a s i l Hall, who w a s in the earthquake of C o p i a p o , in 1 8 2 2 , d e s c r i b e s the effect on the mind as s o m e thing which b e g i n s b e f o r e any other sign of the earthquake has m a n i f e s t e d itself at all an anticipatory h o r r o r , which is even m o r e m a r k e d in the c a s e

G2-150

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

GQE-030

of the l o w e r a n i m a l s . "Before we h e a r the sound, or at least a r e fully c o n scious of hearing it, we are made sensible, I do not know how, that something uncommon is going to happen; everything s e e m s to change c o l o r ; our thoughts are chained i m m o v a b l y down; the whole world appears to be in d i s o r d e r ; all nature looks different to what it is wont to do; and we feel quite subdued and overwhelmed by s o m e invisible power, beyond human control or apprehension. " In the Neapolitan earthquake of 1 8 0 5 , t h e s e anticipatory signs w e r e m o s t r e markable in relation to the life of the animal world. An Italian w r i t e r , quoted in M r . Wittich's "Curiosities of Physical Geography, " says: "I must not omit in this place to mention those prognostics which w e r e derived f r o m a n i m a l s . They w e r e o b s e r v e d in e v e r y place where the shocks w e r e such as to be generally perceptible. Some minutes b e f o r e they w e r e felt, the oxen and c o w s began to bellow, the sheep and goats bleated, and, rushing in confusion one on the other, tried to break the w i c k e r - w o r k of the folds; the dogs howled t e r r i b l y , the g e e s e and fowls w e r e a l a r m e d and m a d e much noise; the h o r s e s which w e r e fastened in their s t a l l s w e r e greatly agitated, leaped up, and tried to b r e a k the halters with which they were attached to the m a n g e r s ; those which w e r e p r o ceeding on the roads suddenly stopped, and snorted in a very strange way. The cats w e r e frightened, and tried to conceal t h e m s e l v e s , or their hair b r i s t l e d up wildly. Rabbits and m o l e s were seen to leave their holes; b i r d s r o s e , as if s c a r e d , f r o m the places on which they had alighted; and fish left the bottom of the s e a and approached the s h o r e s , where at s o m e places great numbers of them w e r e taken. Even ants and reptiles abandoned, in c l e a r daylight, their subterranean h o l e s in great d i s o r d e r , many hours before the shocks were felt. L a r g e flights of locusts w e r e seen creeping through the streets of Naples toward the sea the night before the earthquake. Winged ants took refuge during the darkness in the r o o m s of the h o u s e s . Some dogs, a few minutes before the first shock took p l a c e , awoke their sleeping m a s t e r s , by barking and pulling them, as if they wished to warn them of the impending danger, and s e v e r a l p e r s o n s w e r e thus enabled to save t h e m s e l v e s . " What it i s , before the sound or shock of earthquake is felt, which warns both animals and human beings of the approach of s o m e dreadful catastrophe threatening the very b a s i s of their existence, no one, of c o u r s e , can say, since the i m p r e s s i o n made upon the nervous s y s t e m i s , at l e a s t as r e g a r d s our own s p e c i e s , evidently one of g e n e r al disturbance, and not one to which experience attaches any explicit significance. It m a y b e , of c o u r s e , that s o m e very great change in the magnetic conditions of a spot threatened with earthquake leads to that e x t r e m e excitement of mind e x hibited by all living c r e a t u r e s previous to the onset of the earthquake. That, however, is pure conjecture. What is interesting i s , that a certain blank c o n sternation s e e m s always to be the characteristic herald of an earthquake, as well as the characteristic result. That it should be the characteristic result i s , of c o u r s e , no wonder. The very condition of human life is the solidity of the not v e r y thick e a r t h - c r u s t on which we live, and when that solidity is exchanged for positive fluidity, as it is in the worst earthquakes, it is natural enough that stepefaction should be the result.

The remainder of the article is mainly philosophical in nature with s o m e description of the destructive consequences of earthquakes, concluding as follows: M o r a l l y , then, the only use of earthquakes must be to test the growth of a spiritual faith in a world and life beyond the reach of earthquakes. C l e a r l y it can not strengthen or educate such a faith. It can only sift the false faith f r o m the true, and accord to the true its triumph.

G2-151

GQE-031
GQE-031

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
SOME R E C E N T E A R T H Q U A K E T H E O R I E S

Gill, H. V. ; Nineteenth Century, 6 3 : 1 4 4 - 1 5 0 , January 1 9 0 8 . The only unusual ideas (for the y e a r 1908) e x p r e s s e d in this article are: (1) the connection of earthquakes with motions of the p o l e s , and (2) the s y m m e t r i c a l l o c a tions of earthquakes. One of the first fruits of this detailed accumulation of facts is the relationship indicated between the o c c u r r e n c e of earthquakes and other natural p h e n o m e na. Thus it has been shown that earthquakes are somewhat m o r e frequent at full moon than at h a l f - m o o n , and when she is near the earth than when she is far off. They are a l s o m o r e frequent at the equinoxes than at the s o l s t i c e s . In these c a s e s the difference i s , however, slight, but the result is of i m p o r tance as confirming the generally accepted view that the sun and moon produce in the solid crust of the earth a s m a l l tide-like effect. Other connections have a l s o been detected, such as that with t e m p e r a t u r e , magnetic phenomena, the aurora, b a r o m e t r i c variations, s e a s o n s of the y e a r and t i m e s of the day and night, all of which have been shown to be m o r e or l e s s m a r k e d . However, the one which is of special interest for us in the present consideration is the c l o s e , though not v e r y obvious connection which has been shown to exist between c e r tain motions of the earth's poles and the frequency of earthquakes.

T h e s e m o v e m e n t s m a y be illustrated by the uneven running of a machine when the fly-wheel is not well balanced, or even better by the erroneous path of a ' b o w l , ' due to the b i a s . Some interesting calculations have been made of the amount of pole displacement which could be produced by modifications in the present distribution of sea and land on the earth's surface, and Sir G. H. Darwin finds that the pole might be moved through s e v e r a l d e g r e e s . Lord Kelvin calculated that an elevation through 6 0 0 feet, of a portion of the earth's surface having an a r e a of 1000 square m i l e s , and ten feet thick, would alter the position of the e a r t h ' s axis by 0 . 3 " (about thirty-four feet). At first sight these m a y s e e m s m a l l quantities in c o m p a r i s o n with other astronomical numb e r s , but the m a s s of the earth which is shaken is v e r y great, so that the amount of energy involved is e n o r m o u s . We shall s e e presently that in the c a s e of l a r g e earthquakes v e r y much g r e a t e r m a s s e s m a y be in question. Some twenty y e a r s ago P r o f e s s o r Milne called attention to the relationship that appeared to exist between the frequency of earthquakes and i r r e g u l a r movements of the p o l e s . He has given much attention to the examination of these phenomena, and, as the result of a v e r y careful and exhaustive investigation, h a s arrived at the conclusion that the y e a r s of greatest pole movements are also y e a r s of m a x i m u m earthquake frequency, and c o n v e r s e l y , that great s e i s m i c activity s e e m s to be followed by m o r e m a r k e d pole displacements. Sir G. H. Darwin suggested that earthquakes tend to adjust the figure of the earth to one of equilibrium about its instantaneous a x i s .

F r o m the considerations we have already dealt with it is c l e a r that the principles thus illustrated m a y be applied to our globe. The sudden disturbance of a l a r g e tract of the earth's surface c o r r e s p o n d s to the addition of a ball to the hollow top, and the s a m e c a u s e s that tend to send the other ball to the opposite side would, in the c a s e of the earth, c a u s e disturbances in other places s y m m e t r i c a l l y placed with regard to the original earthquake; these

G2-152

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

GQE-031

r e m a r k s apply p a r t i c u l a r l y t o p l a c e s n e a r the e q u a t o r . It must be r e m e m b e r e d that t h e c a s e o f t h e e a r t h i s n o t a s s i m p l e a s that o f t h e t o p , s i n c e g r a v i t a t i o n m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , and a l s o f o r the fact that the total m a s s r e m a i n s constant i n the s a m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . However, mathematical investigations s h o w that a s u b s i d e n c e f o r e x a m p l e a t o n e p l a c e w i l l t e n d t o p r o d u c e a c o u n t e r disturbance in a c o r r e s p o n d i n g locality. T h e s i m p l e s t c a s e w o u l d b e that o f two disturbances at opposite ends of a diameter following c l o s e l y on each other. A m o r e unusual o c c u r r e n c e would be three disturbances in p l a c e s equally d i s tant. T h e s e v i e w s w e r e first s u g g e s t e d with r e f e r e n c e t o the latter p h e n o m e n o n . T h e m o n t h o f A p r i l 1906 w a s r e m a r k a b l e f o r t h r e e g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e s . A s e r i o u s e r u p t i o n o f V e s u v i u s t o o k p l a c e o n t h e 8 t h ; o n t h e 14th a v e r y s e v e r e e a r t h q u a k e o c c u r r e d i n F o r m o s a ; w h i l e o n the 18th San F r a n c i s c o w a s d e s t r o y e d . T h e s e t h r e e p l a c e s a r e not o n l y o n a l m o s t t h e s a m e p a r a l l e l o f l a t i t u d e , b u t a r e as nearly as p o s s i b l e equally distant. T h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o g e t h e r with the f a c t that t h e y a l l t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n a f e w d a y s o f e a c h o t h e r , s u g g e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e e x i s t i n g , a m o n g t h e m , s o m e s u c h c o n n e c t i o n a s that a l r e a d y pointed out. I n a w o r d , the p o s i t i o n o f San F r a n c i s c o i s s u c h that, i n this v i e w , a n e a r t h q u a k e i n that q u a r t e r o f the g l o b e w a s a n e v e n t t o b e a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h s o m e degree of probability. That such a n event c o u l d b e f o r e t o l d i s not s u g g e s t e d , but, as we s h a l l s e e p r e s e n t l y , a p r o b a b i l i t y of a d i s t u r b a n c e in that part of North A m e r i c a could have been scientifically indicated. I n the m e e t i n g o f the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , P r o f e s s o r M i l n e d e a l t a t s o m e l e n g t h w i t h t h e t h e o r y s e t f o r t h a b o v e , and s t a t e d t h e r e s u l t o f a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e S h i d e (I. o f W . ) r e c o r d s m a d e b y h i m t o t e s t t h e e v i d e n c e a f f o r d e d b y p a s t g r e a t e a r t h q u a k e s i n f a v o u r o f that v i e w . His r e s e a r c h e s s e e m t o i n d i c a t e a v e r y r e m a r k a b l e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n f a c t s and t h e o r y . His c o n c l u s i o n had b e s t b e g i v e n i n h i s o w n w o r d s : T o t e s t w h e t h e r the m e m b e r s o f the g r o u p s e x h i b i t s o m e s y m m e t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s p a c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o that p r o p o s e d , t h e e a r t h q u a k e s w h i c h h a v e o r i g i n a t e d i n d i s t r i c t s s e p a r a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r b y 180 d e g r e e s i n l o n g i t u d e , but o n the s a m e l a t i t u d e , h a v e b e e n c o m p a r e d with e a c h o t h e r . . . . I n 1899 and 1 9 0 5 , w h i c h a r e y e a r s w h e n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o r i g i n s e x h i b i t e d m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e s , 126 e a r t h q u a k e s w e r e r e c o r d e d . Twenty of these d i s t r i c t s . . . . T h e a v e r a g e interval b e t w e e n the o c c u r r e n c e of e a r t h q u a k e s s u c h a s a r e h e r e c o n s i d e r e d h a s , d u r i n g t h e l a s t s i x and a h a l f y e a r s , b e e n s e v e n t y t w o h o u r s , and n e a r l y a l l h a v e o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e t e n d i s t r i c t s . One inference f r o m t h i s i s t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t i m e and s p a c e o f t h e a b o v e t e n p a i r s m a y not b e anything m o r e than c h a n c e . Whether this is to be a c c e p t e d as g e n e r a l l y t r u e r e m a i n s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d b y a m o r e c o m p l e t e and e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f registers. Not o n l y s h o u l d l a r g e e a r t h q u a k e s b e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i r k i n d , b u t a l s o with s m a l l e a r t h q u a k e s and v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n s . A few c a s e s of triplets could also be pointed out. F r o m these facts it f o l l o w s that i n t h e d i s t r i c t s m e n t i o n e d t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n s o m e f o u n d a t i o n f o r the b e l i e f that a n e a r t h q u a k e i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s t r i c t m i g h t o c c u r ; arguing m e r e l y f r o m the f i g u r e s just g i v e n the c h a n c e s against such an event w e r e about ten to o n e . N o doubt i f s m a l l e r s h o c k s had b e e n e x a m i n e d a s w e l l as v o l c a n i c eruptions many m o r e i n s t a n c e s would be found. It is interesting t o n o t e that t h e e a r t h q u a k e a t V a l p a r a i s o o n t h e 17th o f A u g u s t i n t h e s a m e y e a r 1 9 0 6 w a s f o l l o w e d a f e w d a y s l a t e r b y o n e i n N o r t h - w e s t A u s t r a l i a ; and a s h o c k in the D u t c h W e s t - I n d i e s on the 27th of S e p t e m b e r by o n e at C a l c u t t a on the 29th. T h e s e p l a c e s a r e e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e e a c h o t h e r , and o n t h e s a m e p a r a l l e l .

G2-153

GQE-032
GQE-032

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA
[ E A R T H Q U A K E S CAUSE EARTH'S WOBBLE] 1914.

A n o n y m o u s ; Nature, 9 3 : 2 7 6 , M a y 1 4 ,

The R e v . H. V. G i l l has sent us a reprint of h i s p a p e r read at the l a s t m e e t i n g of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n on the distribution of l a r g e earthquakes in t i m e and s p a c e . M r . G i l l ' s t h e o r y is that a great m a s s - d i s p l a c e m e n t of the c r u s t , such as o c c u r s during a violent earthquake, g i v e s r i s e to a "wobble" or u n e v e n n e s s in the rotation of the e a r t h , which is neutralised by other m a s s d i s p l a c e m e n t s o c c u r r i n g e i t h e r in a distant r e g i o n or r e g i o n s s y m m e t r i c a l l y placed along the g r e a t c i r c l e through the o r i g i n , or of d i s p l a c e m e n t s in the opposite d i r e c t i o n in the neighbourhood of the o r i g i n . To t e s t this v i e w , he h a s e x a m i n e d the distribution of the 8 8 9 w o r l d - s h a k i n g earthquakes r e c o r d e d by the s e i s m o l o g i c a l c o m m i t t e e of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . He finds that 6 7 4 (or t h r e e out of e v e r y four) great earthquakes o c c u r r e d in g r o u p s , s u c c e s s i v e m e m b e r s of which w e r e s e p a r a t e d by a week or l e s s , while the r e m a i n i n g 2 1 5 w e r e i s o l a t e d d i s t u r b a n c e s . Of the f o r m e r , 163 (or 1 8 . 6 p e r cent, of the whole) belonged to g r o u p s of two or m o r e earthquakes o c c u r r i n g at different p l a c e s s y m m e t r i c a l l y situated with r e f e r e n c e to the o r i g i n of the f i r s t e a r t h quake of a g r o u p ; 5 1 1 (or 5 7 . 1 p e r cent) w e r e m e m b e r s of g r o u p s o c c u r r i n g at o r near the s a m e p l a c e . N o attempt, h o w e v e r , i s m a d e t o show that the d i s p l a c e m e n t s of individual g r o u p s of the l a t t e r c l a s s o c c u r r e d in opposite d i r e c tions.

O b v i o u s l y , the c a u s a l connection between earthquakes and the e a r t h ' s wobble is by no m e a n s a m o d e r n o n e .

GQE-033

E A R T H ' S SPEED C H A N G E D B Y ITS P A L P I T A T I O N S

Anonymous; Literary Digest, 100:32, February 9, 1929. T h i s w i n t e r ' s violent quakes m a y be due to s h r i n k a g e of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t , speeding u p its rotation, w e a r e told b y D r . E . E . F r e e , i n the N e w Y o r k Evening P o s t . That the e a r t h ' s speed of rotation d o e s a l t e r , has been e s t a b l i s h ed, h e s a y s , b y m e a s u r e m e n t s m a d e under the a u s p i c e s o f Prof. E . W . B r o w n , a Yale astronomer. Writes Dr. Free: "The fundamental things to be r e m e m b e r e d in connection with earthquakes i s that they a r e p e r i o d i c . T h e r e a r e t i m e s when t h e r e a r e many, and t i m e s when t h e r e a r e few. And nobody knows why. "The t h e o r y that now holds ground as to their c a u s a t i o n is that the s p e e d of the rotation of the earth v a r i e s slightly f r o m t i m e to t i m e . The l a w of this variation h a s not b e e n d e t e r m i n e d . It amounts to only a s m a l l fraction of a second p e r y e a r , but that s m a l l fraction, it is b e l i e v e d , is due to a c o n t r a c t i o n o r expansion o f the e a r t h ' s c r u s t . T h i s s p e e d has b e e n m e a s u r e d a s t r o n o m i c a l l y b y D r . E r n e s t W . B r o w n , Sterling P r o f e s s o r o f M a t h e m a t i c s a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , who h a s done the m o s t notable w o r k in this field. " A s t o what can b e producing this, the m o s t r e a s o n a b l e hypothesis s h a r e d by m o s t e x p e r t s is that the s i z e of the e a r t h ' s d i a m e t e r changes slightly f r o m t i m e to t i m e . T h i s b r i n g s about an a c c e l e r a t i o n of rotation by the p r i n c i p l e of the c o n s e r v a t i o n of angular m o m e n t u m .

G2-154

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

GQE-034

"It is b e s t explained in this way: If you take any spinning f l y - w h e e l and m a k e it shrink, it will r e v o l v e m o r e r a p i d l y . A g a i n , if you can induce a planet to take a s m a l l e r o r b i t , i t s s p e e d will i n c r e a s e . "If the equatorial d i a m e t e r of the e a r t h i n c r e a s e s so m u c h as a fraction of an inch, the earth w i l l m o v e m o r e s l o w l y and, a c c o r d i n g l y , if the equatorial bulk d e c r e a s e s , the e a r t h will m o v e m o r e r a p i d l y . " T h e r e is a good deal of e v i d e n c e to indicate that this variation is a c c o m panied by an i n c r e a s e and d e c r e a s e in the n u m b e r of e a r t h q u a k e s . It is a r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , that the shrinking and s w e l l i n g of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t set up a s t r a i n in the m a s s , which anybody can s e e would p r o d u c e c o n v u l sions."

GQE-034

EARTHQUAKES A N D THE EARTH'S WOBBLE

Manshina, L. , and S m y l i e , D. E. ; S c i e n c e , 1 6 1 : 1 1 2 7 - 1 1 2 9 , S e p t e m b e r 1 3 , 1 9 6 8 . (Copyright 1 9 6 8 by the A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n for the A d v a n c e m e n t of Science)

It has been known for o v e r 80 y e a r s that the e a r t h ' s a x i s of rotation m o v e s with r e s p e c t t o a n o b s e r v a t o r y c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . T o earthbound o b s e r v e r s this r e p r e s e n t s a v a r i a t i o n of the a s t r o n o m i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d latitude. Viewed f r o m s p a c e , it r e p r e s e n t s a wobble of the e a r t h about its rotation a x i s . T h e o b s e r v e d m o t i o n is m o s t conveniently d i s p l a y e d as the path of the instantaneous north pole of rotation. In 1 8 9 1 , S. C. C h a n d l e r i s o l a t e d a c o m p o n e n t of a 1 4 - m o n t h p e r i o d f r o m the latitude o b s e r v a t i o n s . R i g i d - b o d y d y n a m i c s g i v e s a 1 0 - m o n t h p e r i o d f o r the e a r t h ' s natural wobble, but the l o n g e r o b s e r v e d period can be r e c o n c i l e d with theory if a l l o w a n c e is m a d e for rotational d e f o r m a t i o n . The motion is now c a l l e d the C h a n d l e r wobble. The accompanying rotational d e f o r m a t i o n i m p l i e s that the C h a n d l e r wobble m u s t be subject to damping, and t h e r e f o r e a m o r e or l e s s continuous excitation is r e q u i r e d to maintain it. Identifying the s o u r c e of the excitation has r e m a i n e d one of the p r i n c i p a l p r o b l e m s in studies of the e a r t h ' s rotation. We now r e p o r t e v i d e n c e in support of t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s which led to the hypothesis that l a r g e earthquakes p r o v i d e the hitherto unidentified excitation, (p. 1 1 2 7 )

A connection b e t w e e n earthquakes and the m o t i o n of the pole had b e e n s u g gested v e r y e a r l y in the h i s t o r y of latitude o b s e r v a t i o n s . Until r e c e n t l y the d i s p l a c e m e n t fields of e v e n the g r e a t e s t earthquakes w e r e thought to extend to no m o r e than a few hundred k i l o m e t e r s f r o m the f o c u s . T h u s , e s t i m a t e s of the contribution of earthquakes to the C h a n d l e r wobble excitation fell s e v e r a l o r d e r s of magnitude short of the o b s e r v e d l e v e l . The p r e v a i l i n g v i e w on the extent of earthquake d i s p l a c e m e n t fields w a s d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d by the work of P r e s s . Both the theoretical p r e d i c t i o n s of e l a s t i c i t y t h e o r y and distant s t r a i n m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e adduced to a r g u e that a m e a s u r a b l e d i s p l a c e m e n t field m a y extend to e p i c e n t r a l d i s t a n c e s of s e v e r a l thousand k i l o m e t e r s for a g r e a t earthquake. W h e n the effect of such l a r g e - s c a l e d e f o r m a t i o n of the earth w a s c a l c u l a t e d for a n u m b e r of individual e a r t h q u a k e s , and when an e s t i m a t e of the c u m u l a t i v e effect w a s m a d e on the b a s i s of earthquake s t a t i s t i c s , it was found that e a r t h -

G2-155

GQE-035

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA

quakes could account for both the excitation of the Chandler wobble and a slow secular shift of the m e a n pole of rotation (p. 1127)

GQE-035

WHY C H A N D L E R WOBBLE?

Anonymous; Nature, 2 2 7 , 8 8 9 , August 2 9 , 1 9 7 0 . What follows is a nice s u m m a r y of the wobble-earthquake question as of 1 9 7 0 . Although the Chandler wobble, the p r e c e s s i o n of the Earth's axis of figure about the axis of rotation, was discovered in 1 8 9 1 , its c a u s e is still a m y s t e r y . T h e r e a r e , in fact, two separate puzzles involved the source of the excitations which produce the wobble of amplitude about 0. 5", and the width of the spectral peak which indicates that the period of fourteen months v a r i e s within + 4 per cent. The s i m p l e s t explanation for the varying period is that it r e s u l t s from continuous excitation of a mechanical s y s t e m whose natural period changes with t i m e ; but it is unlikely that physical changes in the Earth would produce the observed variations over t i m e s as short as a y e a r . Alternatively, the Earth could have a fixed Chandler period produced by random excitations which are subject to damping. T h i s is much m o r e reasonable, especially as theoretical calculations of the period turn out to be about 1. 20 y e a r s . But what energy s o u r c e maintains the random o s c i l l a t i o n s ? During recent y e a r s it has b e c o m e popular to imagine that this source is earthquakes; and this view has received considerable support f r o m theoretical calculations which show that, given the right conditions, one l a r g e earthquake could produce 10 per cent or m o r e of the observed Chandler wobble amplitude. If a single e a r t h quake can do this, it s e e m s intuitively likely that all earthquakes together could account for the whole of the Chandler wobble. B e n - M e n a h e m and I s r a e l (Geophys. J . , 1 9 , 3 6 7 ; 1 9 7 0 ) , however, are m o r e p e s s i m i s t i c . They show that a single shallow earthquake of magnitude 8. 5, occurring at a suitable latitude and with a favourable s t r i k e - a z i m u t h , could maintain the Chandler wobble for about a y e a r — a n d yet they conclude, paradoxically, that the total number of real earthquakes could account for only about 30 p e r cent of the observed wobble a m p l i tude and corresponding s e c u l a r polar shift. The r e a s o n i s , of course* that the s e c u l a r polar shift produced by an e a r t h quake is c r i t i c a l l y dependent net only on the shock's magnitude but on its position and its s t r i k e and s o u r c e p a r a m e t e r s . An earthquake of magnitude 8. 5 may maintain the Chandler wobble for a year under optimum conditions; but an earthquake of that magnitude only o c c u r s about once e v e r y 4 y e a r s , and when it d o e s the conditions for Chandler excitation a r e far f r o m optimum. If all the annual s e i s m i c energy w e r e to be released in a single shallow s t r i k e - s l i p rupture on a meridional fault located at the equator, then again the resulting annual shock would be sufficient to drive the Chandler wobble for e v e r . In p r a c t i c e , c i r c u m stances are far l e s s favourable. It is important to r e a l i z e , however, that B e n - M e n a h e m and I s r a e l have d e rived their conclusions f r o m a mathematical m o d e l . It turns out to be a model which is considerably m o r e favourable to the excitation of Chandler wobble by earthquakes than m o d e l s previously used to d e s c r i b e the s a m e e f f e c t — b u t it is a model none the l e s s , and is therefore subject to simplifying assumptions. Thus B e n - M a n a h e m and I s r a e l have not proved conclusively that earthquakes do not account for Chandler wobble b e c a u s e s o m e assumptions may not be valid and modifying conditions may remain to be d i s c o v e r e d . F o r this reason, we have certainly not heard the last of earthquakes as the s o u r c e of Chandler wobble.

G2-156

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
GQS-001

GQS-001

ON R E M A R K A B L E L U N A R PERIODICITIES IN EARTHQUAKES, E X T R A O R D I N A R Y OSCILLATIONS OF THE SEA, A N D G R E A T ATMOSPHERICAL CHANGES

Edmonds, Richard, j u n . ; Report of the British A s s o c i a t i o n , 2 0 - 2 2 , 1 8 4 5 , The following nine days r e m a r k a b l e for earthquakes, extraordinary o s c i l l a tions of the sea, or v e r y unusual states of the a t m o s p h e r e , o c c u r r e d near the moon's first q u a r t e r s , at s u c c e s s i v e intervals of about four lunations each. 1 8 4 2 , N o v e m b e r 9. Earthquake at Montreal and other parts of Canada, when "the w a t e r s of the St. Lawrence w e r e violently agitated. " T h i s w s the S day before the moon's first quarter. On the 11th, tfee day after it, the b a r o m e t e r at Penzance w a s 2 9 . 0 0 , lower than for 2 4 7 d a y s b e f o r e the 13 days afterwards. 1843, March 10. Earthquake at M a n c h e s t e r ; b a r o m e t e r at Chiswick on the preceding d a y s 3 0 . 3 8 0 , higher than for 49 days b e f o r e and 1 7 9 days after. July 5. Extraordinary oscillation of the s e a in Penzance, Plymouth, Scotland, & c , and a great thunderstorm throughout the island. B a r o m e t e r at Penzance at the t i m e of the oscillation there 2 9 . 5 0 , lower than for twenty-five days b e f o r e and f o r t y - s e v e n days after. T h e r m o m e t e r at Chiswick 8 8 ° , at Brighton 7 8 ° , the m a x i m a for the y e a r at those p l a c e s . October 3 0 . Similar oscillations of the s e a at Penzance and Plymouth. B a r o m e t e r at Penzance at the t i m e of the oscillation 2 9 . 0 0 , which, except the minimum of the 27th, was l o w e r than for 223 days b e f o r e and 115 days after. 1 8 4 4 , February 2 6 . B a r o m e t e r at Chiswick 2 8 . 6 2 4 , l o w e r than for 4 0 9 days b e f o r e and e v e r since. At Penzance it w a s 2 8 . 5 0 , having fallen nearly two inches in t h i r t y - s i x h o u r s . June 2 3 . — A n unusually s e v e r e and protracted thunderstorm this evening throughout Cornwall and in D u m f r i e s - s h i r e , and on the following morning at Boston and L i v e r p o o l , at which latter place "pebbles and smalt e e l s descended in the s t r e e t s . " T h e r m o m e t e r at Cheswick on the 2 3 r d , 9 1 ° ; highest for the y e a r except one day in July. In the weekly m e t e o r o l o g i c a l report f r o m the Greenwich O b s e r v a t o r y , it is stated as an extraordinary fact, that "at 1 o'clock P. M. (of the 23rd) a t h e r m o m e t e r placed on a s m a l l piece of raw wool in the sun's r a y s , r o s e in seven minutes to 1 5 5 ° , and was still rising when the t h e r m o m e t e r was taken a w a y . " October 18. The town of Buffalo on Lake E r i e a l m o s t destroyed by a hurricane. This was the day of the m o o n ' s first quarter, and a l m o s t exactly twenty-four lunations after the earthquake in that neighbourhood already m e n tioned. At Chiswick this day the m a x i m u m of the t h e r m o m e t e r was l e s s by 3° than for s e v e r a l months b e f o r e , and the b a r o m e t e r on the 16th was at a m i n i mum of 2 8 . 9 4 0 , l o w e r than since the 26th of F e b r u a r y . 1 8 4 5 , February 1 2 . The greatest cold experienced in England probably during the present century. T h e r m o m e t e r at Blackheath, at half past 7 A. M . , 3 3 - 1 / 2 ° below the freezing-point; at Chiswick 3 5 ° below that point. B a r o m e t e r at the latter place 3 0 . 4 0 9 , higher than for nine months before, except on the 21st of D e c e m b e r . June 1 3 , Extraordinary oscillation of the s e a in Kent, and a "terrific" thunderstorm at Chatham. The t e m p e r a t u r e v e r y high in all parts of England; t h e r m o m e t e r at Penzance being 7 7 ° , higher than on any other day of the y e a r hitherto. Not one of the phaenomena for which the above nine days a r e r e m a r k a b l e , was forty-eight hours f r o m the m o o n ' s first change or quarter. T h r e e of the

G2-157

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SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

days w e r e each at the m o o n ' s first quarter nearest the s o l s t i c e ; of these the first and last w e r e distinguished for extraordinary oscillations of the sea, while all w e r e r e m a r k a b l e for great thunderstorms and unusually w a r m weather. The author's attention was drawn to the interval of four lunations by having remarked that interval, or 118 d a y s , between the two oscillations of the sea, at and after the great earthquake of 1 7 5 5 , and 119 days between those at and after the great earthquake of 1 7 6 1 . But while such r e m a r k a b l e days have occurred at intervals of four lunations, others w e r e mentioned as having taken place at intervals of either single lunations or s o m e multiple of a lunation; and the great earthquakes throughout M e x i c o on the* 9th of M a r c h and the 7th of A p r i l l a s t , are a l m o s t exactly one lunation from each other. So a l s o , in reference to the six known shocks of the earth and extraordinary oscillations of the sea in Cornwall during the last century, the interval between any two of them is a l m o s t exactly s o m e multiple of a lunation. The s a m e observation applies to the six which have o c c u r r e d in the present century, except that of the 20th of October 1 8 3 7 . With this single exception they have all happened at or near the moon's first q u a r t e r s . F r o m the facts above noticed, it would appear that an earthquake or any v e r y disturbed or extraordinary state of the a t m o s p h e r e , is generally preceded or followed either by other earthquakes, or by unusual states of the atmosphere occurring at intervals of single lunations, or of s o m e multiple of a lunation; and that the phaenomena which happen at intervals of four lunations, a r e m o r e s t r i k ing than those at the shorter p e r i o d s . T h e r e s e e m s r e a s o n therefore for supposing that earthquakes and great atmospherical changes are in many, if not m o s t instances, occasioned principally by the action of the moon.

GQS-002

T H E C O R R E L A T I O N O F DEEP-FOCUS E A R T H Q U A K E S W I T H L U N A R HOUR ANGLE A N D DECLINATION

Stetson, Harlan T. ; Science, 8 2 : 5 2 3 - 5 2 4 , N o v e m b e r 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 . Certain s m a l l variations in latitude previously announced and corresponding small changes in longitude show'an apparent c o r r e l a t i o n with the hour angle and declination of the moon. The possibility of such s m a l l changes in g e o g r a phical coordinates being associated with tidal phenomena in the earth's crust suggested a renewed study of s e i s m i c phenomena as a function of the moon's position. Recent r e s u l t s of Davidson have indicated a connection between the frequency of earthquake aftershocks and the phases of the moon. Investigations by Father R o d e s have shown an apparent i n c r e a s e of s e i s m i c disturbances with the moon near p e r i g e e as c o m p a r e d with the moon near apogee. Some two thousand earthquakes have recently been investigated h e r e from the point of view of a p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n of the frequency of their occurrence with the moon's position r e f e r r e d to the epicenter at the t i m e the shocks o c c u r . T h e s e studies have also included the relation of both m a j o r and minor earthquakes to the magnitude and direction of the tidal f o r c e s operating in the region of the epicenter at the t i m e of the o c c u r r e n c e of the s e i s m i c disturbances concerned. While the treatment of all earthquake disturbances indiscriminately in such a study m a y be open to question, and the investigations thus far have yielded somewhat conflicting r e s u l t s , nevertheless a study of deep-focus earthquakes whose epicenters lie m o r e than one hundred k i l o m e t e r s below the earth's surface has yielded a surprisingly striking c o r r e l a t i o n between the frequency

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of these d e e p - f o c u s quakes and the horizontal components of the lunar tidal f o r c e s in operation at the t i m e . One hundred and twenty-two w e l l - d e t e r m i n e d deep-focus earthquakes, taken from a l i s t furnished me by D r . J. A. Sharpe, of the M a s s a c h u s e t t s Institute of Technology, have furnished the material for the r e s u l t s s u m m a r i z e d in Table 1. This selected list includes only those earthquakes whose depth of focus e x c e e d s one hundred k i l o m e t e r s and for which an ample number of r e liable observations have been s e c u r e d . In Table 1 is listed the number of o c c u r r e n c e s of these deep-focus quakes f o r twenty-four equal intervals corresponding to hourly values in the changing hour angle of the moon r e f e r r e d to the epicenter at the t i m e of the o c c u r r e n c e of each deep-focus earthquake. Table 1 Table Showing Relation of Frequency of Deep-focus Earthquakes to the Lunar Hour Angle Hour angle Number of Number of Hour angle quakes of moon quakes of moon 0 7 12 3 2 13 4 1 14 2 3 5 5 15 9 3 8 16 9 4 6 5 17 5 8 18 5 6 19 9 6 7 20 2 8 1 2 2 9 21 0 5 10 22 2 5 23 11 12 3 24 7

It s e e m s hardly conceivable that the gravitational lunar tidal f o r c e s of the order of 1 0 d y n e s / c m can be sufficient to be any m a j o r cause for the high energy disturbances r e c o r d e d . The significance of the curve relationships herewith shown m a y offer s o m e new evidence for the hypothesis of t r i g g e r action, or furnish a b a s i s for further speculation as to other c a u s e s which m a y be dependent on the lunar p e r i o d .
4

GQS-003

M I C R O E A R T H Q U A K E S A T ST. A U G U S T I N E V O L C A N O , A L A S K A , TRIGGERED BY EARTH TIDES

Mauk, F. J . , and Kienle, J. ; Science, 1 8 2 : 3 8 6 - 3 8 9 , October 2 6 , 1 9 7 3 . C o m p i l e r ' s Summary: Microearthquake activity at St. Augustine volcano, in the Aleutians, both before and after m i n o r eruptive activity on October 7, 1 9 7 1 , showed diurnal peaking. The predominant phase condition showed a one-hour t i m e delay f r o m the t i m e of m a x i m u m tidal acceleration. A second phase delay of five hours correlated well with m a x i m u m oceanic tidal loading. Correlation of individual peaks of swarm activity suggested that tidal s t r e s s e s might require preferential orientation for most effective triggering.

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GQS-004

SOLAR LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
#

THE R E L A T I O N BETWEEN THE PERIODIC CHANGES OF SOLAR ACTIVITY A N D THE EARTH'S MOTION 1900.

Halm, J . ; Nature, 6 1 : 4 4 5 - 4 4 8 , March 8,

H e r e i n is s u m m a r i z e d s o m e e a r l y w o r k connecting s u n s p o t s and the m o t i o n of the earth. L a t e r , of c o u r s e , the e a r t h ' s wobble w a s a s s o c i a t e d with earthquakes and other g e o p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n o n . One of the m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m the p r o b l e m of the s u n ' s activity is that of a p o s s i b l e connection b e t w e e n the v a r y i n g d i s p l a y of f o r c e s on the s o l a r s u r f a c e and c e r t a i n p h e n o m e n a on o u r planet. The e v i d e n c e which h a s b e e n g r a d u a l l y a c c u m u l a t i n g c a n h a r d l y fail to c o n v i n c e us of the e x i s t e n c e of an i n t i m a t e , though s t i l l m y s t e r i o u s , r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s o m e of the m a n i f e s tations of the e a r t h ' s m a g n e t i c f o r c e s and the state of d y n a m i c action on the sun. Not only the e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o i n c i d e n c e s r e p e a t e d l y r e c o r d e d b e t w e e n s o l a r eruptions and t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e t i c s t o r m s , but still m o r e the striking s y n c h r o n i s m b e t w e e n the v a r y i n g frequency of s o l a r s p o t s and the o b s e r v e d c h a n g e s in the d i s p l a y of a u r o r a e , and in the daily o s c i l l a t i o n s of the magnetic needle c l e a r l y point t o that c o n c l u s i o n . S c a r c e l y l e s s c e r t a i n s e e m s t o b e the fact, c o n f i r m e d b y m a n y r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , that a g r e a t e r o r l e s s d i s t u r b a n c e of the sun's s u r f a c e is attended by c o r r e s p o n d i n g effects upon t e r r e s t r i a l t e m p e r a t u r e , r a i n f a l l , and other m e t e o r o l o g i c a l phenomena. But t h e r e a p p e a r s to me to be good r e a s o n f o r b e l i e v i n g that the influence of the s o l a r activity upon our planet is of an even m o r e profound and f a r reaching nature than h a s hitherto been i m a g i n e d . I shall endeavour h e r e to state as b r i e f l y as p o s s i b l e the r e s u l t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( m o r e fully d e v e l o p e d in A s t r . N a c h r . N o . 3 6 1 9 ) which have led me to conclude that the p e r i o d of s o l a r activity can be d i s t i n c t l y t r a c e d in the minute r e s i d u a l s which it h a s not hitherto b e e n p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e f r o m the o b s e r v e d v a l u e s o f the e a r t h ' s elements. W e a r e t h e r e b y led t o infer that the s a m e unknown f o r c e which apparently p l a y s so important a part in the m e t e o r o l o g y of the sun, a c t s upon the m o t i o n of the e a r t h to such a d e g r e e as to p r o d u c e p e r t u r b a t i o n s which, though minute, a r e y e t of c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e f r o m a t h e o r e t i c a l and even p r a c t i c a l point of v i e w . Now the question a r i s e s as to whether t r a c e s cannot be d i s c o v e r e d of a s i m i l a r influence upon the m o t i o n of the e a r t h - s p h e r o i d synchronous with the e l e v e n - y e a r s c y c l e of s o l a r activity. T h e r e s u l t obtained on this point r e c e i v e s additional i m p o r t a n c e f r o m the fact that it t h r o w s quite a new light on the t h e o r y of a p e c u l i a r phenomenon, which h a s now g r e a t l y attracted the attention of a s t r o n o m e r s , v i z . the v a r i a t i o n o f latitude. The c o n c l u s i o n t o b e drawn f r o m our investigation points to a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the amplitude of the motion of the t e r r e s t r i a l pole and the period of s o l a r activity. It m a y be taken to be c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d that the radius of the c i r c l e d e s c r i b e d by the pole of instantaneous rotation is g r e a t e s t at t i m e s of s u n s p o t - m i n i m a , and s m a l l e s t at t i m e s of m a x i m u m - d i s p l a y s of s o l a r s p o t s . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e is found to hold true for the w h o l e interval of about s i x t y y e a r s now c o v e r e d by D r . Chandler's investigations. The subjoined d i a g r a m m a y help to give a c l e a r idea of this p e c u l i a r r e l a t i o n , the f i r s t c u r v e showing the s e m i - a m p l i t u d e s of the l a t i t u d e - v a r i a t i o n for e v e r y y e a r f r o m 1 8 5 6 t o 1 8 9 8 , a s deduced f r o m C h a n d l e r ' s c u r v e s i n A s t r o n . Journ. N o s . 2 7 7 and 4 4 6 , and f r o m D r . N y r e n ' s v a l u e s c o m m u n i c a t e d i n Publications d e O b s e r v a t o i r e C e n t r a l N i c o l a s , S e r i e i i . v o l . i i . ; while the s e c o n d c u r v e indicates the s p o t - f r e q u e n c y a c c o r d i n g to W o l f

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during the s a m e s p a c e o f t i m e . A s the latitude-phenomenon h a s b e e n found t o lag behind the s p o t - c u r v e by an interval of about 1. 5 y e a r s , the l a t t e r c u r v e h a s been shifted one and a half y e a r s in the f o r w a r d d i r e c t i o n , in o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h an a g r e e m e n t between the p o s i t i o n s of the m a x i m a and m i n i m a of the two c u r v e s . Attention m a y h e r e b e drawn t o Sir N o r m a n L o c k y e r ' s d i s c o v e r y that a s i m i l a r l a g can b e t r a c e d i n the c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the c h a n g e s i n the l i n e s widened in s u n - s p o t s p e c t r a during a s p o t - c y c l e , the m a x i m a and m i n i m a of the s p e c t r o s c o p i c c u r v e s showing indeed, s o f a r a s o b s e r v a t i o n s go, a p e r f e c t s y n c h r o n i s m with t h o s e of the c u r v e of l a t i t u d e - v a r i a t i o n . Judging f r o m t h e s e c u r v e s the c o n c l u s i o n m a y be drawn that a v e r y m a r k e d influence on the m o t i o n of the t e r r e s t r i a l pole of rotation is e x e r t e d by a f o r c e v a r y i n g s y n c h r o n o u s l y with the d i s p l a y of spots on the s o l a r s u r f a c e . Chandler's data p r e v i o u s to 1 8 5 6 have not b e e n included owing to t h e i r i n c o m p l e t e n e s s . But it ought to be mentioned that the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e with r e g a r d to the p o s i t i o n s of the m a x i m a and m i n i m a is quite as c e r t a i n as in the interval exhibited in the above c u r v e s . T h e s u n - s p o t m a x i m u m i n 1 8 3 8 i s followed b y a m i n i m u m o f the s e m i - a m p l i t u d e i n 1 8 4 0 , while the next s u n - s p o t m i n i m u m i n 1 8 4 3 i s s u c c e e d e d by a v e r y pronounced m a x i m u m of the s e m i - a m p l i t u d e in 1 8 4 5 . Judging f r o m the e p o c h s of the m a x i m a , the amplitude of the latitude variation c o m p l e t e s three full p e r i o d s in t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s ; while the e p o c h s of the m i n i m a m a k e this figure only slightly l e s s , v i z . t h i r t y - t w o y e a r s . Hence the p e r i o d of the amplitude is found to be e l e v e n y e a r s . On the whole, then, we a r e confronted by the fact, so distinctly brought out be o b s e r v a t i o n , that the motion of our planet r e v e a l s t r a c e s of the action of a f o r c e , the intensity of which c a n be m e a s u r e d by the state of activity on the solar surface. N o doubt, the perturbations c a u s e d b y this f o r c e a r e e x t r e m e l y minute as c o m p a r e d with the gravitational effects e x e r t e d on the e a r t h - s p h e r o i d . But s t i l l , in the p r e s e n t state of o u r t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge r e g a r d i n g p l a n e t a r y m o t i o n , and with the high d e g r e e of p e r f e c t i o n now attained in the art of a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n , such minute quantities a r e of c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , sufficiently i l l u s t r a t e d by the derivation of the s o l a r p a r a l l a x f r o m the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n s of the obliquity and the node of V e n u s . The value f o r this constant, as found after e l i m i n a t i n g the perturbing effect of the new s o l a r f o r c e f r o m the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n o f the obliquity, i s i r - 8". 8 0 2 , a r e s u l t which is in p e r f e c t a c c o r d a n c e with N e w c o m b ' s value obtained f r o m other s o u r c e s . T h e g r e a t difficulty, by which this distinguished man of s c i e n c e found h i m s e l f e m b a r r a s s e d in this part of h i s w o r k ( s e e pp. 1 5 8 - 1 5 9 of the t r e a t i s e quoted a b o v e ) , so m u c h s o , indeed, that he w e l l - n i g h d e s p a i r e d of a r r i v i n g at a final c o n c l u s i o n as to the value ofTT to be adopted, has now d i s a p p e a r e d . The v a l u e s f o r t h e m a s s e s of the earth, m(o"-*-f ) 1 : 3 2 7 9 2 3 , as well as of V e n u s , m {&) 1 : 4 1 4 9 9 1 , as d e r i v e d f r o m the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n s , m a y thus be a c c e p t e d with confidence. T h i s is one e x a m p l e showing the t h e o r e t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f the p h e n o m e n a h e r e d i s c u s s e d ; p o s s i b l y the r e s u l t s a r r i v e d at m a y be eventually found to contribute t o w a r d s r e m o v i n g other d i f f i culties still connected with the t h e o r y of p l a n e t a r y m o t i o n s . W e a r e , i t s e e m s t o m e , f a i r l y warranted i n a s s u m i n g the f o r c e acting i n such a p e c u l i a r w a y on the motion of the t e r r e s t r i a l pole to be identical with that which e x e r t s i t s influence on the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n s . As r e g a r d s the nature and o r i g i n of t h i s f o r c e , t h e r e is a wide field for speculation. A s u g g e s t i o n to which I w a s led by a d i s c u s s i o n on this subject with my c o l l e a g u e , M r . G. C l a r k , of this o b s e r v a t o r y , and which s e e m s worthy p e r h a p s of further i n v e s t i gation, is that the f o r c e m a y stand in s o m e connection with the still v e r y m y s t e r i o u s p h e n o m e n a o f the e a r t h ' s m a g n e t i s m . T h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y one fact

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GQS-005

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

which l e n d s s o m e support to this h y p o t h e s i s , v i z . the e c c e n t r i c position of the earth's magnetic poles. Joule's w e l l - k n o w n e x p e r i m e n t s on m a g n e t i c s t r a i n in iron b a r s s u g g e s t the i d e a that something s i m i l a r t o the m o l e c u l a r d i s p l a c e ment in the i r o n b a r m a y take p l a c e in the body of the earth with r e g a r d to its magnetic a x i s . Such a s t r a i n along the a x i s of m a x i m u m magnetic m o m e n t would a l m o s t n e c e s s a r i l y c a u s e a d i s p l a c e m e n t of the a x i s of figure with r e g a r d to the a x i s of rotation. Only so long as the total m a g n e t i c potential of the earth w a s not s u b j e c t to alterations could this d i s p l a c e m e n t r e m a i n constant. In that c a s e the p o l e of rotation would d e s c r i b e a c i r c l e with a constant radius round the pole of f i g u r e . But t h e r e are f a c t s which f o r c e us to a s s u m e that the potency of the e a r t h ' s m a g n e t i c f o r c e s v a r i e s with the state of s o l a r activity, and that consequently the m o l e c u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t in the d i r e c t i o n of the magnetic a x i s varies accordingly. The m o s t striking fact in this r e s p e c t is the i n c r e a s e of a u r o r a e with an i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of s o l a r s p o t s . Now, if we w e r e to c o n s i d e r a u r o r a e as d i s c h a r g e s of e l e c t r i c f o r c e gradually accumulated in the e a r t h ' s i n t e r i o r , the s t r a i n in the d i r e c t i o n of the m a g n e t i c a x i s should h a v e abated after such a d i s c h a r g e , and the pole of figure should t h e r e f o r e approach the pole of instantaneous rotation. T h i s , then, would explain the fact that the s e m i - a m p l i t u d e of l a t i t u d e - v a r i a t i o n is s m a l l e s t after a m a x i m u m display of solar spots. How far this hypothesis is able to account for other phenomena brought out by o b s e r v a t i o n m u s t be left to future r e s e a r c h .

