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The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly:


Reagan's Legacy in Office
Graham Johnson Franklin Period 4

Table of Contents
Introduction...............................................................................................3 Biography...............................................................................................3 Family and Childhood...........................................................3 Radio, Acting, and Adult Life...............................................5 Political Beginnings...............................................................5 Bids for Presidency and Success...........................................7 Independent Reading............................................................................7 Topic Selection.......................................................................................7 Research......................................................................................................9 Era...........................................................................................................9 Thesis......................................................................................................9 Findings..................................................................................................9 Effects as Governor of California.........................................9 Effects of Reaganomics.......................................................10 Effects of Foreign Policy......................................................12 Effects on Politics Today......................................................12 Graphs and Charts...............................................................13 Conclusion................................................................................................14 Works Cited...............................................................................................15 Bibliography.............................................................................................18

Introduction
Biography
Family and Childhood Ronald Wilson Reagan was born to John Edwards Reagan and Nelle Reagan on February 6, 1911 in Tampico, Illinois. Both of his parents were born and raised in Fulton, Illinois, where they met at a dry-goods store (Pemberton 4) and married a few years later in November of 1907. Ronald Reagan's childhood would later have a profound influence on both his personal and political beliefs; his life in many ways was that of the all-American, self-made man; tellingly, he would name one of his autobiographies An American Life. His father had received only a few years of elementary schooling before going into business as a shoe salesman (Pemberton 5); mother Nelle was uneducated but deeply religious and often led town prayers in the absence of the local pastor (Kengor 12). Reagan writes in his 1964 autobiography Where's the Rest of Me? that his Irish father was a terrible drunk, from whom he would hide during week-long benders (DeMause). Being raised by such an angry man who had never achieved anything much of importance in his lifetime perhaps fueled Reagan to set himself apart, liting a fire beneath his future political and professional ambition. His parents had received little schooling as children and made a low income; while at Dixon North Central High School, Reagan worked as a lifeguard at nearby Rock River to support himself and raise money for a college education (Ronald Reagan Childhood, Life, & Timeline). Reagan would go on to attend Eureka College, a liberal arts school in Illinois (Eureka College), where he excelled in both sports and school, graduating with a degree in economics and sociology. This education, at a school selfdescribed for creating well-rounded, critical thinking leaders (Eureka College) would be a major influence in his ability as a President some 50 years later. Furthermore, Reagan's ability to rise above obstacles and achieve greatness would contribute to his belief that other Americans could do the same. This conservative viewpoint led to a negative view towards welfare and other social aid programs. Radio, Acting, and his Adult Life

4 Reagan always aspired to go into acting, but he viewed Hollywood and Broadway as too daunting and banked on his storytelling ability instead. Soon after graduating from Eureka in 1932, he worked temporarily as an announcer for The University of Iowa football games (Cannon) and worked his way into the radio industry in Davenport, Iowa for WOC radio. Although it was an hours drive from Dixon, he commuted everyday, working there for five years and becoming one of the most beloved sportscasters in the state. Because the station could not afford to send him to Wrigley Field to cover Cubs games, he made do by reading telegram reports of the games aloud (Ronald Reagan). Many of the skills 'he learned on the job would be crucial to honing his speaking ability and talent for dramatic embellishment, abilities he would later become known for as President. While working for Des Moines-based WHO radio covering California spring baseball training in 1937, he received a much-needed break: a role in B-list movie Love is On In The Air as a radio broadcaster. But like the rest of Reagan's life, his acting career was no result of pure luck. Rather than meeting a Hollywood agent by chance, as is commonly believed, Reagan set up the entire trip himself and personally sought out a Warner Bros. talent scout to look at him. Still he received no easy breaks and worked his way steadily up in the industry, playing minor roles and leads in B films ("Ronald Reagan Acting Career). As Jim Murray wrote for Esquire in February, 1966, [Reagan] had to be a good actor. He's not handsome... no one ever asked him to take off his shirt in a movie to help the box office. (Buckley Jr. 6). Eventually, with help from his first wife Jane Wyman, he obtained a role in Knute Rockne, All-American (Hartl) which flung his career into high gear. Subsequent 1941 blockbuster The King's Row was a pivotal moment in his life; in it, his line Where's the rest of me? became famous around the nation and inspired his 1964 autobiography Where's the Rest of Me?. After a four year stint from 1942 to 1945 in the Army doing limited duty during World War II (he was nearsighted and couldn't serve overseas) (Dorr), Reagan resumed work on movies, becoming one of the more prominent actors of the era and starring in The Voice of the Turtle, John Loves Mary, The Hasty Heart, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, Tennessee's Partner, Hellcats of the Navy, and The Killers (Ronald Reagan, IMDb.com). The freedom the end of the World War brought, as well as his wife Jane's participation in the group, led to Reagan's heavy involvement in the Screen Actor's Guild. Ironically, as their marriage faltered and failed, his prominence and power in the Guild grew in 1947, he was elected president of the group, a position he would hold each year until 1953. Political Beginnings

