MAN IS BORN FREE YET EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS

"The Social Contract" Perhaps Rousseau's most important work is The Social Contract, which outlines the basis for a legitimate political order. Published in 1762, it became one of the most influential works of political philosophy in the Western tradition. It developed some of the ideas mentioned in an earlier work, the article Economie Politique, featured in Diderot's Encyclopédie. The treatise begins with the dramatic opening lines, "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they." Rousseau claimed that the state of nature was a primitive condition without law or morality, which human beings left for the benefits and necessity of cooperation. As society developed, division of labour and private property required the human race to adopt institutions of law. In the degenerate phase of society, man is prone to be in frequent competition with his fellow men while at the same time becoming increasingly dependent on them. This double pressure threatens both his survival and his freedom. According to Rousseau, by joining together through the social contract and abandoning their claims of natural right, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. This is because submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law. While Rousseau argues that sovereignty should be in the hands of the people, he also makes a sharp distinction between sovereignty and government. The government is charged with implementing and enforcing the general will and is composed of a smaller group of citizens, known as magistrates. Rousseau was bitterly opposed to the idea that the people should exercise sovereignty via a representative assembly. Rather, they should make the laws directly. It was argued that this would prevent Rousseau's ideal state from being realized in a large society, such as France was at the time. Much of the subsequent controversy about Rousseau's work has hinged on disagreements concerning his claims that citizens constrained to obey the general willare thereby rendered free.

What Jean-Jacques Rousseau meant is that government, social class, wealth and poverty are manmade prisons in which people trap each other. In the "state of nature" to which we are all born, those things do not exist. Remember that in his day there were no democracies to speak of. People everywhere were ruled by absolute monarchs whose word was law. Rousseau does not go so far as to claim that simple good manners, altruism and general decent behavior are also prisons, although some libertarian philosophers certainly have gone that far. Born free merely means not born into slavery. But it is arguable whether anyone is "born free". We are all enslaved by society to some degree. As a child we are at the mercy of our parents and teachers. Our parents can screw us up so easily with wrong food , wrong support, wrong advice, etc. Our teachers can fill our minds with the wrong ideas and knowledge. But we have to do what they say. Later we may have to serve in the army, whether we want to or not. When they say jump you say "Yessir. How high, sir?" As an adult we have to work 9 to 5 five days a week for a boss to earn money to live. This means doing what we're told by the boss. At all times we are expected to obey thousands of laws, most of which we don't even know exist. If we don't we can lose our liberty. To travel we are searched and have to carry a passport. At one time it was even compulsory to go to church. So freedom is not as easily come by as all that. All the above are "chains" of one sort or another. No, i agree with the answer. It is not "gay". I just want to add. By saying that one is in chains one my think that even though our free here in america, you still have to follow the laws of the country.

The Enlightenment - The Age of Reason (ESS18)
Ending the bond between Science and Religion <RATE THIS ARTICLE>

"All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains."

-Jean-Jacques Rousseau Much of what we've been discussing in articles dealing with John Locke, René Descartes, and Isaac Newton takes us right into the 18th Century phenomenon called The Enlightenment. Since the movement was especially prominent in France it is also referred to as the French Enlightenment. What had been begun by the likes of Copernicus, Galileo, and other heroes of the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th Centuries, was given a major push in the 18th Century. The Enlightenment is conveniently tucked into the 18th Century but like most phenomena in history it's probably wise to look at a somewhat broader time scale. Many of the concepts that crystallized during the Enlightenment had already been hinted at by others in earlier times. All the same, the concepts of religious freedom for all, equality before the law and the supremacy of human reason were proclaimed loudly and clearly by the heroes of the movement. In France they were called the philosophes. They eagerly embraced scientific progress and geographical discoveries, and were dismayed at the corruption, superstition, hypocrisy and injustice condoned if not fostered, by the church and the state. To them ignorance was evil and they blamed this evil on the religious and political leaders, leaders who claimed to be the special agents of God's revelation in order keep the common people shackled in ignorance. The philosophes felt that human progress would only come through intellectual and spiritual enlightenment²not blind obedience to authority. Enlightened humanity could bring an end to poverty, injustice, racism, and all the other ills of society. In France some of the most prominent philosophes were, in no particular order, François Marie Arouet²better known as Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon(1707-1788), Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727-1781), DenisDiderot, and JeanJacques Rousseau. In spite of the name, the philosophes were above all, practical men, seeking nothing less than a whole new and improved society. A society in which man was no longer constrained by outdated human institutions and belief systems. The impact on science was obvious and dramatic. Voltaire(1694±1778) One of the first of those institutions to warrant attention was the Roman Catholic Church which in France had become the only official state-sanctioned religion thanks to King Louis XIV. Voltaire in a tireless campaign argued that people should be permitted to worship as they pleased or not at all. The spark that set off this powder keg was the case of Jean Calas. Like so many of his peers, including a number of the founding fathers of the United States, Voltaire was a deist who believed that God had created everything but then let it evolve on its own. Although educated by the Jesuits, Voltaire hated the Catholic Church. He is famously quoted to have said "Ecrasez l'infame" (Crush the horrible thing!) referring to the Church. He had written most of his life on religious tolerance but the Jean Calas affair gave him the focus he needed and in 1763 he published A Treatise on Tolerance that focused entirely on the case. Making a powerful case for religious and intellectual freedom gave the fledgling Scientific Revolution in France a much needed boost. Also, his tireless efforts to promote the empirical methods of Francis Bacon and John Locke of England as the only legitimate way to practice science were a direct challenge to the French rationalist tradition of, for example, René Descartes. Both traditions²religious and rationalist²proved difficult to dislodge, but change was in the air and intellectual freedom especially, became a rallying point. de Montesquieu (1689-1755) The second culprit on our list, Charles Louis de Secondant, Baron de Montesquieu, wasn't interested so much in promoting open scientific inquiry as he was in the science of politics. In 1748 he published Spirit of the Laws. Inspired by the British political system, he advocated a separation of powers amongst the various branches of government. The English constitution had divided state powers into three independent branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. This he felt would create a system of Checks and Balances. As a member of the aristocracy de Montesquieu's views were a bit ambivalent. He didn't favor a republic but he was against slavery.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, was born in John Calvin's Geneva on June 28th, 1712. His mother died in childbirth. Unlike the other philosophes who were in favor of monarchy, at least aconstitutional monarchy, Rousseau advocated direct democracy. In fact, the central concept in Rousseau's thought is liberty and most of his works deal with the ways in which people are forced to give up that liberty. His famous statement, "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains." begins his work The Social Contractpublished in 1762. Not only did this essay have an impact on the French Revolution, it also had a profound influence on theDeclaration of Independence adopted in 1776 by the new United States of America. Many of the ideas that Rousseau developed were spelled out in earlier works. The first of these, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, was the winning entry in an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in 1750. In this work, Rousseau argues that the progression of the sciences and arts has caused the corruption of virtue and morality. This discourse also won Rousseau fame and recognition, and it laid much of the philosophical groundwork for a second, longer work, The Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, a 1754 essay also written for the Academy of Dijon. On the Origin of Inequality This work sets out many of his key ideas that were to greatly influence modern culture. Here we read about his thoughts on the "Noble Savage" and how he uses this concept to visualize how man developed over the eons and how in his view this development "went off the rails". He refers to times before the current state of civil society, when man was closer to his natural state, as happier times for man. To Rousseau, modern "civil" society is a trick perpetrated by the powerful on the weak in order to maintain their power or wealth. Therefore he begins his discussion with an analysis of natural man who has not yet acquired language or abstract thought. In spite of the fact that he was born and raised in Calvinistic Geneva, Rousseau ignored the biblical account of human history and instead set out to develop his own understanding of man's origins. As he contemplated his society he noted two types of inequality, natural or physical and moral or political. Natural inequality involves differences between one man's strength or intelligence and that of another²it is a product of nature. Rousseau is not concerned with this type of inequality but rather with moral inequality. This second type of inequality, he argued is endemic to a civil society and related to and caused by differences in power and wealth. It is not natural but is established by convention. As noted above, his solution was a "social contract" in which government is based on a mutual contract between it and the governed; this contract implies that the governed agree to be ruled only so that their rights, property and happiness are protected by their rulers. Once rulers cease to protect the ruled, the social contract is broken and the governed are free to choose another set of rulers. You can easily see how most modern democratic states are based on this ideal. It's also a sad commentary on our times that by manipulating the masses, many of today's governments seem to be more inclined to followMachiavelli instead of Rousseau. Denis Diderot and The Encyclopedia The "Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers" first published in 1751, was in fact a collaboration between Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The encyclopedia was not just a massive compilation of what was known at the time about all things scientific and philosophical. It was also an expression of the radical and controversial ideas espoused by the philosophes. Many of its articles reflected the impious attitudes of its contributors like Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau, for example. As such it served as a manifesto for a new way of looking at the world. Since the Industrial Revolution was just getting nicely underway, many of the various mechanical devices and processes which were transforming the world were described in detail and depicted in hundreds of engravings. D'Alembert especially, insisted on showing the dignity and genius of the men behind the inventions, men often scorned as commoners by the aristocracy. This whole thrust became a prelude to the egalitarian attitudes which were to eventually undermine the old aristocratic order. To quote Jean d'Alembert: "The contempt shown to the mechanical arts seems to have been influenced in part by their inventors. The names of these great benefactors of the human race are almost entirely unknown, whereas the history of its destroyers, that is to say, its conquerors, is known by everyone. Even so, it is perhaps among the artisans that one should go to find the most admirable proofs of the sagacity, the patience, and the resources of the intellect."1 The Enlightenment Spreads The effects of the French Enlightenment soon spread beyond her borders. As noted the American independence movement was certainly influenced but also in Europe itself, revolutionary thinkers in several countries took up the torch. In Scotland we find David Hume (1711-1776), regarded by many as the most important philosopher ever to write in English. Born in a presbyterian home, he was a relentless critic of metaphysics and religion. He was a contemporary and close friend