GQS-005

LATITUDE-VARIATION, EARTH-MAGNETISM A N D SOLAR ACTIVITY 1900.

Halm, J . ; Nature, 6 2 : 4 6 0 - 4 6 3 , September 6,

The significance of this p a p e r l i e s in the p o s s i b i l i t y that s o l a r activity m a y affect the e a r t h ' s w o b b l e , which now s e e m s related to earthquake frequency. In the A s t r o n o m i s c h e Nachrichten (No. 3 6 1 9 ) I have published the r e s u l t s of an investigation dealing with the effects of periodic changes in s o l a r activity on the motion of o u r planet. It is t h e r e shown that t h e s e c h a n g e s , as indicated by the frequency of s u n - s p o t s , e x e r t a subtle but pregnant influence on the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n s of the e a r t h ' s e l e m e n t s ; and, m o r e o v e r , that d i s t u r b a n c e s p r e c i s e l y s i m i l a r to t h o s e which appear in the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the obliquity and of the sun's longitude a r e distinctly exhibited in the variation of t e r r e s t r i a l latitude. In the further pursuit of t h e s e r e s e a r c h e s I have bean led to conclude that the a n o m a l i e s e x i s t i n g in the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the sun's r i g h t - a s c e n s i o n s and declinations a r e to be attributed e x c l u s i v e l y to c h a n g e s in the position of the e a r t h ' s a x i s of rotation with r e g a r d to the a x i s of m a x i m u m m o m e n t of inertia, and that t h e s e c h a n g e s in their turn a r e i n t i m a t e l y connected with the v a r y i n g display of f o r c e s on the s o l a r s u r f a c e . In a subsequent a r t i c l e which appeared in Nature (No. 1 5 8 4 , M a r c h 8) I m a d e a s u g g e s t i o n as to the nature of this c o n nection, and advanced the hypothesis that the m a g n e t i s m of the e a r t h is p r o b a bly the m e d i u m through which the c h a n g e s of s o l a r e n e r g y r e a c t upon the m o t i o n of the e a r t h ' s p o l e . T h e r e next follows e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s of o b s e r v a t i o n s of the e a r t h ' s m o t i o n , to the following: The r e s u l t s o f m y r e s e a r c h e s m a y b e thus s h o r t l y s u m m a r i s e d : leading

G2-162

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GQS-006

i. T h e c h a n g e s in the m o t i o n of the pole of rotation round the pole of figure a r e in an intimate connection with the v a r i a t i o n s of the e a r t h - m a g n e t i c f o r c e s . i i . I n a s m u c h as the l a t t e r phenomena a r e in a c l o s e relation with the state of s o l a r activity, the motion of the pole is a l s o i n d i r e c t l y dependent on the d y n a m i c a l c h a n g e s taking p l a c e at the s u n s s u r f a c e . iii. T h e d i s t a n c e between the instantaneous and m e a n p o l e s d e c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g intensity of e a r t h - m a g n e t i c d i s t u r b a n c e . iv. T h e length of the p e r i o d of l a t i t u d e - v a r i a t i o n i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s ing intensity of e a r t h - m a g n e t i c d i s t u r b a n c e . v. In s t r i c t analogy with the phenomena of a u r o r a e and of magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e , the influence of the e l e v e n - y e a r s p e r i o d of s u n - s p o t s , as well as of the "great" p e r i o d , is c l e a r l y exhibited in the phenomenon of l a t i t u d e - v a r i a t i o n ; and the s a m e deviations f r o m the s o l a r c u r v e as a r e m a n i f e s t e d by the a u r o r a e a r e a l s o evident in the motion of the p o l e .
T

v i . The h a l f - y e a r l y period of the e a r t h - m a g n e t i c phenomena influences the motion of the pole of rotation in such a way that its path, instead of being c i r c u l a r , a s s u m e s the f o r m of an e l l i p s e , having the m e a n pole at its c e n t r e . v i i . The h a l f - y e a r l y p e r i o d a l s o e x p l a i n s the c o n s p i c u o u s fact of a rotation of the a x e s of the e l l i p s e in a d i r e c t i o n opposite to that of the m o t i o n of the p o l e .

GQS-006

THE FUTURE OF THE EARTH

M o r e u x , A b b e ; Scientific A m e r i c a n Supplement, 6 8 : 5 6 - 5 7 , July 2 4 , 1 9 0 9 . H e r e follows an opinion of earthquake and v o l c a n o p e r i o d i c i t y that was fairly typical e a r l y i n this c e n t u r y . The electrostatic mechanism proposed is rather unusual h o w e v e r . Earthquakes a r e m o r e frequent in winter than in s u m m e r in the p r o p o r t i o n of 3 - 1 / 2 to 1. T h e y a r e a l s o m o r e frequent in the night and m o r n i n g than at other h o u r s . A t m o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c i t y f o l l o w s the s a m e l a w o f p e r i o d i c i t y that is o b s e r v e d in the c a s e of e a r t h q u a k e s . T e r r e s t r i a l e l e c t r i c and magnetic p h e n o m e n a a r e g o v e r n e d by the sun and it s e e m s p r o b a b l e that earthquakes and v o l c a n i c eruptions a r e s i m i l a r l y dependent on s o l a r activity. Eruptions o c c u r m o s t frequently at i n t e r v a l s of e l e v e n y e a r s , at epochs of m i n i m u m s o l a r activity, which earthquakes o c c u r chiefly at the e p o c h s of m o s t rapid i n c r e a s e and d e c r e a s e of s o l a r activity.

The explanation of the p e r i o d i c i t y of e a r t h q u a k e s and eruptions is equivalent to the d i s c o v e r y of a periodic c a u s e of c o n t r a c t i o n and expansion of the e a r t h ' s crust. T h e v a r i a b i l i t y of s o l a r heat will not s u f f i c e , f o r we know that the t e m p e r a t u r e of the e a r t h at depths g r e a t e r than 50 feet r e m a i n s constant. A m o r e p r o b a b l e c a u s e is found in the v a r i a b l e e l e c t r i c c h a r g e of the earth. It is a fact not g e n e r a l l y known that the v o l u m e of a L e y d e n j a r is i n c r e a s e d by charging the j a r and d i m i n i s h e d by d i s c h a r g i n g it, wholly or p a r t i a l l y . The c r u s t of the e a r t h r e s e m b l e s a L e y d e n j a r , of which the coatings a r e r e p r e s e n ted by the liquid c o r e and the enveloping a t m o s p h e r e . The a t m o s p h e r i c c h a r g e and potential u n d e r g o diurnal fluctuations, falling during the night and e a r l y m o r n i n g and attaining m a x i m u m v a l u e s s h o r t l y after m i d d a y . W e have s e e n that earthquakes o c c u r chiefly during the night and m o r n i n g , when the s o l a r

G2-163

GQS-007

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

radiation and e l e c t r i c c h a r g e a r e l e a s t and the c o n t r a c t i o n and internal p r e s sure greatest. In the afternoon the i n c r e a s e d c h a r g e c a u s e s a dilatation, as i n the L e y d e n j a r , the p r e s s u r e i s r e l i e v e d .

I
GQS-007 THE D I U R N A L PERIODICITY OF EARTHQUAKES

D a v i s o n , C h a r l e s ; Journal o f G e o l o g y , 4 2 : 4 4 9 - 4 6 8 , July 1 9 3 4 . A b s t r a c t . Though n o n - i n s t r u m e n t a l r e c o r d s of earthquakes g i v e an apparent nocturnal m a x i m u m , it is shown that, for s e v e r a l r e g i o n s in which earthquakes a r e weak or m o d e r a t e l y strong, t h e r e is a r e a l diurnal period, with its m a x i m u m about midnight. The instrumental r e c o r d s obtained in Japan and Italy and at v a r i o u s s e i s m o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t o r i e s a r e e x a m i n e d , and it is shown that the m a x i m u m epoch of the diurnal period u s u a l l y f a l l s about noon or midnight, and that the noon m a x i m u m of the diurnal p e r i o d is a s s o c i a t e d , as a r u l e , with a s u m m e r m a x i m u m of the annual p e r i o d , and the midnight m a x i m u m of the f o r m e r with a winter m a x i m u m of the l a t t e r . It is s u g g e s t e d that the noon and s u m m e r m a x i m a o c c u r in earthquakes c a u s e d by an elevation of the c r u s t , and the midnight and winter m a x i m a in t h o s e c a u s e d by a d e p r e s s i o n of the c r u s t . It is noticed that the midnight and winter m a x i m a p r e v a i l in r e g i o n s in which the earthquakes a r e of slight or m o d e r a t e intensity, and the noon and s u m m e r m a x i m a in t h o s e v i s i t e d by the m o s t d e s t r u c t i v e s h o c k s . In the a f t e r - s h o c k s o f g r e a t e a r t h q u a k e s , the m a x i m a epoch a r e suddenly r e v e r s e d , u s u a l l y f r o m near noon to near midnight, and the duration of the r e v e r s a l v a r i e s f r o m about a week to a y e a r or m o r e .

C o n c l u s i o n s . 1. Excluding a f t e r - s h o c k s , the m a x i m u m epoch of the diurnal period is d e t e r m i n e d in 64 r e c o r d s . In 24 of t h e s e , it f a l l s at or near midnight, in 35 at or n e a r noon, and in 5 o t h e r s at f r o m 4 to 5 - 1 / 2 P. M. The a v e r a g e m a x i m a for the f i r s t two g r o u p s a r e 0 . 2 5 A . M . and 0 . 4 0 P . M . 2. Of the 59 r e c o r d s in which the epoch f a l l s near midnight or noon, the annual period is known in 3 7 . When the epoch of the diurnal p e r i o d f a l l s near midnight, that of the annual p e r i o d o c c u r s in or near midwinter in 13 r e c o r d s and in or n e a r m i d s u m m e r in 5. When the epoch of the diurnal p e r i o d f a l l s near noon, that of the annual p e r i o d o c c u r s in or near m i d s u m m e r in 16 r e c o r d s or in and near midwinter in 2. In one r e c o r d , the epoch of the diurnal period f a l l s at about 5 - 1 / 2 P. M. and that of the annual period at the end of M a y . T h u s , in about 80 p e r cent of the r e c o r d s , the epochs of the diurnal and annual p e r i o d s fall at noon and in s u m m e r , or at midnight and in w i n t e r . Of the other 7 e x c e p t i o n s , in one (Italy, 1 8 9 1 - 1 9 3 0 ) the diurnal epoch f a l l s at 2 A. M. and the annual epoch in June; the o t h e r s o c c u r in r e c o r d s obtained at seismological observatories. 3. T h e opposed epochs of the diurnal p e r i o d and the g e n e r a l relations between the diurnal and annual p e r i o d s in regional earthquakes a r e p r o b a b l y connected with the d i r e c t i o n s of the c r u s t d i s p l a c e m e n t s that c a u s e the e a r t h quakes. Let us s u p p o s e that an external f o r c e a c t s downward on the earth, such, for i n s t a n c e , as a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e , with a diurnal m a x i m u m about midnight and an annual m a x i m u m in m i d w i n t e r . Then, if the earthquakes w e r e mainly due to a d e p r e s s i o n of the c r u s t , the diurnal and annual s e i s m i c epochs would o c c u r about midnight and m i d w i n t e r . On the other hand, if the e a r t h quakes w e r e m a i n l y due to an elevation of the c r u s t , the epochs would o c c u r about noon and m i d s u m m e r . It is worthy of notice that the midnight and winter

G2-164

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GQS-008

m a x i m a p r e v a i l in r e g i o n s in which e a r t h q u a k e s a r e slight or of m o d e r a t e i n tensity, and the noon and s u m m e r m a x i m a in t h o s e v i s i t e d by the m o s t d e s t r u c tive s h o c k s . 4. A s s u m i n g that a great earthquake is u s u a l l y c a u s e d by an uplift of the c r u s t , the d i s p l a c e d m a s s would at o n c e b e g i n to s e t t l e downward, and, during an interval that m a y l a s t f r o m a week to a y e a r or m o r e , the s t r o n g e r a f t e r s h o c k s a r e c a u s e d b y such downward s l i p s . A t the c l o s e o f this i n t e r v a l , the f o r c e s that g a v e r i s e to the earthquake o n c e m o r e p r e v a i l , and f u r t h e r a f t e r s h o c k s , if they d e s e r v e that t i t l e , a r e due to the continued m o v e m e n t s of e l e v a tion. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , t o o b s e r v e that, f r o m the e a r l i e s t d a y s , a f t e r shocks r e g i s t e r e d at any station m a y be c a u s e d by m o v e m e n t s in both d i r e c t i o n s . F o r about 20 d a y s after the Kwanto earthquake of 1 9 2 3 , the s t r o n g e r a f t e r s h o c k s w e r e due t o s u b s i d e n c e , but they w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y r a t h e r m o r e n u m e r o u s s l i g h t e r s h o c k s due to elevation. During the next 10 d a y s , the s t r o n g e r and m o r e frequent a f t e r - s h o c k s w e r e due to elevation and the w e a k e r shocks to subsidence.

GQS-008

THE ANIMUAI, PERIODICITY OF E A R T H Q U A K E S

D a v i s o n , C h a r l e s ; S e i s m o l o g i c a l Society o f A m e r i c a , Bulletin, 1 8 : 2 4 6 - 2 6 5 , 1 9 2 8 . Only the introduction and c o n c l u s i o n s of this a r t i c l e a r e r e p r o d u c e d h e r e . p a r t i c u l a r note is the a s s o c i a t i o n of earthquakes with the e a r t h ' s wobble. Of

Introduction. T h e annual p e r i o d i c i t y of earthquakes was d i s c o v e r e d by P e t e r M e r i a n , P r o f e s s o r of P h y s i c s and C h e m i s t r y in the U n i v e r s i t y of B a s e l . In 1 8 3 4 , he published a s m a l l pamphlet on s h o c k s felt in that city f r o m 1 0 2 0 to 1830. His l i s t contains the d a t e s of 122 e a r t h q u a k e s . F o r all but four of t h e s e the month w a s known, and it o c c u r r e d to h i m to t r a c e their distribution t h r o u g h out the y e a r . He found the following monthly n u m b e r s : Jan. 12 Feb. 14 Mar. 6 Apr. 5 May 11 June July A u g . 3 7 8 Sept. 12 Oct. 11 Nov. 14 Dec. 15

The p r e p o n d e r a n c e during the winter months being evident, he next grouped them a c c o r d i n g t o s e a s o n s with the following r e s u l t s : W i n t e r ( D e c . - F e b . ) , 4 1 ; spring ( M a r c h - M a y ) , 2 2 ; s u m m e r ( J u n e - A u g . ) , 18; autumn ( S e p t . - N o v . ) , 3 7 . Turning to other c a t a l o g u e s , M e r i a n found the s a m e winter p r e p o n d e r a n c e in the earthquakes r e c o r d e d in K. E. A. von Hoff's annual l i s t s f r o m 1 8 2 1 to 1 8 2 9 , and, though l e s s c l e a r l y , i n t h o s e o f L . C o t t e ' s l i s t f o r Northern E u r o p e f r o m 1 7 7 5 to 1 8 0 6 . Seven y e a r s l a t e r , M e r i a n ' s d i s c o v e r y w a s c o n f i r m e d b y A l e x i s P e r r e y . In four e a r l y p a p e r s he noticed the s a m e winter grouping of earthquakes, though, as he d o e s not r e f e r to M e r i a n until the third p a p e r , it is p r o b a b l e that h i s d i s c o v e r y w a s m a d e independently. In the s e c o n d of t h e s e p a p e r s , f o r the e a r t h quakes of 3 0 6 to 1 8 0 0 , he gave the monthly n u m b e r s and s u m m a r i z e d t h e m thus: Winter ( J a n . - M a r c h ) , 2 1 2 ; spring (April-June), 162; s u m m e r (July-Sept.), 148; and autumn ( O c t . - D e c ) , 2 0 6 . L a t e r , i n each o f h i s twenty-one regional m e m oirs, P e r r e y studied the annual distribution of the e a r t h q u a k e s . Each monthly n u m b e r w a s divided by the a v e r a g e of all twelve n u m b e r s , the r e s u l t s f r o m different r e g i o n s thus b e c o m i n g c o m p a r a b l e . F o r i n s t a n c e , the r e l a t i v e monthly n u m b e r s f o r the r e g i o n c o n s i s t i n g of F r a n c e , B e l g i u m , and Holland a r e

G2-165

GQS-009
Jan. 1.52 Feb. 1.17

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
Mar. Apr. May 0.97 1.01 0.77 June July A u g . 0.66 0.86 0.73 Sept. 0.91 Oct. 0.88 Nov. 1.09 Dec. 1.43

o r winter 1 . 2 2 , s p r i n g 0 . 8 1 , s u m m e r 0 . 8 4 , and autumn 1 . 1 3 . The c u r v e s i l l u s t r a t i n g the monthly variation w e r e c a l l e d b y P e r r e y s e i s m i c c u r v e s . C o n c l u s i o n s . 1. O r d i n a r y earthquakes. Throughout the v a s t continental a r e a s of both h e m i s p h e r e s , the m a x i m u m spoch of the annual p e r i o d in o r d i n a r y earthquakes f a l l s during the m i d - w i n t e r m o n t h s . T h e s e great a r e a s a r e , h o w e v e r , fringed by c e r t a i n i n s u l a r or peninsular r e g i o n s in p a r t s of which the m a x i m u m epoch i s r e v e r s e d . T h e r e i s s o m e r e a s o n for connecting such annual variation in s e i s m i c frequency with the annual v a r i a t i o n in a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . The r e v e r s e d e p o c h i n i n s u l a r d i s t r i c t s i s p r o b a b l y due, a s O m o r i s u g g e s t e d , t o the annual v a r i a t i o n in the total p r e s s u r e on the ocean bed. 2 . Slightly d e s t r u c t i v e earthquakes. Slightly d e s t r u c t i v e e a r t h q u a k e s , those of intensity 1 ( M i l n e s c a l e ) , a r e c l o s e l y akin to ordinary e a r t h q u a k e s . They a r e , indeed, the l i m i t i n g d e g r e e of such earthquakes. In all continental a r e a s of either h e m i s p h e r e , the m a x i m u m e p o c h s of both fall in w i n t e r . And the s a m e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s e e m s t o hold f o r i n s u l a r a r e a s a l s o . I n the E a s t Indies, o r d i n a r y earthquakes have their m a x i m u m epoch in M a y (amplitude 0. 2 1 ) , d e s t r u c t i v e earthquakes of intensity 1 in J u l y - A u g u s t (amplitude 0 . 2 4 ) . Taking Japan as a whole, ordinary earthquakes have their m a x i m u m epoch in M a y (amplitude 0. 0 8 ) , d e s t r u c t i v e earthquakes of intensity 1 in D e c e m b e r , with the r a t h e r l a r g e amplitude of 0. 2 4 . But, and this is a c a s e of the exception proving the r u l e , 99 p e r cent of the earthquakes of intensity 1 originated in that part of Japan in which the m a x i m u m epoch of o r d i n a r y earthquakes o c c u r s in winter. 3 . G r e a t d e s t r u c t i v e earthquakes. Turning t o the great d e s t r u c t i v e e a r t h q u a k e s , t h o s e of intensities 3 and 2 (Milne s c a l e ) , the m o s t striking fact is that their annual p e r i o d i c i t y , in either h e m i s p h e r e , is independent of g e o g r a p h i c a l conditions. The m a x i m u m epoch o c c u r s in the s u m m e r months, whether the r e g i o n s a r e continental, peninsular, o r i n s u l a r . S o c l e a r l y m a r k e d i s this o c c u r r e n c e that it h o l d s f o r such c l o s e l y adjoining r e g i o n s as the North and South T r o p i c a l Z o n e s . In Japan, it f a l l s throughout in the s u m m e r m o n t h s ; in the southwestern portion, in which the epoch f o r o r d i n a r y earthquakes f a l l s in winter, the m a x i m u m is in July, with the r a t h e r high amplitude of 0. 2 5 ; in the northeastern portion, it is probably in M a y or June (amplitude 0. 3 8 ) , but the n u m b e r of earthquakes is too s m a l l to define the epoch with a c c u r a c y . It would s e e m , then, that d e s t r u c t i v e earthquakes of great intensity differ entirely in their o r i g i n f r o m t h o s e of l e s s strength and f r o m o r d i n a r y e a r t h quakes. And, in this connection, it is worthy of notice that many d e s t r u c t i v e earthquakes of the f i r s t magnitude originate at depths that m a y be p e r c e p t i b l e fractions of the e a r t h ' s r a d i u s , and that the relation that Milne detected between the o c c u r r e n c e of g r e a t earthquakes and the d i s p l a c e m e n t s of the pole h o l d s , as O m o r i h a s shown, for a strong, but not f o r slight, earthquakes in Japan.

GQS-009

THE INNER H A R M O N Y OF THE WORLD

Hasbrouck, L . M . ; A m e r i c a n M e r c u r y , 9 1 : 8 1 - 8 7 , D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 0 . T h i s a r t i c l e is a s t r o l o g i c a l in t o n e . The author m a k e s p r e d i c t i o n s and t h e s e a r e c o m p a r e d with events in l a t e r i s s u e s . A few e x c e r p t s will d e m o n s t r a t e h i s method, which is evidently b a s e d on planetary p o s i t i o n s . Note that the s a m e approach h a s

G2-166

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GQS-009

been used by legitimate scientists to c o r r e l a t e short-wave propagation (Subsection G E T ) , weather patterns (Subsection G W S ) , and earthquakes (Subsection GQS). T h e r e is nothing strange or occult about these f o r e c a s t s . They violate no law of science, old or new. The forecast dates a r e calculated through the t i m ing of natural changes of potential in the field of the earth, by means of the h a r m o n i c s of the s o l a r s y s t e m . T h e s e field changes are found to induce fieldf o r c e disturbances w h i c h — a s M e r c u r y r e a d e r s have s e e n — c o i n c i d e with a variety of o b s e r v a b l e phenomena, including earthquakes of 6 magnitude and over. The implication behind the consistent accuracy of these f o r e c a s t s is that they can s e r v e to r e s t o r e to modern thinking the long lost concept of a natural, u n i v e r s a l law, functioning in o r d e r l y rhythms behind all the phenomena of life and human perception. Earthquakes w e r e selected for this presentation as being one of the m o s t tangible factors in our long r e c o r d of forecasting field-force disturbances. This r e c o r d began in 1940 relative to radio interference and has since developed to include other phenomena, whose number continues to grow. In 1 9 6 0 , a new a r e a of p o s s i b l e correlation has shown itself. We observed that a number of the failu r e s in m i s s i l e launching t e s t s coincided with dates of field-force disturbance previously listed in our f o r e c a s t s . M e r c u r y r e a d e r s are aware that our forecasting of field-force disturbances involves this ionospheric a r e a . The results so far obtained have shown two factors not yet achieved, or even recognized, by geophysicists. One is that these disturbances can be timed long in advance of their arrival; they can be predicted. The other is the implication as to the source of the disturbances, i . e . , the field the unified field of the s o l a r s y s t e m of which the earth is an integral part. T h e r e is no m y s t e r y , today, about the field. To the physicist, it is "as real as the chair on which he sits, " even though it i s , at the s a m e t i m e , "like the atom, a mental construct, the product of idea into e x p e r i e n c e . " N o r should there be any m y s t e r y about the timing of those field-force disturbances which coincide, 90 p e r cent of the t i m e , with radio blackouts and or m a j o r earthquakes. The c o s m i c clock of the s o l a r s y s t e m has been working accurately since long before m a n ' s comprehension caught up with it. The s o l a r s y s t e m is "the model for all scientific m e c h a n i s m . . . t i m e l e s s , unchanging, fixed in the eternal s c h e m e of things. " The only m y s t e r y is that science has not learned how to use the m e c h a n i s m of the s o l a r s y s t e m in the art of forecasting.

Only the concept of a unified field can account for the fact that these timing signals coincide with such a wide variety of physical phenomena; earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, radio blackouts, and even such events as the much publicized breakdown of New Y o r k ' s Consolidated Edison power circuits on August 17th, the day of the great Yellowstone earthquake which coincided with one of our f o r e c a s t signals. (See M e r c u r y . January 1 9 6 0 . ) And now c o m e s the intriguing possibility of a further, practical link with the p r o b l e m s of space travel an a r e a which of c o u r s e c a l l s for extensive, high level r e s e a r c h , but which might result in saving billions of dollars for the A m e r i c a n taxpayer.

G2-167

GQS-010
GQS-010

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
PERIODICITY OF V O L C A N I C ERUPTIONS A N D EARTHQUAKES

Anonymous; Nature, 6 6 : 3 5 3 , August 7, 1 9 0 2 . C i r c u l a r N o . 49 of the Wolsingham Observations contains a s u m m a r y , by the Rev. T. E. Espin, of the results obtained by arranging and charting the data which he has collected in regard to the t i m e s of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. T h e s e r e s u l t s point to a period of between eight and nine y e a r s in the p h e nomena of which M r . Espin has received the r e c o r d s . This period a g r e e s with the period of revolution of the moon's p e r i g e e , and further investigation indicates that the greatest volcanic activity takes place when the p e r i g e e o c c u r s at its m a x i m u m northerly declination. I

GQS-011

G R A V I T Y W A V E S M A Y SET E A R T H R I N G I N G

Anonymous; Nature, 2 3 0 : 2 0 8 , March 2 6 , 1 9 7 1 . Searching for c o n f i r m a t o r y evidence of W e b e r ' s gravity waves is becoming a fashionable e x e r c i s e . In next Monday's Nature Physical Science, V. S. Tuman of Stanislaus State C o l l e g e , California, puts forward, in a tentative manner, the notion that excitation of the Earth by gravity waves may be the explanation of s o m e anomalous r e s u l t s obtained with gravity m e t e r s . Tuman has already d e s c r i b e d in Nature a cryogenic gravity m e t e r developed in c o operation with Stanford University to r e c o r d the oscillations of the Earth (229, 6 1 8 ; 1 9 7 1 ) , but the anomalous effect has a l s o been noticed in r e c o r d s taken e l s e w h e r e . What it amounts to, in brief, is that as a rule the even h a r m o n i c s of the eigen vibrations of the Earth detected by the gravity m e t e r s contain m o r e energy than the odd h a r m o n i c s . Tuman points out that the existence of the effect is not definite, however. But two s e r i e s of observations out of three c a r r i e d out with the cryogenic g r a v i ty m e t e r show the discrepancy in energy content between the odd and even h a r m o n i c s , and the effect is a l s o present in r e s u l t s reported by Block et al. (Nature, 2 2 6 , 3 4 3 ; 1 9 7 0 ) . One explanation considered and then discarded by Tuman is that the oscillations in question a r e excited by earthquakes occurring at locations which e n s u r e that the gravity m e t e r at Stanislaus C o l l e g e is always at a node corresponding to no motion for the odd h a r m o n i c s and a finite motion for the even h a r m o n i c s . This could be the explanation if the earthquakes exciting the vibrations w e r e at an angular distance f r o m the gravity m e t e r of fairly p r e c i s e l y 9 0 ° . But the explanation fails to work if the earthquake is m o r e than a few d e g r e e s off this orientation. With earthquakes at least of Richter magnitude 5. 5 being n e c e s s a r y to generate detectable o s c i l l a t i o n s , and for other r e a s o n s , this mechanism is not particularly convincing. Tuman s u g g e s t s t h e r e f o r e that the anomalous distribution of energy might have an explanation f r o m outside the Earth, in gravity waves of high energy density. Such a gravity wave pulse would be expected to couple energy into the S 2 modes and their overtones with quadrupole m o m e n t s , leaving the odd spheroidal m o d e s ( S 2 n + l ) unaffected. The evidence for this mechanism is still far from convincing, however, but Tuman points out that a network of s i m i l a r gravity m e t e r s would help to solve the p r o b l e m .
0 n 0

G2-168

SECTION GS: SOUND PHENOMENA
With so many j e t s aloft and the other sounds of m o d e r n technology, man can c o n veniently a s c r i b e anything he h e a r s to one machine or another. Nevertheless, concealed in the noisy background there are many detonations, h u m s , swishes, and even musical sounds that a r e not m a n - m a d e . T h e s e are divided into the following categories. GSD Strange detonations. Explosive sounds, apparently f r o m nowhere, often l o c a l i z e d and with long h i s t o r i e s . E x a m p l e s : the B a r i s a l Guns, the Seneca Guns, the Lough Neagh waterguns, etc. Correlation with earthquakes, m e t e o r s , whirlwinds, and other phenomena. Infrasonic sound. logical effects. Association with s t o r m s and a u r o r a s . Physio-

*GSG

GSH

H u m s , h i s s e s , etc. Unexplained hums heard in many l o c a l i t i e s . The Yellowstone Lake " w h i s p e r s , " brontophonic sounds, and so on. Correlation with m e t e o r s and a u r o r a s . P o s s i b l e effects of e l e c t r o magnetic waves on human perception. M u s i c , b e l l s , etc. Memnon, etc. Odd oceanic sounds, Bell of Nakous, Cry of

GSM

*This subsection not represented in V o l u m e G 2 .

G2-169

SOUND

PHENOMENA

G2-170

STRANGE DETONATIONS
GSD-046 [POLTERGEIST NOISES]

GSD-047

I

Fort, C h a r l e s ; The Books of C h a r l e s F o r t , Henry Holt and Company, New Y o r k , 1941. The following account is added h e r e to illustrate a p o s s i b l e connection between apparent physiological r e s p o n s e s to geophysical phenomena and paraphysical events. Detonations, it appears, a r e rather c o m m o n in poltergeist r e p o r t s . In the New Y o r k Tribune, Jan. 7, 1 9 0 0 , there is an account of poltergeist disturbance in a house, in Hyde Park, Chicago. According to the now w e l l known ways of c h a i r s and t a b l e s , at t i m e s , these things hopped about, or moved with m o r e dignity. It was as if into the house stole an invisible but futile a s s a s s i n . See back to accounts of visible but futile bullets. T i m e after t i m e there was a sound like the discharge of a r e v o l v e r . It was noted that this firing always o c c u r r e d "at about the height of a m a n ' s shoulder. " In a b o o k let, A Disturbed House and its Relief, Ada M. Sharpe t e l l s of a s e e m i n g psychic bombardment of h e r h o m e in Tackley, Oxen, England. Beginning upon A p r i l 2 4 , 1 9 0 5 , and continuing three y e a r s , at t i m e s , detonations, as if of exploding b o m b s , were heard in this house. Upon the 1st of M a y , 1 9 1 1 (Lloyd's Weekly N e w s , July 3 0 ; Wandsworth Borough News, July 21) unaccountable f i r e s broke out in the house of M r . J. A. Harvey, 3 5 6 Y o r k - r o a d , Wandsworth, London. Preceding one of these f i r e s , there w e r e three explosions of unknown origin. In January, 1892 (Peterborough A d v e r t i s e r , Jan. 1 0 , 1892) a house in P e t e r borough, England, occupied by a family named R i m e s , was repeatedly shaken, as if bombed, and as if bombed futilely. Nobody was injured, and there was no d a m a g e , (p. 943) T h e r e m a y be no connection, but ball lightning often explodes inside houses and often without damage to people or things.

GSD-047
t

REPORT UPON T H E E A R T H Q U A K E OF OCTOBER 3 1 , 1 8 9 5

Marvin, C F . ; Monthly Weather Review, 2 3 : 3 7 4 - 3 7 5 , October 1 8 9 5 . Prof. Cleveland A b b e , editor of the Monthly Weather Review, is the source of the following c o m m e n t on s e i s m i c noises. "Small c r a c k s , with attendant shocks, are continually occurring e v e r y where throughout the globe. Some localities a r e famous for mysterious n o i s e s that have a l m o s t in every c a s e been traced to the cracking of r o c k s near the s u r f a c e . Such a r e the famous Moodus noises at the town of that name in Middlesex County, C o n n . , where the Salmon River empties into the Connecticut R i v e r . Such sounds a r e heard at the famous gneiss quarries of Monson, Hampdon County, M a s s . ; whenever a l a r g e piece of rock is loosened, loud crackling n o i s e s are produced. On the slopes of Black Mountain, N. C . , in 1 8 7 6 , many m y s t e r i o u s n o i s e s w e r e heard, until, finally, it was d i s c o v e r e d that a l a r g e portion of rock was cracking and settling."

G2-171

GSD-048
GSD-048

STRANGE DETONATIONS
SEISMIC A N D O C E A N I C NOISES

Kain, Samuel W . , e t at; Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w , 2 6 : 1 5 2 - 1 5 4 , A p r i l 1 8 9 8 . (A) M r . Samuel W . Kain, i n h i s l e t t e r o f A p r i l 2 7 , 1 8 9 8 , s a y s : It g i v e me m u c h p l e a s u r e to send y o u by this m a i l a c o p y of P r o f e s s o r Ganong's a r t i c l e . I a m a l s o sending y o u two s h o r t notes f r o m lighthouse k e e p e r s at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. M r . M c L a u g h l i n is at the southern end of G r a n d Manan; M r . Suthern is on B r i e r I s l a n d , on the Nova Scotian s h o r e . I w r o t e t o t h e s e m e n i n o r d e r t o get s o m e m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n about this p h e nomenon. I h a v e a l s o p e r s o n a l l y questioned m a s t e r s of fishing s c h o o n e r s , a l l of whom a r e f a m i l i a r with t h e s e s o u n d s , and a m o n g w h o m they a r e known by the s o m e w h a t v u l g a r but v e r y e x p r e s s i v e n a m e of " s e a f a r t s . " I am sending you t h e s e p a p e r s b e c a u s e I think t h e s e sounds v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d i s c u s s e d i n E u r o p e about two y e a r s a g o by Van den B r o e c k , D a r w i n , and o t h e r s . A r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m i n the R e v i e w m a y elicit m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n than w e now h a v e . (B) W a l t e r B. M c L a u g h l i n , of G r a n d M a n a n , on r e m a r k a b l e sounds l i k e gun r e p o r t s , e t c . (read M a r c h 1, 1 8 9 8 , b e f o r e the Natural H i s t o r y Society of N e w B r u n s w i c k , and now quoted f r o m the St. C r o i x C o u r i e r ) : I b e g to s a y that my attention was f i r s t c a l l e d to t h e s e sounds in A u g u s t , 1 8 3 8 . I w a s then a b o y nine y e a r s old. I w a s with my b r o t h e r and a fine young s a i l o r , b y the n a m e o f M c C r a w , o f L o w e r G r a n d v i l l e , N . S . W e w e r e hooking m a c k e r e l , and I had j u s t caught my f i r s t m a c k e r e l when " b o o m " went this h e a v y sound and away went o u r fine s c h o o l of fish. M c C r a w s a i d , " T h e r e she g o e s . " I inquired the c a u s e of t h e s e sounds so frequently m a d e and the s a i l o r ' s a n s w e r w a s : " W e don't know, we h e a r t h e m , but we can't explain t h e m . " I h a v e no doubt that m a n y sounds h e a r d by people on the m a i n land a r e actually r e p o r t s of Indians' guns in p o r p o i s e hunting, or the r e p o r t s of our signal guns on t h o s e o u t e r s t a t i o n s , but a p r a c t i s e d m a n w i l l not be d e c e i v e d . I h a v e noticed t h e s e sounds f o r fifty-nine y e a r s . I long s i n c e satisfied m y s e l f that t h e s e sounds a r e s u b t e r r a n e a n . I have h e a r d t h e m u n d e r the s e a , under Gannet R o c k , under the land (in South L u b e c ) , and under Grand Manan in two different p l a c e s ; and, s t r a n g e to s a y , we have had two splendid s h o t s u n d e r this station l a t e l y , one on the evening of January 28 and the second on F e b r u a r y 1 4 , 1897. W h e n they take p l a c e under Gannet R o c k and under the land they h a v e the h e a v y r a t t l e of a 2 4 - p o u n d e r cannon, exploded 40 feet f r o m the buildings; but when they happen under the s e a they have a dull h a r m l e s s "boom, " as such a gun would sound if fired 50 or m o r e f a t h o m s u n d e r the s e a . W e u s e d t o h e a r t h o s e dull sounds frequently b e t w e e n the W o o d I s l a n d s and Gannet R o c k . T h e y would often sound like the r u s h of a h e a v y ground s w e l l into a subterranean cave. We a l w a y s noticed t h e m on fine c a l m d a y s . I think this w a s b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o wind o r o t h e r n o i s e t o drown t h e m . The f i r s t one o f t h o s e sounds I h e a r d under Gannet R o c k w a s about fifty y e a r s ago, one c l e a r , d a r k night, about 2 o ' c l o c k a. m . , in my watch. I w a s reading and w a s d e e p l y i n t e r e s t e d , when b a n g went the s h o c k of what s e e m e d to be like a 2 4 - p o u n d e r cannon. It brought down the soot f r o m a h e a v y , b o i l e r i r o n , e x t e n s i o n pipe on the c h i m n e y top into an open f i r e p l a c e . I, of c o u r s e , went outside to i n v e s t i g a t e and found a c l e a r , d a r k night with few c l o u d s and light w i n d s , It w a s , I think, in October. My next e x p e r i e n c e of one of t h o s e s h a r p s h o c k s w a s in the month of June, 1 8 5 6 , at South L u b e c , W e s t Quoddy B a y . I w a s at a D r . W i l l i a m S m a l l ' s , and w a s having a g a m e at c a r d s with the d o c t o r about 2 o ' c l o c k in the m o r n i n g , when bang went one of t h o s e s u b t e r r a n e a n guns, which n e a r l y upset o u r l a m p . I ex-

G2-172

STRANGE DETONATIONS

GSD-048

c l a i m e d , "An earthquake!" but the doctor said, "No; it's an airquake, " an explanation I never heard before nor since till I read it in the bulletin of the Natural History Society. My third experience of those shocks on solid ground was at Seal Cove about eight y e a r s ago, say at 11 o'clock in the evening, when the shock was exactly as the f o r m e r o n e s , the night being quiet and dark with v e r y light winds. Again on the 28th of January of this y e a r (1897) at 9 o'clock in the evening we got such a shock under this lighthouse that we thought the tops of our chimneys had gone by the board. Our dogs took to barking and our cattle tried to break l o o s e in the stable. I noted this shock in my journal and told my people that we would h e a r of an earthquake on the mainland, but when the mail c a m e we found that the earthquake was two d a y s ahead of our t r e m o r . On the evening of February 1 4 , at 9 p . m . , we received another shock, but not so violent as that of January. I have given you my experience of fifty-nine y e a r s , and I will now affirm that I strongly b e l i e v e these sounds a r e of subterranean origin. (C) E. W. Suthern, from a letter to M r . Kain, dated April 1 5 , 1 8 9 8 , at W e s t p o r t Light, B r i e r Island, Digby County, N. S . : I have noticed these sounds many t i m e s when I have been out on the Bay of Fundy on fine, c a l m days in the s u m m e r . I spend a good deal of t i m e in this way, shooting p o r p o i s e s and b i r d s . The sounds heard in this place are like the distant firing of heavy guns. I have heard these sounds on all sides of my boat, and that is what h a s puzzled m e . I have heard them between my boat and the shore when one-half mile off s h o r e , and again I have heard them in the s a m e direction, ten m i l e s off. I have also heard them in a southwesterly direction, and there is no land within 3 0 0 m i l e s wouthwest of h e r e , and I know that the Indians a r e not shooting p o r p o i s e s in that direction. In my opinion these sounds are not the firing of guns; they a r e heard only in c a l m , w a r m weather, and never in the nighttime or in the winter. I have asked the fishermen about them and they say that they h e a r these sounds on all sides of them. (D) W. F. Ganong, of Smith C o l l e g e , Northampton, M a s s . , on r e m a r k a b l e sounds, like gun r e p o r t s , h e a r d upon the southern coast of New Brunswick (dated D e c e m b e r 2 4 , 1 8 9 6 , Bulletin X I V of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick): Everybody who h a s been much upon our Charlotte County coast must r e m e m b e r that upon the still s u m m e r d a y s , when the heat h o v e r s upon the ocean, what s e e m to be gun or even cannon r e p o r t s a r e heard at intervals coming f r o m s e a ward. T h e residents always say, in answer to one's question: "Indians shooting porpoise off Grand Manan. " T h i s explanation I never believed; the sound of a gun report could not c o m e so far, and, b e s i d e s , the noise is of too deep and booming a c h a r a c t e r . I have often puzzled over the matter, and it is c o n s e quently with great p l e a s u r e that I find in Nature for October 3 1 , 1 8 9 5 , a short a r t i c l e by Prof. G. H. Darwin, in which he c a l l s attention to the o c c u r r e n c e of what is obviously the s a m e phenomenon in the delta of the Ganges, upon the coast of Belgium, and in parts of Scotland, and in which he asks for e x p e r i e n c e s f r o m other p a r t s of the world. Two explanations a r e suggested by his c o r r e s pondent, M. Van den Broeck, of Belgium, who called his attention to the p h e nomenon, one that the reports a r e of a t m o s p h e r i c origin, due to peculiar e l e c trical d i s c h a r g e s ; the other that they a r e internal in the earth, due, perhaps, to shock of the internal liquid m a s s against the solid c r u s t . The following number of Nature contains notes which suggest that the r e p o r t s may accompany the formation of faults or may result f r o m earthquakes too slight to be otherwise p e r c e i v e d , and l a t e r numbers of that journal contain numerous l e t t e r s upon strange sounds heard in different parts of the world, with various explanations.