5 As a college student at Eureka during FDR's four terms, Reagan was a huge admirer of the fourterm President and considered himself a Democrat. According to Where's The Rest of Me, this would change in the 1950s because of his work with the organization's Hollywood Communists as well as his increasing disgust with high taxes and liberal ineffectiveness possibly causing him to turn to the Republican platform (Where's The Rest of Me?). A more likely cause is his second marriage to Republican Nancy Davis in 1952, three years after divorcing his first wife Wyman. As the decade progressed, his views shifted further and further right the last Democrat he endorsed was Helen Gahagan Douglas in her failed 1950 campaign for Senate (Ronald Reagan). While working for General Electric, the conservative political viewpoints of the company's high officials would further rub off on him (Evans). Reagan remarked famously I didn't leave the Democratic Party. The party left me. In 1964, as a prominent figure in the conservative world, Reagan was called upon to endorse GOP Presidential hopeful Barry Goldwater. In his political debut, he set the stage for future Reaganomics ideology, closing the infamous, half hour long A Time for Choosing speech with the lines The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing (A Time for Choosing). The speech was received to a standing ovation and raised over a million dollars for Goldwater's (failed) campaign. The speech launched his political career; two years later he was nominated by California Republicans for governor (Ronald Reagan, Wikipedia), a campaign he won by over a million votes (Buckley Jr. 6). In an interesting parallel, President Obama's political career was largely launched after his keynote address at the Democratic Convention in 2004. Upon arrival in Sacramento, Reagan was quickly engulfed with the enormous responsibility and learning curve of his job; he wrote in correspondence with his close friend and fellow conservative William Buckley Jr.: I thought I'd be happy to see the campaign close, but either I miss the sawdust trail or I'm getting hit over the head too often with all that has to be done (Buckley Jr. 14). His success as governor, however, opened the prospect of a Presidential bid based on sheer popularity. Bids for Presidency and Eventual Success In 1968, despite huge GOP support for Nixon (who had never lost a single primary he had campaigned for), influential Republicans sought his name on the ballot for the Republican primary. Buckley explains however, that Reagan was never a genuine candidate :