of Adam Smith (1723-1790) who is famous for his seminal work on Capitalism, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations and for coining the termthe invisible hand. Early on, Smith expounded the economic philosophy of "the obvious and simple system of natural liberty". In England, Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) constructed his monumental work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbon is widely regarded as a typical man of the Enlightenment, dedicated to asserting the claims of reason over superstition, to understanding history as a rational process, and to replacing divine revelation with sociological explanations for the rise of religion. You get some sense of Gibbon's view of Christianity on this little site. In Germany we find Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) who was ironically, of Scottish descent. Kant was born on April 22, 1724, in Königsberg, Prussia (Now Kaliningrad, Russia). He was brought up and educated in a strict orthodox kind of Christianity called German Pietism, which he never could shake entirely. Kant is often a tough read partly because he does not translate well out of his native German and also because of the very abstruse philosophic concepts like the nature and source of knowledge. Throw in terms like a posteriori and a priori and you can start rolling your eyes. If you do care to know, a posteriori knowledge is what we're most familliar with. It's the 'I saw it, tasted it, felt it so I'm pretty confident I can describe it', kind of knowledge. The other one, a priori knowledge basically means the 'I know what I know' kind of knowledge. This is a gross oversimplification but it'll serve us very nicely. Other than that, what was Kant all about that he's included here. Well in his own way he was a rebel too. In much of his writings he laments the tendency of those in authority to impose not only obedience to reasonable laws but (religious) control over men's minds. He was also disturbed by the willingness of many people of his day to submit themselves willingly to this control. "If man makes himself a worm he must not complain when he is trodden on.", he wrote. On the quest for knowledge, a central theme in his work, Kant proposed that we should not assume that our knowledge conforms to the nature of objects, but rather that objects conform to our ways of knowing them. This was his way of dealing with theconundrum that although experience is the best way to learn about the world, without a frame of reference (a theory, an insight) learning about the world is a difficult task. To Sum Up... I have not even begun to scratch the surface as to what the Enlightenment was all about. We've only mentioned some of the players. Also, there were some very influential women during this time who rarely get a mention. Nevertheless we can draw some conclusions. The enlightenment was a very big stepping stone between the medieval world and the world we live in. Many institutions while not abolished were dramatically altered. More importantly, men's minds were radically changed. In the 17th Century and earlier, before the enlightenment, the number of people who were brave, or foolhardy, enough to think or, heaven forbid, to openly speak or write about any number of issues considered risque, were few and far between. True, Copernicus had written that the earth wasn't the center of God's Universe. Newton had stated that for all intents and purposes God's providential hand was no longer needed to keep the whole shebang running. Things like that. But this had always been cloaked in religious mumbo-jumbo so that the powers-that-be wouldn't get too upset and do something nasty to you like Galileo's fate for instance. The enlightenment opened up the floodgates of new ideas, new thoughts on everything from the way man saw government and his own role in society to the way scientific ideas were conceived, demonstrated and above all published and shared with the world. Young minds were becoming free to pursue science in ernest and although they could be roundly condemned by all and sundry for their "heresies" the threat of official reprisal was becoming increasingly rare. In the time that followed, the 19th Century for example, we see the rich harvest that a climate of freeer and less censored thought could produce. We see for example the first tentative steps in coming up with a non-miraculous explanation for the origin of the staggering diversity of life forms on this earth of ours. There was Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) who discovered the basic rules of inheritance. We see the son of a Shrewsbury physician, Charles Darwin overcome his fear of censure and using meticulous research to present to the world his ideas about the evolutionary nature of life and how using natural selection, that might actually work. Even in Darwin's day evolution was hardly a new concept. In 1800,Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck had expounded his own theory of evolution. Even before that in 1749,Georges, Comte de Buffon had published his Historie Naturelle(Natural History) in which he speculated on the evolutionary tendencies in nature. And of course there was a contemporary,Alfred Russel Wallace who had independently come to many of the same conclusions Darwin had. Finally his own grandfather,Erasmus Darwin had expressed similar ideas. There was John Dalton, who resurrected the old Greek notion that all matter was made up of atoms and not individually created by some Divine command. There was Dmitri Mendeleev who