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The d i s c u s s i o n upon the subject by this s o c i e t y on D e c e m b e r 3, 1 8 9 5 , has c a l l e d out further i n f o r m a t i o n showing that others b e s i d e s m y s e l f have noticed t h e s e or s i m i l a r sounds in New B r u n s w i c k . The late Edward J a c k , a keen o b s e r v e r of things in nature, w r o t e me under date D e c e m b e r 1 3 , 1 8 9 5 , "I have often noticed in P a s s a m a q u o d d y B a y , when I was duck shooting in the e a r l y s p r i n g m o r n i n g s , the n o i s e s of which y o u speak; they always s e e m e d to c o m e f r o m the south s i d e of the b a y . T h e y r e s e m b l e d m o r e the r e s o n a n c e f r o m the falling of s o m e h e a v y body into the w a t e r than that of the firing of a gun, such as is produced by a c a k e of ice b r e a k i n g away f r o m a l a r g e sheet of it and toppling o v e r into the s e a . T h e s e n o i s e s w e r e h e a r d b y m e only i n v e r y c a l m s p r i n g m o r n i n g s when t h e r e was no b r e a t h of a i r ; * * * t h e r e w a s nothing s u b t e r r a n e a n in t h e m . " Capt. C h a r l e s B i s h o p , of the s c h o o n e r Susie P r e s c o t t , has told M r . S. W. Kain that h e h a s h e a r d t h e s e sounds 4 0 m i l e s f r o m land between Grand Manan, the G e o r g e s B a n k s , and Mount D e s e r t R o c k . They a r e r e p o r t e d a l s o f r o m the K e n n e b e c a s i s . M r . Keith A . B a r b e r , o f T o r r y b u r n C o v e , w r o t e D e c e m b e r 2 6 , 1 8 9 5 , t o this society: "I have h e a r d sounds s i m i l a r to t h o s e on the K e n n e b e c a s i s in the w a r m days o f s u m m e r . They seemed to c o m e f r o m a southeasterly d i r e c t i o n . ' M r . A r t h u r L o r d l y , a m e m b e r of this s o c i e t y who r e s i d e s in the s u m m e r at R i v e r s i d e , has a l s o told M r . Kain that h e has h e a r d s i m i l a r sounds, o n c l e a r w a r m d a y s , on the K e n n e b e c a s i s , f r o m a southwest d i r e c t i o n . No other r e p o r t s of this o c c u r r e n c e i n New B r u n s w i c k have r e a c h e d m e . T h e Scientific A m e r i c a n (June 2 7 , 1 8 9 6 , p. 4 0 3 ) has c a l l e d attention to t h e m and r e q u e s t e d that o b s e r v a tions be c o m m u n i c a t e d to its c o l u m n s , but apparently so far without r e s u l t .
f

The l a t e s t opinion as to the origin of sounds a p p e a r s to f a v o r an a t m o s p h e r i c origin, p o s s i b l y connected with e l e c t r i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . A v e r y detailed c i r c u l a r , c a l l i n g f o r exact o b s e r v a t i o n s , with s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s and blank f o r m s has b e e n the f i r s t to c a l l scientific attention to t h e m . It is v e r y d e s i r a b l e , s i n c e the sounds o c c u r h e r e , that they should be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y o b s e r v e d and r e c o r d e d ; and it will be b e s t to c o m m u n i c a t e the r e s u l t s to this s o c i e t y , through which they will r e a c h t h o s e who can m a k e the b e s t u s e of t h e m . To s e c u r e the b e s t r e s u l t s the following f o r m , a l t e r e d s o m e w h a t f r o m M . Van den B r o e c k ' s c i r c u l a r , should be followed: N a m e of o b s e r v e r . Date of o b s e r v a t i o n . Exact p l a c e of o b s e r v a t i o n . Exact t i m e of each o b s e r v a t i o n . D i r e c t i o n of the sound. C h a r a c t e r of the sound (full d e s c r i p t i o n with c o m p a r i s o n s ) . Wind d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y . State of the sky. State of the s e a . Mist conditions. B a r o m e t e r (state of the weather a few h o u r s b e f o r e and after). Temperature. Other r e m a r k s , including s u g g e s t i o n s as to t h e i r o r i g i n , and r e a s o n s why they c a n not be gun r e p o r t s . (E) Although the a b o v e - d e s c r i b e d sounds have g e n e r a l l y b e e n attributed to s o m e f o r m of d i s t u r b a n c e with the earth, the noise f r o m which c o m e s up through the ocean, and although they a r e , t h e r e f o r e , c a l l e d s e i s m i c n o i s e s , yet it is by no m e a n s c e r t a i n that they m a y not have a v e r y different o r i g i n and it would be m o r e p r o p e r t o c a l l t h e m oceanic n o i s e s . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n s given o f t h e s e oceanic n o i s e s show that s o m e t i m e s they have p r e c i s e l y the s a m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the n o i s e s that m a y be h e a r d in an a q u a r i u m when one stands a l o n g s i d e

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of a b i g g l a s s tank and w a t c h e s the m o t i o n s of the d r u m fish. The salt water d r u m fish ( P o g o n i a s C h r o m i s ) is c o m m o n on the Atlantic C o a s t of the United S t a t e s , and other v a r i e t i e s will d o u b t l e s s be found in other p a r t s of the w o r l d . A l a r g e d r u m fish will give out a sound that m a y be heard a long d i s t a n c e . As the sound is r e f r a c t e d into a n e a r l y horizontal d i r e c t i o n on its e m e r g e n c e f r o m a l e v e l s u r f a c e of w a t e r , it m a y s e e m to c o m e f r o m a great d i s t a n c e in the a i r when it r e a l l y is n e a r at hand in the w a t e r underneath or near to a f i s h e r m a n ' s boat. If t h e r e a r e other f i s h e s of g r e a t s i z e that c a n give forth l o u d e r s o u n d s , having different n o t e s , we should not be s u r p r i s e d at the v a r i e t y of d e s c r i p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s m y s t e r i o u s sounds. But at p r e s e n t t h e s e oceanic n o i s e s defy all attempts at rational explanation; we m u s t wait until a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n s have been collected. A s t h e s e sounds appear t o b e v e r y frequent o n fine, c a l m s u m m e r d a y s i n the Bay of Fundy, it s e e m s p r a c t i c a b l e to start a special investigation of the s u b j e c t in that neighborhood. The actual d i r e c t i o n whence a sound c o m e s that o r i g i n a t e s u n d e r w a t e r can b e s t be studied by m e a n s of a p a i r of tubes w h o s e l o w e r ends a r e c l o s e d b y m e t a l o r p r e f e r a b l y g l a s s p l a t e s . The upper end o f the tube being open and in open a i r while the l o w e r end is i m m e r s e d s e v e r a l feet u n d e r w a t e r and pointed s u c c e s s i v e l y in different d i r e c t i o n s , we have only to a s c e r t a i n the d i r e c t i o n f o r which the sound that e n t e r s the tube is s t r o n g e s t in o r d e r to know the d i r e c t i o n whence it c o m e s . The u s e of this tube avoids the e r r o r incident to the r e f r a c t i o n of the sounds as they e m e r g e f r o m the s u r face o f the w a t e r . — E d . (F) Through the kindness of Prof. A l e x a n d e r A g a s s i z , the Editor has been favored with the following note, under date of M a y 2 3 , 1 8 9 8 , f r o m D r . S. G a r m a n , Icthyologist to the M u s e u m of C o m p a r a t i v e Z o o l o g y at C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: The l i s t of noisy fishes is an e x t e n s i v e one; it runs through the Scioenoids, C o t t o i d s , B a t r a c h o i d s , C y p r i n o i d s , S i l u r o i d s , G y m n o d o n t s , and o t h e r s . M o s t of t h e m a r e s m a l l and t h e i r v o i c e s a r e not loud. M y l i o b a t i s , A e t o b a t i s , and Rhinoptera, a m o n g the r a y s , a r e said to m a k e a noise by grinding t h e i r teeth when caught; it m a y be they a l s o do it when feeding. But the fishes that will b e s t a n s w e r the q u e r i e s of y o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t a r e the l a r g e Scioenidoe, many of t h e m probably m o r e or l e s s noisy. In t h e i r c a s e s the d a t e s of h e a r i n g the sounds should be noted. T h e l a r g e " d r u m , " P o g o n i a s , attains a length of m o r e than 4 feet. The following f r o m page 118 of H o l b r o o k ' s Ichthyology of South C a r o l i n a , 1 8 6 0 , r e l a t e s to it: "At this t i m e [ A p r i l ] the d r u m e n t e r s the d i f f e r ent b a y s and inlets of salt w a t e r along the s h o r e s of South C a r o l i n a to deposit its spawn, and then begins its d r u m m i n g n o i s e ; this s e a s o n p a s s e d , the sound is no l o n g e r h e a r d , and the fish is then r a r e l y taken. "The way in which the singular sound c a l l e d d r u m m i n g is produced h a s not hitherto b e e n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y explained. C u v i e r o b s e r v e s that it m a y depend upon the a i r b l a d d e r , though he s a y s it h a s no c o m m u n i c a t i o n with the external a t m o s phere. D e K a y s u p p o s e s it 'to be o c c a s i o n e d by the strong c o m p r e s s i o n of the expanded pharynegeal teeth upon each other. ' "Frequent examinations of the s t r u c t u r e and a r r a n g e m e n t of the a i r b l a d d e r , as w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n s on the living animal j u s t taken f r o m the water, when the sound is at i n t e r v a l s still continued, satisfied me that it is m a d e in the air b l a d d e r itself; that the vibrations a r e produced by the a i r being f o r c e d by strong m u s c u l a r c o n t r a c t i o n s through a n a r r o w opening, f r o m one l a r g e c a v i t y , that of the a i r b l a d d e r , to another, that of the cavity of the l a t e r a l horn; and if the hands be p l a c e d on the side of the a n i m a l , v i b r a t i o n s will be felt in the l a t e r a l h o r n c o r r e s p o n d i n g with each sound.

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' I c h t h y o l o g i s t s d i f f e r a l s o as to the c h a r a c t e r of the sound. Schoepff s p e a k s of it as a 'hollow, r u m b l i n g sound under w a t e r ; ' D r . M i t c h i l l , as a ' d r u m m i n g n o i s e ; ' D r . D e K a y s a y s when the fish is ' f r e s h l y taken f r o m the w a t e r it sounds as if two s t o n e s w e r e rubbed t o g e t h e r . ' It r e s e m b l e s m o s t the tap of a d r u m , and is so loud that when multitudes of t h e m a r e c o l l e c t e d together it c a n be h e a r d i n still w e a t h e r ' s e v e r a l hundred y a r d s f r o m the w a t e r . " ' The d r u m o f which H o l b r o o k w r i t e s i s P o g o n i a s c r o m i s Linne, 1 7 6 6 . (G) Note b y Prof. A . E . V e r r i l l , o f Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , New Haven, Conn, (dated M a y 3 1 , 1 8 9 8 ) : T h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s f i s h e s , both m a r i n e and f r e s h w a t e r , that a r e c a p a b l e of making sounds of c o n s i d e r a b l e v o l u m e u n d e r w a t e r . Such fish n o i s e s might v e r y w e l l account for m a n y i n s t a n c e s of the n o i s e s r e f e r r e d to. The d r u m f i s h e s , the " g r u n t s , " a r e good " e x a m p l e s of s o u n d - p r o d u c i n g f i s h e s . " (H) To the p r e c e d i n g note by D r . G a r m a n the editor would add the s u g g e s tion that the intensity and c h a r a c t e r of the sound, as h e a r d in the a i r , will d e pend s o m e w h a t upon the relation between the depth of the fish in the w a t e r and the pitch of the note u t t e r e d by i t . Just as the vibrating c o l u m n of a i r in an o r g a n r e e d pipe p r o d u c e s the g r e a t e s t effect when it is in p e r f e c t unison with the vibrating tongue at the b a s e , so it is with the c o l u m n of w a t e r above the d r u m fish. An open organ pipe that is c o n t r o l l e d by a s p r i n g or r e e d that v i b r a t e s to the l o w e s t C of the b a s s clef, n a m e l y , t h i r t y - t w o t i m e s p e r s e c o n d , m u s t have a length of 16 feet. The s a m e pipe, i f filled with f r e s h w a t e r , m a y b e l o n g e r i n the r a t i o 4 7 0 8 / 1 0 9 3 , v i z , the r a t i o between the v e l o c i t y of sound in a i r and w a t e r . T h i s g i v e s a depth of about 70 feet at which the d r u m fish that s t r i k e s the b a s s C could p r o d u c e the m a x i m u m n o i s e as h e a r d by the o b s e r v e r . If, now, the bottom of the w a t e r is 70 feet b e l o w the fish then he is at a nodal point, and the whole c o l u m n v i b r a t e s i n sympathy with h i m . — E d . (I) P r o f . W i l l i a m F . Ganong w r i t e s f r o m Northampton, M a s s . , a s f o l l o w s , M a y 3 1 , 1898: I can not in the l e a s t accept your s u g g e s t i o n about the d r u m fish. It is t r u e I h a v e n e v e r h e a r d this animal p e r f o r m , but the sounds c o m e f r o m t o o far off and a r e t o o g r e a t to be m a d e by a fish. On h i l l s a q u a r t e r of a m i l e f r o m the s e a I have h e a r d t h e m , and the sound filled the a i r . Y o u r m o d e of investigating t h e m by the tubes would be difficult in p r a c t i c e , s i n c e the sounds c o m e so r a r e l y ; d a y s will p a s s without our hearing t h e m , and e v e n on f a v o r a b l e days they o c c u r only once in a while, p e r h a p s once in a day, but at the b e s t they o c c u r s e v e r a l h o u r s apart as a r u l e ; in fact, they m a y be d e s c r i b e d as r a r e and i r r e g u l a r . H e n c e , one would have to be on constant guard at the tube f o r h o u r s and even d a y s t o g e t h e r . M r . M c L a u g h l i n , of Document B, is a m a n f o r whose p o w e r s of o b s e r v a t i o n and r e l i a b i l i t y I have the g r e a t e s t r e s p e c t , and h i s l e t t e r i s , t h e r e f o r e , an i m p o r t a n t contribution to this subject. (J) Instead of accepting any hypothetical explanation as s a t i s f a c t o r y , it is b e s t , at the p r e s e n t s t a g e of the investigation, to keep o n e ' s mind f r e e f r o m p r e j u d i c e in any s p e c i a l d i r e c t i o n . It s e e m s quite p o s s i b l e that the n o i s e s p r o c e e d i n g f r o m the o c e a n m a y have v e r y different c h a r a c t e r s and o r i g i n s ; s o m e a r e undoubtedly due t o the d r u m fish; o t h e r s a r e m a d e b y the b r e a k e r s dashing on r o c k y c l i f f s , whence h e a v y thuds s p r e a d f o r s e v e r a l m i l e s through the a i r and many m i l e s f a r t h e r through the ocean; o t h e r s a r e due to the c r a c k i n g of r o c k s in l e d g e s near the s u r f a c e , such as t h o s e on which l i g h t h o u s e s a r e built; o t h e r s , finally, a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y due to genuine earthquakes o c c u r r i n g at the

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b o t t o m of the neighboring o c e a n . It is highly p r o b a b l e that a c a r e f u l c o l l a t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m m a n y stations in any g i v e n l o c a l i t y , such as the B a y of Fundy, will t h r o w a c l e a r light upon the l o c a l i t y w h e n c e the n o i s e s e m a n a t e . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n it is worth c a l l i n g to m i n d that t h e r e a r e eight or ten w e l l defined r e g i o n s on the North A m e r i c a n Continent within each of which t h e r e is a s o - c a l l e d center of s e i s m i c disturbance. T h e r e i s n o r e a s o n why s i m i l a r c e n t e r s should not exist under the ocean; in fact, the g r e a t s o l i t a r y w a v e s that h a v e b e e n frequently r e p o r t e d b y v e s s e l s b e t w e e n N e w Y o r k and Newfoundland, and which h a v e g e n e r a l l y b e e n p l a u s i b l y explained as due to a c o m b i n a t i o n of s e v e r a l o r d i n a r y w a v e s , m a y s o m e t i m e s b e due t o suboceanic e a r t h q u a k e s , j u s t a s s i m i l a r g r e a t w a v e s a r e known t o h a v e b e e n produced b y e a r t h q u a k e s i n the P a c i f i c . — E d .

Note that the B a r i s a l Guns a r e frequently h e a r d in m u l t i p l e s t w o s and t h r e e s w h e r e a s the n o i s e s in the Bay of Fundy a r e s i n g l e and widely s p a c e d . A common d e n o m i n a t o r with the B a r i s a l Guns and m i s t p o u f f e r s is t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e for fine, calm weather.

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[MISTPOUFFERS IN THE PHILIPPINES] 85:451, February 2, 1911.

Anonymous; Nature,

T h e R e v . M . S a d e r r a M a s o , who h a s f o r m a n y y e a r s studied the e a r t h q u a k e s of the Philippine I s l a n d s , is now turning h i s attention to the s u b t e r r a n ean n o i s e s known i n other c o u n t r i e s u n d e r v a r i o u s n a m e s , such a s m i s t p o e f f e u r s , m a r i n a s , brontidi, r e t u m b o s , & c . I n the Philippines m a n y t e r m s a r e u s e d , g e n e r a l l y signifying m e r e l y r u m b l i n g o r n o i s e , while a few indicate that the n o i s e s a r e s u p p o s e d t o p r o c e e d f r o m the s e a o r f r o m mountains o r clouds. M o s t o f the p l a c e s w h e r e they a r e o b s e r v e d l i e along the c o a s t s o f i n t e r - i s l a n d s e a s o r o n e n c l o s e d b a y s ; v e r y few a r e situated o n the open c o a s t . The n o i s e s a r e h e a r d m o s t frequently at nightfall, during the night and in the e a r l y m o r n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y in the hot m o n t h s of M a r c h , A p r i l , and M a y , though in the towns of the Pangasinan p r o v i n c e they a r e confined a l m o s t e n t i r e l y to the rainy s e a s o n . T h e y a r e c o m p a r e d in 70 p e r cent, of the r e c o r d s to thunder. With r a r e e x c e p t i o n s , they s e e m t o c o m e f r o m the mountains inland. The i n s t a n c e s in which the n o i s e s show any connection with earthquakes a r e few, and o b s e r v e r s u s u a l l y distinguish b e t w e e n t h e m and the l o w r u m b l i n g s which occasionally precede earthquakes. It is a c o m m o n opinion a m o n g the F i l i p i n o s that the n o i s e s a r e the effect of w a v e s b r e a k i n g on the beach or into c a v e r n s , and that they a r e i n t i m a t e l y connected with c h a n g e s in the w e a t h e r , g e n e r a l l y with i m p e n d i n g typhoons. F a t h e r S a d e r r a M a s o i s inclined t o a g r e e with this view in certain c a s e s . The typhoons i n the Philippines s o m e t i m e s c a u s e v e r y h e a v y s w e l l s , which a r e propagated m o r e than a thousand k i l o m e t r e s , and h e n c e a r r i v e d a y s b e f o r e the wind a c q u i r e s any a p p r e c i a b l e f o r c e . He s u g g e s t s that s p e c i a l a t m o s p h e r i c conditions m a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e for the g r e a t d i s t a n c e s to which the sounds a r e h e a r d , and that t h e i r apparent inland o r i g i n m a y be due t o r e f l e c t i o n , p o s s i b l y f r o m the c u m u l u s c l o u d s which c r o w n the neighbouring m o u n t a i n s , w h i l e the d i r e c t s o u n d - w a v e s a r e shut off by w a l l s of vegetation or inequalities in the ground.

G2-177

GSD-050
GSD-050

STRANGE DETONATIONS
BARISAL GUNS IN A U S T R A L I A

C l e l a n d , J . Burton; N a t u r e , 8 1 : 1 2 7 , July 2 9 , 1 9 0 9 . In N a t u r e of June 4, 1 9 0 8 (vol. I x x v i i i . , p. 1 0 1 ) , under the title of " B a r i s a l Guns in W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a , " you published a note f r o m me d e s c r i b i n g a p e c u l i a r , loud detonation h e a r d by my c o m p a n i o n s and m y s e l f while on the S t r e l l e y R i v e r , in the n o r t h - w e s t of A u s t r a l i a . [See G S D - 0 0 2 ] In reading Captain S t u r t ' s " T w o Expeditions into the I n t e r i o r o f Southern A u s t r a l i a during the Y e a r s 1 8 2 8 , 1 8 2 9 , 1 8 3 0 , and 1 8 3 1 , " I find that, when c a m p e d on the newly d i s c o v e r e d D a r l i n g R i v e r , n e a r what is now the town of B o u r k e , in New South W a l e s , in F e b r u a r y , 1 8 2 9 , a v e r y s i m i l a r sound w a s h e a r d b y the e x p l o r e r s . Sturt's w o r d s a r e a s f o l l o w s : "About 3 p. m. on the 7th M r . H u m e and I w e r e occupied t r a c i n g the c h a r t upon the ground. The day had b e e n r e m a r k a b l y fine, not a c l o u d w a s t h e r e in the h e a v e n s , nor a b r e a t h of a i r to be felt. On a sudden we h e a r d what s e e m e d to be the r e p o r t of a gun f i r e d at the d i s t a n c e of b e t w e e n five and s i x m i l e s . It w a s not the h o l l o w sound of an earthly e x p l o s i o n , or the s h a r p c r a c k i n g n o i s e of f a l l ing t i m b e r , but in e v e r y way r e s e m b l e d a d i s c h a r g e of a h e a v y p i e c e of o r d n a n c e . On this all w e r e a g r e e d , but no one w a s c e r t a i n whence the sound p r o c e e d e d . Both M r . H u m e and m y s e l f had been too attentive to our occupation to f o r m a s a t i s f a c t o r y opinion; but we both thought it c a m e f r o m the N. W. I sent one of the m e n i m m e d i a t e l y up a t r e e , but he could o b s e r v e nothing unusual. The country around h i m appeared to be equally flat on all s i d e s , and to be thickly wooded: w h a t e v e r o c c a s i o n e d the r e p o r t , it m a d e a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n on all of u s ; and to this d a y , the singularity of such a sound, in such a situation, is a m a t t e r of m y s t e r y to m e " (2nd edition, 1 8 3 4 , v o l . i. , p. 9 8 ) .

GSD-051

S T R A N G E NOISES IN H A I T I

Anonymous; Literary Digest, 4 6 : 3 9 6 , February 2 2 , 1 9 1 3 . A s u m m a r y of S c h e r e r ' s r e p o r t [ G S D - 0 0 8 ] ,

GSD-052

AIR QUAKES

Clark, Joseph; English Mechanic, 8 2 : 4 3 3 , D e c e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 0 5 . I h a v e b e e n i n t e r e s t e d in what I have read at p a g e 4 0 1 , "Scientific N e w s , " c o n c e r n i n g what M r . H . G . F o r d h a m c a l l s a n "air q u a k e , " a s i t g o e s t o explain what w a s h e a r d h e r e a few minutes past 3 p. m. on Nov. 18 n a m e l y , what w a s taken for thunder. F r o m what I h a v e a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m people who h e a r d it the sound w a s as loud as thunder, but not e x a c t l y l i k e thunder. It c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e reports one l o u d , the next v e r y loud, and the l a s t m o r e like a r e v e r b e r a t i o n . P e o p l e sitting i n d o o r s h e a r d it as w e l l as t h o s e out, and it was heard in a straight line a t p l a c e s t h r e e t o four m i l e s apart from Ashcot in N. W. to Outleigh W o o t o n , S. E. but I h a v e not h e a r d of anyone h e a r i n g it e i t h e r N. o r S . o f the S . E . t o N . E . l i n e . Street i s lat. 5 0 ° 7 ' , long. 2 ° 4 4 * . Here, again, we h a v e t r i p l e t s of detonations.

G2-178

HUMS, HISSES, ETC.
GSH-014 NORWEGIAN TESTIMONY TO THE AURORAL-SOUND

GSH-014

T r o m h o l t , Sophus; N a t u r e , 3 2 : 4 9 9 - 5 0 0 , S e p t e m b e r 2 4 , 1 8 8 5 . How w i d e s p r e a d in our d a y s is the b e l i e f in the sound of the A u r o r a in N o r w a y , the following m a y show: In M a r c h , 1 8 8 5 , I d e s p a t c h e d s o m e thousand c i r c u l a r s to all p a r t s of the country containing different q u e r i e s r e g a r d i n g the a u r o r a , and a m o n g s t t h e s e a l s o the following: Have you o r y o u r acquainta n c e s e v e r h e a r d any sound during a u r o r a , and, in this c a s e , when and in what m a n n e r ? U p t o t h i s date I h a v e r e c e i v e d a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e r i e s f r o m 1 4 4 p e r s o n s in different p a r t s of the c o u n t r y . Of t h e s e t h e r e a r e not l e s s than 9 2 , or 64 p e r cent, who b e l i e v e in the e x i s t e n c e of the a u r o r a - s o u n d , and 53 (36 p e r cent) of t h e s e again state they have h e a r d it t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l s t the other 3 9 c i t e t e s t i m o n i a l s f r o m other people; only 2 1 (15 p e r cent) d e c l a r e they n e v e r h a v e h e a r d the sound or know anything about it, and the o t h e r 31 (22 p e r cent) h a v e not n o t i c e d the q u e r y at a l l . T h e r e a r e thus 92 a f f i r m a t i o n s against 21 negations. Only a few of the v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r of d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e r e p r o d u c e d h e r e . T h e sound is d e s c r i b e d in t h e s e a n s w e r s in the following manner:S i z z l i n g (3) Creaking or sizzling An i n t e r m e d i a t e sound b e t w e e n s i z z l i n g and w h i z z i n g , s o m e t i m e s as if a p i e c e of paper were torn A kind of sound as when you t e a r silk Soft w h i z z i n g , a l t e r n a t i v e with s i z z l i n g Soft c r a c k l i n g , s i z z l i n g H i s s i n g and c r a c k l i n g W h i s p e r i n g and g l i s t e r i n g A r a t h e r h e a v y r u s h , as f r o m a distant waterfall Quiet w h i z z i n g , h i s s i n g Hissing, or hoy! hoy! hoy! Whiz (2) Rush, as f r o m a s t r e a m Soft but distant c r a c k l i n g , as f r o m a lighted m a t c h - c o r d W h i z z i n g (5) R u s h , a s when s h e e p a r e c h a s e d Soft h i s s i n g , soft whiz W h i z z i n g o r whistling C r a c k l i n g (4) Hissing C r a c k in the a i r Din in the a i r Continuous sounding, rolling din in the air Clashing Flapping, as a flag b e f o r e the wind P a r t l y as rustling or flapping of s a i l s h a n g ing l o o s e f o r e the wind, p a r t l y a s h i s s i n g f r o m fire Monotonous w h i z z i n g and c r e a k i n g , as when a sheet flaps b e f o r e the wind A s f r o m a feeble burning f l a m e L i k e burning d r i e d j u n i p e r Cutting, h i s s i n g a s f r o m f l a m e s C r a c k l i n g and c r e a k i n g , a n o i s e as from a large fire-flame as, f o r i n s t a n c e , burning d r i e d boughs L i k e the sound f r o m a flight of b i r d s Strong flapping n o i s e , as when a b i r d p a s s e s v e r y near you C r a c k l i n g f r o m f i r e and flapping f r o m wings As of a bird flying through the air with g r e a t v e l o c i t y L i k e the b u z z i n g of a b e e R o a r i n g n o i s e , as when s t r o n g g u s h e s of wind dart through the t r e e tops of the wood C r e a k i n g sound a s f r o m the b l o w ing of the wind Distant r o a r , as f r o m a s t o r m R o a r i n g as f r o m a s t o r m R o a r i n g as f r o m a whirlwind L i k e the soft b r e e z e through a wood Whipping with w h i s k - b r o o m s Soft n o i s e , as when fanning with a p i e c e of p a p e r f r o m a d i s t a n c e Soft flapping with a p i e c e of cloth R o a r i n g of the s e a

G2-179

GSH-015

HUMS, HISSES, ETC.
Heavy, h o l l o w r o a r f r o m the s e a Sweeping sound, as when d r y s n o w is sweeping over an ice-field

Like the n o i s e f r o m a distant, b e f o r e the w i n d - f l a p p i n g f l a g , w h i c h n o w and then s e n d s out a c r e a k i n g sound

GSH-015

SOUND OF THE A U R O R A 1881.

O g l e , John W. ; Nature, 24:5, May 5,

The interesting communications which have lately appeared in your p e r i o d i c a l r e g a r d i n g t h e s u p p o s e d c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n " s o u n d " and t h e " a u r o r a " ( N a t u r e , v o l . x x i i i , p p . 4 8 4 , 5 2 9 , 5 5 6 ) , l e a d m e t o s u p p o s e that t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t e s m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d b y y o u and y o u r r e a d e r s w o r t h y o f r e c o r d . They w e r e c o p i e d last autumn by m y s e l f f r o m the Strangers' or V i s i t o r s ' B o o k at t h e H o t e l o n t h e A e g g i s c h o r n , and b o r e t h e d a t e J u l y 1 0 , 1 8 6 3 : " V i s i t t o the C o l d e l a Jungfrau d e s c r i b e d : On descent surrounded by t h u n d e r c l o u d s evidently c h a r g e d with e l e c t r i c i t y . At 1 2 . 1 5 a sound s i m i l a r to that m a d e b y a b o i l i n g k e t t l e w a s h e a r d t o i s s u e f r o m o n e o f the a l p e n s t o c k s , and v e r y s o o n a s i m i l a r s o u n d i s s u e d f r o m a l l t h e b a t o n s . On shaking the hands s i m i l a r s o u n d s i s s u e d f r o m the f i n g e r s . O b s e r v i n g that t h e v e i l o f o n e o f t h e p a r t y s t o o d u p r i g h t o n h i s hat, o n e o f the g e n t l e m e n and o n e o f the g u i d e s , w h o had e x p e r i e n c e d p r i c k l y s e n s a t i o n s o n the c r o w n o f the head, r e m o v e d their hats, when their hair stood up as if under a powerful e l e c t r i c a l machine. Whene v e r t h e r e w a s a p e a l o f thunder all o f the p h e n o m e n a c e a s e d , t o b e s p e e d i l y r e n e w e d w h e n the p e a l w a s o v e r . A t s u c h t i m e s all the m e m b e r s o f the party felt s e v e r e s h o c k s i n t h e p a r t s o f t h e b o d y w h i c h w e r e m o s t a f f e c t e d ; and o n e g e n t l e m a n h a d h i s r i g h t a r m p a r a l y s e d and r e n d e r e d u s e l e s s f o r s e v e r a l m i n utes. T h e c l o u d s - p a s s e d a w a y and the p h e n o m e n a f i n a l l y c e a s e d a t 1 2 . 3 0 . The g u i d e s w i t h u s w e r e J o s e p h M a r i e C l a r e t o f C h a m o u n i , and S m i t h o f t h i s h o u s e , and t h e y w e r e a s m u c h a f f e c t e d b y t h e e l e c t r i c i t y a s w e w e r e . A t the t o p o f the C o l the a n e r o i d b a r o m e t e r s t o o d a t 18. 8 3 . " T h e s e m o u n t a i n - t o p e f f e c t s a r e f a r f r o m u n c o m m o n , b u t t h i s a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s that the v i b r a t o r y n o i s e s m a y b e akin t o the s u p p o s e d a u r o r a l n o i s e .

GSH-016 Constable,

SOUND OF THE A U R O R A F. C. ; Nature, 24:53, May 19, 1881.

I n N a t u r e , v o l . x x i i i , p . 4 8 4 , o n e o f y o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s s p e a k s o f the s o u n d o f t h e a u r o r a a s " c r a c k l i n g , " o r a s that o f " t h e f l i c k e r i n g o f b l a z i n g f i r e , " w h i l e a n o t h e r d e s c r i b e s it as l i k e the " r u s t l i n g or s w i t c h i n g of s i l k . " O n M o n d a y , A p r i l 1 2 l a s t , t h e r e w a s a n e l e c t r i c s t o r m h e r e , and a t 7 p . m . w h e n I w a l k e d h o m e (the b l a z i n g l i g h t n i n g l e a v i n g b u t m o m e n t a r y i n t e r v a l s o f d a r k n e s s ) , I h e a r d all round m e the c o n s t a n t c r a c k l i n g o r rustling o f b l a z i n g flames. T o w a r d s the n o r t h - w e s t a c r o s s a l o w a r c n e a r the h o r i z o n p a l e sheet l i g h t n i n g s w a y e d q u i c k l y t o and f r o . T h e r e w a s n o r a i n a t t h e t i m e , that c a m e heavily afterwards. T h e s o u n d o f f l a m e s w a s c l o s e r o u n d m e , and o t h e r s h a d the s a m e e x p e r i e n c e . N o o n e I c a n find h a s e v e r s e e n l i g h t n i n g s o c o m p l e t e l y fill the a i r o r h e a r d s u c h s t r a n g e s o u n d s . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e i s that t h e a u r o r a l s o u n d m a y o r i g i n a t e i n n e a r b y e l e c t r i c discharges.

G2-180

MUSIC, BELLS, ETC.
GSM-006 [THE CRY OF MEMNON]

GSM 007

Gould, R u p e r t T . ; E n i g m a s , U n i v e r s i t y B o o k s , N e w Hyde P a r k , 1 9 6 5 . The c o l o s s a l statue o f M e m n o n , situated a m o n g the r u i n s o f T h e b e s , w a s e r e c t e d about 1 5 0 0 B . C . and h a s a t v a r i o u s p e r i o d s i n h i s t o r y b e e n the s o u r c e o f s t r a n g e sounds. "Still f r o m h i s c h a i r o f p o r p h y r y gaunt M e m n o n s t r a i n s h i s l i d l e s s e y e s A c r o s s the e m p t y land, and c r i e s e a c h y e l l o w m o r n i n g unto t h e e . " I f T e n n y s o n , a s s e e m s l i k e l y , e x c e l l e d W i l d e a s a poet, h e n e v e r t h e l e s s showed h i m s e l f i n f e r i o r to the author of T h e Sphinx when he wrote: " from her lips, as morn from Memnon, drew Rivers of m e l o d i e s . " T h e sounds which a r e r e c o r d e d a s having b e e n e m i t t e d b y the f a m o u s "vocal statue of M e m n o n " w e r e neither m a n y n o r m e l o d i o u s . Infrequently, but a l w a y s at s u n r i s e , t h o s e who stood n e a r it long a g o m i g h t h e a r a thin, strident sound, l i k e the b r e a k i n g of a h a r p s t r i n g . That w a s a l l — a n a i m l e s s c r y h e a r d at r a r e i n t e r v a l s during a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of two hundred y e a r s , a p e r i o d p r e ceded and followed by many c e n t u r i e s of s i l e n c e . Y e t it w a s a phenomenon of which h a r d l y any s i m i l a r c a s e is on r e c o r d — a n d it w a s not, it should s e e m , a deception. T h e statue, which had b e e n silent so long, and again has sunk into s i l e n c e , did o n c e acquire the e x e r c i s e s o m e s t r a n g e inherent p o w e r of saluting the sun. (p. 26)

GSM-007

NOISES AT SEA OFF G R E Y T O W N

Oliver, S. P. ; Nature, 4 : 2 6 - 2 7 , May 11, 1 8 7 1 . I n N a t u r e , v o l . i i . p . 2 5 [ G S M - 0 0 1 ] M r . Dennehy gave a n i n t e r e s t i n g account of a p e c u l i a r v i b r a t i o n , a c c o m p a n i e d by sound, which is p e r c e i v a b l e at night on b o a r d all ( ? ) i r o n s t e a m e r s which anchor off G r e y t o w n , C e n t r a l A m e r i c a ; and in subsequent p a g e s I have r e a d with g r e a t i n t e r e s t v a r i o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s as to i t s o r i g i n , which is a s c r i b e d (1, the p r o b a b l e solution) to t r o o p s of S c i a e n o i d s (with r e s e r v a t i o n ) b y M r , K i n g s l e y (p. 4 6 ) ; (2) t o m u s i c a l fish o r s h e l l s , b y M e s s r s . E v a n s and L i n d s a y (pp. 46 and 3 5 6 ) ; and (3) to g a s - e s c a p e f r o m v e g e table mud and s a n d , b y M r . M a l e t (p. 4 7 ) ; whilst M r . Dennehy h i m s e l f s u g g e s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o m e galvanic a g e n c y . I r e m a r k e d upon this v i b r a t o r y phenomenon in a c o m m u n i c a t i o n published in the F i e l d n e w s p a p e r of O c t o b e r 2 6 t h , 1 8 6 7 , signed "Ubique, " after having h e a r d it m y s e l f when on b o a r d the R o y a l M a i l s t e a m e r Danube (Capt. R e e k s ) during the nights of the 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th of M a y , 1 8 6 7 ; the new m o o n o c c u r r i n g o n the 4th o f the s a m e month. As my statement s e r v e s to confirm M r . Dennehy's r e p o r t , I m a y be forgiven f o r giving it in full. A f t e r giving an account of the sudden a p p e a r a n c e of a huge white s h a r k in the d e e p s e a when a m a n f e l l o v e r b o a r d , I p r o c e e d e d to state as f o l l o w s : "On e m b a r k i n g on b o a r d the Danube s t e a m e r , lying at anchor in the r o a d s t e a d off G r e y t o w n on the 12th M a y , 1 8 6 7 , I w a s i n f o r m e d that the ship w a s haunted by m o s t c u r i o u s n o i s e s at night s i n c e she had a r r i v e d , and that the s u p e r s t i t i o u s b l a c k s a i l o r s w e r e m u c h frightened at what they thought m u s t be a g h o s t . The

G2-181

GSM-007

MUSIC, BELLS, ETC.

captain and o f f i c e r s could m a k e nothing of it, and it afforded a g r e a t m a t t e r f o r discussion. On inquiry I found out that other i r o n ships had been s i m i l a r l y affected. C u r i o u s l y enough this n o i s e w a s only h e a r d at night, and at c e r t a i n h o u r s . S o m e attributed i t t o fish, s u c k e r s , t u r t l e , & c . , o t h e r s t o the change of tide or c u r r e n t ; but no s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n could be a r r i v e d at. W h e n night c a m e on t h e r e w a s no m i s t a k e about the n o i s e ; it w a s quite loud enough to awaken m e , and could be h e a r d distinctly all o v e r the ship. It w a s not d i s s i m i l a r to the high monotone of an A e o l i a n h a r p , and the noise was evidently c a u s e d by the v i b r a t i o n of the p l a t e s of the i r o n hull, which could be s e n s i b l y p e r c e i v e d to v i b r a t e . W h a t c a u s e d this p e c u l i a r v i b r a t i o n ? Not the change of c u r rent and tide, b e c a u s e , if s o , it would be h e a r d by d a y . Like everything e l s e that we cannot explain, I suppose we m u s t put it down to e l e c t r i c i t y , m a g n e t i s m , & c . If this should m e e t the e y e of any of the o f f i c e r s of the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d s t e a m e r , or o t h e r s who have noticed this phenomenon, I should be glad to h e a r whether this effect s t i l l continues, or if any s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n h a s yet b e e n a r r i v e d at. I m a y add that f r o m the hold of the v e s s e l the grunts of the t o a d fish could be distinctly h e a r d . I hope that the above notice m a y lead to s o m e a n s w e r s f r o m your v a r i o u s c o r r e s p o n d e n t s . " This b r i e f notice d r e w forth a r e j o i n d e r f r o m a c o r r e s p o n d e n t ( N o v e m b e r 2 3 , 1867) who had noticed a s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r sound. "The s i n g u l a r sound noticed by ' U b i q u e , ' I have a l s o heard without knowing its o r i g i n . One moonlight night in 1 8 5 4 , on b o a r d a s t e a m e r anchored n e a r the T a v o y r i v e r ( T e n a s s e r i m ) we w e r e struck by an e x t r a o r d i n a r y noise which appeared to p r o c e e d f r o m the s h o r e about a q u a r t e r of a m i l e off, or f r o m the water in that d i r e c t i o n . It was something like the sound of a stocking l o o m , but s h r i l l e r , and l a s t e d p e r h a p s five or six s e c o n d s , producing a s e n s i b l e c o n c u s s i o n on the e a r l i k e the p i e r c i n g s c r e a m of the c i c a d a ; and this g a v e an i m p r e s s i o n a s i f the v e s s e l i t s e l f w e r e t r e m b l i n g , o r r e v e r b e r a t i n g f r o m the sound. One or two B u r m a n s on b o a r d said s i m p l y , the noise w a s produced by ' f i s h e s , ' but of what kind they did not d e s c r i b e . It was repeated two or t h r e e t i m e s . I n e v e r heard it b e f o r e or after the o c c a s i o n r e f e r r e d to, n o r have I e v e r m e t with any a l l u s i o n to this singular phenomenon until I p e r u s e d 'Ubique's' c o m m u n i c a t i o n in the Field of the 26th ult. T h e s t e a m e r in my c a s e , I should add, was a wooden o n e . " M r . E v a n s , in h i s l e t t e r , s p e a k s of the rapid silting up of Greytown h a r b o u r this still c o n t i n u e s , and the p a s s a g e o v e r the b a r , which is continually shifting, if often a m a t t e r of g r e a t difficulty, and indeed often so dangerous that the Royal M a i l C o m p a n y will not undertake to allow t h e i r own boats to land, and p a s s e n g e r s have to land in the l o c a l c a n o e s at t h e i r own r i s k . The N i c a r a g u a n G o v e r n m e n t , h o w e v e r , p r o p o s e t o c a r r y out M r . Shepherd's plan o f diverting the w a t e r s of the San Juan r i v e r f r o m the C o l o r a d o mouth to the Greytown channel, hoping t h e r e b y to s c o u r the h a r b o u r c l e a r . M r . F . J . Evans a l s o r e f e r s t o the v a s t amount o f animal l i f e , and m e n tions the quantities of s h a r k s and a l l i g a t o r s which abound in and about G r e y t o w n H a r b o u r . I c a n fully c o r r o b o r a t e this, although I b e l i e v e that what M r . Evans t e r m s a l l i g a t o r s a r e r e a l l y c r o c o d i l e s (Molina A m e r i c a n a ) , I should b e glad t o have c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on this point: when not actually v i s i b l e , t h e i r p r o x i m i t y is m a d e evident by a powerful odour of m u s k . The m o s t notable, h o w e v e r , of the d e n i z e n s of t h e s e w a t e r s , b e s i d e s the t u r t l e , is the Atlantic m a n a t e e , which C o l u m b u s m i s t o o k for a m e r m a i d , and which A g a s s i z t e r m s the m o d e r n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Dinotherium. The M o s q u i t o Indians on the Indian, R a m a , and B l e w f i e l d s r i v e r s a r e g r e a t adepts at harpooning this p a r a d o z i c a l m a m m a l , and i t s flesh salted is a s t a p l e a r t i c l e of food all along t h e s e c o a s t s , b e i n g not unlike to ship's p o r k .

G2-182

SECTION GV: VOLCANIC PHENOMENA
In this section, emphasis is on thermally caused phenomena. Volcanoes, of c o u r s e , a r e the principal c r e a t o r s of such effects, but wherever hot magma is near the surface strange effects a r e often noted. The f u m e r o l e s and mudpots of Yellowstone a r e prosaic e x a m p l e s . In these sourcebooks, only the m o r e unusual volcanic phenomena will be recounted. GVS *GVT Solar, lunar, and planetary c o r r e l a t i o n s . Geothermal phenomena. Local "hot spots" with unusual side effects or p o s s e s s i n g strange p r o p e r t i e s . Volcanic phenomena. "Strange phenomena" associated with volcanoes and not specifically covered in other sections, such as the generation of volcanic electricity and peculiar ejecta.

GVV

• T h i s subsection not represented in Volume G 2 .

G2-183

VOLCANIC

PHENOMENA

I

G2-184

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
GVS-001 VOLCANOES A N D THE SUN A N D MOON

GVS-002

Still, E l m e r G . ; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 8 6 : 4 3 3 , June 2 1 , 1 9 0 2 . I Kindly p e r m i t me to call your attention to s o m e r e m a r k a b l e coincidences between certain positions of the moon, relative to the earth and sun, and the recent earthquake and volcanic disturbances. Do not the following c o m p a r i s o n s of facts go to p r o v e that such disturbances a r e m o s t likely to take place when the moon is d i r e c t l y in line with the earth and sun (conjunction, opposition, e c l i p s e ) , when the moon is nearest the earth (perigee), and when it c r o s s e s the earth's e q u a t o r ? The moon c r o s s e d the earth's equator on April 19; the t e r r i b l e earthquakes in Guatemala began on the evening before and continued until the 2 1 s t . The moon was full and at eclipse node on A p r i l 2 2 ; the volcanoes in the W e s t Indies first showed signs of activity on the day following. The moon c r o s s e d the equator again on M a y 3 - — t h e day that Mont P e l e e , on the island of Martinique, first began eruption. The moon was new and at e c l i p s e node on May 7 and in p e r i g e e on the 8th; La Souffriere volcano, on the island of St. Vincent, began violent eruption on May 7, and Mont P e l e e destroyed the city of St. P i e r r e on the 8th. Then, as the moon receded f r o m perigee, getting farther away f r o m the earth, the volcanoes gradually quieted down until the activity ceased on M a y 1 5 . The moon c r o s s e d the equator again on Friday evening, May 16, and on Friday Mont P e l e e again began eruption, which b e c a m e violent next day. The writer has for s e v e r a l y e a r s been observing this relation between the positions of the heavenly bodies and s e i s m i c , volcanic, and electrical d i s t u r b a n c e s , and is forced to the conclusion that the latter are caused in part by the conjunctions, oppositions, perihelions (or perigees) and equinoxes of the moon, earth, and seven other planets, e s p e c i a l l y when s e v e r a l of these occur at once. Such disturbances do not always occur at these t i m e s , but observation p r o v e s that nearly all of them do so o c c u r . It is not c l a i m e d that the relative position of the heavenly bodies is the s o l e cause; it is only an aggravating c a u s e and must be combined with local c a u s e s and conditions in order to produce s e i s m i c and volcanic disturbances. Scientists now recognize the fact that sun spots are caused by the perihelion, e t c . , of Jupiter and other l a r g e planets. Then why are not earthquakes caused in the s a m e general m a n n e r ? The writer is convinced that s e v e r e disturbances of these kinds can be p r e dicted as accurately as the weather, and that the recent volcanic outbreak could have been predicted with a certainty s e v e r a l days in advance, and the awful l o s s of life thus averted. The w r i t e r felt certain that there would be another s e v e r e volcanic eruption on May 16 and 1 7 , and it c a m e . The moon will c r o s s the earth's equator again on May 31 and June 13, will be in perigee on June 5 and new on June 6; therefore, m o r e volcanic and s e i s m i c disturbances a r e probable on and about those dates in various parts of the world, but e s p e c i a l l y where they have been occurring recently. I submit t h e s e facts and theories for your candid and unbiased consideration, and in conclusion I earnestly request that you e x p r e s s your opinion of them in the Scientific A m e r i c a n , or at least explain them to your r e a d e r s , so that these facts and theories m a y be carefully investigated by scientists for the benefit of mankind.

|

GVS-002

VOLCANOES A N D THE SUN A N D MOON

Still, E l m e r G , ; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 8 7 : 5 4 , July 2 6 , 1 9 0 2 .

G2-185

GVS-002

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

R e f e r r i n g to y o u r c o m m e n t s on my c o m m u n i c a t i o n about " V o l c a n o e s and the Sun and M o o n , " published on June 2 1 , you have apparently m i s u n d e r s t o o d my t h e o r y , as I do not maintain that volcanic and s e i s m i c action should be g r e a t e s t w h e r e the tide is highest and l e a s t w h e r e it is l o w e s t . T h e a b n o r m a l l y high tide in the B a y of Fundy is evidently c a u s e d by the "contour of the continents, " as you state, f o r the m o o n ' s attraction is of c o u r s e no g r e a t e r at the Bay of Fundy than e l s e w h e r e in the s a m e latitude, and t h e r e f o r e volcanic and s e i s m i c action is not expected to be g r e a t e s t t h e r e . The influence of the m o o n and planets in c a u s i n g and intensifying s e i s m i c and volcanic d i s t u r b a n c e s is not altogether tidal action gravitational; it is partly, or m o s t l y , e l e c t r i c a l , and s e i s m i c and volcanic action is an e l e c t r i c a l disturbance. T h i s is the r e a s o n why sultry w e a t h e r , which a l w a y s a c c o m p a n i e s t h u n d e r s t o r m s , a l s o g o e s with volcanic eruptions and often with e a r t h q u a k e s . H e n c e , s u l t r y w e a t h e r is popularly c a l l e d "earthquake w e a t h e r , " and in the Hawaiian I s l a n d s it is known as "volcano w e a t h e r . " It is a r e m a r k a b l e fact that "when Mont P e l e e b l e w up, magnetic needles two and t h r e e thousand m i l e s away q u i v e r e d on t h e i r p i v o t s . " T h e effect o f the m o o n ' s c r o s s i n g the e a r t h ' s equator i s e l e c t r i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e , not at all gravitational, and a little o b s e r v a t i o n and reading of the daily p a p e r s w i l l p r o v e that e l e c t r i c a l s t o r m s , and in fact s e v e r e s t o r m s of all kinds, a r e m o r e frequent at about the t i m e of the m o o n ' s equatorial p a s s a g e than at any other t i m e . In proof of this, note the t e r r i f i c s t o r m s that o c c u r r e d about M a y 3, 1 6 , 31 and June 13 and 2 7 , even in this country alone, and a l s o notice what o c c u r s on and touching the following m o o n - o n - t h e - e q u a t o r dates the r e s t of this y e a r : July 1 0 , 2 4 ; A u g u s t 6 , 2 1 ; S e p t e m b e r 3 , 1 7 , 3 0 ; O c t o b e r 1 5 , 2 7 ; N o v e m b e r 1 1 , 2 3 ; D e c e m b e r 8 , 2 1 . S o m e interesting e x p e r i m e n t s b y Prof. E l m e r G a t e s o n "The E l e c t r i c a l C a u s e s of Changes in the W e a t h e r " w e r e d e s c r i b e d in the Scientific A m e r i c a n of August 1 0 , 1 9 0 1 . I cannot a g r e e with you that a relation m u s t be e s t a b l i s h e d between planetary positions and " m o m e n t s of volcanic outbreaks or s e v e r e e a r t h q u a k e s , " for the planetary c a u s e is not the s o l e c a u s e (as it is with t i d e s ) ; in s o m e c a s e s w h e r e a volcano is a l m o s t s t r o n g enough to b u r s t forth of its own a c c o r d , the planetary influence is strong enough to precipitate the outbreak a good m a n y h o u r s , or perhaps a whole day, b e f o r e the actual m o m e n t of the conjunction, p e r i g e e , e t c . ; the planetary influence c o m e s on gradually and is c u m u l a t i v e , my o b s e r v a t i o n s indicating that volcanic and s e i s m i c d i s t u r b a n c e s a r e m o r e likely to o c c u r shortly after r a t h e r than b e f o r e , or at the m o m e n t of, the planetary p o s i t i o n s . Following a r e s o m e m o r e "coincidences:" The v o l c a n o of K i l a u e a , in the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , b e g a n eruption on July 4, 1901 the day b e f o r e the opposition of Saturn and continued through the m o o n ' s equatorial p a s s a g e on the 6th, p e r i g e e on the 11th, and new on the 1 5 , c e a s i n g about 30 h o u r s after the m o o n c r o s s e d the equator again on July 1 9 . An A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s dispatch of A p r i l 17 stated that A l b r i m , L o p e v i e and T i n g o a v o l c a n o e s , in the New H e b r i d e s I s l a n d s , w e r e in eruption on M a r c h 10 another m o o n - o n - t h e - e q u a t o r date. In A l a s k a , Mount B l a c k b u r n erupted on A p r i l 11 the next day after perigee and Mount Redoubt on M a y 3 the s a m e day that Mont P e l e e began eruption c a u s e d by the m o o n on the equator. A dispatch states that the s e i s m o g r a p h s of W. A. Eddy, the Bayonne (N. J . ) s e i s m o l o g i s t , r e c o r d e d earth t r e m o r s f r o m the e a s t - s o u t h e a s t on the night of M a y 1 5 - 1 6 , leading h i m to predict new eruptions in the W e s t Indies, and that "this is the first motion of the s e i s m o g r a p h needles s i n c e M a r c h 2 2 . " On r e f e r r i n g to my almanac 1 find: m o o n on equator M a y 16 and M a r c h 2 3 ; a l s o full 2 3 d ; p e r i g e e and equinox, 2 1 s t . S o m e c o i n c i d e n c e s omitted f r o m my f i r s t l e t t e r w e r e the perihelion of

G2-186

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GVS-003

M e r c u r y on May 4, with the first eruption of La Soufriere next day, and the occultation (direct conjunction) of M a r s by the moon on May 7, when that volcano was at its w o r s t . The predictions in my communication of May 18 w e r e verified by the eruption of Mont P e l e e on May 3 0 , earthquakes in Hawaii on May 3 1 , two e r u p tions of Kilauea June 1, a "violent outburst" of Mont P e l e e June 6, and again on the night of June 1 3 - 1 4 . If scientists will not admit any influence of planetary conditions in causing s e i s m i c and volcanic disturbances, they must then account for simultaneous disturbances of this kind in different p a r t s of the world by supposing that d i s tant volcanoes a r e connected, and that, t h e r e f o r e , a l a r g e part of the interior of the earth is molten m a t t e r which they cannot deny must be subject to the s a m e gravitational influence that c a u s e s the tides.