6 [Reagan] is a man expansively generous, considerate; and it must be both (a) that he never considered, at least not after Nixon's primary victories, the possibility that he would beat Nixon; and (b) that he nevertheless shrank from overruling his idealistic, devoted, and optimistic coterie, who asked him to suspend though, and dream; dreaming being the substance of the whole elated caper. (Buckley Jr. 44) But by January 1980, Reagan's Presidential aspirations were in high gear. In an interview from that month, he foreshadowed the air-traffic controller lay-off that would occur six months into his term, saying The public employees should not be allowed to strike. Government can't close down. (Firing Line). After Carter's response to the hostage situation went terribly, Reagan shot up in the polls. Winning the Republican nomination easily, he took fierce rival George Bush as a running-mate and smashed his incumbent opponent, winning fortyfour states to Carter's six (Ronald Reagan, Wikipedia; Buckley Jr. 128) to become the 40th President. After an assassination attempt by John Hinckley only a month into his first term, he fully recovered and saw his approval ratings shoot to 73% (Ronald Reagan). Hinckley was deemed not guilty by reason of insanity he shot Reagan in attempt to become famous, which he thought would give him the same social status as actress Jodie Foster, in the belief that they could then be together romantically. This prompted public outrage which would eventually result in such a plea being removed in several states (John Hinckley, Jr.). He was reelected in 1984 to serve a second consecutive term. Son Ron Reagan writes in his upcoming book: In July 1989, barely six months out of office, ... surgeons opening his skull to relieve pressure [during a previously unreported surgery] on the brain emerged from the operating room with the news that they had detected what they took to be probable signs of Alzheimer's disease (Bedard). A huge amount of debate has centered around when the condition started. Ron claims he first became worried in the third year of Reagan's presidency (Bedard), a troubling thought considering Reagan served for five more years after the first signs were detected. CBS White House correspondent Leslie Stahl concurred, saying during an interview "Reagan

7 didn't seem to know who I was. ... Oh, my, he's gonzo, I thought. I have to go out on the lawn tonight and tell my countrymen that the president of the United States is a doddering space cadet (Stahl 256). However, White House doctors continue to deny there were any signs of the disease while Reagan was in office (Altman). A large amount of support has been shown by the Reagan family for stem cell research and scientific advances under the Obama administration in hopes it could bring a cure to Alzheimer's (Nancy Reagan's Plea On Stem Cells). Reagan died of Alzheimer's-related complications June 5, 2004 and was mourned by over 10,000 people who viewed his casket (Ronald Reagan).

Independent Reading and Historiography


Ive read both a very left-wing book on Reagan, Reagans America by Lloyd Demause, and a rightwing book, The Reagan I Knew by William F. Buckley, Jr.. Buckley is a well-known conservative author and historian who has long been a close friend and admirer of Reagan. Ive also read a collection of Reagans speeches and statements on Communism, the Congressional report on the Iran-Contra affair, and researched the affair extensively through videos, transcripts, and online sources. I've read a number of oped pieces on Reagan from both the New York Times and Washington post, as well as dozens of other articles and blog posts by critics, conservatives, friends, and even family of Reagan. I've seen multiple speeches by Reagan including his famous A Time For Choosing speech from the 1964 Republican convention, and have seen tapings of The Firing Line interviews with Buckley (author of The Reagan I Knew). Finally, I visited the Reagan Presidential Library with my family on the way back from the Los Angeles International Airport. Currently the consensus by historians is that the 1980s were an era of mixed blessings at worst, and of great forward strides in some renditions (Rossinow). Depending on political allegiance, scholars have often contradictory opinions on Reagan in surveys of popularity, he usually averages equal proportions ranking him near great as below average (Pach).

Topic Selection
With Republican strength in Congress in 2010 stronger than it has been since 1938, it seems that the Reagan Era is still not yet over. From a bumpersticker I saw on a car Reagan Was Right to the recent name-dropping by Gingrich in the Republican primaries (claiming influence because of a mention in a Reagan autobiography), it's clear Reagan is still an important figure today, and a controversial one.

8 I chose my topic to try and look at Reagan from a nonpartisan view; I've always believed politicians (and people for that matter) are never as great as people say they are, or as terrible as people say they are. With that in mind, I wanted to present an unbiased view of Reagan's life, effects, and policies. I found an enormous amount of respect for Reagan as a person, being able to overcome all the obstacles in his life and work his way to the top. As for his policies, for the most part I disagreed with their effects and found them detrimental.