neatly organized all this into the first periodic table of the elements. Of course the Newtonian view of a mechanical universe was becoming the accepted view from a scientific perspective. Little by little the world of science was wrested from the straight-jacket of theology and began to take on a life of its own. For better or worse, we can thank the iconoclastic approach and temperament of the philosophes and other champions of the Enlightenment for the world we have today where science is ruled by its own internal controls of a rigid and transparent scientific method and rigorous peer review instead of some arbitrary outside agency. Many people today are offended by the idea that the Christian Church is blamed for many of the roadblocks to free scientific inquiry. Using all sorts of questionable history and logic, attempts are often made to pretend it isn't so. Yet as we examine the enlightenment through its main protaganists we are struck by a common thread. Many of them, raised in orthodox circumstances, felt called upon at considerable personal risk, to cast off the shackles imposed by their various religious roots.

are only possible within civil society. Rather than make freedom possible. however. and indeed. according to Rousseau. On the whole. then that contract is more important than the individuals that agree to it. we may lack any kind of personal agency or initiative. he might claim. and thus learn to think morally. however. it would seem to us that Rousseau's system revokes freedom. This last step determines the heavily communitarian perspective that Rousseau adopts. which make it possible to live in a community. We often have difficulty interacting with one another in any meaningful way. And civil society. We can put a check on our impulses and desires. He might argue that the citizens of ancient Greece and Rome were very active and capable of achievements that we have not come close to emulating since.Analytical Overview Rousseau's principal aim in writing The Social Contract is to determine how freedom may be possible in civil society. he might suggest that we are not free at all. and it could be argued that our decisions and behavior are largely dictated to us by a consumer culture that discourages individual thought. Looking at us in the new millennium. it gave individuality an outlet for its fullest expression. those individuals only have value because they agree to that contract. we gain the civil freedom of being able to think rationally. and it is insulting to think that we are just small parts of a greater whole. then. is only possible if we agree to the social contract. and we might do well to pause briefly and understand what he means by "freedom. The community spirit that united them did not intrude upon their individuality. Citizens in his ideal republic are not forced into a community: they agree to it for their mutual benefit. Rousseau goes so far as to speak of the sovereign as a distinct individual that can act of its own accord. Thus. . After all. We live in an age where individual rights are considered vitally important. we do not only have to thank society for the mutual protection and peace it affords us. rather. By entering into the social contract. The sovereign and the general will are more important than its subjects and their particular wills. Rousseau would not take these charges lying down. If we can only be fully human under the auspices of the social contract. but also rationality and morality. By giving up our physical freedom. only seems unattractive to us because we have totally lost the community spirit that makes people want to be together. Not just freedom. says Rousseau. we would not be human if we were not active participants in society. In short. Thus." In the state of nature we enjoy the physical freedom of having no restraints on our behavior. We might react to these arguments with serious reservations. The term "morality" only has significance within the confines of civil society. we also owe our rationality and morality to civil society. we place restraints on our behavior. The contract is not affirmed by each individual separately so much as it is affirmed by the group collectively. His system. Rousseau has been accused of endorsing totalitarianism. the group collectively is more important than each individual that makes it up.

"man is born free. The sovereign only has authority over matters that are of public concern. There are many different forms of government. but attendance is essential to the well-being of the state. but for what they believe is the general will. Monarchy is the strongest form of government. The people exercise their sovereignty by meeting in regular. and is best suited to large populations and hot climates. non-citizen lawgiver. Legitimate political authority. This friction will ultimately destroy the state. the results of these votes should . comes only from a social contract agreed upon by all citizens for their mutual preservation.The best response to Rousseau (aside from pointing out that those societies relied on slavery and exploitation) might be to say that the world has changed since then. the sovereign expresses the general will that aims for the common good. Though Rousseau does permit citizens to do whatever they please so long as it does not interfere with public interests. When voting in assemblies. When citizens elect representatives or try to buy their way out of public service. It is often difficult to persuade all citizens to attend these assemblies. and suggest that Rousseau does not give careful enough attention to the latter. Rousseau maintains that aristocracies tend to be the most stable. but healthy states can last many centuries before they dissolve. The government is distinct from the sovereign. While the sovereign exercises legislative power by means of the laws." Rousseau asserts that modern states repress the physical freedom that is our birth right. he suggests. We could borrow from social theorist Jurgen Habermas the distinction between the public sphere and the private sphere. and do nothing to secure the civil freedom for the sake of which we enter into civil society. Rousseau calls the collective grouping of all citizens the "sovereign. aristocracy. he still seems to assume that human personality is in some way public. periodic assemblies. they may vary depending on local circumstances. the general will shall not be heard and the state will become endangered. people should not vote for what they want personally. The general will finds its clearest expression in the general and abstract laws of the state. depending on their size. but they can roughly be divided into democracy. and the two are almost always in friction. he is demanding that our public persona take precedence over our private self. but in this domain its authority is absolute: Rousseau recommends the death penalty for those who violate the social contract. While each individual has a particular will that aims for his own best interest. By demanding such active citizenship. carrying out day-to-day business. but he is everywhere in chains. states also need a government to exercise executive power. Summary With the famous phrase. He doesn't seem to perceive a distinction between who we are in public and what we are in private. which are created early in that state's life by an impartial. While different states are suited to different forms of government." and claims that it should be considered in many ways to be like an individual person. All laws must ensure liberty and equality: beyond that. In a healthy state. and monarchy.