GVS-003

G R A V I T A T I O N AS A CAUSE OF V O L C A N I C A C T I O N

Still, E l m e r G . ; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 8 7 : 2 0 3 , September 2 7 , 1 9 0 2 . Y o u r correspondent in the i s s u e of August 9, writing on "Gravitation as a Cause of Volcanic Action, " evidently doubts that certain planetary positions cause e l e c t r i c a l disturbances in the earth, and that volcanic and s e i s m i c action may be caused by e l e c t r i c a l or magnetic influences. But let us consider c a r e fully the evidence in favor of these propositions. We know that magnetic earth currents (which interfere with telegraphing), brilliant a u r o r a s , s e v e r e t h u n d e r s t o r m s , violent s t o r m s of many kinds, and also earthquakes and volcanic activity accompany sun spots. A l l these are e l e c t r i c a l disturbances, and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius and numerous s e i s m i c shocks which o c c u r r e d at the t i m e of the l a s t l a r g e sun s p o t s — a b o u t September 15, 1898 w e r e no doubt e l e c t r i c a l l y caused by them. The m o o n ' s equatorial p a s s a g e has certainly no gravitational influence, and yet it must be something m o r e than m e r e coincidence that s e v e r e volcanic and s e i s m i c disturbances have accompanied this planetary position e v e r y t i m e during the past four months, with but one exception: None w e r e reported for June 2 7 ; but the abnormally s e v e r e s t o r m s on and about that date proved the e l e c t r i c a l effect. The m o o n ' s last equatorial p a s s a g e , on August 2 1 , caused terrific earthquakes in Mindanao, Philippine Islands, and a violent eruption of Mont P e l e e on that date, m o r e shocks at L o s A l a m o s , C a l . , on August 2 0 , 21 and 2 2 , e a r t h - t r e m o r s for two h o u r s in A u s t r i a and violent t r e m o r s near St. P e t e r s b u r g on the 22d, and an eruption of Mount A l l o m o n t e , Italy, beginning the s a m e day. A l l these w e r e two to four days after full moon and half-way between apogee and p e r i g e e . Within twenty-four hours of the direct opposition of Saturn on July 17, there w e r e t e r r i f i c t r e m o r s on St. Vincent Island, cloudbursts in Illinois, a tornado in Ontario, and a typhoon at Hongkong all e l e c t r i c a l disturbances. The recent s e v e r e earthquakes at L o s A l a m o s , C a l . , began a few hours after the v e r y c l o s e conjunction of M a r s and Neptune on July 2 7 , and w e r e m o s t

I

G2-187

GVS-003

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

s e v e r e on that night and on the 3 1 s t , when M e r c u r y w a s again in perihelion, and the day b e f o r e p e r i g e e . M e r c u r y is found to have m o r e influence in causing s e i s m i c and volcanic action than a l m o s t any other p l a n e t — p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e of its eccentric orbit, nearness to the sun, and frequent p e r i o d s . About fifteen hours b e f o r e the superior conjunction of M e r c u r y on August 11 at 4 a. m . , there was a s e v e r e earthquake and tidal wave at Juneau, A l a s k a , and there w e r e frequent shocks at L o s A l a m o s f r o m 4 p. m . , August 9, to 12 p. m. on the 12th, the m o s t s e v e r e one occurring at 2:40 p . m . on the 10th. M e r c u r y ' s equinox of August 27 probably caused the eruption of Mont P e l e e on the afternoon b e f o r e . A l l the other earthquakes and volcanic eruptions reported in the newspapers during July and August, with but two exceptions, c a m e just as expected a c c o r d ing to this a s t r o n o m i c theory. A m o n g these w e r e the violent eruption of Mont Pelee on the evening of July 9 described and illustrated in the Scientific A m e r i c a n of August 16 and a l s o those on the 10th and morning of the 11th, the moon c r o s s i n g the equator on July 10. As to the e l e c t r i c a l disturbances that accompany volcanic eruptions being "caused by the heat f r o m the volcano" as your correspondent maintains that i s , of c o u r s e , partly true; and this e l e c t r i c a l energy might a l s o "touch o f f other volcanoes; for I have certainly not altogether mistaken effect for c a u s e , and these r e m a r k a b l e and constantly-recurring coincidences furnish a good proof that s e i s m i c and volcanic action may be e l e c t r i c a l l y caused and that certain planetary positions, such as c l o s e conjunctions and oppositions, equinoxes, p e r i helions and p e r i g e e s , c a u s e electrical disturbances in the earth and also, p r o b a bly, throughout the s o l a r s y s t e m . Similar effects would probably result when s e v e r a l planets c o m e directly into line with each other or with the sun, although not in line with the earth, and a l s o if m o s t or nearly all of the twenty other satellites should c r o s s their p r i m a r i e s ' equators at nearly the s a m e t i m e . Planetary positions of this kind must have occurred on M a y 20 and August 1 4 . The best way, it would s e e m , to prove and perfect this astronomic theory of volcanic action would be to c o m p a r e the t i m e s of g r e a t e r and l e s s activity in s o m e perpetually active volcano, like Stromboli, in the Mediterranean, or Sangay or Cotopaxi, in Ecuador, with the prevailing planetary positions. H e r e is a suggestion for the "international convention of scientists for the study of s e i s m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , " w h i c h — a c c o r d i n g to an A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s dispatch E m p e r o r W i l l i a m of Germany is endeavoring to bring about for next spring. Just how certain planetary positions c a u s e e l e c t r i c a l disturbances in the solar s y s t e m or disturb the e l e c t r i c a l equilibrium is a subject for theorizing and investigation: but however difficult it m a y be to understand does not d i s prove the idea in the face of the evidence. T h e r e are many things we cannot explain the whys and wherefores of, such as the X - r a y s , w i r e l e s s telegraphy, telepathy, c l a i r v o y a n c e , e t c . , but that should not prevent us f r o m believing in and making u s e of these principles of nature. The scientific investigator must seek s i m p l y the truth, without bias or prejudice, no m a t t e r if r e a s o n s are not apparent. The m o s t probable dates in the coming two months for s e i s m i c and volcanic disturbances to begin or to reach a m a x i m u m a r e September 1, 3, 1 1 , 17, 2 2 , 2 3 , 3 0 ; O c t o b e r 1 , 1 0 , 1 5 , 16, 1 9 , 2 3 , 2 7 and 3 0 . T h e ideas of Still should be compared with those e x p r e s s e d in GMS, GQS, G W S , and the s e r i e s E s o u r c e b o o k s . Still is very confident of his thesis, but the s t a t i s tics are tricky. F u r t h e r m o r e , with nine planets and the moon, alignments and special configurations are rather c o m m o n .

G2-188

VOLCANIC PHENOMENA
GVV-001 T H E R E C E N T E X T R A O R D I N A R Y SUNRISES A N D SUNSETS

GVV-001

Noble, W i l l i a m ; Knowledge, 5:418, June 6, 1 8 8 4 . The importance of this a r t i c l e r e s i d e s in the observation that brilliant s u n r i s e s and sunsets w e r e seen b e f o r e the eruption of Krakatoa. Much was made during the y e a r s following Krakatoa about how it was the c a u s e of the unusual atmospheric phenomena. Could Krakatoa have been m e r e l y coincidental (and late at that), or w e r e other agencies i n v o l v e d ? It is pretty well known that a c o m m i t t e e has been appointed by the Royal Society to (ostensibly) investigate the c a u s e of those r e m a r k a b l e s u n r i s e s and sunsets which, during the latter half of the past, and the e a r l i e r portion of the present y e a r , have attracted attention throughout the civilised w o r l d . As a matter of fact, this said c o m m i t t e e was established to p r o v e that the w o n d e r ful fore and after glows had their origin in the eruption of the Javan volcano Krakatoa, on Aug. 2 7 , 1 8 8 3 ; and as it would be w o r s e than u s e l e s s to send such evidence as I subjoin to this nice, impartial little association, I forward it to Knowledge instead. At all events, it will not be burked t h e r e . It is contained in a letter f r o m M r . E. Neison, F. R. A. S . , F. C. S. , & c . , the D i r e c t o r of the Government O b s e r v a t o r y at Natal (so well known as the author of our c l a s s i c a l work on "The M o o n " ) , and only reached me y e s t e r d a y morning:"In E n g l a n d , " s a y s M r . N e i s o n , "you s e e m all busy o v e r d i s c u s s i n g the extraordinary s u n s e t s . They began in Natal in F e b r u a r y , 1 8 8 3 , but on a l e s s grand s c a l e , but gradually b e c a m e m o r e m a r k e d until June. Then for two months nothing was noticed. In the latter end of August they b e c a m e m o s t vivid. On the 2 1 s t and 22nd they w e r e noticeable, but not vivid. The next five days w e r e s t o r m y , with much rain and lightning. On the 28th and 29th the sunsets w e r e m o s t vivid. The 30th was rainy. August 31 and September 1, 2, 3, and 5 w e r e fine, and the vivid r e d n e s s of the sky was m o s t r e m a r k a b l e , fading away as it did into g r e e n and purple in the east. Then c a m e a week of much rain, and the sunsets vanished, not to return for nearly four months, except in a v e r y faint d e g r e e . In F e b r u a r y and M a r c h of this y e a r they again b e c a m e v e r y noticeable, but did not l a s t so long. Now (April 2) they have gone again. Now for a r e m a r k a b l e point. In the T r a n s v a a l they w e r e first noticed in the beginning of September the 2nd, I think and w e r e m o s t vivid until the end of January, though h e r e , only s o m e 2 5 0 m i l e s off, nothing was seen. They disappeared, as f a r as I can gather, f r o m the T r a n s v a a l in January I am inclined to b e l i e v e the sunsets to have been purely m e t e o r o l o g i c a l . Those in F e b r u a r y , 1 8 8 3 , w e r e sufficiently m a r k e d to induce me to try a w a t e r colour sketch on February 8. It was spoilt next day by two v i s i t o r s to the o b s e r v a t o r y who upset a g l a s s of water o v e r it, smashing the g l a s s and making general h a v o c . I got a s p e c i m e n of the fine dust which fell on the ships in the Indian Ocean s o m e days after the eruption of Krakatoa. It was absolutely free f r o m any metallic iron or m i n e r a l containing iron d e c o m p o s e d by hydrochloric acid p u m i c e - s t o n e pure and s i m p l e , I b e l i e v e . I tested it e x p r e s s l y for iron in both t h e s e f o r m s . It was a v e r y fine g r e y i s h - w h i t e dust. " So, h e r e was the Government A s t r o n o m e r at Natal actually drawing one of these m a r v e l l o u s sunsets between six and seven months before there was any eruption of Krakatoa whatever. The i t a l i c s in the quotation above a r e M r . N e i s o n ' s , not m i n e .

G2-189

GVV-002
GVV-002

VOLCANIC PHENOMENA

K I L A U E A V O L C A N O , H A W A I I : A S E A R C H FOR T H E V O L C A N O - M A G N E T I C EFFECT

Davis, Paul M . , e t al; Science, 1 8 0 : 7 3 - 7 4 , April 6 , 1 9 7 3 . C o m p i l e r ' s Summary: The investigators hoped to show that magnetic anomalies preceded volcanic eruptions and might, therefore, have predictive value. P r e v i o u s m e a s u r e m e n t s around New Zealand volcanoes had encouraged this hope. This paper reports m e a s u r e m e n t s made in the vicinity of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. During twelve months of observations, only a slight c o r r e l a t i o n between magnetic anomalies and ground tilt w e r e o b s e r v e d , leading to the conclusion that no l a r g e - s c a l e pattern of s t r e s s e s could be supposed, which would, in t u r n , give r i s e to a piezomagnetic effect. The Hawaiian volcano might a l s o be structurally different f r o m those studied in New Zealand.

GVV-003

[ G E L A T I N - L I K E M A T E R I A L FROM VOLCANO?]

Anonymous; Nature, 2 5 : 4 9 2 , March 2 3 , 1 8 8 2 . The volcanic phenomena which have lately a l a r m e d the inhabitants of the Aetolian coast have not yet c e a s e d . T h e r e is now no doubt that a submarine c r a t e r has been f o r m e d . A short t i m e ago a tolerably violent shock of e a r t h quake was felt, accompanied by subterranean roaring and hissing. At the s a m e t i m e a strong odour of sulphuretted hydrogen r o s e f r o m the sea. A thick l a y e r of a gelatine-like m i n e r a l matter c o v e r s the surface of the sea to a great d i s tance, and floats upon it like a l a y e r of oil. It is not disturbed by the s e a being in a high state of agitation, but has, on the contrary, a tranquillising effect upon the motion of the w a v e s .

GVV-004

WATER A N D THE GENERATION OF VOLCANIC ELECTRICITY

Blanchard, Duncan C , and B j o r n s s o n , Sveinbjorn; Monthly Weather Review, 95:895-899, December 1967. ' A b s t r a c t . E l e c t r i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s , m a d e both in the laboratory and at Surtsey volcano, have indicated that highly charged clouds a r e generated when water c o m e s into contact with molten lava. An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e has revealed a number of c a s e s where e l e c t r i c a l activity in volcanic clouds appeared to be caused by this p r o c e s s . The significance of this charge generation m e c h a n i s m , as opposed to others that undoubtedly operate in volcanic eruptions, r e m a i n s to be established. The effect described in this paper i s , of c o u r s e , the b a s i s for volcano lightning.

G2-190

SECTION GW: WEATHER PHENOMENA
Weather is so incredibly varied and p o s s e s s e s so many facets that the following l i s t must be considered p r e l i m i n a r y only. GWC Strange c l o u d s . N o i s y clouds, clouds pulsing with light. Luminous and strange-shaped clouds. C o r r e l a t i o n s with earthquakes, m e t e o r s , and other geophysical phenomena. D a r k d a y s . New England's famous dark day and the many s i m i l a r instances. Some a r e explained in t e r m s of forest f i r e s , but others a r e a s s o c i a t e d with earthquakes and other events. P e c u l i a r f o g s . F o g s and m i s t s that are s o m e t i m e s correlated with earthquakes, a u r o r a s , and light wheels. "Blasting" fogs. Precipitation oddities. Unusual h a i l s t o n e s . *GWR GWS GWT C o l o r e d rain, snow, and hail. "Blood" rain. Giant snowflakes.

GWD

*GWF

GWP

Point rainfall and cloudbursts.

Temperature anomalies.

Sudden drastic changes in t e m p e r a t u r e .

Solar, lunar, and planetary c o r r e l a t i o n s . T o r n a d o e s and waterspouts. Unusual behavior. Correlations with ball lightning, luminous c o l u m n s , unusual sounds, burning effects, and physiological effects. Whirlwinds and dust d e v i l s . "Pranks" of whirlwinds. e l e c t r i c and magnetic effects. Possible

GWW

• T h i s subsection not represented in Volume G 2 .

G2-191

WEATHER

PHENOMENA

G2-192

STRANGE CLOUDS
GWC-001

GWC-002

A CASE OF SLOW, SUB-TROPICAL DISCHARGE OF E A R T H E L E C T R I C I T Y , A N D THE SUN RECOGNISANT THEREOF

Smyth, P i a z z i ; Nature, 2 4 : 2 1 2 - 2 1 3 , July 7 , 1 8 8 1 . In the c o u r s e of yesterday afternoon, in the m i d s t of a sky otherwise c l e a r and exquisitely b l u e , a l a r g e cloud of unusual shape and c h a r a c t e r began to f o r m in the upper r e g i o n s of the a t m o s p h e r e v e r t i c a l l y over, but v e r y f a r above, the southern slope and even m o s t elevated mountain tops of M a d e i r a , and r e maining t h e r e , as it did, m o s t fixedly m o r e than half the day, so contrary to the l o c o m o t i v e habits of ordinary clouds, it seen attracted the attention, and presently the f e a r s , of m o s t of the inhabitants. As seen f r o m this p l a c e , between 1 h. and 3 h. p. m . , there was little m o r e than a single d e n s e cloud of peculiarly rounded outline and somewhat elliptical figure, stretching f r o m the w e s t e r n horizon to within 1 0 ° or 15 of the zenith; but as t i m e advanced, other and s u c c e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r clouds w e r e formed directly under the f i r s t , having s y m m e t r i c a l and concentric outlines therewith, while the central v e r t i c a l a x i s , which might be conceived as p a s s i n g through the whole s e r i e s , remained unchanged and fixed in s p a c e . This central fixity, too, of them all continued, together with the infinite smoothness of the outlines of all the s m a l l e r l o w e r strata of cloud, although the l a r g e s t and u p p e r m o s t one v i s i b l e to us began to put forth a variety of fringes of c i r r o - c u m u l o u s c h a r a c ter; and, as tested by the s p e c t r o s c o p e b e f o r e sunset, all the l o w e r s m o o t h r i m m e d clouds w e r e r e m a r k a b l e for the l a r g e quantity of watery vapour they contained, and held fast too, for no rain fell. As sunset approached every one was gazing at the strange phenomenon of a c l o u d - c o n g e r i e s of m o s t portentous s i z e and absolute fixature above the trade-wind, probably also the anti-trade region; and after sunset the m o s t gorgeous coloured illuminations through all the ranges of s c a r l e t - r e d , r e d , c r i m s o n - r e d , u l t r a - r e d , and then dun-coloured and grey p a s s e d f r o m m e m b e r to m e m b e r of the s e r i e s , distinguishing the various heights of its strata one above the other; while the g r e a t n e s s of the general height was shown, even long after d a r k n e s s had set in, by a faint l u n a r like illumination of the northern outline of the whole. But by ten o'clock that began to fail, and the s y s t e m of superposed clouds was beginning to contract on its central a x i s , and faded away, without leaving its place, before morning.

Smyth goes on at length to inquire whether the cloud might not be due to e l e c t r i c a l discharge f r o m the mountain peaks stimulated by high s o l a r activity. See his subsequent letter which follows. The date of the event described above was June 26, 1881.

GWC-002

T H A T M A D E I R A EARTH-ELECTRIC CLOUD A G A I N

Smyth, P i a z z i ; Nature, 2 4 : 5 3 0 - 5 3 1 , October 6 , 1 8 8 1 . W e l l , do you r e m e m b e r my l e t t e r to you f r o m Madeira on June 27 (Nature, vol. xxiv. p. 2 1 2 [ G W C - 0 0 1 ] , with a sequence on p. 237) describing the e x t r a ordinary cloud that appeared t h e r e on June 2 6 , alarming all the inhabitants, the typically "oldest" of whom d e c l a r e d they had never seen such a cloud as that b e f o r e ? It w a s , too, in v e r y truth a m o s t r e m a r k a b l e affair; and s e e m e d to me only to admit of full explanation as a peculiar c a s e of the earth answering by escape of its i n t e r i o r electricity to the sun; where, according to my own daily

G2-193

GWC-003

STRANGE CLOUDS

s o l a r d i a g r a m s , t h e r e had just o c c u r r e d a n outburst o f s o l a r s p o t s v e r y n e a r l y o v e r the e n d s of the s o l a r radii that w e r e then pointing t o w a r d s the e a r t h . W e e k s p a s s e d on without anything to i n t e r f e r e with, or u n d e r - v a l u e , that explanation; when l o ! on July 26 (the v e r y s a m e day, c u r i o u s l y enough, of the next month) another c l o u d appeared o v e r M a d e i r a , o f j u s t the s a m e p e c u l i a r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r a s that o f June 2 6 . " W h y , " w e r e inclined m a n y v i s i t o r s t o a s k , "is the kind of c l o u d , in spite of the a s s e v e r a t i o n s of the ' o l d e s t i n h a b i tants, no v e r y great r a r i t y after all in this part of the w o r l d ? " T h e r e had b e e n c e r t a i n l y thus two c a s e s of it o c c u r r i n g with a v e r y s h o r t interval b e t w e e n t h e m ; but n e v e r t h e l e s s , I w a s inclined to r e s p e c t that a s s e r t i o n s of the g r e y b e a r d s ; and s a i d , "Something unusual m u s t again h a v e happened in the sun; but as my o b s e r v a t o r y w a s d i s m a n t l e d on July 2 3 , and the c o m p o n e n t p a r t s of it packed up ready f o r shipment on July 25 and 2 6 , I had not then any knowledge of what it might b e . " Now, h o w e v e r , s e e how p e r f e c t l y M r . H e n n e s s e y ' s Indian s o l a r photographs fulfil all that w a s r e q u i r e d to m a k e this second M a d e i r a cloud p h e nomenon a n e x a c t l y s i m i l a r c o s m i c a l c a s e t o that o f i t s m e n s u a l p r e d e c e s s o r ; or to t e s t i f y that an e x t r a o r d i n a r y unusual, m o s t sudden outbreak of s o l a r s p o t s did take p l a c e o v e r the v e r y part of the s u n ' s s u r f a c e turned t o w a r d s the e a r t h late on July 2 5 , and within t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s a f t e r w a r d s the e a r t h - e l e c t r i c cloud m a d e its a p p e a r a n c e above M a d e i r a , w h e r e i t w a s thus noted i n m y pocket j o u r n a l
1

" T u e s d a y , July 2 6 . During this afternoon t h e r e w a s a g r e a t c l o u d - s t r u c ture f o r m e d to the w e s t , with all the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s m o o t h - r i m m e d l e n t i c u l a r s t r a t a u n d e r s t r a t a , and the t o p m o s t v i s i b l e one b r e a k i n g out into f r i n g e s o f c i r r o - c u m u l i , that m a r k e d the still g r a n d e r cloud o f June 2 6 . " M o r e speculation f o l l o w s .

GWC-003

ELECTRICAL CLOUD PHENOMENON 1889.

Burton, W . K . ; N a t u r e , 4 1 : 1 0 , N o v e m b e r 7 ,

A short d e s c r i p t i o n of a c u r i o u s cloud a p p e a r a n c e o b s e r v e d by me this s u m m e r m a y be of i n t e r e s t to y o u r r e a d e r s . It w a s noticed in Kiushu, the s o u t h e r n m o s t of the t h r e e g r e a t i s l a n d s of Japan, e a r l y in July, at a d i s t a n c e of ten or t w e l v e m i l e s f r o m the s e a . The s e a s o n had b e e n , and w a s , after the t i m e of the o b s e r v a t i o n , an e x ceptionally rainy one, s e v e r e floods being p r o d u c e d in a l m o s t all p a r t s of the country, but it w a s not raining in the p l a c e w h e r e I m a d e the o b s e r v a t i o n at that p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . T i m e s h o r t l y after m i d d a y , t h e r m o m e t e r about 8 0 ° F . The sky w a s c l e a r o v e r h e a d , but t h e r e w a s a g r e a t bank of h e a v y "thunder ous" looking c l o u d s to the south. It is m o s t difficult to judge e v e n a p p r o x i m a t e ly of the d i s t a n c e of c l o u d s , but t h e s e might be f r o m one to two m i l e s off; the l o w e r edge w a s r e p r e s e n t e d by a v e r y n e a r l y s t r a i g h t l i n e , and t h e r e w a s an amount of blue sky v i s i b l e under the c l o u d s that would p e r h a p s subtend f r o m 1 0 ° to 1 5 ° . My attention was attracted to a sort of "tail" of cloud stretching itself downwards f r o m the s t r a i g h t u n d e r s i d e of the c l o u d - b a n k . It gradually e x tended till it r e a c h e d s o m e t w o - t h i r d s of the d i s t a n c e f r o m the cloud to the e a r t h . It r e m a i n e d of about constant length f o r a l i t t l e o v e r ten m i n u t e s , the l o w e r end continually waving about in a m o s t c u r i o u s w a y , giving the i m p r e s s i o n a l m o s t that it w a s feeling for s o m e t h i n g .

G2-194

STRANGE CLOUDS

GWC-005

Quite suddenly the filament of cloud straightened itself out, and extended itself t o w a r d s the earth. The l o w e r end b e c a m e so v e r y thin that, f r o m the d i s tance, it w a s i m p o s s i b l e to s e e whether it actually m a d e contact with the earth or not, but I have not the s m a l l e s t doubt that it did, and that a silent d i s c h a r g e took p l a c e at the t i m e . T h e r e w a s certainly no sound h e a r d . I m m e d i a t e l y after the contact the filament rapidly d r e w itself up to the cloud, and w a s i n c o r p o r a ted with i t . A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y after t h i s , whether as a m e r e coincidence or not I cannot tell, the cloud discharged a great amount of rain. P. S. The appearance w a s not unlike the illustrations of "water-spouts" that I have seen, but there was no whirling motion such as is always d e s c r i b e d as accompanying t h e s e , nor, indeed, w a s t h e r e any evidence of violent d i s t u r bance of any kind at a l l . This observation might be c l a s s i f i e d under "pranks of clouds" to c o r r e l a t e it with "pranks" of lightning, tornadoes, etc.

GWC-004

[RATTLING CLOUD]

Anonymous; Pursuit, 2 : 3 2 , April 1 9 6 9 . Jacksonville Beach, F l o r i d a (AP) Hundreds of p e r s o n s including Police Chief J a m e s Alford reported strange sounds coming f r o m two clouds. Ojie m a n d e s c r i b e d the sound as like " s o m e o n e rattling c e l l o p h a n e . " A woman said it w a s m o r e like "someone walking on p e b b l e s . " Alford o r d e r e d Capt. Harold B r y a n to follow the first cloud. B r y a n did so to the edge of the Atlantic where the cloud dissipated. The l i s t e n e r s started to go back inside their h o m e s when, they said, another cloud repeated the p e r f o r m a n c e . B r y a n a l s o followed it to dissipation o v e r the Atlantic. Officials at the Mayport Naval A i r Station said they could offer no explanation; neither could other officials.

GWC-005

[ C R A C K L I N G CLOUDS] ( A s quoted in I N F O Journal,

Anonymous; Chicago Daily N e w s , F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 . 1 : 3 0 - 3 1 , Spring 1 9 6 9 . ) M i a m i (AP)

Flapping, crinkling, crackling clouds w e r e reported o v e r

M i a m i Sunday. "It sounds like a big bird flapping i t s wings and trying to get off the ground, " said W i l l i a m B a r d . "No, it's m o r e like huge sheets, of wax paper being c r u m p l e d , " said his wife C h a r l e n e . The clouds w e r e reported o v e r Jacksonville, l a s t week, but no one t h e r e could explain the sounds. Neither could the U. S. W e a t h e r Bureau in M i a m i .

G2-195

GWC-006
GWC-006

STRANGE CLOUDS

RUMBLING CLOUDS A N D LUMINOUS CLOUDS

Z e l e n y , John; S c i e n c e , 7 5 : 8 0 - 8 1 , January 1 5 , 1 9 3 2 . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of two r a t h e r unusual cloud p h e n o m e n a which h a v e c o m e t o m y notice m a y b e o f s o m e i n t e r e s t . One o f t h e s e w a s o b s e r v e d f r o m the e a s t s h o r e of a n a r r o w b a y of C a c h e L a k e in A l g o n q u i n P a r k , O n t a r i o , on an e a r l y m o r n i n g during the l a t t e r part of July of this y e a r . It w a s a c h i l l y m o r n i n g and the sky w a s c o m p l e t e l y o v e r c a s e with c l o u d s . My attention was attracted by a r u m b l i n g sound c o m i n g f r o m the w e s t , such as h e r a l d s the approach of a h e a v y thunder s t o r m . A s I watched, a v e r y long, l o w , n a r r o w , tenuous c l o u d , r e s e m b l i n g a squall c l o u d , appeared above the t r e e s on the opposite s h o r e , m o v i n g a t right a n g l e s t o its length. The continuous, r u m b l i n g n o i s e , now g r o w n r e m a r k a b l y loud, s e e m e d t o c o m e u n m i s t a k a b l y f r o m t h i s c l o u d , w h o s e c r o s s sectional d i a m e t e r w a s only about 2 0 0 feet. The cloud passed overhead e a s t w a r d and w a s not followed by the expected r a i n s t o r m . T h e cloud apparently m a r k e d the m e e t i n g p l a c e of two o p p o s i t e l y d i r e c t e d c u r r e n t s of a i r that d i f f e r e d i n t e m p e r a t u r e . I t s e e m s a l m o s t i n c r e d i b l e , h o w e v e r , that s o m u c h sound c o u l d have a r i s e n f r o m the agitated a i r alone, and yet this s e e m s to be the only p l a u s i b l e explanation of its o r i g i n . I s t e a d f a s t l y looked for s m a l l lightning f l a s h e s in the cloud and s a w none, although they would h a v e had to c o m e in rapid s u c c e s s i o n t o p r o d u c e the p e r s i s t e n t sound which w a s h e a r d . The n o i s e c o u l d not have c o m e f r o m the rattle of hail b e c a u s e the c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the cloud w a s too s m a l l to g i v e t i m e f o r hail f o r m a t i o n ; and in any c a s e no hail f e l l . The o t h e r c l o u d I w i s h to d e s c r i b e w a s a s o l i t a r y , b r i g h t l y l u m i n o u s , c u m u l u s cloud which I s a w on a c l e a r s u m m e r night at Hutchinson, M i n n e s o t a , s o m e thirty-five y e a r s ago. T h e cloud had a h o r i z o n t a l d i a m e t e r of about a third of a m i l e and a t h i c k n e s s of about one fourth of that d i s t a n c e . It r o s e m a j e s t i c a l l y f r o m the e a s t e r n h o r i z o n , shone with a u n i f o r m , s t e a d y , v i v i d , whitish light and p a s s e d d i r e c t l y o v e r the town. W h e n the c l o u d w a s o v e r h e a d a g r e a t s h o w e r of i n s e c t s d e s c e n d e d to earth c o v e r i n g the ground all around to the n u m b e r of about 50 to 100 p e r s q u a r e foot. T h e s e i n s e c t s p r o v e d to be a s p e c i e s of h e m i p t e r a and were non-luminous. They had apparently b e e n induced to take wing by the b r i g h t object in the sky. I h a v e b e e n at s o m e l o s s to account f o r the l u m i n o s i t y of the cloud. It could not h a v e been due to r e f l e c t e d light c o m i n g f r o m a c i t y . It might be postulated that the cloud c o n s i s t e d of a m a s s of organic v a p o r that w a s slowly oxidizing, b e i n g in fact a . c a s e of an extended w i l l - o ' - t h e - w i s p , but f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s this s e e m s t o b e a n unlikely h y p o t h e s i s . A t the t i m e the c l o u d w a s o b s e r v e d , it w a s thought to be far too l a t e in the evening f o r its light to be r e f l e c t e d sunlight. T h e r e is a p o s s i b i l i t y that a bright m o o n b e l o w the h o r i z o n might h a v e b e e n the s o u r c e of the light, although I h a v e no r e c o l l e c t i o n of having s e e n the m o o n r i s e l a t e r .

GWC-007

W H I R L I N G WHAT-IS-IT? 1953.

Anonymous; Life, 3 5 : 2 0 8 , D e c e m b e r 7,

C o m p i l e r ' s S u m m a r y : A l e n t i c u l a r cloud o v e r a peak in J a v a is d e s c r i b e d . The cloud suddenly began to rotate at a high s p e e d . No further i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n .

G2-196

DARK DAYS
GWD-001 H I S T O R I C A L S U N - D A R K EN INGS

GWD-001

Hind, J . R . ; N a t u r e , 2 0 : 1 8 9 , June 2 6 , 1 8 7 9 . Not a few p e r s o n s a p p e a r to h a v e b e e n m u c h e x e r c i s e d by a p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n emanating f r o m a n A m e r i c a n s o u r c e , w h e r e b y the public a r e f o r e w a r n e d o f a n approaching p e r i o d o f s u n - d a r k e n i n g t o extend o v e r s e v e r a l d a y s . History does r e c o r d i n s t a n c e s i n which the sun h a s b e e n a b n o r m a l l y o b s c u r e d o r i t s light paled to such an extent that s t a r s have c o m e into v i e w in the d a y t i m e , and E r m a n , H u m b o l d t , and other w r i t e r s h a v e brought t h e s e o c c a s i o n s into p r o m inent n o t i c e , the f o r m e r in c o n n e c t i o n with the p r e s u m e d p a s s a g e of d e n s e m e t e o r i c s t r e a m s between the e a r t h and the sun. The e a r l i e s t mention of s u c h a p h e n o m e n o n a p p e a r s to be in the y e a r B. C. 4 4 , about the t i m e of the death of Julius C a e s a r , when we r e a d in P l u t a r c h and D i o C a s s i u s that the sun w a s p a l e r than u s u a l f o r a w h o l e y e a r , and g a v e l e s s h e a t , the a i r continuing c o l d and m i s t y . T h e d a r k n e s s f o r two h o u r s o n A u g u s t 2 2 , A . D . 3 5 8 , a p p e a r s t o h a v e p r e c e d e d the g r e a t earthquake o f N i c o m e d i a . T w o y e a r s l a t e r i n all the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s o f the R o m a n E m p i r e w e a r e t o l d t h e r e w a s "caligo a p r i m o a u r o r a e exortu adusque m e r i d i e m , " and the s t a r s w e r e s e e n , the f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n being r a t h e r a p p l i c a b l e to a total s o l a r e c l i p s e ; but neither the e c l i p s e of M a r c h 4 , 3 6 0 , n o r that o f A u g u s t 2 8 , would b e v i s i b l e i n t h o s e p a r t s . A g a i n , when A l a r i c a p p e a r e d b e f o r e R o m e , the d a r k n e s s w a s such that s t a r s w e r e s e e n i n the d a y t i m e ( S c h n u r r e r , "Chronik d e r Seuchen"). Following the T a b l e t t e s C h r o n o l o g i q u e s o f the A b b e L e n g l e t D u f r e s n o y , A l a r i c invested R o m e A . D . 4 0 9 , and b e c a m e m a s t e r o f the city o n A u g u s t 2 4 , 4 1 0 ; t h e r e w a s a v i s i b l e e c l i p s e of the sun on June 18 of the l a t t e r y e a r , t h e r e f o r e while the s i e g e w a s in p r o g r e s s ; but on c a l c u l a t i n g the c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r which it would be s e e n at R o m e , introducing the l a t e s t lunar e l e m e n t s , it a p p e a r s that little m o r e than half the s u n ' s d i s k would be c o v e r e d at the g r e a t e s t p h a s e about 2 h . 4 0 m . p . m . , and n o s e n s i b l e diminution o f s u n - l i g h t would b e o c c a s i o n e d b y the e c l i p s e . In 5 3 6 , 5 6 7 , and 6 2 6 we find m e n t i o n of l o n g p e r i o d s of d i m i n i s h e d sun-light. S c h n u r r e r r e c o r d s that in 7 3 3 , a y e a r after the S a r a c e n s had b e e n d r i v e n b a c k b e y o n d the P y r e n e e s , c o n s e q u e n t on t h e i r defeat at T o u r s , "the sun d a r k e n e d in an a l a r m i n g m a n n e r on A u g u s t 1 9 ; t h e r e appeared to be no e c l i p s e by the m o o n , but r a t h e r an interruption f r o m s o m e m e t e o r i c s u b s t a n c e . " T h e r e w a s an e c l i p s e of the sun, annular but n e a r l y total, on the m o r n i n g of August 1 4 ; it is m e n t i o n e d in the Saxon C h r o n i c l e , which t e l l s us "the s u n ' s d i s k w a s like a b l a c k s h i e l d . T h e n e a r c o i n c i d e n c e of d a t e s s u g g e s t s in this c a s e a connection b e t w e e n the d a r k n e s s , and the e c l i p s e . In 9 3 4 , a c c o r d i n g to a P o r t u g u e s e h i s t o r i a n , the sun l o s t its o r d i n a r y light f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s , and this is followed by the doubtful s t a t e m e n t that an opening in the sky s e e m e d to take p l a c e , with m a n y f l a s h e s of lightning, and the full b l a z e of sunshine w a s suddenly r e s t o r e d . I n 1 0 9 1 , o n S e p t e m b e r 2 9 , not 2 1 , a s given i n s o m e o f the t r a n s l a t i o n s of H u m b o l d t ' s C o s m o s , S c h n u r r e r r e l a t e s that t h e r e was a d a r k e n ing of the sun which l a s t e d t h r e e h o u r s , and after which it had a p e c u l i a r c o l o u r which o c c a s i o n e d g r e a t a l a r m . I n another p l a c e w e read: "Fuit e c l i p s i s S o l i s 1 1 K a l . O c t o b . f e r e t r e s h o r a s : Sol c i r c a m e r i d i e m d i r e n i g r e s c e b a t " : t h e r e w a s n o v i s i b l e e c l i p s e a t t h i s t i m e , and the N o v e m b e r e c l i p s e w a s c e n t r a l only in the southern p a r t s of the e a r t h . A c e n t u r y l a t e r , or in June, 1 1 9 1 , a c c o r d ing to S c h n u r r e r , the sun w a s again d a r k e n e d , with c e r t a i n attendant e f f e c t s upon nature: h e r e the c a u s e is e a s i l y found; on June 23 t h e r e w a s a total e c l i p s e , in which the m o o n ' s shadow t r a v e r s e d the continent of E u r o p e f r o m Holland to the C r i m e a ; the e c l i p s e w a s total in this country b e t w e e n the c o a s t s of C u m b e r land and Y o r k s h i r e . E r m a n r e f e r s t o a s u n - d a r k e n i n g o n F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1 1 0 6 ,
u

G2-197

GWD-002

DARK DAYS

which was accompanied by m e t e o r s , and we read in the cometographies that on the 4th, o r , according to others, on the 5th, of February in this y e a r a s t a r was s e e n f r o m the third to the ninth hour of the day, which was distant f r o m the sun "only a foot and a half. " Matthew P a r i s and Matthew of W e s t m i n s t e r t e r m this star a c o m e t , and we m a y take it to have been the s a m e which, l a t e r in the s a m e month, was observed in China under the sign P i s c e s , and which at one t i m e was supposed to have been identical with the great c o m e t of 1 6 8 0 ; this body, however, would not appear to have been sufficiently near the earth a s , even on the assumption of a d e n s e r constitution than usual with c o m e t s , to account for a diminution of the s o l a r r a y s , by its intervention. On the last day of F e b r u a r y , 1 2 0 6 , according to a Spanish w r i t e r , t h e r e was c o m p l e t e d a r k n e s s for six h o u r s . In 1 2 4 1 , "five months after the Mongol battle of L e i g n i t z , " the sun was so o b s c u r e d , and the d a r k n e s s b e c a m e so g r e a t , that the s t a r s were seen at the ninth hour about M i c h a e l m a s . In this c a s e , again, the d a r k n e s s r e ferred to was undoubtedly due to the total e c l i p s e on October 6, of which Prof. Schiaparelli has c o l l e c t e d a full account f r o m the Italian w r i t e r s . L a s t l y , in 1 5 4 7 , f r o m A p r i l 2 3 - 2 5 , K e p l e r r e l a t e s on the authority of G e m m a , "the sun appeared as though suffused with blood, and many s t a r s w e r e v i s i b l e at noonday. " Schnurrer thought this phenomenon was what the G e r m a n s c a l l an "Hohenrauch, " notwithstanding the visibility of s t a r s . F r o m the above b r i e f s u m m a r y of what have been considered abnormal sundarkenings, we s e e that in s e v e r a l c a s e s the diminution of light has been due to the ordinary effects of a total e c l i p s e , while it is c l e a r that there are no grounds in the historical evidence for any prediction of a period of d a r k n e s s . The nervous in these m a t t e r s , and it would r e a l l y appear that such exist, m a y take consolation t h e r e f r o m .

GWD-002

[ D A R K D A Y IN NEW E N G L A N D ]

Anonymous; Nature, 2 4 - 5 4 0 , October 6, 1 8 8 1 . A r e m a r k a b l e phenomenon o c c u r r e d in New England on September 6, a l m o s t exactly s i m i l a r to one that o c c u r r e d in the s a m e region on May 19, 1 7 8 0 . The Springfield Daily Republican d e s c r i b e s it as f o l l o w s : — I n this city the day began with a slow gathering of fog from all the w a t e r c o u r s e s in the e a r l y h o u r s , the thin clouds that c o v e r e d the sky at midnight s e e m e d to crowd together and descend upon the earth, and by s u n r i s e the atmosphere was dense with vapour, which limited vision to v e r y short distances, and made those distances illusory; and as the sun r o s e invisibly behind, the vapours b e c a m e a thick, b r a s s y canopy, through which a strange yellow light pervaded the air and produced the m o s t peculiar effects on the surface of the earth. This c o l o u r and d a r k n e s s lasted until about three o'clock in the afternoon, once in a while lightening, and then again deepening, so that during a l a r g e part of the t i m e nothing could be done conveniently indoors without artificial light. The unusual complexion of the air wearied and pained the e y e s . The g r a s s a s s u m e d a singular bluish brightn e s s , as if e v e r y blade w e r e tipped with light. Y e l l o w b l o s s o m s turned pale and gray; a row of sunflowers looked ghastly; orange nasturtiums lightened; pink r o s e s flamed; lilad-hued phlox g r e w pink; and blue flowers w e r e t r a n s formed into r e d . Luxuriant m o r n i n g - g l o r i e s that have been b l o s s o m i n g in deep blue during the s e a s o n now were d r e s s e d in splendid magenta; rich blue c l e m a tis donned an equally r i c h maroon; fringed gentians w e r e c r i m s o n in the fields.

G2-198

DARK DAYS

GWD-004

I

T h e r e was a singular luminousness on e v e r y fence and r o o f - r i d g e , and the t r e e s s e e m e d to be ready to fly into fire. The light was m y s t e r i o u s l y devoid of refraction. One sitting with his back to a window could not read the n e w s paper if his shadow fell upon it he was obliged to turn the paper aside to the light. Gas was lighted all o v e r the city, and it burned with a sparkling pallor, like the e l e c t r i c light. The e l e c t r i c lights t h e m s e l v e s burned blue, and w e r e perfectly u s e l e s s , giving a m o r e unearthly look to everything around. The darkness was not at all like that of night, nor w e r e animals affected by it to any r e m a r k a b l e extent. The b i r d s kept still, it is true, the pigeons roosting on r i d g e - p o l e s instead of flying about, but generally the chickens were abroad. A singular uncertainty of distance prevailed, and c o m m o n l y the distances s e e m ed s h o r t e r than in reality. When in the afternoon the sun began to be v i s i b l e through the strange m i s t s , it was like a pink ball amidst yellow cushions just the colour of one of those m y s t e r i o u s b a l l s of rouge which we see at the d r u g - s t o r e s , and which no woman e v e r buys. It was not till between five and six o'clock that the sun had sufficiently dissipated the m i s t s to r e s u m e its usual c l e a r gold, and the earth returned to its everyday aspect; the g r a s s r e signing its unnatural brilliancy and the purple d a i s i e s no longer fainting into pink. The t e m p e r a t u r e throughout the day was v e r y c l o s e and o p p r e s s i v e , and the physical effect was one of heaviness and d e p r e s s i o n . What was observed h e r e was the experience of all New England, so far as heard from, of Albany and New Y o r k city, and a l s o in Central and Northern New Y o r k . In r e f e r e n c e to this phenomenon the New Y o r k Nation suggests that it may be worth the while of w e a t h e r - o b s e r v e r s to note the approximate coincidence between the interval separating the two dark days in New England (May 1 9 , 1 7 8 0 , and September 6, 1881) and nine t i m e s the sun-spot c y c l e of eleven y e a r s .