Research
Reagan's Era
Reagan's Era is defined loosely as the period during which Reagan was President, from his election on November 4th of 1980 to his leaving office in early 1989. However, it also stretches further back into the 1970s, as Reagan gained influence as a conservative and a politician, and to some degree into the present day, as Reagan is still a very influential Republican figure even after his death. Leading up to Reagan's election were a number of failed policies and negative events under liberal leaders that caused many to look for a conservative solution these include the Vietnam War under Johnson, the hostage situation under Carter, soaring inflation, and an energy crisis (Kalman). Like the failure of Bush's policies from 2000-2008 ushered in a strong liberal response, the events in the 70s lead to Reagan's massive popularity and a nationwide call for conservative policy.

Thesis
Reagan was one of the most influential politicians in recent history, and his policies and actions in office have left a lasting impact socially, economically, and politically.

Findings
Effects as Governor of California First elected with 55.75% of the vote on November 8, 1966, Reagan left office as California Governor in 1975 after two consecutive terms of fairly high approval ratings. Although pressured to serve a third term by the GOP, he instead sought out the Presidential nomination in 1976 (Governorship of Ronald Reagan). Interestingly, in contrast with his later platform as President, Reagan was surprisingly bipartisan as Governor and put the state on a more liberal track. Despite being pro-life, he signed the Therapeutic Abortion Act, by Democratic Senator Anthony Beilenson, into effect during his first year in office, which has since led to over 2 million abortions in California by pregnant mothers whose safety is at risk [figure 1b] (Cannon). Beyond breaking ground in California, the signing established a nationwide precedent for higher toleration of abortion and helped influence similar decisions by other states. In his second term as governor on September 4, 1969, Reagan signed into effect the pioneering Family Law Act, the first legislation in the country to allow divorce on account of irreconcilable differences (Johnson 22). By 1977, eight other states had followed suit; with New York's divorce bill in

10 August of 2010, every state in the nation had enacted similar legislation (Baskerville 234). According to a 2004 Stanford study, this legislation eventually led to a nationwide reduction of 33% in domestic violence and 20% in female suicides [figure 1a] (No-Fault Divorce). Even after leaving office, he still remained politically influential in California; in 1978 he publicly opposed the California Briggs Initiative which would ban homosexuals, bisexuals, and even LGBT supporters from teaching in public schools. His support was one of the main reasons the initiative failed and by over a million votes, with 3.9 million votes in opposition and only 2.8 million in support. Initially, Reagan announced that the initiative had the potential of real mischief... especially if an overwrought youngster, disappointed by bad grades, imagined it was the teacher's fault and struck out by accusing the teacher of advocating homosexuality. Innocent lives could be ruined." But in an editorial from November 1 of that year, he proclaimed a more sincere and arguably more respectable reason for his opposition: Whatever else it is, homosexuality is not a contagious disease like the measles. Prevailing scientific opinion is that an individual's sexuality is determined at a very early age and that a child's teachers do not really influence this (Editorial). These beliefs helped advocate gay rights, as well as setting a state-wide precedent for increased tolerance. Effects of Reaganomics and Domestic Policy On August 2rd, 1981, PATCO the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization went on strike (Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization), violating a law prohibiting government unions from striking (5 U.S.C. [Supp. III 1956] 118p. ). After advising them to return to work within 48 hours and citing national security concerns, Reagan laid off over 11,000 controllers, banned them from future government work, and broke the strike (Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization). Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan noted that Reagan's actions not only reduced union power, but increased private businesses' power to fire employees. Furthermore, it increased executive power by fulfilling a capacity never before exercised the dismissal of government employees for striking. During his second term, Reagan amped up the war against drugs, and increased restrictions on immigration, as well as law enforcement against illegal immigration (Ronald Reagan, Wikipedia). More significantly, Reagan's economics approach (from his background at Eureka) - termed Reaganomics - has been extremely influential in modern-day politics and economic/domestic policy. Expert Roger Kubarych sums up Reagan as being a passionate spokesman for American-style economic liberty, a firm advocate of the entrepreneur, and someone who did not view the word profits as a dirty