and often refers to Sparta or Rome when looking for an example of a healthy state. Thinkers such as ##Voltaire##. after the ##French Revolution## his remains were transported to the Pantheon in Paris and he was buried as a national hero. and Grotius. However. They argue that only by entering into society and swearing absolute allegiance to a king can people escape the depravity and brutality of a life in the wild. When it was first published in 1762. While everyone should be free to observe their personal beliefs in private. Rousseau's political thought was primarily influenced by two groups. who argue that society exists in order to protect certain inalienable rights of its citizens. Pufendorf. brief dictatorships may be necessary. First. Rousseau suggests that the state also require all citizens to observe a public religion that encourages good citizenship.approach unanimity. The role of the censor's office is to voice public opinion. who support absolute monarchy. Rousseau takes the example of the Roman republic and its comitia. Diderot and d'Alembert undertook the editorship of the Encyclopedie. which was meant to serve as a record of all human knowledge collected to date. In cases of emergency. Rousseau was initially friends with the other Enlightenment figures. Rousseau recommends the establishment of a tribunate to mediate between government and sovereign and government and people. The Social Contract was met with outrage and censorship. To prove that even large states can assemble all their citizens. The Social Contract was the foremost influence on the intellectual development of the French Revolution. there is the liberal tradition of ##Locke## and Montesquieu. While Rousseau draws ideas from both traditions. the crowning glory of the Enlightenment. The influence of such thinking pervades The Social Contract. The societies of antiquity were characterized by a strong civic spirit. in 1794. Context Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was active at the height of the French Enlightenment. and d'Alembert headed a movement that placed supreme faith on the powers of reason. Second. he also disagrees with both in significant ways. He is more favorably inclined toward the ancient Greeks and Romans. there is the voluntarist tradition of ##Hobbes##. where citizenship was considered not only an honor but a defining characteristic of who one was. and intellectual and temperamental differences increasingly drew them apart. However. believing that reason and knowledge could slowly bring about the betterment of humankind. Rousseau became a wanted man both in France and in his native Geneva. and contributed several articles (mostly on music) to the Encyclopedie. thirty-two years later. Diderot. he did not share their faith in reason or human progress. and we feel especially the influence of Aristotle's ##Politics##. They were disdainful of religion or blind faith of any kind. and that stormy period in history is our best example of Rousseau's ideas put .

Laws deal only with the people collectively. It is not fair to blame the Reign of Terror and the many disasters of the Revolution on Rousseau. which takes care of particular matters and day-to-day business. slaves to their own instincts and impulses.into practice. In the state of nature people have physical freedom. The government represents the people: it is not sovereign. There are as many different kinds of government as there are states. aristocracy (the rule of the few). Rousseau defines the sovereign as all the citizens acting collectively. Together. they voice the general will and the laws of the state. They are essentially a record of what the people collectively desire. but they gain the civil freedom of being able to think and act rationally and morally. and monarchy (the rule of a single individual). Government . however. Rousseau hopes to secure the civil freedom that should accompany life in society. a sovereign is the voice of the law and the absolute authority within a given state. In The Social Contract.The problem of freedom is the motivating force behind The Social Contract. there is often friction between the government and the sovereign that can bring about the downfall of the state. In a healthy republic. They are bound to obey an absolutist king or government that is not accountable to them in any way. civil freedom is superior to physical freedom. and it cannot speak for the general will.This is the executive power of a state. or broken up in any way: only all the people speaking collectively can be sovereign. but this restraint leads people to be moral and rational. For this reason. Freedom or Liberty . In most contemporary societies. since people are not even slaves to their impulses. Laws exist to ensure that people remain loyal to the sovereign in all cases. The sovereign cannot be represented. Each individual has his own particular will that expresses what is best for him. In Rousseau's time. the sovereign was usually an absolute monarch. This freedom is tempered by an agreement not to harm one's fellow citizens.The sum total of each individual's particular will. By proposing a social contract.An abstract expression of the general will that is universally applicable. and cannot deal with any particulars. people lack even this physical freedom. however. It has its own corporate will that is often at odds with the general will. though they can be roughly divided into democracy (the rule of the many). The contract essentially binds people into a community that exists for mutual preservation. but his influence was certainly felt throughout. Sovereign . In entering into civil society. in . meaning that their actions are not restrained in any way. since each citizen wills the common good.Strictly defined.The agreement with which a person enters into civil society.The will of the sovereign that aims at the common good. The general will expresses what is best for the state as a whole. In this sense. Terms Social contract . Rousseau believes that only by entering into the social contract can we become fully human. Law . this word is given a new meaning. General will . In a healthy state. the will of all is the same thing as the general will. Will of all . people sacrifice the physical freedom of being able to do whatever they please. divided. but they are little more than animals. However.

he speaks very highly of this prehistoric state. we also owe our rationality and morality to civil society. Civil society . Thus. In a different book. we place restraints on our behavior. which make it possible to live in a community. In the state of nature. then.When Rousseau talks about the state of nature. Discourse on Inequality. The term "morality" only has significance within the confines of civil society. are only possible within civil society. but in The Social Contract he is more ambivalent.a state where people value their personal interests over the interests of the state. he is talking about what human life would be like without the shaping influence of society. The contract is not affirmed by each individual separately so much as it is affirmed by the group collectively. but also rationality and morality. Thus. We have physical freedom but we lack morality and rationality. we do not only have to thank society for the mutual protection and peace it affords us. By agreeing to live together and look out for one another. With civil society comes civil freedom and the social contract. Rousseau believed that this state of nature was better than the slavery of his contemporary society. and it is what the general will aims at.Civil society is the opposite of the state of nature: it is what we enter into when we agree to live in a community. and to temper our brute instincts. After all. By giving up our physical freedom. but our desires and impulses are not tempered by reason. and thus learn to think morally. By entering into the social contract. In short. We can put a check on our impulses and desires. we are free to do whatever we want. we learn to be rational and moral. so he suggests that before society existed. The sovereign and the general will are more important than its subjects and their particular wills. Common good . So much of what we are is what society makes us. says Rousseau. Analytical Overview Rousseau's principal aim in writing The Social Contract is to determine how freedom may be possible in civil society. we must have been very different. however. then that contract is more important than the individuals that agree to it. . State of Nature . Not just freedom. If we can only be fully human under the auspices of the social contract. This last step determines the heavily communitarian perspective that Rousseau adopts. Rousseau goes so far as to speak of the sovereign as a distinct individual that can act of its own accord. we gain the civil freedom of being able to think rationally. This is what the social contract is meant to achieve. those individuals only have value because they agree to that contract. And civil society. Still. is only possible if we agree to the social contract. according to Rousseau. we would not be human if we were not active participants in society.The common good is what is in the best interests of society as a whole. the will of all may differ significantly from the general will. and we might do well to pause briefly and understand what he means by "freedom. the group collectively is more important than each individual that makes it up." In the state of nature we enjoy the physical freedom of having no restraints on our behavior.

