Você está na página 1de 12

Laws, Investigations & Ethical Issues in Security

CIM3562

Supplementary Information HKSAR Legal System

1

HKSAR Legal System (香港特區 的法律制度)

What constitutes a legal system?

the Laws (法律)

the Institutions (機構)

the Personnel (人員)

What constitutes a legal system?  the Laws ( 法律 )  the Institutions ( 機構

2

Hierarchy of Laws

The China Constitution (中國憲法)

The Basic Law (基本法)

Bills of Rights Ordinance (人權法)

Hong Kong Ordinances (香港條例)

Subsidiary Legislation/Regulations (附屬法例)

Case Law (judge-made law)(案例)

( 香港條例 )  Subsidiary Legislation/Regulations ( 附屬法例 )  Case Law (judge-made law)( 案例 )
( 香港條例 )  Subsidiary Legislation/Regulations ( 附屬法例 )  Case Law (judge-made law)( 案例 )

3

Classification of Laws

Criminal Law (刑事法)

Classification of Laws  Criminal Law ( 刑事法 )  In a criminal case, a jury

In a criminal case, a jury typically must have an abiding conviction, proved by evidence that can be accepted as true because the facts of the case support it beyond reasonable doubt (毫無合理疑點). This could include eyewitness accounts or other evidence that removes valid questions about guilt. Juries must carefully consider all evidence presented in a trial to ensure that evidence that might lead to a conviction has been proved beyond reasonable doubt.

Civil Law(民事法)

In civil cases, by contrast, a preponderance (優勢) of evidence can be sufficient to settle the case in either party's favor. A preponderance of evidence means that one side of the case has established greater certainty than the other, usually through the presence of a greater quantity of credible evidence or more persuasive evidence. Even a small amount of additional evidence can make the difference in settling a case when only a preponderance of evidence is necessary (or simply the concept – a balance of possibility).

4

CRIMINAL LAW (刑事法)

Offences against persons(侵害人身罪)

Offences against properties (侵犯財產罪)

Regulatory offences (監管罪行)

Criminal procedures law (刑事程序法)

Criminal evidence law (刑事證據法)

5

CIVIL LAW (民事法)

Contract (合同)

sale of goods (銷售貨物合同)
Agency (代理合同)
Employment (僱傭合約)

Torts (侵權)

Negligence (疏忽)
Nuisance (滋擾)
Defamation (誹謗)
….

6

CIVIL LAW (民事法)

Inheritance (繼承)

Trusts (信託)

Company law (公司法)

Insolvency law (破產法)

Property (物權)

personal property (個人財產)

real property

intellectual properties

7

CIVIL LAW (民事法)

Civil procedures law (民事程序法)

Civil evidence law (民事證據法)

8

Institutions (機構)

The Courts (法庭)

The Legislative Council (立法會)

The National People‘s Congress (NPC)

(全國人民代表大會)

Department of Justice (律政司)

Legal Aid Department (法律援助署)

9

Institutions (機構)

The Law Enforcement Agencies (執法機構)

Police (警察)

Customs (海關)

ICAC (廉政公署)

Immigration Department (入境事務處)

Labour Department (勞工處)

The Law Schools (法學院)

10

The Court Hierarchy (法院層次)

Court of Final Appeal (終審法院)

Court of Appeal(上訴法庭)

High Court – the jury(高等法院-陪審團)

District Court (區域法院)

Magistracy (裁判法院)

Small Claims Tribunal (小額錢債審裁處)

Labour Tribunal(勞資審裁處)

Obscene Articles Tribunal (淫褻物品審裁處)

Reference:

http://www.judiciary.gov.hk/tc/index/index.htm

http://www.hklii.hk/c_index.shtml

11

The Personnel (人員)

The Lawyers (律師)

Solicitors (律師)

Barristers (大律師)

government lawyers (政府律師)

In-house legal advisers (內部法律顧問)

the law professors (法學教授)

The judges (法官)

The legislators (立法會議員)

The law enforcers (執法人員)(e.g. Police)

12