11 word. With inflation at 15% and interests rate at 20% in 1980, the U.S. economy was in recession; Reagan's plan to counter it was doubted even by his own party and privately dubbed voodoo economic policy by Bush. In his first year, Reagan signed the largest tax cuts worth $750 billion in history. When taking inflation into account, the tax cuts had the a negative effect on the long-term economy (Effects of Reagan, Kennedy, and Bush Tax Cuts On Revenues) [figure 2a]; however, the common belief among Republicans is that the cuts had a positive effect on the economy, leading to George H. W. Bush's administration signing similar legislation and enforcing similar tax cuts as the Reagan administration, two decades later (Kirchhoff). This is because in the short-term, Reagan's policies were effective to a large degree. Within eight years of election, inflation had shrunk to a mere 1%, the DOW rose 135% to over 2000, and the economic cogs of America were churning smoothly, despite defense spending being raised by $100 billion in antiSoviet funding. But this success could not last; his budget director David Stockman would go on to confess that such a policy of increased spending and lowered taxes lead to a profound fiscal policy failure and imbalance... [that] were seriously debilitating to the economy for about 10 to 15 years (Holguin). Furthermore, they've created the rising income inequality trend of the last 20 years (Kirchhoff). Reagan's status as arguably the most prominent Republican figure of the 20th century however, means these ineffective practices of increased spending and tax cuts will continue to plague America as long as Reagan's god-like influence in today's politics last.

Effects of Foreign Policy

12 Not all of Reagan's policies ended badly; he is largely credited and fairly so with ending the Cold War. Reagan deeply understood the economic weakness of the Soviet Union; he also understood Mikhail Gorbachev's shift towards diplomacy and acted accordingly. Ramping up pressure against the Soviet Union, he held multiple meetings with the leader in hopes of disarming both countries' nuclear weapons (Ronald Reagan, Wikipedia) and spoke at the Berlin Wall in 1987, famously exclaiming General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!. In November 1989, two years later, the wall was finally torn down and the Cold War officially ended as relations between the US and the USSR slowly warmed (Malta Summit). Despite the more peaceful relations, Reagan significantly increased military and defense funding, setting a precedent for future Republican platforms as well as a national precedent for increased debt and overspending. Effects on Politics Today Despite his death seven years ago, Reagan is still one of the most influential names in conservative politics. The first debate of this year's Republican primary was held in Reagan's library in Simi Valley (Tibbets), and in that very primary, Newt Gingrich has sought conservative votes by citing his appearance in Reagan's An American Life. Ron Paul's popularity is partly a result of Reagan's endorsement, and a recent television ad by Paul says he is the one that stood with Reagan in 1988 (Hicks). Political consult Steve Grubbs writes Theres a whole group of us, of what I call Reagan babies, who came into our political being in the Reagan years and now are all over state government (Tibbets). Even Palin, a candidate who Reagan no doubt would have despised, felt the need to visit his childhood home in Dixon on her campaign trail in 2008 (Tanabe). Steven Hayward, a Reagan biographer, explains why so many candidates claim allegiance with Reagan his unfinished agenda: Starting in 1987, [Reagan] said: I think we need to have five constitutional amendments. Two hed talked about a lot: a balanced budget amendment and a line-item veto for the president, so they could strip out pork barrel and earmarks, and things like that. But he had three others. He wanted a supermajority requirement, like two-thirds, for Congress to

13 approve any tax increases. He said we ought to have a constitutional spending limit, so the federal government cannot spend over a certain amount of our economy, because they want to do more and more of that all the time. Then, finally, he said we ought to have a constitutional ban on wage and price controls. Now thats the really interesting one, to me, because in the late 80s, nobody was talking about bringing back wage and price controls. (Hayward) With Obama and fellow liberal politicians reversing many of Reagan Era policies, there remains a drive among many Republicans to fulfill Reagan's goals.