I
GWD-003 T H E D A R K D A Y I N NEW E N G L A N D

Harding, C h a r l e s W . ; Nature, 2 4 : 5 5 7 , October 1 3 , 1 8 8 1 . Referring to your paragraph in l a s t week's Nature (p. 540) about the r e markable phenomenon which occurred in New England on September 6, I find in the recently-published "History of Lynn, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , " the following— "1717, Extraordinary darkness at noonday October 21st; dinner tables lighted." "1780. M e m o r a b l e dark day May 19th; houses lighted as at night. "

GWD-004

THE DARK DAY IN CANADA

Anonymous; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 4 4 : 3 2 9 , May 2 1 , 1 8 8 1 . Montreal was the center of the darkness of 1 8 1 9 . Dark days are rather c o m m o n , but the e l e c t r i c a l and luminous phenomena d e s c r i b e d below are distinctly unusual. What was the strangest occurrence of that t i m e , or rather the strangest thing that e v e r happened in the history of this country, was what has been always known as the "Phenomenon of 1819. " On the morning of Sunday, N o v e m b e r 8, 1 8 1 9 , the sun r o s e upon a cloudy sky, which a s s u m e d , as the light grew upon it,

G2-199

GWD-005

DARK DAYS

a strange greenish tint, varying in places to an inky b l a c k n e s s . After a short t i m e the whole sky b e c a m e terribly dark, dense black clouds filling the a t m o s phere, and there followed a heavy shower of rain, which appeared to be s o m e thing of the nature of soapsuds, and was found to have deposited after settling a substance in all its qualities r e s e m b l i n g soot. Late in the afternoon the sky cleared to its natural aspect, and the next day was fine and frosty. On the morning of Tuesday, the 10th, heavy clouds again c o v e r e d the sky, and changed rapidly f r o m a deep green to a pitchy black, and the sun, when occasionally seen through them, was s o m e t i m e s of a dark brown or an unearthy y e l l o w c o l o r , and again bright orange, and even blood r e d . The clouds constantly deepened in c o l o r and density, and later on a heavy vapor s e e m e d to descend to the earth, and the day b e c a m e a l m o s t as dark as night, the g l o o m increasing and d i m i n i s h ing m o s t fitfully. At noon lights had to be burned in the courthouse, the banks, and public offices of the city. Everybody was m o r e or l e s s a l a r m e d , and many w e r e the conjectures as to the cause of the r e m a r k a b l e o c c u r r e n c e . The m o r e sensible thought that i m m e n s e woods or p r a i r i e s w e r e on fire s o m e w h e r e to the west; others said that a great volcano must have broken out in the Province; still others a s s e r t e d that our mountain was an extinct c r a t e r about to r e s u m e operations and to m a k e of the city a second P o m p e i i ; the superstitious quoted an Indian prophecy that one day the Island of Montreal was to be destroyed by an earthquake, and s o m e even cried that the world was about to c o m e to an end. About the middle of the afternoon a great body of clouds s e e m e d to rush suddenly o v e r the city, and the d a r k n e s s b e c a m e that of night. A pause and hush for a moment or two succeeded, and then one of the m o s t glaring flashes of lightning e v e r beheld flamed over the country, accompanied by a clap of thunder which s e e m e d to shake the city to its foundations. Another pause followed, and then c a m e a light shower of rain of the s a m e soapy and sooty nature as that of two days b e f o r e . After that it appeared to grow brighter, but an hour l a t e r it was as dark as e v e r . Another rush of clouds c a m e , and another vivid flash of lightning, which was seen to strike the s p i r e of the old French parish clurch and to play curiously about the l a r g e iron c r o s s at its s u m m i t before descending to the ground. A moment l a t e r c a m e the c l i m a x of the day. Every bell in the city suddenly rang out the a l a r m of f i r e , and the affrighted citizens rushed out f r o m their houses into the streets and made their way in the gloom toward the church, until P l a c e d ' A r m e s was crowded with people, their nerves all unstrung by the awful events of the day, gazing at, but s c a r c e l y daring to approach the strange sight b e f o r e them. The sky above and around was as black as ink, but right in one spot in m i d - a i r above them was the s u m m i t of the spire, with the lightning playing about it shining like a sun. Directly the great iron c r o s s , together with the ball at its foot, fell to the ground with a c r a s h , and was shivered to p i e c e s . But the darkest hour c o m e s just before the dawn. The glow above gradually subsided and died out, the people g r e w l e s s fearful and returned to their h o m e s , the real night c a m e on, and when next morning dawned everything was bright and c l e a r , and the world was as natural as b e f o r e . The phenomenon was noticed in a g r e a t e r or l e s s degree f r o m Quebec to Kingston, and far into the States, but Montreal s e e m e d its center. It has never yet been explained.

GWD-005

DARKNESS AT MID-DAY

G. ; Notes and Q u e r i e s , 2 : 3 : 3 6 6 , May 9, 1857.

G2-200

DARK DAYS

GWD-006

A phenomenon of this e x t r a o r d i n a r y nature o c c u r r e d at B o l t o n - l e - M o o r s and the neighbourhood, about noon on M o n d a y , M a r c h 2 3 , 1 8 5 7 . The wind during the m o r n i n g had b e e n n o r t h - e a s t , with a l i t t l e snow; at twelve o ' c l o c k the a i r b e c a m e quite s t i l l , and a d e e p g l o o m o v e r s p r e a d the h e a v e n s , i n c r e a s ing so r a p i d l y , that in ten m i n u t e s it w a s not p o s s i b l e to r e a d , or distinguish the f e a t u r e s of any p e r s o n a few y a r d s off. T h i s w a s the m o r e s i n g u l a r f r o m t h e r e b e i n g no fog at the t i m e , though s n o w in v e r y minute p a r t i c l e s w a s falling. T h e e x t r e m e d a r k n e s s continued about eight m i n u t e s , when the h o r i z o n at two o r t h r e e points a s s u m e d a lurid y e l l o w a p p e a r a n c e , a s though f r o m c o n f l a g r a tions a few m i l e s distant; within a q u a r t e r of an h o u r f r o m this t i m e the d a r k n e s s w a s d i s p e l l e d ; but such w a s the a l a r m c a u s e d by the phenomenon, that m a n y p e r s o n s supposed the w o r l d at an end, not a few w e r e m a d e ill by intense n e r v o u s e x c i t e m e n t , and all w e r e m o r e o r l e s s i m p r e s s e d with a feeling o f awe. P o u l t r y went to r o o s t , instinct being s t r o n g e r than habit. C a n any of y o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s explain the c a u s e o f this phenomenon, o r r e c o r d any s i m i l a r occurrences?

If d a r k n e s s e s , such as that d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a r e due to g r e a t f i r e s , w h e r e a r e the r e p o r t s of the fires and why d o e s no one s m e l l the s m o k e ?

GWD-006

EXTRAORDINARY PHENOMENON

M u r r a y , C h a r l e s A . ; Annual R e g i s t e r , 9 9 : 1 3 2 - 1 3 3 , 1 8 5 7 . T h e following l e t t e r f r o m the Hon. C h a r l e s A u g u s t u s M u r r a y , H e r M a j e s t y ' s Envoy t o P e r s i a , t o Sir C h a r l e s L y e l l , w a s m a d e p u b l i c : - "Bagdad, M a y 2 3 , 1857. My dear Sir C h a r l e s , W e h a v e l a t e l y w i t n e s s e d h e r e a phenomenon s o s t r a n g e that a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of it m a y not be uninteresting to y o u . On the 20th instant, a few m i n u t e s b e f o r e 6 p. m. (which is h e r e about an h o u r b e f o r e s u n s e t ) , I w a s sitting with my M i r z a reading s o m e P e r s i a n l e t t e r s , when on a sudden I b e c a m e s e n s i b l e of an unusual o b s c u r a t i o n of the light on the p a p e r . I j u m p e d u p , and going to the window, s a w a huge b l a c k cloud approaching f r o m the n o r t h - w e s t , e x a c t l y as if a pall w e r e being drawn o v e r the face of the heavens. It m u s t h a v e t r a v e l l e d with c o n s i d e r a b l e rapidity, f o r in l e s s than t h r e e m i n u t e s we w e r e enveloped in total d a r k n e s s a d a r k n e s s m o r e intense than an o r d i n a r y midnight when n e i t h e r s t a r s nor m o o n a r e v i s i b l e . G r o p i n g my way a m i d c h a i r s and t a b l e s , I s u c c e e d e d in striking a light, and then, f e e l ing a s s u r e d that a s i m o o m of s o m e kind w a s c o m i n g on, I c a l l e d to my s e r v a n t s to c o m e up and shut the windows, which w e r e all open, the w e a t h e r having b e e n previously v e r y sultry. W h i l e they w e r e doing s o the wind i n c r e a s e d , and b o r e with it such a d e n s e v o l u m e of dust or sand, that, b e f o r e they could s u c c e e d in c l o s i n g the windows the r o o m w a s e n t i r e l y f i l l e d , so that the t a b l e s and f u r n i ture were speedily covered. M e a n w h i l e a panic s e i z e d the whole city; the A r m e n i a n s and other C h r i s t i a n s e c t s r u s h e d through the g l o o m to c o n f e s s and p r a y in the c h u r c h e s ; w o m e n s h r i e k e d and beat t h e i r b r e a s t s in the s t r e e t s and the m e n of all c l a s s e s p r o s t r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s in p r a y e r , b e l i e v i n g that the end of the w o r l d had a r r i v e d . A f t e r a s h o r t t i m e the b l a c k d a r k n e s s w a s s u c c e e d e d by a r e d , lurid g l o o m , such as I n e v e r s a w in any part of the w o r l d , and which I c a n only liken in imagination to the effect that m i g h t be produced if all London w e r e in conflagration in a h e a v y N o v e m b e r fog; to me it w a s m o r e s t r i k i n g (I m a y a l m o s t s a y fearful) than the p r e v i o u s u t t e r d a r k n e s s , and r e m i n d e d me of that ' d a r k n e s s v i s i b l e ' in which the poetic genius of M i l t o n p l a c e d the d e m o n s

G2-201

GWD-007

DARK DAYS

and h o r r i d s h a p e s o f the infernal r e g i o n s . T h i s lurid fog w a s d o u b t l e s s o c c a sioned by the r a y s of the w e s t e r n sun shining obliquely on the d e n s e m a s s of r e d sand o r dust which had b e e n r a i s e d f r o m s o m e distant d e s e r t , and w a s b o r n e along upon the b l a s t . I e n c l o s e you a s p e c i m e n of the dust. The A r a b s h e r e think that i t c a m e f r o m the N e j d . The s t o r m s e e m s t o have t r a v e l l e d i n a c i r c u l a r d i r e c t i o n , having appeared f i r s t f r o m the south, then s o u t h - w e s t , then w e s t , then n o r t h - w e s t . A f t e r about two h o u r s , i t had s o far p a s s e d away that we w e r e a b l e to open the windows again and b r e a t h e the outer a i r . It c a n not have b e e n a s i m o o m , f o r during t h o s e which I h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d in A r a b i a and Egypt the wind is hot and stifling. On the 20th the wind w a s high, but only o p p r e s s i v e f r o m the d e n s e m a s s of dust that it c a r r i e d with it. " P r o f e s s o r J. Quekett, having e x a m i n e d a s p e c i m e n of r e d dust f r o m B a g d a d , which a c c o m panied M r . M u r r a y ' s l e t t e r , d e t e c t e d under the m i c r o s c o p e only inorganic p a r t i c l e s , such as q u a r t z , sand, and, though a s m a l l p o r t i o n of c a l c a r e o u s m a t t e r w a s p r e s e n t i n the sand, yet h e could o b s e r v e n o m i c r o s c o p i c s h e l l s o r other o r g a n i c m a t t e r .

GWD-007

A D A R K D A Y IN WASHINGTON

E e l l s , M . ; Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w , 3 0 : 4 4 0 , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 0 2 . F r i d a y , S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 0 2 , w a s the d a r k e s t day that the o l d e s t inhabitant of Hood C a n a l , in w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n , e v e r knew h e r e , owing l a r g e l y to the s m o k e f r o m h e a v y f i r e s i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n and w e s t e r n O r e g o n . A t T w a n a , in M a s o n County, it appeared as f o l l o w s : The evening b e f o r e w a s s o m e w h a t s m o k y , though not p e c u l i a r l y s o , with a few a s h e s o c c a s i o n a l l y falling. About 3 o ' c l o c k on the m o r n i n g of the 12th the whole h e a v e n s w e r e a v e r y bright r e d , a c c o r d i n g to the s t a t e m e n t of a young lady who waked up, as she s u p p o s e d , about that t i m e , the light being s i m i l a r in a p p e a r a n c e to a c e r t a i n kind of n o r t h e r n lights only it c o v e r e d the whole h e a v e n s . By 5-30 a. m. , when the w r i t e r f i r s t looked out, it had faded to a dull r e d . By 7 a. m. the reddish a p p e a r a n c e had d i s a p p e a r e d , it having turned to a g r a y c o l o r . At 9 a. m . , it w a s p o s s i b l e to read in the h o u s e only by getting near a window, and e v e n then it w a s quite trying to the e y e s . By 1 1 : 3 0 a. m. the dull r e d d i s h c o l o r appeared all around, soon growing v e r y bright in the north, but by 1 2 - 3 0 p. m. the b r i g h t e s t r e d w a s in the south. B e t w e e n 12 noon and 1 p. m. w a s the d a r k e s t part of the day, it being utterly i m p o s s i b l e to r e a d out of d o o r s . A f t e r 1 p. m. it began to lighten a little, the c h i c k e n s , which had gone to r o o s t , b e g a n to c r o w ; 1:15 p . m . it w a s again p o s s i b l e to read out d o o r s ; at 2 p. m. t h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e dull r e d in the sky, but it then d i s a p p e a r e d to be s e e n no m o r e , the h e a v e n s b e c o m i n g again of g r a y i s h c o l o r . A f t e r 3 p. m. w a s the b r i g h t e s t part of the d a y .

What c a u s e d the r e d d i s h a p p e a r a n c e has not b e e n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d . S o m e attributed it to the light f r o m the f i r e s , but this d o e s not s e e m p o s s i b l e . The w r i t e r attributes it to the sun's r a y s working through the d a r k n e s s , until he l e a r n e d that the b r i g h t e s t r e d w a s s e e n about 3 a. m. There certainly s e e m s to have b e e n a v e r y p e c u l i a r state of the a t m o s p h e r e that day, which c a n only b e explained b y w i s e r m e t e o r o l o g i s t s than the w r i t e r , but the day will b e r e m e m b e r e d as one in a l i f e t i m e .

G2-202

DARK DAYS
GWD-008 D A R K D A Y S A N D FOREST FIRES

GWD-008

T a l m a n , C . F . ; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 1 1 2 : 2 2 9 , M a r c h 6 , 1 9 1 5 . \ Instances of daytime d a r k n e s s a r e r e c o r d e d in the old chronicles along with such other "prodigies" as multiple suns, showers of blood, and warring a r m i e s in the sky all of which can easily be identified t o - d a y with well-known m e t e o r ological phenomena (parhelia, rain reddened with d e s e r t dust, and the a u r o r a ) . The two famous c a s e s mentioned in the Bible the plague of d a r k n e s s in Egypt and the darkness attending the crucifixion illustrate the fact that such o c c u r r e n c e s w e r e once universally a s s u m e d to be m i r a c u l o u s . S o m e of the e a r l y c a s e s of daytime d a r k n e s s mentioned in h i s t o r y a r e doubtl e s s attributable to s o l a r e c l i p s e s , and m u s t , accordingly, have been r e s t r i c t e d to a s m a l l part of the earth's surface, and have been of but a few minutes' d u r a tion. The m a j o r i t y of the famous "dark d a y s " w e r e , however, the result of an abnormal accumulation of. s m o k e or dust in the air, s o m e t i m e s a r i s i n g f r o m burning f o r e s t s , m o o r s , or p r a i r i e s , s o m e t i m e s f r o m volcanic eruptions, and in many instances covering vast areas of the g l o b e . In a recent publication on " F o r e s t F i r e s " ( F o r e s t Service Bulletin 1 1 7 ) , M r . F. G. P l u m m e r gives the following list of dark days in the United States and Canada: 1706 May 12th, 1 0 A . M . , New England. 1716 O c t o b e r 2 1 s t , 1 1 A . M . t o 11:30 A . M . , New England. 1732 August 9th, New England. 1762 October 19th, Detroit. 1780 May 19th, New England. (Black Friday. The Dark D a y . ) 1785 O c t o b e r 16th, Canada. 1814 July 3 r d , New England to Newfoundland. 1819 N o v e m b e r 6th to 10th. New England and Canada. 1836 July 8th, New England. 1863 October 16th, Canada ("Brief duration. ") 1868 September 15th to October 20th, W e s t e r n Oregon and Washington. 1881 September 6th, New England. (The Y e l l o w D a y . ) 1887 N o v e m b e r 19th, Ohio R i v e r V a l l e y . ("Smoky D a y . " ) 1894 September 2nd, New England. 1902 September 12th, W e s t e r n Washington. 1903 June 5th, Saratoga, N. Y. 1904 D e c e m b e r 2nd, 1 0 . A . M . , f o r 1 5 minutes, M e m p h i s , Tenn. 1910 August 20th to 25th, Northern United States, f r o m Idaho and N o r t h ern Utah eastward to St. Lawrence R i v e r . F o r e s t fires a r e the c o m m o n cause of dark days in this country. The fact that such days a r e m o s t frequent in the Northeastern United States and E a s t e r n Canada is evidently related to the fact that p r a c t i c a l l y all b a r o m e t r i c d e p r e s sions ("lows"), with their attendant whirl and indraft of the surface a i r , p a s s down the St. Lawrence Valley on their way to the ocean, and usually b e c o m e intensified and sharply defined in this region. The s m o k e f r o m a conflagration anywhere on the periphery of a "low" is drawn into the vortex along m o r e or l e s s converging l i n e s , and at the s a m e t i m e r i s e s to a considerable altitude. Eddies in the circulation of the "low" will result in a dense accumulation of the smoke in p l a c e s , and this m a y occur above the level of the l o w e r clouds, which thus m a s k the c a u s e of the phenomenon. Hence the startling effect of d a r k n e s s in the daytime, often with little or no turbidity of the air near the earth's s u r face. M e r e s m o k i n e s s of the air near the ground or a fog heavily charged with

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G2-203 1

GWD-009

DARK DAYS

s m o k e (as i n the c a s e o f the London f o g s ) , h o w e v e r g r e a t the o b s c u r i t y p r o d u c e d , would h a r d l y b e p l a c e d i n the s a m e c l a s s with the a w e - i n s p i r i n g d a r k d a y s o f the c h r o n i c l e r s . If, h o w e v e r , s h o w e r s o c c u r during one o f t h e s e o c c u r r e n c e s , a l a r g e amount of s o o t is l i k e l y to be brought down, and thus we h a v e another "prodigy"; v i z . , " B l a c k r a i n . " A v e r y r e c e n t c a s e of this s o r t is r e p o r t e d in the Q u a r t e r l y Journal o f the R o y a l M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Society f o r O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 2 ; during a t h u n d e r s t o r m in E a s t e r n H a m p s h i r e d a r k n e s s a l m o s t like that of night o c c u r r e d in the e a r l y afternoon, and inky r a i n f e l l . T h e phenomenon w a s due t o soot c a r r i e d f r o m London, fifty m i l e s away. When the pall of s m o k e is r a t h e r thin a c e r t a i n amount of sunlight s t r u g g l e s through, and owing to the s a m e p r o c e s s that g i v e s us the golden g l o w of s u n s e t a y e l l o w o r c o p p e r y tinge i s c a s t o v e r the l a n d s c a p e . T h i s effect h a s b e e n noted in connection with s e v e r a l d a r k d a y s , including the m o s t f a m o u s of a l l , that of M a y 19th, 1 7 8 0 . It w a s the p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e of the dark day of S e p t e m b e r 6th, 1 8 8 1 , in N e w England, which is a c c o r d i n g l y known as "the y e l l o w d a y . " The g r e a t Idaho f i r e o f A u g u s t , 1 9 1 0 , w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d a r k d a y s o v e r a n a r e a l a r g e r than i n any other c a s e o n r e c o r d i n this c o u n t r y . The a c c o m panying c h a r t , f r o m the F o r e s t S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n above mentioned, s h o w s the a r e a in which a r t i f i c i a l light w a s u s e d in the d a y t i m e , but s m o k e w a s o b s e r v e d f a r beyond t h e s e l i m i t s . T h e B r i t i s h ship " D u n f e r m l i n e " r e p o r t e d that o n the P a c i f i c O c e a n , 5 0 0 m i l e s w e s t o f San F r a n c i s c o , the s m e l l o f s m o k e w a s noticed, and h a z e p r e v e n t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r about ten d a y s .

GWD-009

T H E Y E L L O W D A Y I N SEPTEMBER 1881

A n o n y m o u s ; W e a t h e r w i s e , 2 5 : 1 1 8 , June 1 9 7 2 . The outstanding d a r k day of the 19th C e n t u r y o c c u r r e d on 6 S e p t e m b e r 1 8 8 1 when s m o k e f r o m f o r e s t f i r e s in M i c h i g a n and Ontario filtered the s u n ' s r a y s o v e r the N o r t h e a s t to produce an e e r i e a t m o s p h e r e of y e l l o w i s h and b r a s s y h u e s . Though not a s c o m p l e t e l y b l a c k a s i n M a y 1 7 8 0 , a s t r o n o m e r s a t H a r v a r d e s t i m a t e d after s o m e e x p e r i m e n t s that only one-tenth a s m u c h light w a s r e c e i v e d f r o m the sky as on an a v e r a g e cloudy day. The W e a t h e r B u r e a u o b s e r v e r at A l b a n y , N. Y d e s c r i b e d the event: " 5 a. m. a few s t r a t u s c l o u d s in the l o w e r a t m o s p h e r e t o g e t h e r with what a p p e a r e d to be light s m o k e , the l a t t e r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d in density until 7 : 3 0 a. m. when the entire h e a v e n s w e r e hidden and f r o m 8 to 9:40 a. m. it was so d a r k that artificial light w a s n e c e s s a r y t o enable b u s i n e s s t o b e t r a n s a c t e d . The color of the a t m o s p h e r e w a s y e l l o w or light b r o w n as the d e n s i t y of the s m o k e a p p e a r ed to i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e and a r e m a r k a b l e effect w a s produced on all o b j e c t s upon the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . G r a s s and all o b j e c t s o f g r e e n c o l o r w e r e m a d e t o appear u n u s u a l l y b r i g h t , while blue changed to purple or pink. T h e s m o k e did not extend i m m e d i a t e l y to the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , but hung as a cloud of l o w e l e v a tion. No s m e l l of s m o k e was detected at any t i m e ; the sky b e c a m e c l e a r at 11:30 a . m . " C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1 5 0 m i l e s t o the e a s t , e x p e r i e n c e d the g r e a t e s t y e l l o w effect in e a r l y afternoon; it g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d after 4 : 0 0 p . m . and w a s not n o t i c e a b l e after 6:00 p . m . I n the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y the m o s t notable o b s c u r a t i o n o c c u r r e d f r o m 2 5 t o 3 0 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 0 . T h i s w a s d e s c r i b e d b y D r . H a r r y W e x l e r : The G r e a t S m o k e Pall. Weatherwise, 3 - 6 (Dec. 1950), 1 2 9 - 3 4 , 1 4 2 .

G2-204
v

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES
GWP-008 A WATERSPOUT

GWP-008

Wethered, E . ; Nature, 1 8 : 1 9 4 - 1 9 5 , June 2 0 , 1 8 7 8 . The author hypothesizes a waterspout but this incident should r e a l l y be considered along with other e x a m p l e s of point rainfall. A m o n g the m e t e o r i c phenomena of which we have heard recently, not the l e a s t interesting o c c u r r e d on Thursday the 14th n e a r the Kelston Round Hill, about three m i l e s to the west of Bath. Shortly after five o'clock in the evening the inhabitants of the village of W e s t o n , which l i e s between Kelston Hill and Bath, w e r e startled by a volume of water advancing like a tidal wave along the Kelston Road; in a minute the water was upon them, flooding the houses and laying the main street four feet deep under water; with such force did it c o m e that a stone weighing five hundred-weight was c a r r i e d s e v e r a l y a r d s , while s m a l l e r ones w e r e taken a much g r e a t e r distance. It w a s not known in the village f r o m where the water had c o m e , but it so happened that about five o'clock I was proceeding to Weston Station by the Midland Railway f r o m B r i s t o l to Bath, and when in sight of the Round Hill I was struck by the b l a c k n e s s and lowness of the clouds in its vicinity. Suddenly there was a flash of lightning, and i m m e d i a t e l y after the Hill was enveloped in what appeared to be a s t o r m of rain of unusual density. On arriving h o m e I was not altogether s u r p r i s e d to find the c o m m o t i o n in the v i l l a g e , and I at once attributed the s o u r c e of the water to the cloud which I had seen; I t h e r e f o r e made my way in the direction of Kelston Hill. On arriving under the b r o w of the Hill it was v e r y c l e a r that something m o r e than an ordinary s t o r m had o c c u r r e d . N e a r the end of a lane (Northbrook) leading to s o m e fields, the hedge on the right for s o m e y a r d s was lying in the road, but the field beyond at this point presented only the appearance of an ordinary s t o r m , while the lane itself was like the bed of a r i v e r . To the left was a field of standing g r a s s ; for about twelve feet from the hedge the g r a s s remained intact, then for about the s a m e distance it was as though it had been mown down. T h i s torrent, for such it might have been c o m p a r e d to, c a m e to a l m o s t a sudden termination a little above the end of the lane, but it extended down the Hill till it was joined by two o t h e r s , one of which had c a r r i e d a hedge away bodily. The i n c r e a s e d volume of water then poured down over s o m e gardens, u p rooting t r e e s and vegetables; in l e s s than ten minutes the hedges w e r e l o s t sight of, and the water r o s e to a height of eight feet. This was occasioned by a block caused by an arch, which c a r r i e d off the water f r o m a s m a l l s t r e a m , not being l a r g e enough to take the i n c r e a s e d v o l u m e . Finally it burst o v e r , scooping the ground out in front of s o m e cottages s e v e r a l feet deep and flowed on as a r i v e r s o m e y a r d s wide, again destroying gardens in which w e r e valuable stocks of v e g e t a b l e s . Near this point the volume of water was again increased; in all five distinct w a t e r - c o u r s e s could be made out, all of which had done considerable d a m a g e to g r a s s , cornfields, and gardens. Finally, all united in one body and poured into the v i l l a g e of W e s t o n , levelling three w a l l s as it c a m e , and thence passed into the r i v e r Avon. I gather f r o m spectators at Kelston Hill that it began to be cloudy at halfpast four in the afternoon; at five there was a rattling clap of thunder, followed by a downpour of rain in "bucket-fulls, " as one e x p r e s s e d it; but all s e e m e d to a g r e e that the g r e a t e r portion of the water fell under the b r o w of the hill, where it c a m e down in s e v e r a l c o l u m n s . T h e r e w e r e no h o u s e s c l o s e to the spot; had there b e e n they must have been washed away.

G2-205

GWP-009

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

The a t m o s p h e r e had been perfectly still all day, but v e r y sultry. Heavy rain fell in the neighbourhood, and the s t o r m to which I have r e f e r r e d specially was accompanied with hail, which in a few minutes c o v e r e d the ground s o m e inches deep. What I have d e s c r i b e d is no doubt what is popularly t e r m e d a waterspout. The several c o l u m n s of intense precipitation are intriguing. other unusual objects (Section GF) a r e a l s o highly l o c a l i z e d . Many falls of fish and

GWP-009

THE NOTES OF CHARLES FORT

Fort, C h a r l e s ; The Fortean Society Magazine, 1:14, September 1 9 3 7 . 1 8 0 9 , June 9. 5 p . m . C a s c a d e of water and hail poured in a torrent upon London upon a space not m o r e than 200 a c r e s . S y m o n s M e t . 4 7 - 1 4 0 .
r

Another c a s e of "point rainfall. "

GWP-010

R E M A R K A B L E POINT R A I N F A L L A T G R E E N F I E L D , N.H., E V E N I N G O F A U G U S T 2, 1966

Lautzenheiser, R . E . , e t al; Monthly Weather Review, 9 8 : 1 6 4 - 1 6 8 , February 1970. 1. INTRODUCTION

An e x c e s s i v e rain of amazingly s m a l l a r e a l extent fell late on Aug. 2, 1 9 6 6 , at Greenfield, N. H. T h i s note d e s c r i b e s the s t o r m , presents related s t o r m statistics, r e v i e w s briefly the synoptic situation, and mentions the danger of interpreting point rainfall data as being representative of an area. 2. THE GREENFIELD STORM

M r . Robert H. Stanley, of Pine Ridge Road, Greenfield, in southern New Hampshire, reported a r e m a r k a b l e r a i n s t o r m occurring late on Aug. 2, 1 9 6 6 . A total of 5. 75 in. was m e a s u r e d in a V - t y p e plastic gage of 6 - i n . capacity. T h i s type of gage is of reasonable accuracy in c o m p a r i s o n with standard E S S A Weather Bureau standard rain gages (Huff 1 9 5 6 ) . M r . Stanley has o b s e r v e d weather for many y e a r s and is conscientious about the accuracy of his r e c o r d s . While 5. 75 in. m a y not be an exact figure, it is believed to be substantially correct. M r . Stanley's l o c a l e is 1. 5 mi northeast of Greenfield, of about 9 0 0 ft. at an elevation above sea l e v e l . It is situated on the southern slope of a gentle ridge running generally e a s t - w e s t and l i e s about 2 . 4 mi south-southeast of Crotched Mountain, which has peaks with elevations just o v e r 2, 000 ft. Rain began at about 1900 E S T , or about an hour b e f o r e the outbreak of m o r e generalized showers in the region. It soon b e c a m e a downpour, continuing until about 2300 E S T , at which t i m e M r . Stanley went to bed. It was then still raining, but had slackened noticeably. The rain m a y have stopped by midnight. A r e m a r k a b l e nonvariability of the intense rain was noted by M r . Stanley. T h e r e w a s v e r y little slackening, even for brief intervals, during the period of heaviest fall, which was from about 1 9 4 5 to 2 2 1 5 E S T . T h e r e

G2-206

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

GWP-011

was practically no wind. Neither thunder nor lightning was o b s e r v e d . The noise on the roof was t e r r i f i c , l i k e that of a continuous waterfall. A plastic bird feeder mounted on the side of the house was broken by the impact of sheets of w a t e r f r o m the e a v e s . Looking out the window, M r . Stanley could s e e stones and gravel f r o m the roadway, south of the house, being washed away by torrents of water. Upon rising in the morning, M r . Stanley noted that the weather had c l e a r e d , with a b r i s k w e s t e r l y wind. After finding the 5. 75 in. of rain in the g a g e , he inquired f r o m a neighbor 0 . 3 mi to the e a s t . He found that the neighbor had but 0. 50 in. in his g a g e . He thereupon examined the countryside for v i s i b l e effects. The road washout extended for only a few hundred feet. Upon going one-half m i l e in either direction, no evidence of rain erosion of sand or g r a v e l could be found. South of the house, beginning at the gage which was mounted on a p o l e , well distant f r o m structures or t r e e s , t h e r e stretches a 1 0 - a c r e field. The knee-high g r a s s therein was beaten down flat. By afternoon it b e gan to r e v i v e . By the following noon it was e r e c t . To the west of the h o u s e , a d r y - w a s h brook running bankful at dawn was empty by 0 8 0 0 E S T . Drawing a line around the t r a c e s of erosion, one obtains an oval a r e a about a m i l e north-south and about three-fourths of a m i l e e a s t - w e s t . Within this area, rain varied f r o m the o r d e r of 1 in. on the l i m i t s to a l m o s t 6 in. in the center. Outside this limit, rain is believed to have fallen off sharply to l e s s than one-fourth of an inch, generally within a few thousand feet. The oval a r e a of the fall r e s e m b l e s the strip-shaped a r e a s in which fish and other objects a r e reputed to f a l l . The d i s p e r s i o n patterns of material entering the earth's atmosphere and impacting the surface have s i m i l a r effects.

GWP-011

SNOW W I T H O U T C L O U D S

Anonymous; Monthly Weather Review, 4 5 : 1 3 , January 1 9 1 7 . A phenomenon much m o r e frequent and much better known than rain f r o m a c l e a r sky is the formation and slow fall of snow in the lowest l a y e r s of the air under a c l o u d l e s s sky. This phenomenon o c c u r s only during s e v e r e cold and in c a l m a i r . The snow c r y s t a l s and i c e p a r t i c l e s , sparkling in the sunlight, a r e particularly s m a l l and s p a r s e l y distributed, so that they do not darken the a i r . T h e r e a r e l a r g e numbers of i c e needles among the f o r m s , and therefore the phenomenon has been called simply i c e needles (Eisnadeln) and even has been given an independent symbol; but there a l s o o c c u r beautifully f o r m e d s t e l l a r and tabular snow c r y s t a l s , together with s t r u c t u r e l e s s i c e g r a n u l e s . The phenomenon is m o s t frequent in the polar r e g i o n s , where it e a r l y attracted the attention of e x p l o r e r s and m o r e particularly b e c a u s e it is often associated with halo phenomena. It has r e c e i v e d the name "diamond dust" (Diamantstaub), a name known to the whaling m a s t e r Martens (1671) mentioned on page 388 and footnote 2 0 . In G e r m a n y many a winter p a s s e s without d e v e l o p ing the phenomenon, but Bodman observed it 28 t i m e s within 18 months on the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, and H e l m saw it even 26 t i m e s in 9 months while on the second G e r m a n Antarctic Expedition. It appears from the p h o t o m i c r o graphs of the "diamond dust, " made on the latter expedition and also by Dobrowolski, of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, that b e s i d e s needles and tablets p r i s m s are abundantly present, but the latter only at v e r y low t e m p e r a tures.

G2-207

GWP-012
GWP-012

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

CONTINUOUS RAIN

Chapin, H . E . ; Science, 2 1 : 9 4 , February 1 7 , 1 8 9 3 . A r e m a r k a b l e phenomenon was observed in the town of Athens, Ohio, late in the fall, which has awakened wide interest, v i z . , continuous rain during a s u c c e s s i o n of c l e a r , beautiful d a y s . This was noticed extending for a c o n s i d erable distance just b e l o w the c r e s t of a hill, and lasted through the day, f r o m soon after s u n r i s e till about sunset. The drops of water w e r e at no t i m e l a r g e , but they reached their m a x i m u m s i z e about two or three o'clock in the afternoon. The subject attracted the attention of p r o f e s s o r s in the Ohio University, and it was soon determined that the phenomenon must be due to the precipitation of vapor which had been c a r r i e d through an old railroad cut for s e v e r a l hundred y a r d s . T h e r e had recently been completed and set in operation extensive b r i c k w o r k s , where three l a r g e ovens w e r e continually in operation, and f r o m which hot currents of a i r steadily shot upwards. In the moulding of the b r i c k s , water is m i x e d with c l a y , and an enormous amount of hot, watery vapor w a s passing into the a i r above the ovens, supplemented by l a r g e quantities f r o m the stacks of a l a r g e " d r y e r , " which was kept at a high t e m p e r a t u r e . It is e s t i m a ted that in all fully f o r t y - f i v e tons of water w e r e at this s e a s o n daily evaporated. The plant is situated in the v a l l e y of the Hockhocking R i v e r , c l o s e to a cut made many y e a r s ago f o r a projected r a i l r o a d , and this cut leads directly to the r i s e of land where the observations w e r e m a d e . The o b s e r v e r at the U n i v e r sity W e a t h e r Station reports that the prevailing wind was at this t i m e in a d i r e c tion such as would c a r r y the hot air, laden with m o i s t u r e , through this artificial p a s s a g e . The air w a s , in all probability, c a r r i e d partly up the hill and there dissipated along the s i d e . About this t i m e it m u s t have c o m e in contact with a cold current near the c r e s t of the hill, and precipitation followed, causing this unusual rainfall. The conclusion that the precipitation was due to these c a u s e s is strengthened by the fact that not until the manufacture of b r i c k s at this place was begun was any such phenomenon o b s e r v e d , so f a r as is known.

GWP-013

REMARKABLE HAILSTONES

Symons, G . J . ; Nature, 4 1 : 1 3 4 - 1 3 5 , D e c e m b e r 1 2 , 1 8 8 9 . On p. 43 of the present volume of Nature the following extract is given f r o m a paper by Prof. Houston in the Journal of the Franklin Institute: "On s o m e of the hailstones, though not on the majority of them, w e l l m a r k e d c r y s t a l s of c l e a r transparent i c e projected f r o m their outer s u r f a c e s for distances ranging f r o m 1 / 8 to 1 / 4 of an inch. T h e s e c r y s t a l s , as well as I could o b s e r v e f r o m the evanescent nature of the m a t e r i a l , were hexagonal p r i s m s with c l e a r l y cut terminal f a c e t s . They r e s e m b l e d the projecting c r y s t a l s that f o r m so c o m m o n a lining of geodic m a s s e s , in which they have f o r m e d by gradual c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n f r o m the m o t h e r - l i q u o r . They differed, however, of c o u r s e , in being on the outer surface of the s p h e r u l e s . " It is evident f r o m Prof. Houston's paper that this peculiar f o r m of hail was unknown to h i m , and, as it must a l s o have been unknown to many who have p r o pounded t h e o r i e s as to the formation of hail which will not account for it, I think that a s e r v i c e m a y be rendered to m e t e o r o l o g y by the reproduction of

G2-208

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

GWP-012

three of the exquisite lithographs of this f o r m of hail given in Prof. A b i c h ' s paper, "Ueber krystallinischen Hagel im Thrialethischen gebuge, " published at T i f l i s in 1 8 7 1 . The hailstones represented in F i g s . 1-3 all fell on June 9 (21), 1 8 6 7 , at B j e l o i Kliutsch, a village about twenty m i l e s south-west of T i f l i s , and 1 2 , 4 2 5 feet above s e a - l e v e l (lat. 4 1 ° 4 4 ' N . , long. 4 4 ° 3 0 ' E . ) . T h e o r i e s of the formation of hail a r e a l m o s t innumerable. I was reading a pamphlet not long since which contained s u m m a r i e s of, I think, twenty-three t h e o r i e s . Some like Prof. Schwedoff's, that hailstones c o m e f r o m i n t e r planetary space (Brit. A s s . Report, Southampton, 1 8 8 2 , p . 458) are very d r o l l ; but the subject is a v e r y difficult one, and one upon which I do not know of a single good t r e a t i s e in our language. P o s s i b l y , the reproduction of t h e s e figures may induce s o m e o n e to p r e p a r e an exhaustive m e m o i r . I could place a l a r g e amount of historical and theoretical m a t e r i a l at the disposal of any competent p e r s o n who would undertake the preparation of such a work, it being quite i m p o s s i b l e for me to do it m y s e l f . See GFI for i c e f a l l s , which might indeed c o m e f r o m outer s p a c e !

Curious crystalline hailstone described in GWP-013.

G2-209

GWP-014
GWP-014

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

GIANT HAILSTONES — TEMPERATURE CONTRASTS

Pratt, F . ; English M e c h a n i c , 8 4 : 1 8 , August 1 0 , 1 9 0 6 . In reply to M r . Godden (letter 7 3 5 , p. 6 0 1 ) , I m a y s a y that I alluded to a report in the Daily E x p r e s s of July 5 of the s t o r m s in Spain, in which "hailstones as l a r g e as o r a n g e s s m a s h e d in the roofs of h o u s e s , injured fifty p e r s o n s , and d e s t r o y e d c r o p s . " I did not d i s c r e d i t the r e p o r t , as t h e r e are many r e c o r d s of what are Called "ice s t o r m s " in this country one, mentioned in W e b s t e r ' s "Recurring A t m o s p h e r i c P e r i o d s " (p. 5 6 ) , o n Aug. 3 1 , 1 8 2 0 , extending f r o m London to the south c o a s t : "The hailstones w e r e of i m m e n s e s i z e , and p i e c e s of solid i c e 18 in. by 6 in. Two thousand dead s p a r r o w s picked up in the s t r e e t s and suburbs of Worthing next m o r n i n g . " Another is of the "Great Ice Storm" of July 2 3 , 1 8 8 3 , in North L i n c o l n s h i r e , in which the fall was d e s c r i b e d as one of l u m p s of i c e , damaging the c r o p s to £ 2 0 , 0 0 0 . An e y e - w i t n e s s r e m a r k e d that they w e r e not like hailstones, but " s a l t - c e l l a r s " ; another that they r e s e m b l e d " d u c k ' s - e g g s " in fact, they w e r e solid lumps of i c e , of e v e r y shape and s i z e , weighing f r o m 2 o z . to 6 o z . , and s o m e m e a s u r e d 6 in. in c i r c u m f e r e n c e . (See S y m o n s ' s "Met. M a g . " 1 8 8 3 , p. 8 5 . ) The original account appeared in the Hull T i m e s . But for the " P r e s s " we should get but few of such interesting d e t a i l s , so I think M r . Godden might t e m p e r his s t r i c t u r e s with a little m o r e g e n e r o s i t y . As to the "fall of 1 4 ° in London" he inquires about, it w a s announced in the E x p r e s s under a heading of "giant" capitals: "Heat W a v e Vanishes D r o p of 1 4 ° of T e m p e r a t u r e ! " On the 18th I r e g i s t e r e d 8 3 ° ; on 19 and 20th, 6 5 ° a drop of 1 8 , indicative of s e v e r e e l e c t r i c s t o r m s in r e m o t e r e g i o n s . The inquiry was n e e d l e s s , as M r . G. must have seen it himself, if he keeps any r e g i s t e r of t e m p e r a t u r e . If not, he- ought to be thankful to the " P r e s s " for the "giant" proclamation. Such drops a r e not at all u n c o m m o n . And, turning o v e r my book of d i a g r a m s , I find a r e m a r k a b l e instance among many of such an elevation and "drop" of m a x . t e m p e r a t u r e between the 9th and 17th of A p r i l , 1 8 6 9 , the earth passing between the sun and Jupiter, c o m p l e t e on the 17th. C o m m e n c i n g with the "transition" of the 9th at 48 , it r o s e through 6 6 ° , 7 6 ° , to 7 9 ° to the 14th, then a "drop" through 6 3 ° , 5 4 ° , to 4 9 ° thus a r i s e and "drop" of 3 0 ° and 2 9 ° in eight d a y s . Further still, the niin. t e m p , dropped on the 17th to 3 5 ° , thus a total range of 44 f r o m the 14th. Another r e m a r k a b l e period w a s that the A p r i l of 1 8 6 5 , in the Neptune period at the c l o s e . 22nd the m a x i m u m marked 8 0 ° , ranging between that and 7 6 ° on the 28th, when the position b e c a m e c o m p l e t e . 2 9 - 3 0 t h the drop was to 5 8 ° ; A u g . 1 4 9 ° , with a m i n . of 3 4 ° , a d r o p of 1 8 ° in m a x . and 4 2 ° total r a n g e . Of this period I took advantage to let a little light in upon the Weather Department, with two or t h r e e of the officials of which I had had conversations in the M e t e o r ological Society upon the planetary s y s t e m . I t h e r e f o r e , on the 24th, sent a letter to M r . F. G a s t e r , at the office drawing his attention to the heat then p r e vailing, the influence of the r e m o t e planet Neptune, and to the m o s t probable change on the 28th. T h i s was fulfilled, and b r o k e the r e c o r d of their twentyfour hours' "warnings. " Forty y e a r s have since e l a p s e d , o v e r half a million of money has been spent, and yet they have got "no f o r r a d e r . " 10, 000 m o r e is wanted for m o r e "observations, " m i l l i o n s of which a r e already lying in the Government c a t a c o m b s , utterly u s e l e s s , for "want of b r a i n s to d i s c u s s them" (Symons). As to the 1 8 6 - y e a r s c y c l e mentioned by M r . Godden, I know nothing

G2-210

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

GWP-016

of it. The only s o - c a l l e d c y c l e I know of is that of Uranus and Neptune, of 172 y e a r s , now in operation, and the c a u s e of the anomalies and e x t r e m e s we are experiencing, as in 1 7 3 5 . The temperature changes are not unusual in t h e m s e l v e s , but the link to planetary position i s .

GWP-015

H A I L S T O R M O N T H E ST. L A W R E N C E

Anonymous; Monthly Weather Review, 2 9 : 5 0 6 - 5 0 7 , N o v e m b e r 1 9 0 1 . The following account was submitted by H. S. Chandler. The s t o r m o c c u r r e d on August 8, 1 9 0 1 , on the St. Lawrence R i v e r , opposite the village of Alexandria B a y . Next c a m e a heavy fall of rain, which was followed by hail. The hailstones to fall w e r e f o r m e d as though i c i c l e s the s i z e and shape of lead pencils had been cut into sections about three-eights of an inch in length. T h e s e w e r e soon followed by others as l a r g e as walnuts, and l a t e r by still others slightly disk shaped, m e a s u r i n g fully 3 inches in d i a m e t e r by 2 inches in thickness. The ground w a s c o v e r e d with them, and s e v e r a l branches of t r e e s w e r e broken off. They w e r e exceedingly hard and would rebound, when falling on the r o c k s , without breaking. They melted v e r y slowly even when placed in the sun. When half m e l t e d many had the appearance of the human eye a pupil in the center and a ring surrounding it, with fine l i n e s radiating in all directions. Others were c o m p o s e d of hard c r y s t a l s of i c e , s e v e r a l stones often being f r o z e n t o gether; and still others w e r e of frozen snow. The next morning at 8 o'clock remnants of hailstones as l a r g e as p e a s w e r e lying on the ground. During the s t o r m the r i v e r presented a beautiful appearance, there being thousands of miniature fountains f r o m a foot to 6 feet in height spurting up where the hf»il plunged in.