On the whole. he might suggest that we are not free at all. . Looking at us in the new millennium. His system. Rousseau would not take these charges lying down. We could borrow from social theorist Jurgen Habermas the distinction between the public sphere and the private sphere. and it could be argued that our decisions and behavior are largely dictated to us by a consumer culture that discourages individual thought. rather. Citizens in his ideal republic are not forced into a community: they agree to it for their mutual benefit. and indeed.We might react to these arguments with serious reservations. We often have difficulty interacting with one another in any meaningful way. Though Rousseau does permit citizens to do whatever they please so long as it does not interfere with public interests. however. Rather than make freedom possible. he might claim. We live in an age where individual rights are considered vitally important. and it is insulting to think that we are just small parts of a greater whole. By demanding such active citizenship. He might argue that the citizens of ancient Greece and Rome were very active and capable of achievements that we have not come close to emulating since. The best response to Rousseau (aside from pointing out that those societies relied on slavery and exploitation) might be to say that the world has changed since then. it gave individuality an outlet for its fullest expression. He doesn't seem to perceive a distinction between who we are in public and what we are in private. and suggest that Rousseau does not give careful enough attention to the latter. The community spirit that united them did not intrude upon their individuality. only seems unattractive to us because we have totally lost the community spirit that makes people want to be together. he still seems to assume that human personality is in some way public. Rousseau has been accused of endorsing totalitarianism. we may lack any kind of personal agency or initiative. he is demanding that our public persona take precedence over our private self. it would seem to us that Rousseau's system revokes freedom.

not by nature. liberty. In such circumstances. people simply do whatever is within their power." These "chains" are the constraints placed on the freedom of citizens in modern states. Nor is legitimate political authority founded on force. Political thinkers--particularly Grotius and ##Hobbes##--have asserted that the relationship between ruler and subject is similar to that between father and child: the ruler cares for his subjects and so has unlimited rights over them. This kind of reasoning assumes the natural superiority of rulers over the ruled. The stated aim of this book is to determine whether there can be legitimate political authority--whether a state can exist that upholds. And if they are able to overthrow their ruler. then this also is right since they are exercising their superior might. Chapters 1-5 Summary The first chapter opens with the famous phrase: "Man was born free.Book I. there is no political authority. The maxim that "might makes right" does not imply that the less strong should be obedient to the strong. Such superiority is perpetuated by force. then people obey rulers not because they should. so political authority has no basis in nature. and he is everywhere in chains. which exists only for the preservation of the child. rather than constrains. The only natural form of authority is the authority a father has over a child. but because they have no choice. If might is the only determinant of right. Rousseau rejects the idea that legitimate political authority is found in nature. Rousseau's suggested answer is that legitimate political authority rests on a covenant (a "social contract") forged between the .

and a covenant made by a lunatic would be void. and are no longer in any position to ask for something in return. and not the other way around. and slaves have no freedom and no rights. Wars are conducted between states for the sake of property. because only a lunatic would give up his freedom for nothing. Rousseau links freedom with moral significance: our actions can only be moral if those actions were done freely. and becomes simply a man. and desolates the country by stockpiling all its goods for his own consumption. they could not justifiably surrender the freedom of their children as well. The people in an absolute monarchy are slaves. It is not preservation: the king keeps himself fed and contented off the labor of the people. Wars have nothing to do with individuals. Rousseau also objects to the suggestion that prisoners of war could become slaves through an even exchange. including Grotius. By surrendering their freedom to their ruler. When an enemy surrenders. where the conqueror spares the life of the vanquished in exchange for that person's freedom. In giving up our freedom we give up our morality and our humanity. It is impossible to surrender one's freedom in a fair exchange. He has a number of predecessors in theorizing a social contract. Grotius is less clear what the people get in return for their freedom. he ceases to be an enemy. people surrender all their rights. Yet it must be something. Besides. who proposes that there is a covenant between the king and his people--a "right of slavery"--where the people agree to surrender their freedom to the king.members of society. A people only become a people if they . More importantly. It is not security: civil peace is of little value if the king makes his people go to war. even if people were able to surrender their own freedom.

or private property.have the freedom to deliberate amongst themselves and agree about what is best for all." In his Discourse on Inequality. Whatever is not a part of this "natural state" has come about as a result of human society." In the Discourse on Inequality. as "noble savages. Rousseau paints a very rosy picture of this natural state: without property to quarrel over and governments to enforce inequality. and is thus "unnatural. His interest in a "natural state. he seems to be alluding to a prehistoric state of affairs where people had no government. is an effort to determine what we would be like if political institutions had never existed. This view contrasts sharply . Commentary The concept of nature is very important throughout Rousseau's philosophy." This opinion is expressed more forcefully in his earlier work. in The Social Contract Rousseau is more ready to accept the possibility that modern society can potentially benefit us. he makes no effort to support the historicity of this claim. and later denied that he intended the Discourse to refer to an actual former state of affairs. Rousseau is not interested in history or archaeology so much as he is interested in understanding human nature as it exists in the present. law. the Discourse on Inequality." then. It is not entirely clear what Rousseau means when he talks about "nature" or our "natural state. However. He is famous for countering the common Enlightenment position that reason and progress were steadily improving humankind with the suggestion that we are better off in our state of nature. His political philosophy is driven by the conviction that the political associations we participate in shape our thoughts and behavior to a great extent. our fundamental human nature is compassionate and free of strife.

suggesting that no legitimate . and Pufendorf. who used the idea of a social contract to justify absolute monarchy. Rousseau is drawing on the ideas of Hobbes." Hobbes and Grotius both claim that human society comes about in order to improve this unpleasant natural state. Rousseau suspects that Hobbes gives such a negative portrayal of our natural state out of an assumption that human nature remains unchanged with or without political institutions.with most of Rousseau's predecessors. poor. and could even be traced as far back as Plato's ##Crito##. rather. If human beings today were suddenly to find themselves without political institutions. brutish. Rousseau's hypothetical natural state is pre-societal: before we were corrupted by politics. These thinkers suggested that people consent to be governed by an absolute monarch in exchange for the protection and elevation from the state of nature that this affords them. The idea of a social contract is not original to Rousseau. and short. Thomas Hobbes famously asserts that human life without political institutions is "solitary. It should be clear that Rousseau intends a sharp contrast between nature and civil society. It is important to understand that Rousseau believes it is impossible to return to this natural state. Rousseau's own social contract theory is meant to overturn the theories of these predecessors. Rousseau's suggestion is that it is formed by a "social contract": people living in a state of nature come together and agree to certain constraints in order that they might all benefit. More significantly. they would indeed lead unpleasant lives because they would have all the selfishness and greed that society has bred in them without any of the safeguards and protections of that society. among others. Grotius. we had none of the unpleasant characteristics that Hobbes identifies. nasty. In the ##Leviathan##. Human society is not a part of our natural state. it is formed artificially.