14 Graphs and Figures

figure 1a

Figure 1b

figure 2A

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Conclusion
By doing this project, I've gained a great deal of respect for Reagan as a person, while forming a much less complimentary opinion on his policies as a President. I've learned extensively about his life and how his background influenced his politics; it was fascinating to see how all his career choices, the college he attended, his family life, his father's abusive behavior, all helped make him the ambitious politician and talented public speaker he was. Furthermore, along the lines of my thesis, it was interesting to see how my life today and our current government is hugely affected on a daily basis by policies and actions executed by Reagan. My research on these effects concludes that while Reagan's policies repaired a broken economy in the short run, they've led to long-term debt and overspending in our national government. This has partly contributed to a worsening of the recession, led to our $13 trillion national debt, and ironically, the massive amount of money we owe the government of Communist China. Furthermore, the short-term success is what has blinded fellow Republicans into believing Reagan's economic strategy is viable and should be reproduced, therefore creating a basis for current candidates' economic platforms. As far as his influence as state governor, Reagan has actually created a far more liberal government and population in California by signing revolutionary marriage and abortion bills, raising taxes, and as advocating gay rights in the education scene. As stated earlier, these influences fit into the theme of U.S. Politics as having long-standing effects on Republican platform and government policy socially, economically, and in our foreign affairs. Even today, Ron Paul, Gingrich, and other Presidential hopeful name-drop Reagan in order to gain influence, and excluding Obama he is the most-mentioned politician by Republican candidates in primary debates. His pro-military policies have also lead to armed conflicts, as war is another theme. This will help my performance on the AP test in that I've gained a better understanding of politics not only during Reagan's Era but in the contemporary scene. Through my research I learned a significant amount about historic events such as the Iranian hostage crisis, the Iran-Contra affair, the Cold War, and the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. By watching the presentations in class, no doubt, I will also review other Presidencies as well as learn new opinions and information on their terms.

16 Works Cited Altman, Lawrence K. "Reagan's Twilight: A President Fades Into a World Apart." Editorial. New York Times 5 Oct. 1997. The New president-fadesHouse, 2007. Bedard, Paul. "Reagan Son Claims Dad Had Alzheimer's as President." Washington Whispers. US News, 14 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/washingtonwhispers/2011/01/14/reagan-son-claims-dad-had-alzheimers-as-president>. Buckley, William F. The Reagan I Knew. New York: Basic, 2008. Print. Cannon, Lou. "Actor, Governor, President, Icon." Washington Post. 6 June 2004. Web. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18329-2004Jun5.html>. DeMause, Lloyd. Reagan's America. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Creative Roots, 1984. Dorr, Robert F. "Ronal Reagan." United States Navy. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://web.archive.org/web/20071030073032/http://www.reagan.navy.mil/ about_reagan.html>. "Effects of the Reagan, Kennedy, and Bush Tax Cuts." Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.econdataus.com/taxcuts.html>. "Eureka College." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia, 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_College>. Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. "Presidential Hopeful: Ronald Reagan" Perf. William F. Buckley Jr. and Ronald Reagan. YouTube. Google, 24 Sept. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-UmT-KPh00>. "Governorship of Ronald Reagan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governorship_of_Ronald_Reagan>. Hicks, Josh. "Ron Paul and Ronald Reagan." The Washington Post. Web. 2012. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/fact-checker/post/ron-paul-and-ronald-reagan-fact-checkerbiography/2011/12/22/gIQA6NJpKP_blog.html>. Print. 22 Jan. 2012. York Times. 5 Oct. 1997. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. a-special-report-aand the Family. Cumberland <http://www.nytimes.com/1997/10/05/us/reagan-s- twilightinto-a-world-apart.html>. Baskerville, Stephen. Taken Into Custody - The War Against Fathers, Marriage