GWP-016

A C C O U N T O F SOME R E M A R K A B L E H A I L S T O N E S WHICH F E L L A T P A D U A , O N T H E 26TH O F A U G U S T 1834

C o s a r i , D. L. ; Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 1 9 : 8 3 - 8 8 , 1 8 3 5 . Hailstones of a Flattened and I r r e g u l a r Shape. ( 1 . ) Some of these f r a g ments of i c e presented the appearance of an angular plate, of about an inch in thickness. A c r o s s one of these s u r f a c e s , which was nearly flat and transparent, might be perceived fine p l a t e s , s o m e of which w e r e rectilinear, and others curved, opaque and whitish, which alternated with other plates of transparent i c e , which w e r e not concentric, but n e a r l y parallel to the l a r g e s t of the lateral faces of the plate. Adhering to the opposite s u r f a c e , there was a l s o s e e n c r y s tals of v e r y pure and transparent i c e , quite distinct f r o m each other, but interlaced among t h e m s e l v e s . They w e r e inclined on the surface, and stood at an angle of about 4 5 ° ; the length of these c r y s t a l s was nearly an inch and a half, and their f o r m that of a four sided p r i s m , one side of which was v e r y s m a l l in c o m p a r i s o n of the other t h r e e . Each p r i s m was terminated by a

G2-211

GWP-017

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

pyramid which had a l s o four s i d e s . The plates presented the appearance of a c r y s t a l l i z e d sediment. The greatest distance comprehended between two of the angles which they f o r m e d , v a r i e d f r o m four to eight inches. ( 2 . ) It w a s a l s o o b s e r v e d , that the i r r e g u l a r p i e c e s of i c e , which w e r e of a flattened and somewhat double-convex shape, presented a rough s u r f a c e , with an angular and i r r e g u l a r outline, and m i x e d with rudimental f o u r - s i d e d p r i s m a t i c c r y s t a l s . T h e r e w e r e a l s o a great number of a c i r c u l a r and e l l i p t i cal f o r m . T h e y presented c i r c l e s o r e l l i p s e s f o r m e d o f concentric l a y e r s o f i c e of an opaque whiteness, alternating with transparent l a y e r s , in the centre of which t h e r e was a white or opaque nucleus. The d i a m e t e r of t h e s e plates of ice w a s f r o m 1 - 1 / 2 inch to 4 inches. ( 3 . ) T h e r e w e r e a l s o o b s e r v e d , other p i e c e s o f transparent i c e , whose s u r face was rough, and the edge of which, thicker than the r e s t , f o r m e d a kind of b o r d e r . The edge alone presented s t r i a e , produced f r o m three to five a l t e r nate plates of i c e , s o m e t i m e s whitish opaque, and s o m e t i m e s transparent. The centre of the e x t e r i o r portion was a whitish c i r c l e , which appeared the nucleus. The transparent c e n t r e s of these p i e c e s w e r e s o m e t i m e s perforated, so as to p r e s e n t , after partial melting, the appearance of a ring of i c e , the diameter of which v a r i e d f r o m 1 - 1 / 2 inch to 3 inches. Many individuals w e r e struck with the appearance which we have just mentioned, (pp. 8 4 - 8 5 )

GWP-017

HAILSTONES AT CLEVELAND, OHIO

H e r r i c k , F r a n c i s H . ; Nature, 5 0 : 1 7 3 , June 2 1 , 1 8 9 4 . A r e m a r k a b l e h a i l s t o r m o c c u r r e d at Cleveland, Ohio, on the afternoon of Thursday, May 1 7 , of a c h a r a c t e r to be r e m e m b e r e d but probably not repeated during the present generation. L a r g e r hailstones are r a r e l y seen than fell on that day, and v e r y likely few, if any, people living in this part of the country have e v e r witnessed a m o r e s e v e r e b o m b a r d m e n t . The a i r was intensely sultry up to twenty eight minutes past t h r e e o'clock in the afternoon (sun t i m e ) , when it c o m m e n c e d to rain. Hailstones of m o d e r ate s i z e rattled down in profusion,, and it soon appeared that an ordinary thunders t o r m had begun. At the east end of the city the wind i n c r e a s e d rapidly in f o r c e , and it g r e w v e r y d a r k . P r e s e n t l y the hail b e c a m e violent, and for about twenty minutes the s t r e e t s and lawns presented a m o s t animated appearance. The impact of the i c y bullets against the roofs of houses sounded like the rattle of musketry. The snow-white b a l l s glistened upon the c l o s e - c r o p p e d lawns, where they kept up a lively dance, and in the street w e r e shattered against the flags and paving stones. The stones, many of which w e r e as l a r g e as billiard b a l l s , and s o m e of the s i z e of g o o s e e g g s , weighed f r o m one to five or six ounces, and probably many that fell w e r e much h e a v i e r than this. T h e i r shape was v e r y v a r i o u s , s o m e being spheroidal, others discoidal or exceedingly i r r e g u l a r . The accompanying figures r e p r e s e n t to s o m e extent the f o r m s of two stones which fell on the Adelbert C o l l e g e lawn, and w e r e picked up by s o m e of our students. A hailstone was found by Prof. F. P. Whitman to weigh nearly an ounce and a half after it had melted considerably. Its m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e 2 - 3 / 4 x 2 - 1 / 2 x 1 - 1 / 4 inches. The surface was f i s s u r e d and r a i s e d into t u b e r c l e s , while many others had an exaggerated m u l b e r r y appearance, suggesting a composite structure. Sections of such stones showed, however, that they were as a rule f o r m e d about a single nucleus, and w e r e not the result of the r e g e l a -

G2-212

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

GWP-019

tion of a number of separate p e l l e t s . The s p e c i m e n represented in Fig. 1 m e a s u r e d three inches in length, two in breadth, and about one in thickness. T h e r e w e r e two opaque central m a s s e s , the l a r g e r of which contained the original nucleus, while the s m a l l e r spot probably r e p r e s e n t s a stone which b e c a m e welded to the l a r g e r and o l d e r one. A somewhat flattened, or discoidal f o r m , which was v e r y c o m m o n , p r e sented a beautiful agate-like c o r e , embedded in a c l e a r m a s s . A section of one of the stones, which was sawn in two, is shown in Fig. 2. T h e r e is a c e n tral b a l l of s n o w - i c e , and this is surrounded by alternating light and dark l a y e r s of varying density, and by a v e r y much thicker c l e a r , outer envelope, unshaded in the drawing, showing that the stone had p a s s e d through at l e a s t two distinct regions of condensation. T h e r e w e r e a l s o usually one or two thin superficial strata. A stone which was examined by one of the o b s e r v e r s at the United States Signal Office, w a s 3 - 1 / 2 inches long, 3 inches wide, 2 inches thick, and m e a s u r e d 1 0 - 1 / 2 inches in c i r c u m f e r e n c e . Another, which fell near B o a r d of Education Building on Euclid Avenue, was weighed and m e a s u r e d by P r i n c i pal T h e o . H. Johnston. It was oval in shape and m e a s u r e d 3 x 2. 5 x 2. 75 inches, and weighed, after s o m e melting, 4 - 1 / 2 ounces. The surface of this stone was deeply pitted as by impact of w a r m raindrops. A second, brought in by one of M r . Johnston's pupils, weighed 5. 5 ounces. It had a l a r g e p e a r shaped snow-iced centre.

GWP-018

T H E NOTES OF CHARLES FORT

Fort, C h a r l e s ; T h ? I'ortean Society Magazine, 1:14, January 1 9 4 0 . 1 8 1 5 , A c a d e m y of Science, St. P e t e r s b u r g (sic) received a c a s e containing specimens of stones that fell during a h a i l s t o r m at Wilna, of which s o m e hundreds weighed as much as a pound. Sy. M e t . 1 7 / 1 5 1 . See 1 8 4 4 .

GWP-019

HUGE HAILSTONES

Anonymous; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 7 1 : 3 7 1 , D e c e m b e r 1 5 , 1 8 9 4 . Prof. Cleveland Abbe includes the following among his notes in the Monthly Weather Review for July: On June 3 a tornado p a s s e d northeastward through the counties of Harney, Grant, and Union, in e a s t e r n Oregon. The m o s t novel feature attending the disturbance was the hail. It is stated that the formation was m o r e in the nature of sheets of ice than s i m p l e hailstones. The sheets of ice averaged three to four inches square, and from three-fourths of an inch to one and a half inches in thickness. They had a smooth surface, and in falling gave the i m p r e s s i o n of a vast field or sheet of i c e suspended in the a t m o s p h e r e , and suddenly broken into fragments about the s i z e of the palm of the hand. During the p r o g r e s s of the tornado at Long C r e e k a piano was taken up and c a r r i e d about a hundred y a r d s .

G2-213

GWP-020
GWP-020

PRECIPITATION ODDITIES

EXPLOSIVE H A I L

Brown, W. G. ; Nature, 8 8 : 3 5 0 , January 1 1 , 1 9 1 2 . On the afternoon of N o v e m b e r 1 1 , 1 9 1 1 , there was a brief s t o r m of e x plosive hail at this p l a c e . The morning had been unseasonably w a r m ; about noon there w e r e the usual signs of a coming thunderstorm heavy c u m u l o - n i m b u s clouds with a gusty wind which began about 2 . 3 0 p. m. with a slight shower of heavy raindrops; shortly afterwards t h e r e w e r e two or three flashes of lightning and thunder, followed by a fall of l a r g e hailstones, which on coming in contact with the windows or walls or pavement in many instances exploded with a sharp report, so loud as to be mistaken for breaking window panes or a pistol shot. As the hail fell, the fragments sprang up f r o m the ground and flew in all directions, looking like a m a s s of "popping c o r n " on a l a r g e s c a l e . The fall lasted two or three minutes, about half the hailstones being shattered, the ground in s o m e p l a c e s being nearly c o v e r e d white with the stones and f r a g m e n t s . Of the unbroken stones, seventy were gathered. They weighed, roughly, 2 2 5 g r a m s . A few w e r e ellipsoidal, the longest axis about 25 m m . in length; m o s t of them, however, w e r e nearly spherical, and somewhat s m a l l e r , f r o m 15 to 20 m m . in d i a m e t e r . Practically all of them contained a nucleus. In a few of the stones the nucleus was p o r c e l a i n - l i k e , r a s p b e r r y - s h a p e d , surrounded by a l m o s t c o l o u r l e s s spherical l a y e r s of i c e , for about five-sevenths of the d i a m e t e r , and then a shell of p o r c e l a i n - l i k e , snowy i c e . A fair proportion of the stones showed, in addition to the spherical, a radiate structure, which was v e r y apparent as the stones melted in a flat dish, showing the c r o s s s e c t i o n with great distinctness. The w r i t e r noticed a s i m i l a r fall of explosive hail about eighteen y e a r s ago at Lexington, Virginia. The stones in this fall were much s m a l l e r , and attention was directed to the stones by the peculiar way in which they s e e m e d to rebound on striking the ground, which was a l s o due on that occasion to their breaking into f r a g m e n t s , without, however, any noticeable explosion.

GWP-021

[ H A I L S T O N E S W I T H SPIKES]

Anonymous; Nature, 6 1 : 5 9 4 , April 19, 1 9 0 0 . During a heavy thunderstorm at H e r b e r t s d a l e , Cape Colony, on F e b r u a r y 2 5 , a r e m a r k a b l e fall of hail o c c u r r e d . M r . O. D. Deacon sends us a d e s c r i p tion of the s t o r m r e c e i v e d f r o m his brother, who witnessed it. F r o m this we l e a r n that the hailstones ranged in s i z e f r o m m a r b l e s to s m a l l hen s e g g s , and v e r y many w e r e of the s i z e of turkey's e g g s . Some of these had a v e r y peculiar shape, being round and surrounded with spikes so as to present an appearance not unlike a hedgehog when rolled up in a b a l l , or like a b r i s t l y sea anemone. The hailstones w e r e the l a r g e s t M r . Deacon had seen during a t h i r t y - s e v e n y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e in South A f r i c a , and their spiky c h a r a c t e r is of peculiar interest.
T

See G W P - 0 0 1 for s i m i l a r hailstones.

G2-214

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
GWS-001

GWS-001

T H E 1 1 - Y E A R SUN-SPOT P E R I O D , S E C U L A R P E R I O D S O F S O L A R ACTIVITY, A N D SYNCHRONOUS VARIATIONS IN TERRESTRIAL PHENOMENA

Clough, H . W . ; Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w , 6 0 : 9 9 - 1 0 8 , A p r i l 1 9 3 3 . C l o u g h ' s p a p e r is a m i n e of i n t e r e s t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s . Students of " c y c l e s " w i l l not find m u c h new m a t e r i a l , but to o t h e r s t h e s e r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e quotes will introduce this ancient tendency of m a n to s e a r c h for a s t r o n o m i c a l l y c o r r e l a t e d p e r i o d i c i t i e s . Synopsis. T h i s p a p e r s u p p l e m e n t s a f o r m e r one with c o r r e c t i o n s and additional m a t t e r . A few c h a n g e s a r e m a d e in the F r i t z epochs of "probable m a x i m a " of sun s p o t s , dating f r o m 3 0 0 A. D . , and it is shown that the frequency distribution of the 1 1 - y e a r s u n - s p o t i n t e r v a l s d e r i v e d f r o m the ancient e p o c h s has about the s a m e m e a n , s k e w n e s s , and d i s p e r s i o n as that of the W o l f e r i n t e r vals from 1610. F o r the whole period o f 1 , 6 0 0 y e a r s the m o s t frequent interval o r m o d e i s computed t o b e 1 0 . 9 4 y e a r s while the n o r m a l length o f the p e r i o d computed b y a l e a s t - s q u a r e method i s 1 1 . 0 6 7 y e a r s . The m e a n deviation f r o m 1 1 . 0 y e a r s is ± 1. 69 y e a r s . B y a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e s s e s and c r i t e r i a , the s e q u e n c e o f the 1 1 y e a r i n t e r v a l s is shown to be s y s t e m a t i c r a t h e r than fortuitous. W h i l e the m o s t frequent interval between peaks or h o l l o w s in a random s e q u e n c e is the t w o - i n t e r v a l , t h e r e is a m a r k e d tendency for m a x i m a or m i n i m a in the s o l a r c u r v e to r e c u r about e v e r y third i n t e r v a l . In other w o r d s the m o s t frequent interval o f r e c u r r e n c e i s about 3 6 y e a r s . T h e e p o c h s of m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m length of the 1 1 - y e a r p e r i o d , d e r i v e d f r o m the c u r v e of 1 1 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s , y i e l d by the l e a s t - s q u a r e computation a n o r m a l length of 3 7 . 5 y e a r s f o r the long p e r i o d , with an amplitude of 2 . 4 y e a r s . On e l i m i n a t i n g the 3 7 - y e a r period by an a p p r o p r i a t e smoothing of the 1 1 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s , a still l o n g e r period is d i s c l o s e d with a n o r m a l length of about 83 y e a r s and an amplitude of 1. 5 y e a r s . Further smoothing d i s c l o s e s a 3 0 0 - y e a r period with an amplitude of 0. 5 y e a r . T h e 3 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d u n d e r g o e s a long s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n in length, roughly e s t i m a t e d at 1 , 4 0 0 y e a r s . Both the 3 7 - y e a r and the 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d s u n d e r g o a 3 0 0 - y e a r variation in length, c o m p a r a b l e with that of the 1 1 - y e a r p e r i o d , the m a x i m u m lengths being about t w i c e the m i n i m u m l e n g t h s . T h e s e t h r e e p e r i o d s exist a l s o in the r e l a t i v e n u m b e r s and the r a t i o s , a:b, that i s , t i m e of i n c r e a s e to t i m e of d e c r e a s e of sun spots f r o m m i n i m u m to m i n i m u m , the n u m b e r s v a r y i n g i n v e r s e l y and the r a t i o s d i r e c t l y with the length of the 1 1 - y e a r p e r i o d . T h e s e p e r i o d s a r e apparent not only in a u r o r a l data but in v a r i o u s other t e r r e s t r i a l data frequency of s e v e r e w i n t e r s , f r e q u e n c y of C h i n e s e e a r t h q u a k e s , flood and l o w s t a g e s of the N i l e , t r e e growth in A r i z o n a and C a l i f o r n i a , and wheat p r i c e s in England. The epochs of m a x i m a of the t h r e e p e r i o d s l a g s o m e w h a t behind the e p o c h s of m a x i m u m s o l a r activity, and the amount of the l a g is proportional to the length of the p e r i o d . The l a g s of the 3 7 - y e a r and 8 3 - y e a r epochs exhibit a 3 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d , a l s o a long s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n the l a g after 1 , 0 0 0 A . D . being about two t h i r d s that p r e v i o u s l y . The extensive sections on statistics are omitted. The P e r i o d i c i t i e s of the A u r o r a The 1 1 - y e a r p e r i o d . The p a r a l l e l i s m between the v a r i a t i o n s i n the f r e -

G2-215

GWS-001

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

quency o f sun s p o t s and a u r o r a s i s v e r y c l o s e . A c c o r d i n g t o F r i t z the a v e r a g e l a g of a u r o r a l m a x i m a after sun spot m a x i m a is about a y e a r . The 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d . The l i s t given b y F r i t z has r e c e i v e d s o m e additions d e r i v e d f r o m the L o v e r i n g and Short c a t a l o g s . T h e total n u m b e r of a u r o r a s in the 2 0 - y e a r i n t e r v a l c e n t e r e d o n e v e r y fifth y e a r i s plotted i n figure 1 . Most o f the m a x i m a a r e o b v i o u s , but i n s o m e c a s e s the u n s m o o t h e d o r o r i g i n a l data m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d in the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a m a x i m u m epoch and in other c a s e s data a r e l a c k i n g s o that interpolation i s n e c e s s a r y . T h e g r e a t e r amplitude o f the 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d i s the c a u s e o f s o m e u n c e r t a i n t y . T h e epochs o f m a x i m a and m i n i m a a r e given in table 2 with interpolated or doubtful epochs indicated by asterisks. The 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d . The amplitude of this p e r i o d is g r e a t e r than that of the 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d , and i t can t h e r e f o r e b e t r a c e d b a c k t o 4 0 0 A . D . with c o n siderable accuracy. T o e l i m i n a t e the 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d f r o m the 2 0 - y e a r s u m m a t i o n s , a s u m m a t i o n of the n u m b e r f o r a g i v e n date and that of the s e c o n d p r e ceding and following i s m a d e . T h e s e s u m m a t i o n s f o r e v e r y tenth y e a r a r e plotted i n figure 2 . T h e m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n the n u m b e r s f r o m 1 5 2 5 i s due i n part to the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n with a m a x i m u m about 1 5 5 0 and in part to the i n c r e a s e in a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s following the e r a of the introduction of printing. I n s e l e c t i n g the 8 3 - y e a r e p o c h s i n t a b l e 3 , this s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n w a s taken into consideration. The total n u m b e r of d a y s p e r d e c a d e with a u r o r a f r o m 1 5 0 0 to 1 7 4 0 , and the F r i t z a u r o r a l n u m b e r s , 1 7 0 0 t o 1 8 7 0 , a v e r a g e d b y d e c a d e s , a r e shown plotted i n figure 2 . F r o m t h e s e c u r v e s the e p o c h s w e r e d e r i v e d after 1 6 0 0 . The o c c u r r e n c e a p p r o x i m a t e epochs given in the v a r i o u s epochs indicated b y o f a u r o r a h a s b e e n r e c o r d e d a s f a r b a c k a s 5 0 3 B . C . , and o f m a x i m u m frequency have b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m the l i s t s catalogs. T h e s e a r e given in t a b l e 3 with two interpolated asterisks.

The 3 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d . The n u m b e r o f y e a r s i n each h a l f - c e n t u r y f r o m 3 5 0 A . D . t o 1 7 5 0 , i n which a u r o r a w a s r e c o r d e d , i s plotted i n figure 3 . T h e epochs o f m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m frequency a r e given i n t a b l e 4 . Tabulation of the 8 3 - y e a r a u r o r a l e p o c h s . F i g u r e 7 shows the 8 3 - y e a r epochs in a t a b l e with r o w s 3 3 0 y e a r s long. Full l i n e s j o i n epochs of m a x i m a separated b y four 8 3 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s . E p o c h s o f m i n i m a s i n c e 4 0 0 A . D . a r e plotted and joined b y d a s h e d l i n e s . The 3 0 0 - y e a r v a r i a t i o n i s e l i m i n a t e d f r o m the trend of the l i n e s and t h e i r c u r v a t u r e indicates the l o n g s e c u l a r variation around 1 , 4 0 0 y e a r s which h a s a l r e a d y b e e n noted. The trend of the l i n e s is on the whole slightly to the left, indicating a p e r i o d length of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 82 y e a r s . T h e two g r a p h s , f i g u r e s 6 and 7, a r e d e r i v e d wholly independently of e a c h other but the c u r v a t u r e s of the l i n e s a r e v i r t u a l l y identical. Severe Winters in Europe R e c o r d s of unusual m e t e o r o l o g i c a l events a r e abundant in E u r o p e a n l i t e r a ture. The occurrence of severe winters has been v e r y consistently recorded, and B r u c k n e r , by m e a n s of this m a t e r i a l , w a s enabled to extend h i s 3 5 - y e a r c y c l e , deduced f r o m m o d e r n i n s t r u m e n t a l r e c o r d s , b a c k t o the y e a r 1 0 0 0 , The r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d to my 1 9 0 5 p a p e r for a d i s c u s s i o n of his r e s u l t s t o g e t h e r with additional r e s u l t s d e r i v e d f r o m m y own r e s e a r c h e s . Bruckner used P i l g r a m ' s catalog and b e g a n with the y e a r 8 0 0 but he r e g a r d e d the r e c o r d s p r e v i o u s to 1 0 0 0 as of little v a l u e . To extend the s e r i e s b a c k w a r d , I have u s e d H e n n i g s c a t a l o g which is v e r y complete. Easton's list was also consulted. E m p l o y i n g the method u s e d b y B r u c k n e r , the total n u m b e r o f s e v e r e w i n t e r s i n the 2 0 - y e a r interval c e n t e r e d
!

G2-216

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GWS-001

on every fifth y e a r w e r e counted and the n u m b e r s f r o m 340 to 1030 together with his numbers f r o m 1030 to 1 7 7 5 are shown graphically in figure 1. The 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d . — M a x i m a and m i n i m a a r e quite definitely apparent except in a few instances where data a r e lacking. The m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m epochs a r e given in table 2 with interpolated epochs indicated by a s t e r i s k s . The 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d . — I n o r d e r to eliminate the 3 7 - y e a r period a smoothing p r o c e s s s i m i l a r to that used on the auroral numbers was employed, and the smoothed values f o r every tenth y e a r plotted in figure 2. The derived epochs of m a x i m a and m i n i m a a r e given in table 3. Epochs previous to 3 0 0 A . D . a r e only approximate. The 3 0 0 - y e a r period. In B r o o k s ' "Evolution of C l i m a t e " the number of s e v e r e winters in Europe per half-century a r e given f r o m 800 A. D. and I have extended the data back to 3 0 0 A. D. f r o m Hennig's catalog. T h e s e numbers a r e shown in figure 3. Flood and Low Stages of the Nile A r e m a r k a b l e s e r i e s of y e a r l y r e c o r d s of high and low l e v e l s of the Nile at the Roda gage, C a i r o , f r o m 6 2 2 A. D. to 1470 has been published by P r i n c e O m a r Toussoun. The original r e c o r d s a r e in cubits and dated in M o h a m m e d a n y e a r s . One l i s t f r o m 6 4 0 to 1451 was published in 1 9 2 3 . Another l i s t f r o m 6 2 2 to 1470 in m e t r i c equivalents and c o r r e c t e d to the m o d e r n calender was published in 1 9 2 5 . T h e s e two l i s t s differ slightly and after careful examination of the graphs of both l i s t s it was decided to u s e the first one, making a few c o r r e c tions to readings, evidently m i s p r i n t s , by c o m p a r i s o n with the later l i s t and supplying a number of m i s s i n g y e a r s . F i v e - y e a r means have been computed for both flood and low stages. The 1 1 - y e a r period. The influence of the 1 1 - y e a r s o l a r period on the flood stages is shown by an e x c e s s i v e predominance in the 5 - y e a r means of the two-interval o v e r the normal frequency for random numbers, 50 percent v s . 40 percent. As f o r the m i n i m a there is a relative e x c e s s of the f o u r - and f i v e - i n t e r v a l s , indicating a 2 0 - to 2 5 - y e a r period. The 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d . — W h e n the pentad m e a n s of the flood stages a r e smoothed by the formula, ( a + b) -i- 2, the 1 1 - y e a r period is eliminated and the longer periods can be recognized. The smoothed means a r e shown in figure 1. Epochs of the 3 7 - y e a r m a x i m a and m i n i m a c o r r e c t e d to the G r e g o r ian calender a r e given in table 2. The 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d . — T h e contrast between the flood and low s t a g e s , both in their origin and in the short periods shown by the pentad m e a n s , is further shown by the l o n g e r p e r i o d s . The 3 7 - y e a r period is best shown by the flood l e v e l s while the l o n g e r periods a r e best shown by the low stages. Figure 2 shows 1 0 - y e a r m e a n s of the low stages smoothed by ( a + b) + 2. The 3 7 - y e a r period somewhat o b s c u r e s the longer period in the c u r v e of flood s t a g e s , but the epochs of the longer period a r e nearly coincident in the two c u r v e s . A v e r a g e s of the two s e r i e s of epochs a r e given in table 3. B r o o k s made a periodogram analysis of the N i l e flood data using the s a m e list as that published in 1 9 2 3 , and found that a period of about 77 y e a r s is the only period that could be regarded as r e a l , judging f r o m the mathematical criterion. The 3 0 0 - y e a r period. Fifty-year means of the low stages of the Nile a r e shown plotted in figure 3. The 3 0 0 - y e a r variation is c l e a r l y evident. This long period can be seen a l s o in the c u r v e of flood stages and the m a x i m a and m i n i m a of the two c u r v e s are virtually identical. The secular i n c r e a s e in the l e v e l s of both high and low stages is due to the raising of the Nile bed by the deposition of the silt which it brings down.

G2-217

GWS-001

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
W h e a t P r i c e s i n England

In a p a p e r p u b l i s h e d after h i s " K l i m a s c h w a n k u n g e n " , B r u c k n e r concluded f r o m a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f wheat p r i c e s i n w e s t e r n E u r o p e f o r 2 0 0 y e a r s that high p r i c e s o c c u r during or shortly after periods of m a x i m u m rainfall. Beveridge c o m p u t e d y e a r l y index n u m b e r s o f wheat p r i c e s i n England f r o m 1 5 0 0 t o 1 8 7 0 by expressing them as a percentage of 3 5 - y e a r moving averages. His periodog r a m of wheat p r i c e s s h o w s a p e r i o d of c o n s i d e r a b l e amplitude at 3 5 . 5 y e a r s . I h a v e t a k e n R o g e r s ' wheat p r i c e s i n England f r o m 1 2 6 5 t o 1 7 0 0 and f o r m e d index n u m b e r s by e x p r e s s i n g the 5 - y e a r m e a n s as a p e r c e n t a g e of m o v i n g a v e r a g e s o f 7 pentad m e a n s . F r o m 1 7 0 0 t o 1 8 7 0 5 - y e a r m e a n s o f B e v e r i d g e ' s index n u m b e r s a r e e m p l o y e d . A f t e r 1 8 7 0 , the S a u e r b e c k index n u m b e r s a r e used. T h e s e pentad index n u m b e r s , s m o o t h e d b y the f o r m u l a ( 2 a + 3 b + 2 c ) -r 7, a r e shown g r a p h i c a l l y in f i g u r e 1. T a b l e 2 g i v e s the epochs of m a x i m a and m i n i m a . T h e s e e p o c h s a r e v i r t u a l l y identical with the epochs of wheat prices in my 1905 paper. T r e e Growth i n A r i z o n a and C a l i f o r n i a D o u g l a s s w a s a n e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t o r o f t r e e - g r o w t h i n its r e l a t i o n t o c l i m a t e . S o m e o f h i s e a r l y m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e published i n Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w , June 1 9 0 9 . Huntington published in 1 9 1 2 r e s u l t s of h i s m e a s u r e m e n t s of the t r e e r i n g s o f the C a l i f o r n i a S e q u o i a s . The 3 7 - y e a r period. I n h i s " C l i m a t i c C y c l e s and T r e e - G r o w t h , " v o l u m e 1, D o u g l a s s g i v e s a t a b l e of m e a n y e a r l y growth of 5 y e l l o w - p i n e t r e e s m e a s u r e d near Flagstaff, A r i z . , dated f r o m 1 5 0 3 t o 1 9 1 0 and o f 2 t r e e s f r o m 1 3 8 5 t o 1 5 0 3 . T h i s r e c o r d a p p e a r s t o b e quite h o m o g e n e o u s . R e s i d u a l s o f 5 - y e a r means of these m e a s u r e s from a smooth curve, formed by successive means of 8 v a l u e s f u r t h e r s m o o t h e d by m e a n s of 2 t e r m s , w e r e s m o o t h e d by the f o r m u la ( a + 2b-i- 3c-*- 2 d + e)-=-9 and the final v a l u e s plotted in figure 1. T h e 3 7 - y e a r e p o c h s d e r i v e d f r o m i n s p e c t i o n o f this c u r v e a r e g i v e n i n t a b l e 2 . Other r e c o r d s f r o m t r e e s in N e w M e x i c o , C o l o r a d o , and Utah s h o w this v a r i a t i o n with e p o c h s nearly s y n c h r o n o u s with t h o s e of the F l a g s t a f f r e g i o n . The 8 3 - y e a r period. W e a r e indebted t o Huntington for a n e x t e n s i v e s e r i e s of m e a s u r e m e n t s of the growth rate of the C a l i f o r n i a S e q u o i a s . His m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n w o r k e d o v e r b y A n t e v s who divided i t into two g r o u p s " A " , t r e e s g r o w i n g i n d r y situations; and " B " , t r e e s g r o w i n g i n m o i s t s i t u a tions. H i s t a b l e s g i v e the total growth f o r e a c h d e c a d e f r o m 1 0 0 0 B . C . T h e t r e e s i s m o i s t situations s e e m t o r e s p o n d t o c h a n g e s i n m e t e o r o l o g i c a l conditions affecting t h e i r growth s o o n e r than t h o s e in d r y situations, and t h e i r variations a r e somewhat m o r e regular. F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s the " B " s e r i e s o f m e a n s a r e s l e e c t e d t o show the 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d . The s e c u l a r trend i n t h e s e v a l u e s h a s b e e n e l i m i n a t e d b y taking r e s i d u a l s f r o m s u c c e s s i v e m e a n s o f nine t e r m s . T h e s e r e s i d u a l s s m o o t h e d b y (a-f 2 b - t - c ) ^ - 4 a r e plotted i n figure 2 . The 8 3 - y e a r e p o c h s s e l e c t e d f r o m the o r i g i n a l and s m o o t h e d c u r v e s a r e g i v e n i n table 3 . T h e e p o c h s d e r i v e d f r o m the growth rate o f t r e e s i n d r y situations l a g about 1 0 y e a r s after t h e s e e p o c h s . F o r the y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o the C h r i s t i a n e r a , the data f r o m t r e e s i n both d r y and m o i s t situations ( A n t e v s ' " C " group) w e r e u s e d , s i n c e the total n u m b e r is small. T h e 8 3 - y e a r e p o c h s a r e given i n t a b l e 3 . The 3 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d . T o s h o w this p e r i o d , 5 0 - y e a r m e a n s o f Huntington's Sequoia m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e plotted i n f i g u r e 3 . but i s w e l l m a r k e d i n A n t e v s ' c u r v e " B " . T h e m a x i m u m a t 8 0 0 i s weak

G2-218

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
C h i n e s e Earthquakes

GWS-001

A n u m b e r of c a t a l o g s of earthquakes a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the study of t h e i r periodicities. T h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e one i s b y M a l l e t i n the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n Report of 1 8 5 8 . E x t e n s i v e c a t a l o g s of C h i n e s e earthquakes have a p p e a r e d but t h e r e a r e , e s p e c i a l l y in the l a t e r o n e s , t o o m a n y e n t r i e s for a s i n g l e l a r g e shock, due to the a f t e r s h o c k s and to the l a r g e n u m b e r of p r o v i n c e s r e p o r t i n g it, so that the l i s t is unsuitable f o r a n a l y s i s . Turner made a periodogram a n a l y s i s of the l i s t of earthquakes in China c o m p i l e d by H i r a t o , in B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t , 1 9 0 8 , s i n c e h e r e g a r d e d i t a s sufficiently h o m o g e n e o u s f o r this p u r p o s e . He pointed out that p e r i o d s of around 79 and 2 8 4 y e a r s appeared p r o b a b l e . H i r o t a ' s l i s t ends i n 1 6 4 5 . P a r k e r ' s l i s t i n B r i t i s h A s s o ciation R e p o r t , 1 9 0 9 , extends f r o m 1 6 4 0 t o 1 8 7 5 , but i t l i s t s only the g r e a t e r s h o c k s . I t i s , h o w e v e r , internally h o m o g e n e o u s and shows the 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d fairly well. The 3 7 - y e a r period. 1 have counted the n u m b e r of s h o c k s in t h e s e two l i s t s f o r each 2 0 - y e a r p e r i o d , as in the c a s e of s e v e r e w i n t e r s , and the n u m b e r for e a c h fifth y e a r i s plotted i n figure 1 . B e t w e e n A . D . 195 and 2 2 5 t h e r e a r e n o r e c o r d s owing t o the G r e a t R e b e l l i o n . Epochs of m a x i m a a r e given in table 2. T h e 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d . — S m o o t h i n g the earthquake n u m b e r s i n the s a m e m a n n e r a s t h o s e o f s e v e r e w i n t e r s , the 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d i s e l i m i n a t e d . These n u m b e r s by d e c a d e s plotted in figure 2, show the 8 3 - y e a r period with epochs a s g i v e n i n t a b l e 3 . T w o e p o c h s o f m a x i m a a r e i n t e r p o l a t e d . One a t 2 2 0 o c c u r r e d during the c i v i l w a r and the other at 1 2 5 0 is not obvious f r o m the data which s e e m t o b e unusually scanty a t this t i m e . However, there is a p r o nounced m a x i m u m of Japanese earthquakes n e a r this d a t e . The m a x i m u m at 1 6 3 0 is u n r e l i a b l e owing to the ending of the r e c o r d around 1 6 4 0 and evidence f r o m other l i s t s points t o 1 6 5 0 a s a m o r e p r o b a b l e d a t e . T h e 8 3 - y e a r e p o c h s after 1 6 5 0 cannot b e r e l i a b l y d e t e r m i n e d . The 300-yftar period. The n u m b e r o f C h i n e s e earthquakes p e r halfcentury f r o m H i r o t a ' s l i s t , and a l s o the n u m b e r s d e r i v e d f r o m M a l l e t ' s l i s t , a r e plotted i n figure 3 . P r e v i o u s t o 4 0 0 A . D . , M a l l e t ' s data a r e too scanty t o show the s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n . The n u m b e r o f y e a r s p e r h a l f - c e n t u r y with e a r t h quakes i n China, c o m p i l e d f r o m the l i s t b y Gauthier i n B u l l , d e l ' O b s e r v . d e Z i k a w e i , 1 9 0 7 , i s a l s o plotted. T h i s c u r v e shows c l e a r l y the 3 0 0 - y e a r v a r i a tion and the other two c u r v e s a r e in f a i r a g r e e m e n t . T h e n u m b e r s in the first half of the third c e n t u r y w e r e doubled owing to the hiatus in the r e c o r d s . The 3 0 0 - Y e a r Period The 3 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d h a s a l r e a d y b e e n shown to e x i s t in the v a r i a t i o n s of s o l a r and c e r t a i n t e r r e s t r i a l data. Other data f r o m l i t e r a r y r e c o r d s have b e e n brought t o g e t h e r by B r o o k s and the v a r i a t i o n s in t h e s e data s e e m to fit in w e l l with t h o s e of a u r o r a s , e t c . In h i s " C l i m a t e through the Ages", t a b l e 2 2 , under E u r o p e (general) and B e l g i u m , the p e r c e n t a g e of a to a+ b is an index of the r a i n i n e s s of t h e s e r e g i o n s . S i m i l a r i n d e x e s for the s e v e r i t y of w i n t e r s in Belgium w e r e computed by me from Vanderlinden's catalog. From Speers c h n e i d e r ' s c o m p i l a t i o n the p e r c e n t a g e of y e a r s with heavy i c e in Danish w a t e r s and the n u m b e r of w i n t e r s with i c e on the Danish c o a s t w e r e obtained. From Co Ching Chu a r e d e r i v e d i n d e x e s of the r a i n i n e s s and the n u m b e r of s e v e r e winters i n China s i n c e the f i r s t century A . D . T h e s e data a r e shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n figure 3 . T o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r c o m p a r i s o n o f the v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s e c u r v e s , the 3 0 0 - y e a r m a x i m a a r e indicated b y c i r c l e s and t h e s e a r e joined b y b r o k e n l i n e s .

G2-219

GWS-001

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

W h i l e the data g r a p h i c a l l y shown in figure 3 a r e obviously of only l i m i t e d a c c u r a c y t h e r e is sufficient a g r e e m e n t a m o n g the c u r v e s to show that the e p o c h s o f c o l d , wet p e r i o d s a r e around 2 0 0 , 5 5 0 , 8 5 0 , 1 1 2 5 , 1 3 5 0 , 1 6 2 5 , 1 8 5 0 . T h e warm, dry epochs are approximately 3 5 0 , 7 0 0 , 9 7 5 , 1 2 5 0 , 1500, 1 7 2 5 . Brooks in h i s figure 38 g i v e s a c o m p o s i t e c u r v e which he thinks r e p r e s e n t s the v a r i a tions o f rainfall o v e r the E u r - A s i a n continent during h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s . The m a x i m a o f his curve are approximately 4 2 5 B . C . , 125 B . C . , 1 7 5 , 5 2 5 , 8 5 0 , 1 1 2 5 , 1 3 5 0 , 1 6 0 0 , 1 8 2 5 . T h e s e d a t e s a g r e e well with the 3 0 0 - y e a r e p o c h s d e r i v e d f r o m the c u r v e s . The e p o c h s o f m a x i m u m a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the 1 1 - y e a r e p o c h s , d e r i v e d f r o m c u r v e 4 and given in t a b l e 4, p r e c e d e , 50 to 2 2 5 y e a r s , the e p o c h s of m a x i m a of r a i n f a l l . The l a g is v a r i a b l e , being g r e a t e s t around 8 0 0 and l e a s t around 1600. The 1 4 0 0 - Y e a r Period A long p e r i o d of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 4 0 0 y e a r s w a s noted above in the v a r i a tions i n the length o f the 1 1 - , 3 7 - , 8 3 - , and 3 0 0 - y e a r s o l a r p e r i o d s . The 8 3 y e a r p e r i o d in the a u r o r a a l s o g i v e s c l e a r e v i d e n c e of this long p e r i o d . Since the frequency of a u r o r a s c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y with that of s e v e r e w i n t e r s in the s h o r t e r 3 7 - and 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d s , t h e r e should b e e v i d e n c e s o f the long p e r i o d in m e t e o r o l o g i c a l fluctuations. B r o o k s (loc. c i t . ) h a s brought t o g e t h e r all available e v i d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o c l i m a t i c fluctuations during the l a s t 5 , 0 0 0 y e a r s . His r e s u l t s should furnish i m p a r t i a l evidence as to the e x i s t e n c e of the long p e r i o d , and a s u m m a r y f o l l o w s of the m a x i m a and m i n i m a in h i s c l i m a t i c c u r v e s which s e e m t o r e c u r a t i n t e r v a l s a v e r a g i n g 1 , 4 0 0 y e a r s . His c u r v e s showing v a r i a t i o n s of rainfall in Europe and A s i a indicate w e l l - d e f i n e d m i n i m a around 2 2 0 0 B . C . , 1 0 0 0 B . C . , and 6 0 0 A . D . M a x i m a a r e shown n e a r 3 0 0 0 B . C . , 1 3 0 0 B . C . , between 800 B . C . and 3 5 0 B . C . , and near 1 3 0 0 A . D . The m a x i m u m i n the f i r s t m i l l e n i u m B . D . i s the s o - c a l l e d " C l a s s i c a l " rainfall m a x i m u m , and the m a x i m u m n e a r 1 3 0 0 i s the " M e d i e v a l " rainfall m a x i m u m . A c c o r d i n g to P e a k e , as quoted by B r o o k s , a period of drought o c c u r r i n g s o m e c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e 3 0 0 0 B . C . c a u s e d m i g r a t i o n s f r o m the i n t e r i o r toward the B a l t i c , while the g r e a t d i s p e r s a l o c c u r r e d about 2 2 0 0 B . C . B r o o k s p l a c e s the p o s t - g l a c i a l " C l i m a t i c O p t i m u m " at this t i m e . Huntington's c u r v e of t r e e growth h a s chief m a x i m a at 4 0 0 0 B. C. and 1 3 0 0 A. D. and a m i n i m u m at 7 0 0 A. D. B r o o k s ' c u r v e of t e m p e r a t u r e in E u r o p e shows a m a x i m u m about 7 0 0 A. D. and m i n i m a 0 to 2 5 0 B. C. and around 1 5 0 0 A. D. The d e t e r i o r a t i o n of c l i m a t e i n G r e e n l a n d f r o m about 9 0 0 A . D . t o 1 4 0 0 i s consistent with t h e s e fluctuations i n E u r - A s i a and North A m e r i c a . I t i s c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , that m a r k e d c l i m a t i c e x t r e m e s have o c c u r r e d i n the N o r t h e r n H e m i s p h e r e with i n t e r v a l s a v e r a g i n g 1 , 4 0 0 y e a r s . C o r r e l a t i o n Between Solar and T e r r e s t r i a l V a r i a t i o n s In f i g u r e s 1 and 2, b e l o w the c u r v e s , the 3 7 - y e a r and 8 3 - y e a r e p o c h s of m i n i m u m length of the 1 1 - y e a r s o l a r period a r e plotted on their r e s p e c t i v e d a t e s . Next b e l o w a r e the c o r r e s p o n d i n g epochs of m a x i m u m frequency of the a u r o r a . Then f o l l o w the epoch o f m a x i m a f o r s e v e r e w i n t e r s , Nile l e v e l s , wheat p r i c e s , t r e e growth, and C h i n e s e e a r t h q u a k e s . Connecting l i n e s a r e drawn to show the relations and the v a r y i n g l a g s . In g e n e r a l the l a g s a r e g r e a t e r b e f o r e 1 0 0 0 A . D . than a f t e r w a r d s . The 3 7 - y e a r period. The l a g o f the a u r o r a l after the s o l a r epochs a v e r ages 2 4 y e a r s 3 3 y e a r s b e f o r e 1 0 0 0 and 1 5 y e a r s a f t e r . The l a g o f the e p o c h s o f s e v e r e winters a v e r a g e s 5 6 y e a r s 7 0 b e f o r e 1 0 0 0 and 4 4 after. With r e f e r ence to the e p o c h s of s e v e r e w i n t e r s , the l a g of the Nile flood e p o c h s is 1. 5 y e a r s ; that of wheat p r i c e s 5 y e a r s ; that of A r i z o n a pines 23 y e a r s . The r e l a -

G2-220

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GWS-002

tion of earthquakes to other t e r r e s t r i a l events is uncertain, but a s s u m i n g that indicated by the l i n e s , the m a x i m a a v e r a g e 13 y e a r s e a r l i e r than t h o s e of s e v e r e winters. The 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d . The l a g o f the a u r o r a l after the s o l a r e p o c h s i s 5 5 y e a r s ; that o f s e v e r e w i n t e r s a v e r a g e s 9 1 y e a r s 1 0 7 b e f o r e 1 0 0 0 , and 7 9 thereafter. T h e l a g of the N i l e stage after s e v e r e w i n t e r s is 8 y e a r s , Sequoia growth 6 3 y e a r s . C h i n e s e earthquakes p r e c e d e s e v e r e w i n t e r s b y about 1 3 years. It will be s e e n that the l a g s v a r y d i r e c t l y with the length of the p e r i o d and that in the c a s e of s e v e r e w i n t e r s the l a g after 1 0 0 0 is about two t h i r d s that previously. A s i m i l a r l a g w a s noted above for the 3 0 0 - y e a r e p o c h s of r a i n f a l l . T h i s l o n g - p e r i o d variation in the lag is p r o b a b l y due to the 1 , 4 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d . T h e 3 0 0 - y e a r variation i n the l a g . There is a well-defined 3 0 0 - y e a r p e r i o d i c i t y in the l a g of the epochs of s e v e r e w i n t e r s after the s o l a r e p o c h s in both 3 7 - y e a r and 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d s (cf. fig. 3 ) . F o r the 3 7 - y e a r p e r i o d , the m a x i m u m l a g o c c u r s around 3 6 0 , 7 1 5 , 9 7 5 , 1 3 3 5 , 1 7 0 0 ; m i n i m u m l a g 5 8 0 , 9 0 0 , 1 2 0 0 , 1 5 4 0 , 1 8 1 0 . T h e s e epochs o f m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m l a g a v e r a g e 1 0 0 y e a r s after the e p o c h s of short and long 3 7 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s in t a b l e 4. F o r the 8 3 - y e a r p e r i o d , the m a x i m u m lag o c c u r s around 4 0 0 , 6 7 5 , 8 6 0 , 1 2 3 5 , 1 6 1 0 ; m i n i m u m lag 5 2 5 , 7 8 0 , 1 0 5 0 , 1 3 8 0 , 1 7 7 5 ; o r about 9 0 y e a r s after the e p o c h s of short and long 8 3 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s in t a b l e 4. T h e s e c o n s i s t e n t v a r i a t i o n s in the l a g s of the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l events and t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c y f o r 1, 500 y e a r s afford additional proof of the reality of both the s o l a r and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s .

GWS-002

T H E P A R A D O X O F T H E S U N SPOT C Y C L E I N M E T E O R O L O G Y 1891.

Blanford, Henry F . ; N a t u r e , 4 3 : 5 8 3 - 5 8 7 , A p r i l 2 3 ,

Blanford b e g i n s with a little s u m m a r y of the e a r l y studies of the influence of s u n spots on the w e a t h e r . He e s t i m a t e s the status of the subject in 1 8 9 1 thus: The speculation, thus s t a r t e d , was followed up with avidity by a l a r g e n u m b e r of i n q u i r e r s in different p a r t s of the w o r l d s T h e intensity of the s o l a r radiation, the b a r o m e t r i c p r e s s u r e , the l e v e l s of r i v e r s , l a k e s , and inland s e a s , and e v e n such m o r e r e m o t e effects o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l conditions a s a r e m a n i f e s t e d in the p r i c e s of grain, the r e c u r r e n c e of exceptional v i n t a g e s , of f a m i n e s , and in the activity of t r a d e , w e r e all brought under investigation; and, f o r s o m e y e a r s , this and other scientific j o u r n a l s contained frequent a r t i c l e s , bringing to notice s o m e new instance or supposed instance of a r e c u r r e n t variation c o n f o r m i n g m o r e o r l e s s a c c u r a t e l y t o the well-known s o l a r p e r i o d of e l e v e n y e a r s . It m u s t be admitted that s o m e of t h e s e supposed c o i n c i d e n c e s w e r e b a s e d on e v i d e n c e that was far f r o m convincing; and s i n c e the m a j o r part of the w e a t h e r phenomena of the g l o b e failed to s h o w any distinct t r a c e of the influence of the s o l a r c y c l e , i n t e r e s t in the subject gradually d e c l i n e d , and f o r the l a s t few y e a r s the d i s c u s s i o n of the question h a s b e e n c o m p a r a t i v e l y in abeyance. Next follows a r e v i e w of s o m e of the m o r e important c o r r e l a t i o n s , h i s s t a t e m e n t of h i s "paradox. " concluding with

We now c o m e to what m a y be t e r m e d the p a r a d o x of the whole p r o b l e m .