(2) Because people surrender themselves unconditionally. and become slaves. people surrender the freedom and authority to consent to a social contract. but they rest on the fundamental assertion that in surrendering their liberty to their monarch. when people need to combine forces in order to survive. The social contract essentially states that each individual must surrender himself unconditionally to the community as a whole. Chapters 6-9 Summary There reaches a point in the state of nature. According to Rousseau. Rousseau draws three implications from this definition: (1) Because the conditions of the social contract are the same for everyone. This entity. we lose both our freedom and humanity. His arguments are diverse. Book I. The community that is formed by this social contract is not simply the sum total of the lives and wills of its members: it is a distinct and unified entity with a life and a will of its own. If a monarch has absolute power over us. Rousseau suggests. people don't lose their natural freedom by entering into the social contract. called a "city" or "polis" in ancient times. and so render void any contract they make with the monarch. (3) Because no one is set above anyone else. everyone will want to make the social contract as easy as possible for all. The problem resolved by the social contract is how people can bind themselves to one another and still preserve their freedom. is now .social contract can be forged in an absolute monarchy. the individual has no rights that can stand in opposition to the state. our freedom and our humanity are closely tied to our ability to deliberate and make choices.

Though the sovereign is not bound by the social contract. subjects of the sovereign are doubly bound: as individuals they are bound to the sovereign. Thus. thereby rendering us moral. in hurting its subjects it would be hurting itself." Some further definitions: in its passive role it is a "state." and in relation to other states a "power". While we lose the physical liberty of being able to follow our instincts freely and do whatever we please. Rousseau here draws a distinction between nature and civil society that heavily favors the latter. we take responsibility for our actions. By contrast. . In civil society. it cannot do anything that would violate the social contract since it owes its existence to that contract. Rousseau treats it in many respects as if it were an individual. on the other hand. Rousseau suggests that unwilling subjects will be forced to obey the general will: they will be "forced to be free. Since no individual can be bound by a contract made with himself. Self-interested individuals might try to enjoy all the benefits of citizenship without obeying any of the duties of a subject." and individually they are "citizens".called a "republic" or a "body politic. Because the sovereign is a distinct and unified whole. and become nobler as a result. we gain the civil liberty that places the limits of reason and the general will on our behavior. they are "subjects" insofar as they submit themselves to the sovereign. and as members of the sovereign they are bound to other individuals." in its active role a "sovereign. need the incentive of law to remain loyal to the sovereign. Individuals. Further. the social contract cannot impose any binding regulations on the sovereign." In contrast to the Discourse on Inequality. so the sovereign will act in the best interests of its subjects without any binding commitment to do so. the community that forms it is "a people.

they also become a part of the larger life and will of the sovereign. However. the sovereign is not simply the sum total of its individual members. but will nonetheless work to ensure their well-being. but because our fingers and knees are a part of our body. and in harming them we would be harming ourselves. . large robot: one Constructicon would be the left arm of this larger robot. Commentary Fans of the Transformers may recall the "Constructicons. In the social contract. another would be the right leg. and so on. but in binding themselves to the social contract. if the owner occupies no more land than he needs. He suggests that ownership of land is only legitimate if no one else claims that land. and if he cultivates that land for his subsistence. the sovereign owes nothing to its subjects in the same way as a person owes nothing to his pinky finger or his left knee. This is the same sort of principle that Rousseau is applying here. Individual citizens have a life and a will of their own. the sovereign owes nothing to its subjects. every individual is committed to the sovereign. Just as each part of the body is responsible for working with the rest of the body and ensuring that it functions smoothly. he does not give up his property since he is also a subject of the sovereign. Similarly. each individual surrenders all his property along with himself to the sovereign and the general will. In doing so. but is treated by Rousseau as an individual itself." a group of smaller robots who could join together to form one. Like the large robot formed by the individual Constructicons.Rousseau concludes Book I with a discussion of property. We try to keep our fingers and knees from harm not because we are bound by some sort of contract.

If you find yourself uncomfortable with all this. The freedom we have in the state of nature is the freedom of animals: unconstrained and irrational. according to Rousseau. the sovereign essentially forces its subjects to maintain the civil freedom that is part and parcel of this social contract. rather. we learn the freedom of self-control. any violation of that contract will also violate our civil freedom. Rousseau contrasts the physical freedom of following our instincts with the civil freedom of acting rationally. We undermine our very rationality and morality by violating the contract that made us rational and moral. By entering into civil society we learn to restrain our instincts and to act rationally. This rationality is what defines our actions as moral. we fully realize it. we do not give up our freedom by binding ourselves to the social contract. By leaving our natural state of do-as-you-please. Some commentators have gone so far as to accuse Rousseau of . you are not alone. Thus. we come to recognize that we need reasons to justify our actions. Rationality and morality distinguish us from animals. In civil society. This background may help us understand Rousseau's disturbing claim that recalcitrant citizens should be "forced to be free. By forcing its subjects to obey the social contract.Rousseau's communitarian point of view can be understood by referring to his contrast between the state of nature and civil society." If we only gain civil freedom by entering into civil society and binding ourselves to the social contract. The community is superior to the individual because it is a community of humans and the individual is just a solitary animal. so it is only by becoming a part of civil society that we become human. according to Rousseau.

though this is a bit far-fetched. Chapters 1-5 Summary Society can only function to the extent that people have interests in common: the end goal of any state is the common good. Still.totalitarianism. Rousseau's ideas formed an ideological backbone for the French Revolution. Rousseau argues that the common good can only be achieved by heeding the general will as expressed by the sovereign. The civil freedom that comes through active political participation is largely the freedom to determine one's own fate. the United States in particular. Rousseau's doctrines can be misused. To a large extent. ." Though to lay all the extreme excesses of the French Revolution at the feet of Rousseau is unfair. Rousseau is motivated by the fear that in modern states where citizens are not actively involved in politics. However. it may not always be clear how the general will is determined." Book II. and in such instances terror and the guillotine can become an attractive means of forcing people to be "free. they become passive witnesses of the decisions that shape them rather than active participants. The sovereign is inalienable: it cannot defer its power to someone else. his notion that the community comes first and the individuals in it second is contrary to the notions of individual liberty that characterize most modern democracies. is any indication. if the ##French Revolution##. some critics have noted that while Rousseau is usually quite careful in distinguishing between force and right. or be represented by a smaller group. It expresses the general will. he blurs that distinction dangerously in saying that people must be "forced to be free. but as the evolving chaos of the Revolution so clearly indicates.

and since these acts are not undertaken by the people as a whole. Though the general will always tends toward the common good. Rousseau insists that no factions form within a state. stating that the latter is simply the sum total of each individual's desires. A citizen must render whatever services or goods are necessary to the state. While he claims that the sovereign has absolute power over all its subjects. but the state cannot demand more than what is necessary from the citizen. This conclusion permits thinkers such as Grotius to then invest sovereign power in the particular will of a single monarch. These particular interests usually balance each other out unless people form factions and vote as a group. the sovereign can only exist so long as the people have an active and direct political voice. An expression of the general will takes the form of law. thus robbing the people of their rights. whereas the expression of a particular will is at best an application of law. and not of some part. the sovereign is only authorized to speak in cases that affect the body . Furthermore.) to be acts of sovereignty. they conclude that sovereignty is divisible. Rousseau accuses other philosophers of failing to understand this distinction. and that each individual should think for himself. Nor is sovereignty divisible: the sovereign always and necessarily expresses the will of the people as a whole. declarations of war.which will never coincide exactly with any particular private will. He draws an important distinction between the general will and the will of all. Rousseau is careful to carve out a space for private interests as well. They take particular acts (administration. Rousseau concedes that the deliberations of the people do not always necessarily express the general will. etc. As the will of the people.