17 Holguin, Jaime. "A Fresh Look At Reagonomics." CBS News. 5 Dec. 2007. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/06/08/eveningnews/main621915.shtml>. "How Do Historians Assess Ronald Reagan?" History News Network. 25 Jan. 2002. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://hnn.us/articles/341.html>. "John Hinckley, Jr." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hinckley,_Jr.>. Johnson, Sharon. "No-Fault Divorce: 10 Years Later, Some Virtues, Some Flaws." New 1979. Print. "Malta Summit Ends Cold War." BBC News. British Broadcasting Channel. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/3/newsid_4119000/4119950.stm>. "Nancy Reagan's Please on Stem Cells." BBC News. British Broadcasting Channel, 10 Jan. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3700015.stm>.Pach, Chester. "No-fault Divorce." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-fault_divorce>. Pemberton, William E. Exit with Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. Print.engor, Paul. God and Ronald Reagan. New York: Harper Collins, 2004. Print. "Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (1968)." Wikipedia, the Free Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professional_Air_Traffic_Controllers_Organization_(1968)>. Reagan, Ronald. "Editorial: Two Ill-advised California Trends". Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, Nov. 1 1978. p. A19 Reagan, Ronald, and Richard Gibson Hubler. Where's the Rest of Me? New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1965. Print. "Ronald Reagan - Acting Career." Presidents: A Reference History. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Kennedy-Bush/Ronald-Reagan-Acting-career.html>. "Ronald Reagan Childhood, Life & Timeline." FamousPeople.com. Famous People. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/ronald-reagan- 69.php>. "Ronald Reagan." IMDb.com. The Internet Movie Database. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001654/>. Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Mar. 2004. Web. 22 York Times, 30 March

18 "Ronald Reagan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia, 22 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan>. Tanabe, Karin. "Palin Visits Reagans Childhood Home." Politico. Politico.com, 15 Aug. 2011. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.politico.com/blogs/click/0811/Palin_visits_Reagans_childhood_ home.html>. A Time for Choosing. Perf. Ronald Reagan. Youtube. Google, 2 Apr. 2009. Web. 22 Jan. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXBswFfh6AY>. 2012.

19 Bibliography Altman, Lawrence K. "Reagan's Twilight: A President Fades Into a World Apart." Editorial. New York Times 5 Oct. 1997. The New York Times. 5 Oct. 1997. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1997/10/05/us/reagan-s-twilight-a-special-report-a-president-fadesinto-a-world-apart.html>. Barack Obama Speech at 2004 DNC Convention. Perf. Barack Obama. Youtube. Google, 18 Aug. 2008. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWynt87PaJ0>. Baskerville, Stephen. Taken Into Custody - The War Against Fathers, Marriage House, 2007. Bedard, Paul. "Reagan Son Claims Dad Had Alzheimer's as President." Washington Whispers. US News, 14 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/washingtonwhispers/2011/01/14/reagan-son-claims-dad-had-alzheimers-as-president>. "Briggs Initiative." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Briggs_Initiative>. Brigham, Roger. "Back to Briggs: Latest No on 8 Ad With Sen. Diane Feinstein Brings ch=news&sc=&sc3=&id=82565>. Buckley, William F. The Reagan I Knew. New York: Basic, 2008. Print. Cannon, Lou. "Actor, Governor, President, Icon." Washington Post. 6 June 2004. Web. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18329-2004Jun5.html>. DeMause, Lloyd. Reagan's America. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Creative Roots, 1984. "Dixon High School (Illinois)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dixon_High_School_(Illinois)>. "Dixon, Illinois." Dixon Illinois. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.dixonil.com/reagan/reagan2.htm>. Dorr, Robert F. "Ronal Reagan." United States Navy. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://web.archive.org/web/20071030073032/http://www.reagan.navy.mil/ about_reagan.html>. "Early Career." American Experience. PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/reagan-career/>. Print. Jan. 2012. 22 Jan. 2012. Back Memories of Another Referendum." EDGE. 28 Oct. 2008. Web. 2012. <http://www.edgeboston.com/index.php? and the Family. Cumberland