We

G2-221

GWS-003

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

have seen that both the a i r t e m p e r a t u r e and that of insolation s e e m to testify unmistakably to the fact that the sun's heat is greatest when his surface is l e a s t spotted, and v i c e v e r s a . But the evidence of the s p e c t r o s c o p e points in a d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposite direction, and so also do M e l d r u m ' s and P o e y ' s statistics of the frequency of tropical c y c l o n e s , and, as far as it g o e s , the m o r e dubious evidence of the rainfall, since, in all c a s e s in which any appearance of a p e r i o d i cal variation has been detected, the rainfall is m o s t abundant about or shortly after the epoch of m a x i m u m s u n - s p o t s , and l e a s t about the y e a r s of m i n i m u m , implying t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e d evaporation and an i n c r e a s e d movement of the atmosphere at the f o r m e r epoch. The variation of the b a r o m e t r i c p r e s s u r e which has been detected in the Indo-Malayan region on the one hand, and in W e s t e r n Siberia and R u s s i a on the other, a l s o s e e m s to show that in y e a r s of m a x i m u m s u n - s p o t s a l a r g e r portion of the tropical a t m o s p h e r e is t r a n s f e r r e d to high latitudes in the winter h e m i s p h e r e which again i m p l i e s an i n c r e a s e d disturbance of atmospheric equilibrium at that epoch between the tropics and the c i r c u m p o l a r zone, and therefore an i n c r e a s e d intensity of the disturbing agent.

GWS-003

SUNSPOTS A N D T H E W E A T H E R

Norton, H . W . ; Monthly Weather Review, 8 5 : 1 1 7 - 1 1 8 , April 1 9 5 7 . The possibility that sunspots affect weather, and might be made a b a s i s for long-range forecasting, has been recognized for many y e a r s , and their effect on "radio weather" is well known. Recently there s e e m s to be renewed interest in this matter, and it is s o m e t i m e s said that the subject has b e c o m e " r e s p e c table" among m e t e o r o l o g i s t s . The purpose of this note is to point to evidence that no phenomenon having a period in the vicinity of 10 y e a r s has any great effect on weather for at least s o m e weather elements in s o m e p l a c e s . A single example will be given. Norton and B r i e r studied p e r s i s t e n c e in Greenwich monthly m e a n t e m p e r a t u r e s . One hundred y e a r s of data, 1764 to 1 8 6 3 , w e r e used and the c o r r e l a t i o n between months was computed for each interval from one to twelve months inclusive, separately for each of the twelve p o s s i b l e antecedent (or subsequent) months. The 144 c o r r e l a t i o n s , each based on 99 pairs of observations, of which the antecedent fell in the y e a r s 1764 to 1862 inclusive, w e r e taken as data for statistical a n a l y s i s .

It follows, that at the 1 percent confidence l e v e l , no such cause accounted for as much as 5 percent of the variance of January mean t e m p e r a t u r e s at Greenwich during the 99 y e a r s 1 7 6 5 to 1863 inclusive. M e t e o r o l o g i s t s who find t h e m s e l v e s thinking seriously of sunspots as an important cause of t e r r e s t r i a l weather will be well advised to b e a r this correlation in mind, and to try to develop a hypothesis of sunspot influence sufficiently detailed to include little or no influence on s o m e important weather elements at s o m e locations, before they spend m o r e effort on direct s e a r c h for sunspot-weather relationships. This negative paper c o m p e n s a t e s , in part, for all the Sourcebook entries p r o claiming strong positive c o r r e l a t i o n s .

G2-222

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
GWS-004 THE RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL ATMOSPHERIC OZONE TO THE SUNSPOT C Y C L E

GWS-005

W i l l e t t , Hurd C . ; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 7 : 6 6 1 - 6 7 0 , F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 2 . Abstract. F o r the 2 7 - y e a r p e r i o d 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 5 9 i n c l u s i v e , highly significant negative c o r r e l a t i o n is found between the r e l a t i v e sunspot n u m b e r and the worldwide a v e r a g e of total a t m o s p h e r i c o z o n e . P e a k c o r r e l a t i o n with r e s p e c t to the p r e s e n t - d a y 1 0 - y e a r sunspot c y c l e is found at a l a g of 1 - 1 / 2 to 2 y e a r s of the sunspots r e l a t i v e to o z o n e . T h e peak c o r r e l a t i o n of total a t m o s p h e r i c ozone with the m e a n latitudinal d i s t a n c e f r o m the s o l a r equator of the total a r e a of sunspots is a l m o s t identical in magnitude to that with sunspot n u m b e r . H o w e v e r , the peak c o r r e l a t i o n with sunspot latitude is found at a l a g of l e s s than 6 months of the ozone r e l a t i v e to sunspot latitude, in the opposite d i r e c t i o n to that with sunspot n u m b e r . T h i s p h a s e d i f f e r e n c e of the negative c o r r e l a t i o n s u g g e s t s that a t m o s p h e r i c o z o n e i s m u c h m o r e s e n s i t i v e t o sunspot latitude than to sunspot n u m b e r . It has frequently b e e n c l a i m e d that ozone c o n c e n t r a t i o n is intimately linked to human health and g e n e r a l v i g o r .

GWS-005

POSSIBLE C O R R E L A T I O N BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC O Z O N E C O N T E N T A N D COSMIC R A Y INTENSITY V A R I A T I O N S

A l e x a n d e r , S a r a m m a , and C h a t t e r j e e , S . D . ; Journal o f A t m o s p h e r i c and T e r r e s trial P h y s i c s , 3 3 : 8 3 1 - 8 3 3 , 1 9 7 1 . Introduction. S o m e kind of c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n sunspot activity and a t m o s pheric o z o n e content w a s f i r s t s u g g e s t e d by C a b a n n e s and Dufay. This was c o n f i r m e d by Dob s o . . , H a r r i s o n and L a w r e n c e , who found a definite r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v a r i a t i o n of ozone content and t e r r e s t r i a l magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e s . I n deed a n i n c r e a s e i n the o z o n e - v a l u e i n the m i d d l e a t m o s p h e r e i s a l w a y s a s s o ciated with m a g n e t i c s t o r m s . It is equally w e l l - k n o w n that the v a r i a t i o n s in c o s m i c - r a y intensity is highly c o r r e l a t e d to s o l a r activity, though the extent and nature of the modulation is not well e s t a b l i s h e d . ' F o r b u s h d e c r e a s e s ' i n c o s m i c r a y intensity a r e u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by magnetic s t o r m s of a sudden c o m m e n c e m e n t type. According to D o r m a n , the principal p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the p r o f i l e of c o s m i c - r a y intensity v a r i a t i o n s during magnetic s t o r m depends upon the way in which the E a r t h e n t e r s a s o l a r s t r e a m c a r r y i n g a ' f r o z e n ' m a g n e t i c field. R e c e n t l y , Hatton, M a r s d e n and W i l l e t s h a v e shown that the c o s m i c - r a y intensity i s well c o r r e lated with the e m i s s i o n of the c o r o n a l l i n e , A. 5 3 0 3 , f r o m the vicinity of the s o l a r equator. Since both a t m o s p h e r i c ozone content and c o s m i c - r a y intensity v a r i a t i o n s are mutually c o r r e l a t e d to s o l a r activity a c c o m p a n i e d by magnetic s t o r m , it is r e a s o n a b l e to s e e k s o m e kind of c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m . (p. 831)

D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s . The value of the c o r r e l a t i o n coefficient is not high, probably due to the s e a s o n a l i n c r e a s e in the c a s e of the ozone data and p o s s i b l e i n s t r u m e n t a l drift during the p e r i o d in the c a s e of the m e s o n t e l e s c o p e r e c o r d s . A running a v e r a g e of the data might h a v e p r o b a b l y given m o r e significant r e s u l t s .

G2-223

GWS-006

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

H o w e v e r , this m e t h o d c o u l d not b e utilized i n this c a s e b e c a u s e both c o s m i c r a y a s well a s o z o n e intensity data w e r e not s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a v a i l a b l e for s o m e d a y s . Another r e a s o n for the l o w c o r r e l a t i o n coefficient might be due to the nonl i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p in magnitude of deviation b e t w e e n the two s e t s of data. N e v e r t h e l e s s , it a p p e a r s f r o m F i g . 2, that t h e r e is an undeniable tendency f o r the changes in the daily v a l u e s to o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and in the s a m e s e n s e . T h i s i s b e t t e r evident o n m a g n e t i c a l l y undisturbed d a y s . Out of 40 d a y s taken into c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s i m u l t a n e i t y of the p e a k s and troughs in the s a m e p h a s e in the two s e t s of m e a s u r e m e n t s , o c c u r r e d on 29 d a y s , while it a p p e a r e d to be in the opposite p h a s e on 11 d a y s . It is obvious that m o r e extensive data a r e n e c e s s a r y t o r e v e a l the t r u e nature o f the c o r r e l a t i o n . Nevert h e l e s s , s o m e s y s t e m a t i c trend i s c l e a r l y evident e v e n i n the p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d h e r e . (p. 8 3 3 )

GWS-006

T H E W E A T H E R O F 1911 A N D T H E U L T R A - V I O L E T R A D I A T I O N S O F T H E S U N

R a m s a u e r , C a r l ; N a t u r e , 8 9 : 3 7 6 - 3 7 7 , June 1 3 , 1 9 1 2 . In connection with an e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e c e n t l y c a r r i e d on in the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o l u m n s of Nature I ventured to d i r e c t attention (Nature, D e c e m b e r 1 4 , 1911) to the unusual diminution of the u l t r a - v i o l e t radiation f r o m the sun as a p o s s i b l e c a u s e of the a b n o r m a l w e a t h e r of the s u m m e r of 1911. My intention w a s l e s s to explain the p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon of this s u m m e r than to d i r e c t the attention of m e t e o r o l o g i s t s to a new point of v i e w . In so far I s u c c e e d e d , f o r a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s in Nature devoted attention to this point. The fullest t r e a t m e n t w a s contained in a l e t t e r f r o m M r . L. G. Schultz in the i s s u e of M a r c h 1 4 . I should l i k e to r e p l y b r i e f l y to this l e t t e r , which, owing to u n i v e r s i t y h o l i d a y s , I h a v e only l a t e l y s e e n . According to my views, his interesting o b s e r v a t i o n , that for both the m i d d l e and end of the y e a r 1 9 1 1 the state of the weather in South A m e r i c a was d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposite to that in E u r o p e ( e x t r e m e ly d r y s u m m e r in the north with rainy winter in the south, and e x t r e m e l y d r y s u m m e r in the south with rainy winter in the north) d o e s not contradict my attempt at explanation, but r a t h e r . p r o v e s its c o r r e c t n e s s . With n o r m a l u l t r a - v i o l e t radiation f r o m the sun, i . e . with n o r m a l p r o d u c tion of condensation nuclei, the w a t e r vapour f o r m e d in the north or south h e m i s p h e r e will c o n d e n s e again on the s a m e h e m i s p h e r e if the n e c e s s a r y c o n ditions a r e brought about by cooling and a l t e r a t i o n s of p r e s s u r e . W i t h a b n o r m a l l y s m a l l production of nuclei rain will p r o b a b l y not c e a s e all o v e r the earth, a s M r . Schultz s e e m s t o conclude, f o r the evaporated w a t e r m u s t c o m e down s o m e w h e r e or o t h e r , but the o c c u r r e n c e of condensation will be r e n d e r e d m o r e difficult. Consequently it is p o s s i b l e that the w a t e r evaporated on the s u m m e r half of the e a r t h will f i r s t find the r e q u i r e d p r e l i m i n a r y conditions for condensation on the c o l d e r winter half, and so c o m e down t h e r e . In other w o r d s , if the a b n o r m a l weather of 1 9 1 1 was conditioned by the d e c r e a s e of u l t r a - v i o l e t radiation f r o m the sun, then the a b n o r m a l d r y n e s s on the s u m m e r h e m i s p h e r e had to be a c c o m p a n i e d by a b n o r m a l rainfall on the winter h e m i s p h e r e . T h i s is e x a c t l y what M r . Schultz h a s shown beyond doubt o c c u r r e d not only for the p e r i o d of the northern s u m m e r , but a l s o f o r the period of the southern s u m m e r . A c c o r d i n g l y , the p e r i o d of a b n o r m a l l y low u l t r a - v i o l e t radiation of the sun extended o v e r the whole of the y e a r 1 9 1 1 .

G2-224

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS
GWS-007

GWS-008

C O M M E N T S O N P A P E R B Y H.C. W I L L E T T , T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P O F T O T A L ATMOSPHERIC OZONE TO T H E SUNSPOT C Y C L E '

M i t c h e l l , J . M . , J r . ; Journal o f G e o p h y s i c a l R e s e a r c h , 6 7 : 4 0 9 3 - 4 0 9 4 , S e p t e m b e r 1962. A p a r t f r o m its t h e o r e t i c a l significance f o r the m e t e o r o l o g i s t , the r e m a r k able s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n reported b y W i l l e t t [ G W S - O Q i ] between total a t m o s pheric o z o n e and the sunspot c y c l e is s o m e t h i n g of a vindictive tribute to the p e r s e r v e r a n c e of l o n g - s u f f e r i n g students of s o l a r - w e a t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s who have b e c o m e w e l l a c c u s t o m e d to disappointment in studies of this kind. T h e statistical a n a l y s i s i s skipped and M i t c h e l l ' s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d d i r e c t l y . To s u m m a r i z e , W i l l e t t ' s contention that t h e r e e x i s t s a 'highly significant negative c o r r e l a t i o n . . . between the r e l a t i v e sunspot n u m b e r and the w o r l d wide a v e r a g e of total a t m o s p h e r i c o z o n e ' m u s t apparently be qualified in s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the c o r r e l a t i o n is of m o r g i n a l significance only, and the ozone data a r e neither n e c e s s a r i l y indicative of w o r l d a v e r a g e conditions nor f r e e of potential e r r o r due to s e c u l a r station network changes and to s o l a r c o r r e l a t e d u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n the D o b s o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . Further, W i l l e t t ' s c o n c l u s i o n that 'ozone is m u c h m o r e s e n s i t i v e to sunspot latitude than to sunspot n u m b e r ' is of doubtful validity.

GWS-008

T H U N D E R S T O R M S A N D SUNSPOTS

M . , A . B . ; Nature, 4 6 : 4 8 8 - 4 8 9 , S e p t e m b e r 2 2 , 1 8 9 2 . About s i x y e a r s ago Prof, von B e z o l d laid b e f o r e the B a v a r i a n A c a d e m y a m e m o i r relating to l i g h t n i n g - f l a s h e s that had done d a m a g e to h o u s e s in B a v a r i a . In that kingdom the f i r e - i n s u r a n c e of buildings is e n t i r e l y in the hands of the State, and a long s e r i e s of s t a t i s t i c a l data on the s u b j e c t was a v a i l a b l e . T w o things appeared f r o m this inquiry f i r s t , that those d a m a g i n g lightningf l a s h e s had e n o r m o u s l y i n c r e a s e d in the l a s t fifty y e a r s (to 1 8 8 2 ) , m u c h m o r e than the i n c r e a s e of h o u s e s ; and second, that t h e r e w a s apparently s o m e r e l a t i o n between the phenomena and the sunspot c y c l e . To each m a x i m u m of sunspots c o r r e s p o n d e d a m i n i m u m of d a m a g i n g l i g h t n i n g - f l a s h e s or t h u n d e r s t o r m s (only in two c a s e s one y e a r d i s p l a c e d ) ; but b e t w e e n each p a i r of m i n i m a w a s another s e c o n d a r y m i n i m u m not far f r o m the m i n i m u m of s u n s p o t s . The c u r v e of lightning d a m a g e , in fact, shows a double o s c i l l a t i o n for each sunspot p e r i o d , m a x i m a of sunspots c o r r e s p o n d i n g with the b e t t e r - d e f i n e d of the two m i n i m a of lightning d a m a g e . A s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r r e s u l t had b e e n a r r i v e d at by Prof. F r i t z f r o m a study of t h u n d e r s t o r m s in the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , but he c o n s i dered it a d v e r s e to the idea of a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n sunspots and t h u n d e r storms. In an e a r l i e r p a p e r to the B a v a r i a n A c a d e m y ( 1 8 7 4 ) , Prof, von B e z o l d , f r o m a study of s e v e r a l t h u n d e r s t o r m r e c o r d s , c a m e to the c o n c l u s i o n that "high t e m p e r a t u r e s and a s p o t l e s s s o l a r s u r f a c e give y e a r s abounding in thunders t o r m s . " T h i s supposed relation b e t w e e n sunspots and t h u n d e r s t o r m s d o e s not s e e m to h a v e attracted much attention of l a t e y e a r s . The object of this note is chiefly to show s o m e c u r v e s and f i g u r e s f r o m t h u n d e r s t o r m r e c o r d s , which, it a p p e a r s to m e , y i e l d further evidence of the r e l a t i o n .

G2-225

GWS-009

SOLAR, LUNAR, A N D PLANETARY EFFECTS

I n the d i a g r a m herewith a r e two c u r v e s , one f o r B e r l i n f r o m 1 8 5 0 , the other for G e n e v a f r o m 1 8 5 2 . T h e n u m b e r s o f d a y s o f o b s e r v e d thunder a r e taken and grouped in a v e r a g e s , each y e a r l y point of the c u r v e r e p r e s e n t i n g an a v e r a g e o f five y e a r s . T h e v e r t i c a l s c a l e - f i g u r e s a r e t o the l e f t . B e l o w i s a n inverted sunspot c u r v e , with s c a l e - f i g u r e s to the right. T h e upper points of the l a t t e r a r e m i n i m a , and it will be o b s e r v e d how m a x i m a of the t h u n d e r s t o r m c u r v e s o c c u r o v e r them o r n e a r l y s o ; and s i m i l a r l y with sunspot m a x i m a and m i n i m a of the other c u r v e s . T h e r e is not a l w a y s e x a c t c o i n c i d e n c e , but a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e will be noticed. (I do not h e r e r e p r o d u c e the f i g u r e s yielding t h o s e c u r v e s . )

W h e t h e r or not we m a y r e g a r d this c u r v e as lending support to the v i e w in question, i t m a y a t l e a s t p r o v e i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e how our s u m m e r thunders t o r m s h a v e v a r i e d i n n u m b e r o f late y e a r s . The Thunderstorm Committee of the Royal M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Society h a v e not y e t , I understand, attacked the q u e s tion of a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n to s u n s p o t s . M a y it not be s a i d , h o w e v e r , that the field l o o k s p r o m i s i n g ?

GWS-009

S K Y L A B ENRICHES SOLAR D A T A HUNDREDFOLD 1973.

Covault, C r a i g ; Aviation W e e k , 9 9 : 1 6 + , N o v e m b e r 2 6 ,

Recent scientific work is finally pinpointing s o m e of the c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sun and earth. Many such r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e f o r m e r l y doubted due to the a b s e n c e of any obvious p h y s i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s . R e c e n t e a r t h b a s e d studies h a v e indicated that p a s s a g e near the e a r t h of a s o l a r - i n d u c e d interplanetary m a g n e t i c s e c t o r boundary g e n e r a l l y c o r r e l a t e s with about a 10% reduction in the incidence of l a r g e s t o r m s in the N o r t h e r n H e m i s phere, according to Oertel. "What w e ' r e in the p r o c e s s of doing right now is to s e e if this is a highly l o c a l effect. If it i s , then it m a y well be that s c i e n t i s t s can say e v e r y t i m e a s e c t o r p a s s e s b y , c e r t a i n r e g i o n s of the e a r t h will get v e r y stable good weathe r. " He said Skylab's contribution to understanding the phenomenon could r e s u l t f r o m pinpointing c o r o n a l h o l e s f r o m which m a g n e t i c s e c t o r boundaries a r e b e l i e v e d to r e s u l t . T h e b o u n d a r i e s could then be mapped as to t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s with the e a r t h , o r t h e i r i n t e r s e c t i o n with e a r t h ' s o r b i t , for m o r e a c c u r a t e w e a ther forecasting. O e r t e l said no g r o u n d - b a s e d technique e x i s t s that could p i n point m a g n e t i c s e c t o r b o u n d a r i e s as they would r e l a t e to l o c a l p o s i t i o n s on the earth.

GWS-010

COSMIC M E T E O R O L O G Y

Broun, John A l l a n ; N a t u r e , 1 8 : 1 2 6 - 1 2 8 , M a y 3 0 , 1 8 7 8 . The bulk of B r o u n ' s a r t i c l e d e a l s with the influence of sunspots on t e r r e s t r i a l m a g n e t i s m . Since this effect is no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d "strange, " it is o m i t t e d . The section on the influence of the moon on the e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e , h o w e v e r , is m o r e interesting b e c a u s e the whole subject is now being restudied even though Broun d i s p o s e s of w e a t h e r e f f e c t s in a condescending way.

G2-226

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GWS-009

The M o o n ' s Influence in producing Atmospheric Variations. The popular beliefs in the m o o n ' s influence on the weather a r e first disposed of; they a r e conclusions f r o m unrecorded observations where the coincidences a r e r e m e m bered and the oppositions a r e forgotten; and they a r e opposed to strict deductions when all the facts a r e employed. Agreeing, as all men of science do, with this decision, the question r e m a i n s , Whether the moon may not have s o m e slight effect in producing m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s ? She r e f l e c t s , a b s o r b s , and radiates the s o l a r heat; may this heat, in accordance with the t h e s i s , not produce s o m e effect on our a t m o s p h e r e ? Sir John H e r s c h e l had observed the tendency to disappearance of clouds under the full moon; this he considered a fact which might be explained by the absorption of the radiated lunar heat in the upper strata of our atmosphere. He cited Humboldt's statement as to the fact being well known to pilots and s e a m e n of Spanish A m e r i c a . I m a y add the testimony of Barnardin de St. P i e r r e , who, in his "Voyage a l ' I l e de Reunion, " s a y s : "I r e m a r k e d constantly that the rising of the moon dissipated the clouds in a marked way. Two hours after rising, the sky is perfectly c l e a r " ("Avril, 1 7 6 8 " ) . Herschel a l s o cited in favour of his "meteorological f a c t , " a result supported by the authority of A r a g o , that rather m o r e rain falls near new than near full moon. A r a g o ' s conclusion that the phenomenon was "incontestable of a connection existing between the number of rainy days and the phases of the moon" was founded on the observations of Schubler, of Bouvard and of Eisenlohr, three s e r i e s which, on the whole, confirmed each other. Schubler a l s o , as A r a g o showed, had found that the quantity of rain which fell was g r e a t e r near new than near full moon. T h e s e r e s u l t s , accepted by A r a g o , have not been noticed by M. Faye when he cites Herschel only, as one of those "men of s c i e n c e who interest t h e m s e l v e s in popular prejudices, take bravely their defence in hand and exert t h e m s e l v e s to furnish not facts but arguments in their f a v o u r . " It s e e m s , indeed, to have been forgotten that H e r s c h e l ' s argument was given to explain what he considered a meteorological fact, M. Faye founds his argument wholly on the conclusions of M. Schiaparelli f r o m a weather r e g i s t e r kept at Vigevano by D r . Serafini during thirty-eight y e a r s ( 1 8 2 7 - 1 8 6 4 ) . The Italian physician entered the weather as c l e a r , cloudy or mixed (misti), or rainy f r o m morning to evening. M. Schiaparelli finds from this r e g i s t e r that the sky was c l e a r e s t in the first quarter of the moon. It has not been r e m a r k e d that if the m o o n ' s heat has any effect in dissipating clouds, as Herschel and others believed, this must be seen best when the moon is near full, that is to say, during the night h o u r s , for which D r . Serafini's r e g i s t e r has nothing to say. In confirmation of the conclusion that the moon does not dissipate the clouds, another result f r o m the Vigevano weather r e g i s t e r is cited, namely, that the greatest number of rainy days happens near full moon. This result is opposed to that derived f r o m the observations of Schubler, Bouvard, and Eisenlohr. The value to be given to observations of the number of rainy days must evidently depend on whether the observations include the rainy nights; and an investigation on this question, to have any considerable weight, should depend rather on the m e a s u r e d rainfall than on the t e r m "rainy day, " for which no distinct definition is given. The great objection to M. F a y e ' s conclusions, as far as the facts go, is to be found in their entire dependence on the Vigevano weather r e g i s t e r (da mane a s e r a ) . No notice is taken of other observations and results showing a lunar action on our atmosphere, such as those already mentioned, which A r a g o c o n sidered incontestable, those of M a d l e r and K r e i l , and the m o r e recent investi-

G2-227

GWS011

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

gations of M r . Park H a r r i s o n and Prof. Balfour Stewart. All of t h e s e , and many others, must be carefully considered before we can accept the conclusion that the moon has no influence on our a t m o s p h e r e . The subject i s , however, too l a r g e to be entered into here at present, and it will be possible to study it better after other conclusions of the learned F r e n c h A c a d e m i c i a n have been examined. T h e r e i s , however, a part of the argument, whatever the results obtained m a y say, which m e r i t s particular consideration; and that i s , that the m o o n ' s heat cannot produce the phenomena in question. M. F a y e shows that if the moon's reflected heat is in the s a m e proportion as the reflected light, such heat cannot produce a change of temperature of a thousandth of a d e g r e e F a h r e n heit. I would r e m a r k that Lord R o s s e ' s c a r e f u l l y - m a d e experiments with the m o s t delicate apparatus have shown for the total heat radiated and reflected, nearly ten t i m e s the proportion given by the reflected light; but, as M. F a y e o b s e r v e s , if the proportion w e r e increased a hundredfold the effect would still be insensible. "How then, " it is added, "can we expect such an action to dissipate the clouds when that of the sun d o e s not always s u c c e e d ? " If, however, we can establish that real lunar actions exist which cannot be explained by the m o o n ' s heat reflected or radiated, the only philosophical c o n clusion will be that the moon must act in s o m e other way, which it will be in the interests of science to seek out.

GWS-011

THE MOON A N D WEATHER

Anonymous; Nature, 4 9 : 2 7 5 , January 18, 1 8 9 4 . The s o l i t a r y o b s e r v a b l e effect of the moon on our atmosphere was believed by Sir J. Herschel to be exhibited in the tendency of clouds to disappear under a Full Moon. He attributed this to the heat radiated f r o m the lunar s u r f a c e . Humboldt speaks of this connection as well-known in South A m e r i c a , and A r a g o indirectly supports the theory by stating that m o r e rain falls about the t i m e of New Moon than at the t i m e of Full Moon; the f o r m e r period being cloudy, and the latter c l o u d l e s s , according to theory. With the idea of obtaining i n f o r m a tion upon the m a t t e r , the Rev. S. J. Johnson has examined the state of the sky at m o o n r i s e and at midnight on the day of Full Moon only for the last fifteen y e a r s . His results w e r e communicated to the Royal A s t r o n o m i c a l Society on January 1 2 , and they confirm the opinion now held by a l m o s t every a s t r o n o m e r , v i z . that the Full M o o n has no effect in breaking up c l o u d s .

GWS-012

[ T H E MOON'S PHASES A N D T H U N D E R S T O R M S ]

Anonymous; Nature, 6 8 : 2 3 2 , July 9, 1 9 0 3 . Pickering (referred to below) had s o m e radical notions for his t i m e , and it is interesting to note his willingness to accept a "third" lunar f o r c e . Evidence of a connection between the o c c u r r e n c e of thunderstorms and the moon's age has been r e f e r r e d to in Nature on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . Prof. W. H. Pickering gives a table in Popular A s t r o n o m y to show the results of investigations of this relationship by various o b s e r v e r s . F r o m this table, which is

G2-228

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

GWS-013

abridged b e l o w , it will be s e e n that, with one e x c e p t i o n , the n u m b e r of thunders t o r m s o c c u r r i n g n e a r the f i r s t two p h a s e s of the m o o n is g r e a t e r than the n u m b e r o c c u r r i n g n e a r the l a s t two. The M o o n ' s P h a s e s and T h u n d e r s t o r m s . New and First Qtr. 54 54 52 73 56 62 57 51 53 54 54 52 49 Full and Last Qtr. 46 46 48 27 44 38 43 49 47 46 46 48 51

Station Kremsmunster Aix la Chapelle Batavia, J a v a Gotha Germany G l a t z County N. A m e r i c a Prague Gottingen Greenwich Madrid Providence. R . I .

Authority Wagner Pohs V a n d . Stok Lendicke Koppen Richter Hazen Gruss
II

Meyer MacDowall Ventatasta Seagrave

Years 86 60 9 9 5 8 1 20 20 24 13 20 6

Prof. P i c k e r i n g a d d s : — " T h e n u m b e r o f o b s e r v a t i o n s h e r e c o l l e c t e d s e e m s t o b e l a r g e enough to enable us to d r a w definite c o n c l u s i o n s , without fear that further r e c o r d s will r i v i s e o r n e u t r a l i s e them. F r o m t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s w e conclude that t h e r e r e a l l y is a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of t h u n d e r s t o r m s during the f i r s t half of the lunar month than during the l a s t half, a l s o that the liability to s t o r m s is g r e a t e s t between new m o o n and the first q u a r t e r , and l e a s t between full moon and l a s t q u a r t e r . A l s o we m a y add that while t h e o r e t i c a l l y v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , the d i f f e r e n c e is not l a r g e enough to be of any p r a c t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e . Thus it would s e e m that, b e s i d e s the t i d e s and c e r t a i n magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e s , t h e r e is a third influence that we must in future attribute to the m o o n . "

GWS-013

T H E M O O N A N D WET D A Y S

MacDowall, A l e x . B . ; Nature, 6 4 : 4 2 4 - 4 2 5 , August 2 9 , 1 9 0 1 . Though it is counted h e r e s y in s o m e q u a r t e r s to a s s o c i a t e w e a t h e r with the moon, the following r e s u l t s of a recent inquiry into the subject, whether held to be p r o o f of l u n a r influence or not, might, I think, be of i n t e r e s t to m a n y . T h e p e r i o d c o n s i d e r e d i s the l a s t 2 4 y e a r s . The data (which a r e for G r e e n wich) a r e t h e s e : (A) D a y s with . 5 in. of rain, or m o r e , in the y e a r . (B) D a y s with .4 in. , or m o r e , in the s u m m e r half (April to S e p t e m b e r ) . (C) D a y s with . 2 i n . , or m o r e , in the s u m m e r half. The method in each c a s e was f i r s t to a s c e r t a i n the distribution in s e v e n d a y s about each of the four l u n a r p h a s e s (i. e. how often each of t h o s e 28 d a y s had rain amounting, e . g . , t o . 5 i n . , o r m o r e ) , then s m o o t h the s e r i e s with a v e r a g e s of t h r e e . Both s m o o t h e d and unsmoothed c u r v e s a r e g i v e n in the c a s e of A; but only the s m o o t h e d c u r v e s for B and C. F r o m the fact that four w e e k s d o e s not quite c o v e r the t i m e of a synodical revolution of the m o o n (which is about 2 9 - 1 / 2 d a y s ) , t h e r e a r e a few wet d a y s

G2-229

GWS-014

SOLAR, LUNAR, AND PLANETARY EFFECTS

i n each c l a s s not c o m i n g u n d e r any o f the above c a t e g o r i e s . These may perhaps, with r e g a r d to the p u r p o s e of the inquiry, be left out of account. The t o t a l s dealt with a r e : A , 1 8 2 d a y s ; B , 1 5 8 ; and C , 4 3 3 . T h e s e c o m e short o f the actual t o t a l s b y A , 7 d a y s ; B , 8 ; C , 2 8 . Turning now to the c u r v e s , the r e c u r r e n c e of four long w a v e s in the s m o o t h ed c u r v e f o r A ( l e s s pronounced in C and B ) , m a y be noted, in p a s s i n g , as a remarkable feature. A l l the s m o o t h e d c u r v e s a g r e e in p r e s e n t i n g a m i n i m u m b e t w e e n the full moon and the l a s t q u a r t e r (the third, s e c o n d , or f i r s t day b e f o r e l a s t q u a r t e r ) . As to the m a x i m u m , it is about new m o o n in A and B, the f i r s t q u a r t e r b e i n g not much b e l o w ; but in C the f i r s t q u a r t e r c o m e s into p r o m i n e n c e . The salient f a c t s of A might be put in this w a y . If all the wet d a y s (182) w e r e u n i f o r m l y distributed throughout the four w e e k s , each g r o u p of t h r e e d a y s would h a v e about 20 c a s e s of that d e g r e e of w e t n e s s (. 5 in. or m o r e ) . Now the l o w e s t g r o u p (about the day b e f o r e l a s t q u a r t e r ) h a s 8, and the highest (say about new moon) h a s 2 9 , o r n e a r l y four t i m e s a s m a n y . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g n u m b e r s f o r B a r e : a v . 1 7 , m i n . 1 0 , m a x . 2 5 ; and for C , av. 4 6 , m i n . 3 6 , max. 58. The c o n t r a s t b e c o m e s l e s s m a r k e d a s w e l o w e r the l i m i t . Individual d a y s h a v e s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s . T h u s the third day b e f o r e the l a s t q u a r t e r h a s n e v e r , in t h e s e 24 y e a r s ( s u m m e r half) had as m u c h as . 4 in. of rain; and l a s t q u a r t e r day h a s had such only o n c e . T h e data of C l a s s A w e r e further dealt with in this way. The odd y e a r s w e r e treated as one g r o u p , and the even y e a r s as another. Both a g r e e d in g i v i n g a m i n i m u m between full m o o n and l a s t q u a r t e r . T h e m a x i m a w e r e about new m o o n in one c a s e , and about f i r s t q u a r t e r in another. In v i e w of the p r e s e n t position of the m o o n - a n d - w e a t h e r q u e s t i o n , I content m y s e l f with m e r e l y giving t h e s e f a c t s and inviting c r i t i c i s m . It might happen that another 24 y e a r s would o b l i t e r a t e those d i s t i n c t i o n s , putting o t h e r s in t h e i r p l a c e . Should the s a m e r e l a t i o n s continue in future, it would a p p e a r that in the few d a y s b e f o r e l a s t q u a r t e r we have the b e s t c h a n c e of e s c a p i n g d a y s which would be c o n s i d e r e d thoroughly wet.

GWS-014

T H E MOON'S PHASES A N D T H U N D E R S T O R M S

B i a n c o , Ottavio Z . ; N a t u r e , 6 8 : 2 9 6 , July 3 0 , 1 9 0 3 . In connection with the note in Nature (July 9, p. 2 3 2 ) , it is i n t e r e s t i n g to c o m p a r e the r e s u l t s of Prof. W. H. P i c k e r i n g with t h o s e obtained by S c h i a p a r elli in 1 8 6 8 , f r o m the d i s c u s s i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e in V i g e v a n o (north Italy) for t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s ( 1 8 2 7 - 1 8 6 4 ) b y D r . Siro Serafini. "Although the f i g u r e s of the second c o l u m n show g r e a t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in their p r o c e e d i n g , it s e e m s n e v e r t h e l e s s undoubted that in the f i r s t half of a lunation t h u n d e r s t o r m s m a y b e , g e n e r a l l y speaking, l e s s frequent than in the s e c o n d . Adding 5 by 5 in o r d e r to s e e b e t t e r the l a w of p r o g r e s s i o n , one r e m a r k s that the m i n i m u m f a l l s t o w a r d s the 5th day of the lunation and the m a x i m u m t o w a r d s the 24th. The ratio of the l e a s t frequency to the g r e a t e s t is that of 1 0 1 : 1 5 3 , or a l m o s t e x a c t l y of 2 : 3 . " ( C l i m a di Vigevano: M i l a n o VallardL, 1 8 6 8 , p . 8 1 . ) The c o n c l u s i o n is thus e x a c t l y the r e v e r s e of what Prof. W. H. P i c k e r i n g has found.

G2-230

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS
GWT-001 ON THE CAUSES OF THE T O R N A D O OR WATERSPOUT

GWT-002

H a r e , R . ; A m e r i c a n Journal o f Science, 1 : 3 2 : 1 5 3 - 1 6 1 , 1 8 3 7 . H a r e ' s paper is of historical interest but contains little that is r e a l l y strange. reviewing the p r o p e r t i e s of tornadoes and waterspouts, he theorizes thus. After

After maturely considering all the facts, I am led to suggest that a tornado is the effect of an electrified current of a i r , superseding the m o r e usual m e a n s of d i s c h a r g e between the earth and clouds in those s p a r k s or flashes which are called lightning. I conceive that the inevitable effect of such a current would be counteract within its sphere the p r e s s u r e of the a t m o s p h e r e , and thus enable this fluid, in obedience to its elasticity, to rush into the r a r e r medium above, (p. 154) Hare elaborates in the following paper.

GWT-002

ON TORNADOS AS AN ELECTRICAL STORM

H a r e , R . ; Journal o f the Franklin Institute, 5 4 : 2 8 - 3 9 , 1 8 5 2 . F r o m this long rambling article, which attempts to show that tornadoes are e l e c t r i cal in nature, only a few eyewitness accounts and key observations have been r e p r o duced below. This rationale of the tornado had been in the hands of the academicians and the l i b r a r y of the A c a d e m y for about three y e a r s , when, agreeably to an article published at P a r i s , on July 17th, 1 8 3 9 , in the Journal d e s Debats, a tremendous tornado o c c u r r e d about the last of the preceding month, at Chatenay, in the vicinity of that m e t r o p o l i s . The l o s e r s applied for indemnity to certain i n s u r e r s , who objected to pay on the plea that the p o l i c i e s w e r e against thunder s t o r m s , not against tornados. This led to an application to the celebrated A r a g o , who r e f e r r e d the c a s e to another savant, Peltier, as above stated. F r o m the following narrative, translated f r o m his report, it will be seen that P e l t i e r adopted my opinion, that a tornado is the effect of an electrical d i s c h a r g e . " E a r l y in the morning a thunder cloud a r o s e to the south of Chatenay, and moved at about ten o'clock o v e r the valley between the hills of Chatenay and those of Ecouen, The cloud having extended itself o v e r the valley, appeared stationary, and about to p a s s away to the west. S o m e thunder was heard, but nothing r e markable was noticed, when about midday, a second thunder s t o r m , coming a l s o f r o m the south, and moving with rapidity, advanced towards the s a m e plain of Chatenay. Having arrived at the extremity of the plain above Fontenay, opposite to the first mentioned thunder cloud, which occupied a higher part of the a t m o s phere, it stopped at a little distance. "Up to this t i m e there had been thunder continually rumbling within the second thunder cloud, when suddenly an under portion of this cloud descending and entering into communication with the earth, the thunder c e a s e d . A p r o digious attractive power was exerted forthwith, all the dust and other light bodies which c o v e r e d the surface of the earth mounted towards the apex of the cone f o r m e d by the cloud. A rumbling thunder was continually heard. Small clouds wheeled about the inverted cone, rising and descending with rapidity. An intelligent spectator, M. Dutour, who was admirably placed for observation, saw the column f o r m e d by the tornado terminated at its l o w e r extremity by a

G2-231

GWT-002

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

cap of fire while this was not s e e n by a shepherd, O l i v e r , who was on the v e r y spot, but enveloped in a cloud of dust. " T o the south-east of the tornado, on the side exposed to it, the t r e e s w e r e shattered, while those on the other side of it, p r e s e r v e d their sap and v e r d u r e . The portion attacked appeared to have experienced a radical change, while the r e s t w e r e not affected. "Finally, it advanced to the park of the c a s t l e of Chatenay, overthrowing e v e r y thing in its path. On entering this park, which is at the s u m m i t of a hill, It desolated one of the m o s t agreeable r e s i d e n c e s in the neighborhood of P a r i s . All the finest t r e e s w e r e uprooted, the youngest only, which w e r e without the tornado, having e s c a p e d . The w a l l s w e r e blown down, the roofs and chimneys of the c a s t l e and f a r m house c a r r i e d away, and b r a n c h e s , t i l e s , and other movable bodies, w e r e thrown to a distance of m o r e than five hundred y a r d s . Descending the hill towards the north, the tornado stopped over a pond, killed the fish, o v e r threw the t r e e s , withering their l e a v e s , and then proceeded slowly along an avenue of willows, the roots of which entered the w a t e r , and being during this part of i t s p r o g r e s s much diminished in s i z e and f o r c e , it proceeded slowly over a plain, and finally, at the distance of m o r e than a thousand y a r d s f r o m Chatenay, divided into two p a r t s , one of which disappeared in the c l o u d s , the other in the g r o u n d . " "In this hasty account I have, with the intention of returning to this portion of the subject, omitted to speak particularly of its effect upon t r e e s . A l l those which c a m e within the influence of the tornado, presented the s a m e aspect; their sap was vaporized, and their igneous fibres had b e c o m e as dry as if kept for forty-eight hours in a furnace heated to ninety d e g r e e s above the boiling point. Evidently there was a great m a s s of vapor instantaneously f o r m e d , which could only make i t s e s c a p e by bursting the tree in every direction; and as wood has l e s s cohesion in a longitudinal than in a t r a n s v e r s e direction, these t r e e s w e r e all, throughout one portion of their trunk, cloven into laths. Many t r e e s attest, by their condition, that they s e r v e d as conductors to continual d i s c h a r g e s of electricity, and that the high temperature produced by this p a s s a g e of the electric fluid, instantly vaporized all the m o i s t u r e which they contained, and that this instantaneous vaporization burst all the t r e e s open in the direction of their length, until the wood, d r i e d up and split, had b e c o m e unable to r e s i s t the force of the wind which accompanied the tornado. In contemplating the r i s e and p r o g r e s s of this phenomenon, we see the conversion of an ordinary thunder j u s t into a tornado; we behold two m a s s e s of clouds opposed to each other, of which the upper one, in consequence of the repulsion of the s i m i l a r e l e c t r i c i t i e s with which both a r e charged, repelling the l o w e r towards the ground, the clouds of the other descending and communicating with the earth by clouds of dust and by the t r e e s . T h i s communication once f o r m e d , the thunder i m m e d i a t e l y c e a s e s , and the d i s c h a r g e s of electricity take place by means of the clouds, which have thus descended, and the t r e e s . T h e s e t r e e s , t r a v e r s e d by the electricity, have their t e m p e r a t u r e , in consequence, r a i s e d to such a point that their sap is vaporized, and their fibres sundered by its effort to e s c a p e . F l a s h e s , and fiery b a l l s , and sparks accompanying the tornado, a s m e l l of sulphur r e m a i n s for s e v e r a l days in the h o u s e s , in which the curtains a r e found d i s c o l o r e d . E v e r y thing p r o v e s that the tornado is nothing e l s e than a conductor formed of the c l o u d s , which s e r v e s as a p a s s a g e for a continual d i s c h a r g e of electricity f r o m those above, and that the difference between an ordinary thunder s t o r m and one a c c o m panied by a tornado, consists in the p r e s e n c e of a conductor of clouds, which . s e e m to maintain the combat between the upper portion of the tornado and the ground beneath. " (pp. 3 0 - 3 2 )

G2-232

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

GWT-004

To conclude, I c l a i m to have laid b e f o r e the scientific world a m e m o i r , in which the tornado is made to b e a r the s a m e relative position to lightning that the carrying d i s c h a r g e does to the e l e c t r i c a l spark, and to have been the first e l e c trician that e v e r pointed out this s i m p l e and true relation between those awful m e t e o r s . I u r g e that the language, proceedings, and reports of the F r e n c h academicians show, that they w e r e entirely unprepared for this new view of the subject. Hence, nearly five y e a r s afterwards, notwithstanding the tornado at Chatenay and P e l t i e r ' s Report, and that I had sent them meanwhile a pamphlet containing a translation of my m e m o i r into their own language, they still r e mained in utter darkness: but that meanwhile, P e l t i e r , with the approbation of A r a g o , the President of the A c a d e m y , had adopted essentially my explanation; attempting, however, to put my theory in the back-ground, by substituting conduction for convection. As I have e l s e w h e r e said, Franklin by aid of a k i t e - s t r i n g demonstrated the identity of lightning with the e l e c t r i c a l spark or diruptive d i s c h a r g e . I hope to have shown, by reasoning and a reference to experimental evidence, that the tornado is identical with the convective discharge of electricity, (p. 35)

GWT-003

ON WATER-SPOUTS

O e r s t e d , Hans C . ; A m e r i c a n Journal o f Science, 1 : 3 7 : 2 5 0 - 2 6 7 , 1 8 3 9 . Sound and S m e l l of W a t e r - S p o u t s . W a t e r - s p o u t s are often accompanied by a violent noise, which, for the m o s t part, has been compared to the sound of many heavily laden waggons moving o v e r a stone pavement, or to the breaking of the waves of an agitated s e a against the coast; but, by s o m e , has been said to r e s e m b l e the r o a r of a great waterfall. B e s i d e s these great n o i s e s , a whistling or piping sound has not unfrequently been heard. W a t e r - s p o u t s often leave behind a sulphureous s m e l l , and there are e x a m p l e s of a d i s a g r e e a b l e s m e l l remaining along the whole tract t r a v e r s e d by them. One individual, however, who b e c a m e involved in a water-spout, perceived no odor. (p. 256) We s e l d o m read accounts of water-spouts without finding also that e l e c t r i c a l phenomena w e r e noticed at the s a m e t i m e . Lightning is almost never wanting; thunder is likewise often connected with them, and it has been r e m a r k e d that the loud noise which follows water-spouts easily prevents feeble peals of thund e r f r o m being heard. Now and then, a m o r e widely dispersed light has been seen; so that people imagined that the c o r n in the fields was on fire, but a f t e r wards to their joyful astonishment found it uninjured. It has been reported of one water-spout that fire b a l l s proceeded from it, of which one was accompanied by a report like that of a musket. Probably, however, in this instance, e l e c t r i c sparks caused a deception. Frequently, great s t o r m s follow the o c c u r r e n c e of w a t e r - s p o u t s ; s o m e t i m e s they precede them. (p. 257) Inherent in the above d i s c u s s i o n a r e s e v e r a l electric discharge phenomena which r e s e m b l e those perceived during earthquakes and other geophysical phenomena.

GWT-004

A R E M A R K A B L E WIND STORM

Anonymous; Scientific A m e r i c a n , 4 8 : 3 3 6 , June 2, 1 8 8 3 .

G2-233

GWT-005

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

A s t o r m , or a s e r i e s of s t o r m s , of high wind, rain, thunder, and lightning swept o v e r portions of northern T e x a s , Nebraska, M i s s o u r i , Illinois, and W i s c o n s i n , May 17 and 1 8 , destroying property and l i v e s , and making waste the country in its path. In s o m e p l a c e s this path was only 3 0 0 y a r d s wide, in others it c o v e r e d a width of one-fourth of a m i l e , and in other p l a c e s extended to a width of two m i l e s and m o r e . No structure of m a n withstood the blast within its well defined l i m i t s ; substantial buildings of b r i c k and lighter buildings of wooden f r a m e w o r k alike succumbed to the gale that accompanied the s t o r m . In s o m e localities the s t o r m a s s u m e d a whirling motion, but in m o s t p l a c e s it appeared to be a straight-away g a l e . Unlike the poputar idea of a tornado, which is that it c o m e s suddenly after an apparent elemental s l u m b e r , this s t o r m appeared to be the culmination of a s e v e r e rain and thunder s t o r m . And yet t h e r e w e r e indications of a peculiar e l e c t r i c a l activity. G l o b e s of fire w e r e observed in the midst of dark clouds; a well defined hole was made in a roof as if cleanly cut; the top story of a b r i c k dwelling was c a r r i e d away, while the remaining portion of the house remained untouched.