As a result. As enemies of the social contract. and all people under its authority must obey it. each citizen is free to pursue private interests. is rumored once to have said. Commentary The concepts of the sovereign and of the general will had currency before Rousseau. It is also independent of any outside influences. His strongest reason for this position is the claim that wrongdoers. but not in the form that Rousseau gives them. Louis XIV. It is possible to pardon criminals. and so do not concern the sovereign: the sovereign deals only with matters that are of common interest. whatever the king said was law and had to be obeyed. both property and inhabitants. "I am the state. Cases that deal only with individuals or particularities do not concern all citizens. Rousseau holds on to the essential notion of sovereignty--that it is a power with absolute and inalienable influence over its . It is the voice of the law. These rulers assumed absolute control over their states. Rousseau supports the death penalty. they are enemies of the state. and no outside force could exert any influence either on Louis or his state. are essentially violating the social contract. In Rousseau's time. and is only bound to the sovereign in matters that are of public concern." Within France. in violating the laws of the state. A sovereign is the ultimate authority with regard to a certain group of people.politic as a whole. but both pardons and punishments are signs of weakness: a healthy state has few criminals. arguing that the sovereign has the right to determine whether its subjects should live or die. the archetypal absolute monarch. the sovereign was generally an absolute monarch. and must either be exiled or put to death.

in mind. Rousseau draws an important distinction between the general will and the "will of all. and so on. voters tend to pursue their own interests: the rich favor tax cuts. and so on. In Rousseau's ideal republic. the people acting together use authority to gain what is best for all. In modern democracies. and not the king. so the idea of a single monarch with absolute power over his subjects runs totally contrary to his ideal. In Rousseau's ideal republic. In the case of absolute monarchy. is not the will of any particular individual. Thus. unlike the will of a king. Rousseau turns the idea of sovereignty on its head. each person will vote with the interest of achieving what is best for all: the rich will recognize that taxation for social programs will help those in need. The general will aims at the common good. the poor favor social programs. and not their private interests. Rousseau thinks it is impossible that any single person's will should coincide with the general will in all cases. are sovereign. asserting that the people. Just as a king uses authority to gain what is best for him. . The only way people can be subjected to a sovereign power without losing their freedom is if they themselves are this sovereign power. sovereign authority is expressed in the will of the king.subjects--but rejects the idea that a single person or elite group can act as sovereign. sovereign authority is expressed in the general will. The general will." The will of all is simply what we get when we add up everything that each individual wants. Rousseau suggests that citizens should vote with the general will. His goal in The Social Contract is to determine how people can maintain their freedom within the confines of political association. In fact. the poor will recognize that lower taxes can spur the economy.

Rather than aiming evenly toward the common good. This raises the question of how we can distinguish one from the other. it seems. The only clear indication we get is that the general will is free of factionalism. the difference. and Rousseau even seems to suggest that private ballot is the best means of determining both. If a significant number of people band together because of shared private interests and agree to promote these interests by voting as a block. When dealing with matters outside sovereign authority. We should not take Rousseau's insistence that citizens disregard their private interests when voting as a sign that he disregards private interests altogether. they will manage to unbalance the general will.The general will and the will of all often coincide to a great extent. In a state free of factions. He is quite clear that the sovereign only has authority in matters that affect and are of interest to the body politic as a whole. However. Book II. each citizen votes with the interest of securing what is best for the state. rests entirely in the attitude with which citizens vote. Paradoxically. it is obviously important that each citizen do what he thinks is best for himself. it is important that citizens think of the common good rather than their own interests. Chapters 6-7 Summary . this requires that each citizen think for himself rather than consult with fellow citizens on what they think is best. In a healthy republic. A private ballot is essential to avoiding factionalism. In these matters. the sovereign has no authority over matters that affect only a portion of the body politic. the state will begin aiming unevenly toward the good of the most powerful faction.

A declaration of the sovereign that applies only to certain people or certain objects is not a law. A law can only be enacted if the people collectively agree on it. and willing to work selflessly on behalf of a people. but that it is not binding. All laws are made by the people as a whole and apply to the people as a whole: the law does not deal with particularities. The existence of civil society hinges on the existence of laws. and it must apply to all of them. but also the problem that the people do not always know what they want or what is best for them. However. How can a people as a whole sit down together and write up a code of law? There is not only the problem of how such a large number could write up such a document together. The law is essentially a record of what the people collectively desire. binding laws within society.The earlier discussion of the social contract and the sovereign explain how the body politic comes into being. it cannot determine which particular individual or group should receive these privileges. . Evil people will not obey God's law. so while it can say that a certain group should have certain privileges or that a certain person should be the head of state. or else those who obey God's law will suffer at the hands of those who disobey it. Rousseau acknowledges the problem of how laws should be laid down. He must be supremely intelligent. but a decree. and so we must set up positive. The law can never deal with individual people or groups. Rousseau defines law as an abstract expression of the general will that is universally applicable. Rousseau suggests that there is a universal and natural justice that comes to us from God. Rousseau's proposed solution comes in the form of a lawgiver. An ideal lawgiver is not easy to find. the question of how it maintains itself calls for a discussion of law.