20 "Effect of the Reagan, Kennedy, and Bush Tax Cuts." Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.econdataus.com/taxcuts.html>. "Eureka College." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia, 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_College>. Evans, Thomas W. The Education of Ronald Reagan: The General Electric Years and the Untold Story of His Conversion to Conservatism. Columbia: Columbia UP, 2006. Print. Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. "Presidential Hopeful: Ronald Reagan" Perf. William F. Buckley Jr. and Ronald Reagan. YouTube. Google, 24 Sept. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-UmT-KPh00>. Gallagher, John, and Chris Bull. "Perfect Enemies: The Religious Right, the Gay Movement, and the Politics of the 1990s." Washington Post. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/style/longterm/books/chap1/perfectenemies.htm>. "Governorship of Ronald Reagan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governorship_of_Ronald_Reagan>. Greenspan, Alan. "The Reagan Legacy." Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve, 3 Apr. 2003. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2003/ 200304092/default.htm>. Hartl, John. "Reagan's Acting Career Filled With What-If's." Today News. MSNBC, 6 Aug. 2004. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/4980669/ns/today-today_news/t/reagans-acting-career-fullwhat-ifs/>. Hicks, Josh. "Ron Paul and Ronald Reagan." The Washington Post. Web. 2012. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/fact-checker/post/ron-paul-and-ronald-reagan-fact-checkerbiography/2011/12/22/gIQA6NJpKP_blog.html>. Holguin, Jaime. "A Fresh Look At Reagonomics." CBS News. 5 Dec. 2007. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/06/08/eveningnews/main621915.shtml>. "Inventory of the Firing Line (Television Program) Broadcast Records." Online Archive Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <Inventory of the Firing Line <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Reagan>. "Jack Reagan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. of California. Stanford. (Television Program) Broadcast Records>.

21 "John Hinckley, Jr." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hinckley,_Jr.>. Johnson, Sharon. "No-Fault Divorce: 10 Years Later, Some Virtues, Some Flaws." New 1979. Print. Kalman, Laura. Right Star Rising: A New Politics, 1974-1980. Norton, 2010. Print. Kengor, Paul. God and Ronald Reagan. New York: Harper Collins, 2004. Print. Kirchhoff, Sue. "Reagan Had Lasting Impact on World's Economic Future." USA Today. 10 June 2004. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. <http://www.usatoday.com/money/2004-06-10-reagan-impact_x.htm>. "Malta Summit Ends Cold War." BBC News. British Broadcasting Channel. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/3/newsid_4119000/4119950.stm>. Nancy Reagan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Reagan>. "Nancy Reagan's Please on Stem Cells." BBC News. British Broadcasting Channel, 10 Jan. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3700015.stm>. "Nelle Wilson Reagan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelle_Reagan>. "No-fault Divorce." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-fault_divorce>. Pach, Chester. "How Do Historians Assess Ronald Reagan?" History News Network. 25 2012. <http://hnn.us/articles/341.html>. Pemberton, William E. Exit with Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. Print. "Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (1968)." Wikipedia, the Free Organization_(1968)>. Reagan, Ronald. An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990. Print. Reagan, Ronald. "Editorial: Two Ill-advised California Trends". Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, Nov. 1 1978. p. A19 Reagan, Ronald, and Richard Gibson Hubler. Where's the Rest of Me? New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1965. Print. Encyclopedia. Wikimedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professional_Air_Traffic_Controllers_ Jan. 2002. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. Mar. 2004. Web. 22 22 Jan. 2012. York Times, 30 March

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