GWT-005

[ T O R N A D O H E A T I N G EFFECTS]

Anonymous; Nature, 4 4 : 1 1 2 , June 4, 1 8 9 1 . The paper s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w was read before the French M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Society. M. T e i s s e r e n c de Bort communicated the results of his inquiries r e s p e c t ing a destructive tornado which visited the town of Dreux on August 18 l a s t . At lOh. 5 m . p. m . , P a r i s t i m e , a sharp clap of thunder occurred, followed by heavy rain and hail for about a minute, and five minutes l a t e r the tornado broke o v e r the town with a noise resembling that of an e x p r e s s train, making a furrow in the ground, and in l e s s than a minute t i l e s w e r e flying about, t r e e s uprooted, and s e v e r a l houses destroyed. After a short c o u r s e the effects of the tornado ceased, and it appeared to r i s e to the upper strata of a i r , but descended again with equal violence near Epone about 60 k i l o m e t r e s distant, the rate of t r a n s lation being about 29 m i l e s an hour. The action of the electricity s e e m e d to be of an unusual nature; although much d a m a g e was done by it, no metallic object was fused, but only t r a c e s of fusion could be found in bad conducting bodies. Among other incidents an iron bedstead was dismounted, without t r a c e of fusion. The paper was illustrated by s e v e r a l photographs, showing the damage done in various parts of its path.

GWT-006

THE TORNADO OF MONVILLE

Z u r c h e r , F r e d e r i c ; M e t e o r s , A e r o l i t e s , S t o r m s , and A t m o s p h e r i c Phenomena, C. Scribner & C o . , New Y o r k , 1 8 7 6 . . . . . . . . . However, there was n o tornado a s yet, p r o p e r l y speaking; but, after receding to a distance and traversing s o m e twenty-five m i l e s , the s t o r m suddenly returned into the valley near Malaunay and Monville, passing through a wood, the t r e e s in which it broke off c l o s e to the ground. At that moment, an enormous cone, of sharply defined outline and as black as c o a l - s m o k e , was seen to a s s u m e shape. The top of it was of a reddish-yellow, while it emitted

G2-234

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

GWT-007

f l a s h e s of lightning and a h e a v y r u m b l i n g sound. In a few s e c o n d s , the t o r n a d o hurled itself, with appalling v e l o c i t y and b y z i g z a g m o t i o n , through t h r e e c o n s i d e r a b l e s p i n n i n g - m i l l s in s u c c e s s i o n , c r u s h i n g t h e m and all the w o r k i n g people in t h e m . T h e r o o f s w e r e swept off, and not one stone left on a n o t h e r . The l o o m s w e r e t w i s t e d , the h e a v y p i e c e s s h a t t e r e d , chiefly, t o o , w h e r e t h e r e were ponderous m a s s e s of m e t a l . The t r e e s i n the vicinity w e r e flung down i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n , r i v e n and d r i e d up f o r a length of f r o m s i x to twenty feet and m o r e . W h i l e c l e a r i n g away the r u i n s , i n the attempt t o r e s c u e the unfortunate people b u r i e d beneath t h e m , i t w a s noticed that the b r i c k s w e r e burning hot. Planks w e r e found c o m p l e t e l y c h a r r e d , and cotton b u r n e d and s c o r c h e d , and m a n y p i e c e s o f i r o n and steel w e r e m a g n e t i z e d . S o m e o f the c o r p s e s showed t r a c e s of burning, and o t h e r s had no v i s i b l e c u t s or c o n t u s i o n s , but s e e m e d to h a v e b e e n killed b y lightning. W o r k m e n who w e r e h u r l e d into the s u r r o u n d i n g f i e l d s , all a g r e e d in saying that they had s e e n vivid f l a s h e s and had noticed a strong s m e l l of sulphur. P e r s o n s who happened to be on the adjacent h e i g h t s , a l l e g e d that they s a w the f a c t o r i e s wrapped in f l a m e s and s m o k e as the cloud enveloped i t . T h e breadth of the b e l t l a i d w a s t e by the tornado w a s s e v e n h u n dred and fifteen feet on the l e v e l of M a l a u n a y , l e s s than one and a half m i l e s f r o m the point w h e r e its r a v a g e s began, nine hundred and ninety-five feet in the m i d d l e , and one hundred and ninety-five feet n e a r C l e r e s , w h e r e the cloud d i s appeared. T h e length of the b e l t , as the b i r d f l i e s , w a s about ten m i l e s . "One r e a l l y v e r y r e m a r k a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e i s , that d e b r i s o f all k i n d s , such as s l a t e , g l a s s , planking, and p i e c e s of w o o d - w o r k , m i n g l e d with cotton, fell near D i e p p e , at a d i s t a n c e of f r o m fifteen to t w e n t y - t h r e e m i l e s f r o m the s c e n e of the c a t a s t r o p h e . T h e s e v a r i o u s o b j e c t s w e r e beheld in the air by s e v e r a l p e r s o n s , who m i s t o o k t h e m f o r the l e a v e s o f t r e e s , s o high w e r e they a b o v e the ground. A m o n g the s c a t t e r e d f r a g m e n t s c a r r i e d thus f a r , w a s a scantling m o r e than a y a r d long, five i n c h e s wide, and half an inch thick, (pp. 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ) T h e heating and burning effects a r e of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , e l e c t r i c a l o r other f o r c e s a t w o r k . f o r they m a y indicate

GWT-007

W A T ERSPO U T 28:115, March 1900.

A n o n y m o u s ; Monthly W e a t h e r R e v i e w ,

T h e s c h o o n e r M e t h a N e l s o n , which a r r i v e d F e b r u a r y 19 at San F r a n c i s c o , C a l . , f r o m M a k a w e l i , Kauai, Hawaiian I s l a n d s , encountered a waterspout on Sunday F e b r u a r y 1 8 , when 30 m i l e s northwest of Point R e y e s . Captain R i c e states that: On Sunday m o r n i n g his v e s s e l w a s p u r s u e d by a c o l u m n of w a t e r which emitted f l a s h e s of lightning, and was p r e c e d e d by a thin c u r l i n g s e a . The w e a t h e r for the p r e c e d i n g t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s had b e e n a s u c c e s s i o n of rain s q u a l l s , but the s e a w a s m o d e r a t e and the w e a t h e r not unusual for this t i m e of the y e a r . W h e n the spout f i r s t appeared i t w a s s o m e d i s t a n c e a s t e r n , a c c o r d i n g t o an account g i v e n by the m a t e , and apparently b e a r i n g d i r e c t l y down upon the schooner. T h e r e w a s j u s t t i m e t o m a k e e v e r y t h i n g fast when the g r e a t s w i r l ing m a s s of w a t e r w a s c l o s e a s t e r n and t o w e r i n g o v e r the little v e s s e l . Then, by s o m e s t r a n g e good fortune, it suddenly changed its c o u r s e and swept b y , only catching the s p a n k e r b o o m and c a r r y i n g it away. The s c h o o n e r was thrown on h e r b e a m ends by the d i s t u r b a n c e of the w a t e r but soon righted h e r self and continued on h e r c o u r s e .

G2-235

GWT-008
GWT-008

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

FREAKS OF THE TORNADO

W a l s h , G e o r g e E . ; Harper's Weekly, 5 7 : 2 5 , May 17, 1 9 1 3 . The W e a t h e r Bureau at Washington has been collecting statistics and facts about cyclones and tornadoes for many y e a r s , and the experts have succeeded in securing considerable valuable data about the big winds; but, after all, the freaks of the s t o r m a r e the things that give it special interest, and if all these were properly c l a s s i f i e d s o m e r e m a r k a b l e reading would be furnished. Every visitation of a tornado adds to this valuable storehouse of queer f r e a k s . It is not uncommon for the whirling wind to cut a house in half, demolishing one side and leaving the other undisturbed. This happened in an Iowa tornado, and the part that was left intact was so little disturbed that the c l o c k on the m a n tel continued ticking as if nothing had happened. In the T e x a s town of Sherman, which was visited by a tornado in 1 8 9 6 , two houses w e r e picked up and c a r r i e d into the a i r , where they exploded. Every one in them was s e v e r e l y injured except a baby, which did not receive so much as a scratch. A man milking a cow in a shed saw the cow and shed c a r r i e d up in the air, but he was not so much as touched. Not a drop of the milk in his pail was spilled or disturbed. In the St. Louis tornado of the s a m e y e a r a carpet in the p a r l o r of one house was pulled up by the twister and c a r r i e d away a few hundred y a r d s without so much as a rent being torn in it. The tacks had been pulled up as neatly as if extracted by a careful c a r p e t - l a y e r . In another house the bed-clothing and m a t t r e s s w e r e lifted from the bed, and the bedstead was left intact. A resident was c a r r i e d through the roof of another house with the bed and dropped a quarter of a m i l e away without injury. The m a t t r e s s saved him in the fall, and he picked h i m s e l f up in a vacant lot to d r e s s without knowing exactly what had happened to h i m . The "twisters" have been known to pull nails out of shingles and then go on to pick up a chimney bodily and c a r r y it through the a i r . In Kansas one picked up a buggy and landed it in the branches of a t r e e . At another t i m e it ripped the h a r n e s s completely off a h o r s e and left h o r s e , buggy, and man uninjured. In Louisville in 1 8 9 0 , a tornado c a r r i e d the roof off a house and pulled a child from the mother's a r m s and c a r r i e d it safely to another house six blocks away. But these a r e m e r e l y among the h a r m l e s s freaks of the big wind. T h e r e are others m o r e heartrendering. It has d i s m e m b e r e d human beings, tearing a r m s and l e g s f r o m the body, and twisted the hair of women into r o p e s . In Kansas it drove a piece of scantling six inches square through the body of a hog. At another t i m e it blew in the door of a f a r m e r ' s house and c a r r i e d the owner away on the door, to drop him in the branches of a t r e e . The tornado did not hurt him, but he broke his neck falling f r o m the tree to the ground. No one has succeeded in measuring the full force of a tornado, but it is known to travel at the rate of two hundred m i l e s and m o r e an hour. Tornadoes a r e exciting m o r e general attention than f o r m e r l y because of the greater number of towns and villages located in the tornado belt. Each s u c c e s sive one is m o r e dangerous than its p r e d e c e s s o r s b e c a u s e it is apt to find m o r e human material to destroy. F o r m e r l y it might travel half the length of a c o n tinent without finding anything in its path to destroy except g r a s s , t r e e s , and occasionally the c r o p s of a solitary f a r m e r . T o - d a y , if it followed the s a m e route, it might p a s s over a dozen villages and towns. The only thing that can possibly break the force of a tornado is a range of mountains. It m a y c r e a t e wild havoc among the t r e e s and boulders of a mountain, but it cannot c a r r y the mountain itself away. It will uproot giant forest t r e e s , suck the water f r o m wells and s t r e a m s , twist and demolish iron b r i d g e s ,

G2-236

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

GWT-010

and c a r r y up h o u s e s , but the mountains a r e proof against the mighty force of the wind. Until we know how to control the tornado or find s o m e m e a n s of baffling it, its menacing danger m u s t always be a s o u r c e of considerable une a s i n e s s in the great plain sections of the country. But, like earthquakes, the tornado and cyclone do not c o m e every y e a r , and s o m e t i m e s they defer their visit for a decade or s o , for which we m a y be thankful.

GWT-009

A N E L E C T R O M A G N E T I C B A S I S FOR T H E I N I T I A T I O N O F A T O R N A D O

Rathbun, E . R . ; Journal o f M e t e o r o l o g y , 1 7 : 3 7 1 - 3 7 3 , June 1 9 6 0 . A m a j o r point brought out in this long theoretical treatment is that the earth's m a g netic field can add a spiral motion to charged p a r t i c l e s , thus setting up the c h a r a c teristic "twister" action of the tornado.

GWT-010

THE TORNADO

Anonymous; Nature, 5 4 : 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 , June 4 , 1 8 9 6 . Following s o m e generalities about tornadoes, we c o m e to the unusual phenomena accompanying the destructive St. Louis tornado. The weather at St. Louis nearly the whole of Wednesday, May 2 7 , was unusually w a r m and o p p r e s s i v e . T h e r e was not a breath of wind, and the people suffered g r e a t l y from the heat. About four o'clock in the afternoon the western horizon b e c a m e banked with clouds piled one on top of the other, with curling edges tinged with yellow. The sight was beautiful, but somewhat terrifying. Then a light wind sprang up, followed by sudden and ominous d a r k ness. The g l o o m deepened, and when the s t o r m actually burst upon the city pitch darkness p r e v a i l e d . T h e s e strange atmospheric disturbances had created anxiety among the people abroad in the s t r e e t s , but not a l a r m . T h e r e s e e m e d to be three separate and distinct s t o r m s . They c a m e f r o m the north-west, f r o m the west, and f r o m the south-west, but when these r e a c h ed the r i v e r they had b e c o m e one. B e f o r e the great m a s s of menacing clouds which w e r e hanging over the villages of Clayton, Fernridge, Eden, and Central gave forth their contents funnel-shaped formations shot out of t h e m . Some of these funnels s e e m e d to be projected into the air; others leaped to the earth, twisting and turning like s o m e wounded m o n s t e r s . Lightning played about t h e m . There w a s in fact, a m a r v e l l o u s e l e c t r i c a l display. Then c a m e the stupendous outburst. F r o m the great black clouds c a m e a strange, weird, crackling sound, at t i m e s stronger than the incessant peals of thunder which had f r o m the first been a terrifying feature of the s t o r m . The funnels enveloped the western side of the city, and within thirty minutes of their first appearance on the horizon they w e r e dealing out destruction.

G2-237

GWT-011
GWT-011

TORNADOES AND WATERSPOUTS

AN INCIPIENT T O R N A D O IN IOWA

Anonymous; Monthly W e a t h e r Review. 3 1 : 2 8 2 - 2 8 3 , June 1 9 0 3 . M r . C h a r l e s A. Robertson, of Onawa, Monona County, Iowa, staff c o r r e s pondent of the Sioux City Tribune, furnishes an account of a whirlwind in the eastern part of Monona County, between 5 : 1 5 and 5:30 p. m. Friday, June 2 6 , 1 9 0 3 . He s a y s : A great m a s s of black clouds was gathering, and on the western edge of a rift in the clouds w e r e plainly to be seen two strange o b j e c t s . In the north and west the sky was c l e a r and the sun w a s shining, while in the southeast, for fully half an h o u r , the queer long-tailed s p e c t e r s wavered in the a i r , m o v ing in a general way southerly. Suddenly the long tail of the l a r g e r whirl s e e m e d to part f r o m the upper funnel-shaped m a s s and descend to the ground like a long thin waterspout while a faint light appeared between the upper and lower portions. Telephone m e s s a g e s afterwards r e c e i v e d from points to the southeast, such as Moorhead, distant 15 m i l e s , and f r o m Ute, which is 20 m i l e s east of Onowa, and f r o m Blencoe, 8 m i l e s south, state that the w a t e r spouts, whirlwinds, or tornadoes w e r e seen by all, causing much u n e a s i n e s s , but no damage was experienced, and also that for a long t i m e , one of the two threatening clouds remained stationary o v e r a lake about 3 m i l e s southeast of Turin, which is i t s e l f 7 m i l e s east of Onawa, and that it drew a supply of water up f r o m the lake, sucking up a l s o , fish, f r o g s , w o r m s , and vegetable matter, all of which w e r e afterwards dropped back in that locality.

GWT-012

THE ROLE OF ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED WITH TORNADOES

Wilkins, E . M . ; Journal o f Geophysical R e s e a r c h , 6 9 : 2 4 3 5 - 2 4 4 7 , June 1 5 , 1 9 6 4 . A b s t r a c t . Laboratory model vortex e x p e r i m e n t s and theoretical investigations w e r e conducted to determine whether the unusual electrical phenomena which s o m e t i m e s accompany a tornado might play an important r o l e in the life cycle of the tornado. The electrodynamic accelerations of ions appear u n i m portant in either the formative or mature s t a g e s . Heat r e l e a s e d by lightning m a y s e r v e to initiate updrafts, but the effectiveness in tornado formation is difficult to evaluate in the p r e s e n c e of the latent heat available in a convectively unstable a t m o s p h e r e . Laboratory experiments indicate that a m o r e or l e s s continuous e l e c t r i c a l discharge in the center of a vigorous aerodynamic vortex will inhibit rather than augment the vortex circulation.

G2-238

WHIRLWINDS AND DUST DEVILS
GWW-005 SINGULAR PHENOMENON

GWW-006

Anonymous; London T i m e s , July 5, 1 8 4 2 . Wednesday forenoon [June 29] a phenomenon of m o s t r a r e and extraordinary character was o b s e r v e d in the immediate neighborhood of Cupar. About half past 12 o'clock, whilst the sky w a s c l e a r , and the a i r , as it had been throughout the morning, perfectly c a l m , a girl employed in tramping clothes in a tub in the piece of ground above the town called the c o m m o n , heard a loud and sharp report overhead, succeeded by a gust of wind of m o s t extraordinary b e h e m e n c e , and only of a few m o m e n t s duration. On looking round, she o b served the whole of the clothes, sheets, &c. lying within a line of certain breadth, stretching a c r o s s the green, s e v e r a l hundred y a r d s distant; another portion of the a r t i c l e s , however, consisting of a quantity of curtains, and a number of s m a l l e r a r t i c l e s , w e r e c a r r i e d upwards to an i m m e n s e height, so as to be a l m o s t l o s t to the e y e , and gradually disappeared altogether f r o m sight in a south-eastern direction and have not yet been heard of. At the m o ment of the report which preceeded the wind, the cattle in the neighboring meadow w e r e o b s e r v e d running about in an affrighted state, and for s o m e t i m e afterwards they continued cowering together in evident t e r r o r . The violence of the wind was such that a woman, who at the t i m e was holding a blanket, found h e r s e l f unable to retain it in fear of being c a r r i e d along with it! It is r e m a r k able that, while even the heaviest a r t i c l e s w e r e being stripped off a belt, as it w e r e , running a c r o s s the green, and while the loops of several sheets which w e r e pinned down and snapped, light a r t i c l e s lying l o o s e on both s i d e s of the holt w e r e never moved from their position. Fife Herald.

This is the c o m p l e t e quotation f r o m the T i m e s as r e f e r r e d to in G W W - 0 0 3 . See this entry for a c o m m e n t about the detonation. The action of the whirlwind, if that is what it w a s , r e v e a l s the prankish character frequently noticed.

GWW-006

NOTES ON L O C A L W H I R L W I N D S IN NEW B R U N S W I C K

Kain, Samuel W . ; Monthly Weather Review, 2 8 : 4 8 8 - 4 8 9 , N o v e m b e r 1 9 0 0 . The following incident occurred at 4 P. M . , May 2 4 , 1 9 0 0 , and was reported by Keith A . B a r b e r . While M r . B a r b e r was standing by the side of a pool of water about six m i l e s f r o m Clarendon Station, Charlotte County, he heard in the distance a shrieking whistling sound; this continued to i n c r e a s e in intensity, and turning to seek a c a u s e he noticed a whirlwind advancing f r o m the h i l l s , its c o u r s e indicated by the swaying shrubs and a noise somewhat like that produced by a e x p r e s s train, but not so loud. It struck the pool about three feet f r o m the shore and r a i s e d the water in a foaming m a s s of froth and spume to a height of 5 feet, and c r o s s i n g threw the water upon the farther s h o r e . Its path a c r o s s the pool was about *15 feet wide. M r . B a r b e r was standing about one hundred feet f r o m the path of the whirlwind. The sky was c l e a r all day. In the morning there w e r e a few light c l o u d s , but after 2 p . m . the sky was cloudless.

G2-239

GWW-007

WHIRLWINDS AND DUST DEVILS

The wind w a s northeast till noon, then shifted to southwest and south. It was light all day. The b a r o m e t e r was steady; at 8 a. m . , 3 0 . 0 8 1 ; at 2 p. m . , 3 0 . 1 2 9 ; a t 8 p . m . , 3 0 . 1 8 5 . I n St. John the highest t e m p e r a t u r e w a s 6 5 ° F . , but at Clarendon the temperature was probably about 5° higher, the preceding days had been cold, and the change in t e m p e r a t u r e was considerable and rapid. A v e r y s i m i l a r phenomenon was observed on W e d n e s d a y , June 1 4 , at G r a s s y Lake, Kings County. D r . C o l t e r , post office inspector, and M r . Richard M a g e e , of the railway mail s e r v i c e , w e r e fishing from a moored boat on the lake. It was a fine, c l e a r day, and a good b r e e z e was blowing when about 2 o'clock in the afternoon they heard a roaring in the woods, and with a rushing noise a few hundred feet f r o m them the water of the lake commingled with r e e d s , l i l l i e s , and mud was torn up and hurled into the a i r , f o r m i n g a waterspout apparently about 30 feet in d i a m e t e r . It lasted about two minutes, and for about that t i m e the air s e e m e d s o m e what darkened. The violence of the wind d r e w their boat from its m o o r i n g s in among the r e e d s , and it was fortunate that they w e r e far enough f r o m the path of the whirlwind to e s c a p e any m o r e serious r e s u l t s .

GWW-007

METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENON

Galton, Francis; Nature, 4 4 : 2 9 4 , July 3 0 , 1 8 9 1 . I have r e c e i v e d in a letter f r o m a friend residing in Boraston, Shropshire, the following accounc of a remarkably interesting meteorological phenomenon, which is well worth putting on r e c o r d : " W e had a curious sight f r o m this house y e s t e r d a y [July 2 6 ] . It was a dead c a l m , but in a field just below the garden, with only one hedge between us and it, the hay was whirled up high into the sky, a column connecting above and below, and in the c o u r s e of the evening we found great patches of hay raining down all o v e r the surrounding meadows and our garden. It kept falling quite four hours after the affair. T h e r e was not a breath of a i r stirring as far as we could s e e , except in that one spot. " Again we have v e r y narrow localization of whirlwind action; also a prankish element. Other hay falls a r e presented in G F L .

GWW-008

[LEVITATED HAYSTACK]

R u s s e l l , E r i c F. ; The Fortean Society Magazine, 1:8, January 1940. Men loading hay at Eastwood, Tarrington, Hereford, were astonished to s e e one haystack r i s e "slowly" in the air to a height of 20 feet or m o r e . "It remained in the air steady and intact for s e v e r a l seconds then d i s p e r s e d slowly (sic) o v e r the field. " London M i r r o r , 8 - 1 7 - 3 9 .

G2-240

SUBJECT INDEX

All indexes in this volume apply to both v o l u m e s Gl and G 2 . Subsequent v o l u m e s in the S T R A N G E P H E N O M E N A s e r i e s will be self-contained with cumulative indexes available separately to those who wish them. P r o p e r names a r e so profuse in the sourcebooks that a thorough index of them would overwhelm the book. T h e r e f o r e , only the m o s t important proper n a m e s , such as "Barisal Guns" and "Hornet Light", a r e indexed.

Aerolite (see Meteorite) A i r , luminous, G Q E - 0 0 2 , G Q E - 0 1 6 (See a l s o Fog, luminous) Andes Glow (see Mountain-top glows) Angel hair, all G F A correlated with a u r o r a s , G F A - 0 0 4 correlated with ball lightning, G L B 057 correlated with earthquakes, G Q E 017, GQE-018 Antimatter, as cause of ball lightning, GLB-003 A u r o r a - l i k e phenomena, all G L A , G L D 045, GLM-026 c o r r e l a t e d with angel hair, G F A - 0 0 4 correlated with earthquakes, G L A 002, GLD-007, GLD-050, GQE005, GQE-010, GQE-020correlated with magnetic s t o r m s , GLA-007 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G L A - 0 0 5 , GQE-020 correlated with moon, G M S - 0 1 0 correlated with mountain-top glows, GLD-002 correlated with thunderstorms, G L A 020 correlated with tornadoes, G L D - 0 1 2 (See a l s o Light b e a m s , Mountaintop glows) Auroral sounds, G S H - 0 0 1 , G S H - 0 0 4 , G S H 006, G S H - 0 1 1 , G S H - 0 1 2 , G S H - 0 1 3 , G S H - 0 1 4 , G S H - 0 1 5 , GSH-016 correlated with cloud formation, GSH-013

c o r r e l a t e d with fog and sulfurous odor, G S H - 0 1 3 c o r r e l a t e d with low altitude a u r o r a s , GSH-013 A u r o r a s , at shipmast level, G S H - 0 1 3 like fog, G S H - 0 1 3 low auroras as sound s o u r c e s , G S H 0 0 6 , GSH-013 low auroras as electrical dischanges, GLA-020 correlated with fog, sound, and s u l furous o d o r s , G S H - 0 1 3 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G L A 002, GLA-010, GQE-012 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G L A - 0 0 5 , GLA-012, GQE-020 (See a l s o A u r o r a - l i k e phenomena, correlations) Atmospheric electricity, c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G Q S - 0 0 6 correlated with s o l a r activity, G M S 009

Ball lightning, all G L B , G L D - 0 3 3 , G L D 034, GLD-035, GLD-036, GLD-037, GLD-038, GLM-005, GLM-014, GLM-017, GLM-018, GLM-028, GLM-034, GLM-035, GLM-036, GLN-002, GLN-010, GLN-013, GLN026, G F F - 0 0 1 , G W T - 0 0 4 correlated with earthquakes, G L B 004, GLB-012, G L B - 0 7 9 , G Q E 010, GQE-016, GQE-022

G2-241

SUBJECT INDEX
c o r r e l a t e d with o d o r s , G L B - 0 0 6 , GLB-060, GLB-061, GLB-06^ sulfurous o d o r s , G L B - 0 0 4 , G L B 010, GLB-011, GLB-014, G L B 017, G L B - 0 1 9 , G L B - 0 2 1 , G L B 056, G L B - 0 8 8 , G L B - 0 9 4 , G W T 002 c o r r e l a t e d with t h u n d e r s t o r m s , a l m o s t all G L B c o r r e l a t e d with t o r n a d o e s , G L B - 0 0 8 , GLB-016, GWT-002 c o r r e l a t e d with w a t e r s p o u t s , G W T 003 B a r i s a l Guns, G S D - 0 0 1 , G S D - 0 0 3 , G S D 004, GSD-011, GSD-034, GSD-048, GSD-050 B a r o m e t r i c c h a n g e s , c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G Q S - 0 0 1 Bermuda Triangle, G E T - 0 0 1 , G L B - 0 0 1 B i r d fall, G F F - 0 0 6 B i s h o p ' s Ring, G E B - 0 1 2 , G E B - 0 1 3 B l a c k Mountain n o i s e s , G S D - 0 4 7 B l o o d rain (see R a i n , blood) B r i m s t o n e fall, G F F - 0 0 6 Brocken Spectre, G E B - 0 0 1 , G E B - 0 0 3 , GEB-005, GEB-006, GEB-007, GEB008, G E B - 0 1 0 , G E B - 0 1 1 , G E M - 0 0 5 Brontophonic sounds, G S H - 0 1 1 Bruckner weather cycle, G W S - 0 0 1 Burning e f f e c t s , o f b a l l lightning, G L B 018, G L B - 0 7 2 , GQE-007 o f earthquakes, u Q E - 0 0 7 , G Q E - 0 1 2 , GQE-026 o f "meteor", G L M - 0 2 0 o f tornadoes, G L L - 0 1 3 , G W T - 0 0 2 , GWT-005, GWT-006 pulsating with light, G L A - 0 0 4 , G L . A 022, GLA-024 d i s c h a r g e s f i r e b a l l s o r b a l l lightning, GLB-041, GLM-028 glowing cloud during tornado, G L D 012 l u m i n o u s cloud e n v e l o p e s p e o p l e , GLD-025 rotating cloud, G W C - 0 0 7 with p e c u l i a r tail, G W C - 0 0 3 noisy clouds, G W C - 0 0 4 , G W C - 0 0 5 , GWC-006 possibly created by electrical d i s charge, G W C - 0 0 1 , G W C - 0 0 2 cloud and continuous e l e c t r i c a l d i s charge, G W C - 0 0 6 c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a s , G L A - 0 0 7 c o r r e l a t e d with e a r t h q u a k e s , G L M 024, GQE-012, GQE-015, G Q E 016, GQE-023 c o r r e l a t e d with insect fall, G W C - 0 0 6 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G L A - 0 0 4 c o r r e l a t e d with m i r a g e s , G E M - 0 0 1 C l o u d s , noctilucent, c o r r e l a t e d with aurora, G L A - 0 1 0 c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a l sounds, G S H 013 C o r p o s a n t s (see St. E l m o ' s F i r e ) C o r p s e lights, G L N - 0 0 2 , G L N - 0 2 5 Crockerland, a mirage, G E B - 0 0 2 C y c l e s , all X X S , G W S - 0 0 1

C e l t s , a s thunderbolts, G F T - 0 0 1 Chandler W o b b l e , c o r r e l a t e d with e a r t h quakes, G Q E - 0 3 4 , G Q E - 0 3 5 , GQS-008 c o r r e l a t e d with s o l a r activity, G Q S 004, GQS-005 Chianti Light, G L N - 0 2 7 C i n d e r fall, G F C - 0 0 6 C l o u d b u r s t s ( s e e Rain, point) C l o u d s , bright cloud and light b e a m , G L A 004, G L A - 0 2 3 s p i n d l e - l i k e cloud m o v e s a c r o s s s k y , GLA-007, GLA-011, GLA-012 with long, m o v i n g light r a y , G L A - 0 0 8

D a r k d a y s , all G W D , G L B - 0 8 5 c o r r e l a t e d with b l a c k rain, G W D - 0 0 8 c o r r e l a t e d with f o r e s t f i r e s , G W D 007, GWD-008 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G Q E 002, GQE-004, GQE-025 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G W D - 0 0 1 c o r r e l a t e d with s o l a r activity, G W D 002 Dust f a l l s , G F C - 0 0 3 , G F C - 0 0 9 , G F C - 0 1 0 c o r r e l a t e d with "blood r a i n s " , G F C 009, G F L - 0 0 3 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G F C - 0 1 0 , GFL-003

E a r t h c u r r e n t s , c o r r e l a t e d with e a r t h quakes, G Q E - 0 1 0 , G Q E - 0 2 0 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G M M - 0 0 2

G2-242

SUBJECT INDEX
Earthquake lights, G L A - 0 0 2 , G L B - 0 1 2 , GLB-079, GLD-002, GLD-007, GLD008, G L D - 0 1 0 , G L D - 0 1 1 , G L D - 0 2 0 , GLD-031, GLD-032, GLD-049, GLM019, G Q E - 0 0 2 , G Q E - 0 0 5 , GQE-008, GQE-009, GQE-010, GQE-011, GQE012, GQE-015, GQE-016, GQE-020 Earthquake periodicity, G Q S - 0 0 6 , G Q S 007, GQS-008 Earthquake sounds, G L M - 0 2 4 , G Q E - 0 0 3 , GQE-004, GQE-010, GQE-012, GQE013, G Q E - 0 1 4 , G Q E - 0 1 5 , GSD-038, GSD-039, GSD-040, GSD-041, GSD042, GSD-043 Earthquake weather, G Q E - 0 1 0 , G Q E - 0 2 0 , GQE-024, GVS-001, GVS-002 Earthquakes, all G Q E and GQS correlated with appearance of h a i r s on ground, G Q E - 0 1 7 , G Q E - 0 1 8 correlated with animal agitation, GQE-005, GQE-010 c o r r e l a t e d with atmospheric e l e c t r i city, G Q S - 0 0 6 c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a s , G L A - 0 1 0 , GLD-010, GLD-050, GQE-005, GQE-010, GQE-012, GQE-020, G Q E - 0 2 9 (See also Earthquake lights) correlated with hall lightning, G L B 004, GLB-012, GLB-079, G Q E 005, GQE-006, GQE-007, GQE010, GQE-022 c o r r e l a t e d with b a r o m e t r i c changes, GQS-001 correlated with burning effects, G Q E 007, GQE-010, GQE-012, G Q E 024, GQE-026 correlated with Chandler W o b b l e , GQE-031, GQE-034, GQE-035, GQS-008 correlated with clouds, G L M - 0 2 4 , GQE-012, GQE-015, GQE-016, GQE-023 correlated with d a r k n e s s , G Q E - 0 0 2 , GQE-004, GQE-006, GQE-025 correlated with dust falls, G Q E - 0 0 4 correlated with earth currents, G Q E 010, GQE-020, GQE-023 c o r r e l a t e d with fish fall, G F F - 0 0 6 c o r r e l a t e d with fog, G Q E - 0 0 2 , G Q E 003, GQE-004, GQE-005, G Q E 008, GQE-010, GQE-015 correlated with gravity waves, G Q S 011 correlated with ignis fatuus, G L D 010, GQE-020 c o r r e l a t e d with ionospneric d i s t u r bances, G Q E - 0 2 7 c o r r e l a t e d with lightning, G L B - 0 7 9 , GLM-001, GQE-008, GQE-009, GQE-015, GQE-016, GQE-020, GQE-022 c o r r e l a t e d with magnetic disturbances, GQE-002, GQE-005, GQE-010, GQE-012, GQE-020 c o r r e l a t e d with m e t e o r s , G L B - 0 1 2 , GLM-009, GLM-019, GLM-024, GLM-030, GQE-003, GQE-005, GQE-006, GQE-007, GQE-010, GQE-015, GQE-020 c o r r e l a t e d with moon, G Q E - 0 1 0 , GQE-031, GQS-001, GQS-002, GQS-003, GQS-010, G V S - 0 0 1 , GVS-002 correlated with sulfurous odor, G Q E 002, GQE-004 correlated with physiological effects, GQE-004, GQE-010, GQE-020, GQE-028, GQE-029, GQE-030 correlated with planets, G Q S - 0 0 9 correlated with radio propagation, GQS-009 correlated with radioactivity, G L B 096 correlated with rocket f a i l u r e s , G Q S 009 correlated with s o l a r activity, G Q E 001, GWS-001 c o r r e l a t e d with s o l a r rotation, G L A 001 correlated with temperature changes, GQE-010 correlated with thunderstorms, G Q E 002, GQE-005, GQE-010, GQE012, GQE-019, GQE-020, G Q E 021 correlated with time of y e a r , G Q E 010 correlated with weather, G Q E - 0 1 0 correlated with winds, G Q E - 0 0 4 , GQE-007, GQE-020, GLB-079 E c h o e s , delayed, G E T - 0 0 2 Electric discharge phenomena, all G L D , GLA-002, GLB-005, GLB-021, GLB044, GLB-069, G L L - 0 0 4 , G L L - 0 1 3 , GLL-016, GLL-017, GLL-021, GLL027, G L L - 0 2 8 , G L M - 0 1 0 , G L N - 0 1 3 , GQE-002, GQE-022, GSH-011, GSH015, GSH-016, G W C - 0 0 1 , G W C - 0 0 2 , G W T - 0 0 3 , (See also Ball lightning,

G2-243

SUBJECT INDEX
Lightning. Mountain-top g l o w s , St. E l m o ' s fire) Electrical f o r c e s , cause of earthquakes, GVS-001, GVS-002 Electric power blackouts, G L B - 0 2 0 , GLM-003 Electromagnetic waves, transmission phenomena, all G E T Electrostatic f o r c e s , cause of earthquakes, G Q S - 0 0 6 Geographical correlations, GLD-016, GSD-014 lightning,

G h o s t l i g h t s ( s e e Nocturnal lights) Goof lights ( s e e Nocturnal lights) G o s s a m e r f a l l s , all G F A Gouffre, G S D - 0 0 8 , G S D - 0 1 0 Grain falls, G F F - 0 0 6 , G F L - 0 1 4 , G F L 015, G F L - 0 1 6 Gravity waves, G Q S - 0 1 1 c o r r e l a t e d with magnetic s t o r m s , GMS-011 G r e e n flash, G E B - 0 0 2 , G E B - 0 1 4

F a l l i n g m a t e r i a l , all G F , G L B - 0 0 4 , GLL-007, GLL-014 Faro of Maracaibo, G L L - 0 0 3 Fata M o r g a n a , all G E M F a t i m a , M i r a c l e at, G L B - 0 8 3 F i r e b a l l s ( s e e M e t e o r - l i k e phenomena, Meteors) Fire masses, G L A - 0 0 7 , G L A - 0 1 8 o n horizon, G L A - 0 0 3 , G L A - 0 2 6 , GLN-001 c o r r e l a t e d with d a r k d a y s , G W D 005, GWD-007 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G L A 002 c o r r e l a t e d with magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e s , GLA-018 (See a l s o B a l l lightning) Fish f a l l s , G F F - 0 0 1 , G F F - C 0 1 , G F F 003, G F F - 0 0 6 , G F F - 0 0 7 , G F F - 0 0 8 , GFF-009, GFF-010, GFF-011, GFF012, G F L - 0 1 4 , G L M - 0 0 5 , GQS001, G W T - 0 0 1 F i s h sounds, G S D - 0 1 0 , G S D - 0 4 8 , G S M 001, GSM-002, GSM-007 Fog, luminous, G L W - 0 0 1 , G L W - 0 0 2 , GLW-004, GLW-006 F o g s , c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a s , G S H - 0 1 3 c o r r e l a t e d with ball lightning, G L B 032, G L B - 0 7 4 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G Q E 002, G Q E - 0 0 3 , GQE-004, G Q E 005, GQE-008, GQE-010, G Q E 012, G Q E - 0 1 5 , GQE-016 F o o fighters, G L D - 0 0 4 Frog falls, G F F - 0 0 3 , G F F - 0 0 5 , G F F 006, G W T - 0 1 1

Hailstones, explosive, G W P - 0 2 0 with i n c l u s i o n s , G W P - 0 1 8 large, G W P - 0 0 7 , G W P - 0 1 4 salty, G F C - 0 0 1 strangely shaped, G L D - 0 1 4 , G W D 014, G W P - 0 0 1 , G W P - 0 0 3 , G W P 013, G W P - 0 1 6 , G W P - 0 1 7 , G W P 0 1 9 , G W P - 0 2 1 {see Ice falls) Haloes, glories, etc., see GEB around shadows o f h e a d s , G E B - 0 0 8 , GEB-009, GEB-011 Hay falls, G F F - 0 0 6 , G F L - 0 1 2 , G F L - 0 1 3 , GWW-007 Hornet Light, 022 GLN-011, GLN-014, GLN-

I c e f a l l s , chunk with turtle inside, G F F 0 0 6 ( s e e Hailstones) c o r r e l a t e d with fish fall, G F F - 0 0 6 Ignis fatuus, G L N - 0 0 2 , G L N - 0 1 5 , G L N 024, G L N - 0 2 5 , GLN-026, G L N - 0 2 7 , GLN-029 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G L D 010, GQE-020 Infrasonic sound, G S G - 0 0 1 , G S G - 0 0 4 Insect falls, G F F - 0 0 4 , G F F - 0 0 6 , G F G 006, G W C - 0 0 6 I o n o s p h e r e , disturbed by earthquake, GQE-027

Gelatinous m e t e o r s (gelatin f a l l s ) , GFG, G F L - 0 0 3 , G W - 0 0 3

all

Jelly falls, G F F - 0 0 6 (See a l s o Gelatinous m e t e o r s )

G2-244

SUBJECT INDEX
Krakatoa, GW-001 079, G L L - 0 0 2 , GQE-005, G Q E 009, GQE-015, GQE-016, G Q E 0 2 0 , G Q E - 0 2 1 (See a l s o E a r t h quake lights) c o r r e l a t e d with tornadoes, G L D - 0 1 5 , GLD-053, GLD-059, GLL-012, GLL-013 c o r r e l a t e d with waterspouts, G W T 007 (See a l s o Thunderbolts) L o o m i n g (see M i r a g e s ) Luminous ground, s e a , o b j e c t s , e t c . , GLD-010, GLD-013, GLD-014, GLD015, GLD-018, GLD-024, GLD-027, G W D - 0 0 2 , all G L W (See also Fog, luminous) Lyonesse, G E M - 0 0 6

Lake guns, G S D - 0 2 8 (See also Lough Neagh Waterguns, Seneca Guns) Lava fall, G F C - 0 0 6 Leaf falls, G F L - 0 1 1 Light b e a m s , c o l u m n s , searchlight-like beams, etc., GEB-004, G L A - 0 0 6 , GLA-007, GLA-008, GLA-011, Gl A012, G L A - 0 1 4 , G L A - 0 1 5 , G L A - 0 1 6 , GLA-017, GLA-019, GLA-020, GLA023, GLA-024, G L A - 0 2 5 , GLA-029, GLA-031, GLD-002, GLD-008, GLD015, GLD-019, GLD-045, GLN-026 c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a s , G L A - 0 0 7 correlated with earthquakes, G L A 002, GLD-008, GLM-019, GQE005, GQE-016 correlated with magnetic s t o r m s , GLA-007 correlated with m e t e o r s , G L A - 0 0 6 correlated with thunderstorms, G L A 020 correlated with tornadoes, G L D - 0 1 5 , GLD-039, GLD-040, GLL-013 (See a l s o Mountain-top glows) Light flashes, G L A - 0 0 2 , G L A - 0 0 9 , G L A 022, G L A - 0 2 4 , GLD-012, GLD-019, GLD-020, GLD-021, GLD-023, GLD029, G L L - 0 0 3 , GSD-028 (See a l s o Earthquake lights, Green Flash, Lightning, f r o m c l e a r sky, Tornado lights) Light wheels, all G L W Lightning, all G L L , G L B - 0 7 8 , G L B - 0 9 6 , GLD-020, GLD-039, GLD-045, G W 004 from c l e a r sky, G L L - 0 1 5 , G L L - 0 1 8 , GLL-024, GLL-025, GLL-026, GLL-030, GQE-022 geographical c o r r e l a t i o n s , G L D - 0 1 6 , G L L - 0 3 1 , GSD-014, GSD-019 physiological effects, G L L - 0 0 8 , G L L 022, GLL-023, GLL-031 pranks, G L B - 0 0 7 , G L L - 0 0 4 , G L L 006, G L L - 0 0 7 , GLL-009, G L L 010, G L L - 0 1 1 , GLL-029 silent, G L A - 0 2 2 , G L B - 0 0 5 , G L D 001, GLD-012, GLL-017 sounds, other than thunder, G L L 016, G L L - 0 2 1 , GSH-011 correlated with black rain, G W D - 0 0 4 correlated with earthquakes, G L B -

Magnetic disturbances, c o r r e l a t e d with ball lightning, G L B - 0 4 4 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G Q E 002, GQE-005, GQE-010, G Q E 012, GQE-020 correlated with gravity w a v e s , G M S 011 c o r r e l a t e d with interplanetary effects, GQS-004, GQS-005 correlated with lights, G L A - 0 0 7 , GLA-018 correlated with m e t e o r s , G M M - 0 0 1 , GMM-003, GMM-004 c o r r e l a t e d with moon, G M S - 0 0 1 , GMS-002, GMS-003, GMS-004, GMS-005, GMS-006, GMS-007 correlated with planets, G M S - 0 0 8 correlated with tornadoes, G W T - 0 0 6 c o r r e l a t e d with volcanoes, G W - 0 0 2 Manna f a l l s , G F F - 0 0 6 , G F L - 0 0 7 , G F L 008 M a r s , blue c l e a r i n g s c o r r e l a t e d with planets, G M S - 0 0 8 M a r s h g a s (see Ignis fatuus) Meat falls, G F F - 0 0 6 , G F L - 0 1 7 , G F L - 0 1 8 Memnon, statue's c r y , G S M - 0 0 6 M e t e o r - l i k e phenomena, all G L M , G F C 007, G F L - 0 0 3 , G L D - 0 3 5 , GLN-012, GLN-013, GLN-026 Meteors, GFC-002, GLA-004, GLA006, G L A - 0 1 2 , G L B - 0 0 3 , G L B - 0 5 6 correlated with aurora, G L A - 0 0 5 , GLA-007, GLA-012 c o r r e l a t e d with dark days, G W D - 0 0 1

G2-245

SUBJECT INDEX
c o r r e l a t e d with dust f a l l s , G F C - 0 1 0 , GFL-003 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G L B 012, G L M - 0 0 9 , G L M - 0 1 9 , G L M 024, G L M - 0 3 0 , GQE-003, G Q E 005, GQE-006, GQE-008, G Q E 010, GQE-015 c o r r e l a t e d with e l e c t r i c e f f e c t s , G L D 005, G M M - 0 0 2 , GSH-001 c o r r e l a t e d with falling m a t e r i a l , all GFG, GFC-002, GFC-006, G F L 003, GFL-016, G L M - 0 0 5 c o r r e l a t e d with m a g n e t i c e f f e c t s , GMM-001, GMM-003, GMM-004 c o r r e l a t e d with rainfall, G F C - 0 1 0 , GFL-003, GWP-006 c o r r e l a t e d with sounds (other then detonations), G L M - 0 2 0 , G S D 045, GSG-003, GSH-001, GSH003, GSH-011 c o r r e l a t e d with t h u n d e r s t o r m s , G F T 002, G F T - 0 0 3, G L M - 0 0 1 , G L M 008 (See a l s o Thunderbolts) M i l k y s e a s , all G L W M i n - M i n lights, G L N - 0 2 1 M i r a g e s , all G E M Mists, prior to mirage, G E M - 0 0 1 (See a l s o F o g s ) Mistpouffers, G S D - 0 0 1 , G S D - 0 1 2 , GSD048, GSD-049 Mollusc falls, G F F - 0 0 6 Moodus Sounds, G S D - 0 1 3 , G S D - 0 1 4 , GSD-020, GSD-047 M o o n , position, c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a s , GMS-010 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G Q E 010, G Q E - 0 3 1 , GQS-001, GQS002, GQS-003, GQS-010, GVS001, GVS-002 c o r r e l a t e d with magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e s , all G M S c o r r e l a t e d with w e a t h e r , G Q S - 0 0 1 , GWS-010, GWS-011, GWS-012, GWS-013, GWS-014 c o r r e l a t e d with volcano activity, GVS-001, GVS-002 Mountain-top g l o w s , G L B - 0 8 6 , G L D 002, GLD-017, GLD-018, GLD-019, GLD-020, GLD-021, GLD-028, GLD042, G L L - 0 1 7 , G L L - 0 2 6 , G L L - 0 2 8 , GLN-020 c o r r e l a t e d with a u r o r a s , G L D - 0 0 2 , G L D - 0 1 9 , GSH-013 c o r r e l a t e d with earthquakes, G L A 002 G2-246 Nauscopy, G E B - 0 0 2 N e w M a d r i d Earthquake, G Q E - 0 0 2 , G Q E 014, G Q E - 0 2 4 , GQE-026 Nocturnal l i g h t s , all G L N , G L B - 0 0 4 , GLB-026, GLB-034, GLB-060, GLM004, G L M - 0 1 0 , G L M - 0 1 2 , G L M 013, G L M - 0 1 4 , G L M - 0 1 7 c o r r e l a t e d with b e l l - l i k e sound, GLN-030 (See a l s o B a l l lig