Commentary To a large extent. we distinguished between civil and physical freedom. for instance. If our behavior is not restrained by laws of some sort. suggesting that we give up the latter and gain the former by entering into civil society. Chapters 6-9##." Not only is there the difficulty of finding a lawmaker of genius who does not himself wish to govern. In the ##Commentary section for Book I. but as the ability to deliberate rationally. He is outside and above the authority of the sovereign. there is also the difficulty of making the people obey the laws. Rousseau notes that throughout history. Civil freedom places a check on our instincts and impulses. Rousseau notes: "Gods would be needed to give men laws. Moses. the agreement to live under certain established laws is what defines the social contract. lawgivers have used the authority of God or some other divine power to support them. the lawgiver should not himself be a citizen of the state to which he gives laws. Remarking on the difficulty of finding such a person.please. In order for the laws to be unbiased. following our instincts and impulses. we are not free. An appeal to the supernatural origins of the laws is generally a good means of ensuring that they are obeyed. Rousseau is by no means the only philosopher to define "real" freedom not as an unbounded do-as-you. and opening us up to the freedom of thinking for ourselves. the lawgiver must exhibit great insight. Physical freedom is characterized by the unbounded freedom to do whatever we like. claims that God gave him the Ten Commandments.Because the laws shape the character and behavior of the people to a great extent. teaching us to think and behave rationally. People are unlikely to simply accept the laws given to them by a particular person. but are rather slaves to our .

People who agree voluntarily and as a group to abide by certain restrictions that will benefit all of them will likely become better people as a result. can make good people. The only solution. On the contrary. Decrees are matters of day-today business: a leader appointing an attorney general. he remarks at length as to how difficult it is to find someone who is up to the task.instincts and impulses. or the decision to condemn a traitor to death. When we extend this solution to society as a whole. is to define freedom as behavior that is restrained only by the laws of our own making. he suggests that good government. then we are not free. Because a set of laws largely defines the people who live under these laws. Because laws represent the restraints of civil freedom. or rather good laws. that is the source of our evil. If our behavior is restrained by the laws of some outside force. As the restraints a people places upon itself. the only laws that can maintain the freedom of citizens are those laws that the citizens as a whole agree upon. In the Discourse on Inequality. and not human nature. but are slaves to that outside force. . Rousseau is careful to distinguish between laws and decrees. laws are what define their civil freedom. In this sense. so it is no surprise that Rousseau believes that the laws that govern a people define their character to a great extent. or anything that deals with individuals or particular groups is a decree. then. Laws are made for the people as a whole by the people as a whole. They are the general guidelines under which a people chooses to live. Rousseau gives no practical solution as to how a code of laws is to be formed. they represent the leap made from humans in the state of nature into civil society. law is a civilizing force upon us. he asserts that it is bad government. Here.

Thus. In both of these cases. We might even think of the lawgiver as a saint or prophet of sorts: it is no wonder that Rousseau associates the creation of laws with the supernatural. the people will have become stuck in their prejudices and will resist the improving influence of good laws. a revolution may permit an older state to regain its freedom under new laws. and was giving these people laws without any personal interest or hope for gain. In rare cases. a lawgiver is neither what we might understand as a judge or legislator. Poland was partitioned and Corsica was annexed before either constitution could be implemented. nor even a political leader or dictator. at the invitation of those states.the lawgiver is responsible for determining what kind of people a certain state will produce. Despite all his talk about the difficulties of lawmaking. Book II. morality is defined by rationality. If the attempt to give laws is made too soon. but also difficult to find a people who are suitable for good laws. but such revolutions can only occur once. rationality (according to Rousseau) comes into being with civil society. . Rousseau was playing the role of the impartial lawgiver who stands outside the law: he was neither Corsican nor Polish. the people will not be ready to receive guidance. Chapters 8-12 Summary It is not only difficult to find a good lawgiver. and civil society comes into being thanks to a lawgiver. If we recall. Rousseau himself undertook to write two constitutions: one for Poland and one for Corsica. The lawgiver should be understood as someone who invents a moral code. If the attempt is made too late. Rousseau suggests that a state must receive laws relatively early in its existence.

a state that is too small is constantly in danger of being swallowed up by neighbors who are in constant friction with it. If a great number of people own a small territory. Bearing in mind all the above recommendations. Rather than one central government. there will have to be many levels of regional government. By "equality. If a small number of people own a great territory. however. they will not be able to maintain it all. Rousseau remarks: "I have a presentiment that this little island will one day astonish Europe. There must also be a balance between the number of people and the extent of territory in a state. administration becomes burdensome and costly. and will be in constant danger of invasion. they will need to rely on goods from other states to sustain them. the kind of people. with each additional level costing the people. Furthermore. There is no magic number to determine the right ratio of population to territory since a great deal hinges on the kind of land. One case of particular note. The final condition Rousseau lists for the establishment of laws within a state is that it must be enjoying a period of peace and plenty. In a large state." All laws should pursue the principles of freedom and equality. Rousseau notes that there aren't many states fit to receive laws." Rousseau does not mean that everyone should be . and so on.Rousseau also remarks that a state must be of moderate size--neither too big nor too small-if it is to do well. since the formation and establishment of laws leaves it momentarily vulnerable. and will constantly be tempted to invade their neighbors. is Corsica. a large government will be less swift and precise in maintaining law and order. On the other hand. and a state spread out over a great area with different customs and climates will be hard-pressed to create one law that is fair to all.

which are the main subject of The Social Contract. level. (3) Criminal Laws.exactly the same. Throughout The Social Contract. Commentary The end of Book II deals primarily with the people that make up a state. (1) Political Laws. Rousseau's recommendations are meant only on a general. Rousseau distinguishes four different classes of law. Instead. and not a particular. A people living in the mountains might be better off setting up a pastoral way of life. he notes that different people will have different needs and will require different laws. (4) the morals. . And most importantly. Each state should have laws that harmonize with its natural circumstances. but that differences in wealth should not unbalance the state. he suggests that the only absolute requirement for good laws is that they should in all cases preserve liberty and equality. Rousseau is wise not to be overly dogmatic in the recommendations he makes. which deal with cases where the law is broken. and beliefs of the people. For instance. while a people living by the sea might do better with seafaring and naval trade. the sovereign and the laws only have authority on those matters that affect the body politic as a whole. however. written laws. and there is not one "right" way that all states must follow. In Chapter 11. which deal with individuals in relation with each other or with the body politic as a whole. or Fundamental Laws. the fundamental structure of the state. (2) Civil Laws. customs. These determine the relationship the body politic has with itself. there is a lot of room for maneuvering. Within the guidelines of these general principles. These determine the quality of the people and the success of the more rigid. Each state has different needs and interests.

And again. is a necessary condition for the preservation of liberty. Equality. and it works against itself if it enslaves the people it is meant to liberate. it seems to him. There seems to be an interesting tension in Rousseau's discussion of law and its impact on people. Equality is important as a necessary condition for liberty. and material inequality. The Discourse on Inequality hammers on the idea that property. Though he insists that laws are a defining characteristic of the social contract. in Chapter 11 of The Social Contract. Thus. and are thus necessary to ensure human freedom. Both the very rich and the very poor would value money more than liberty. The poor would be willing to sell their freedom and the rich would be capable of buying it. Rousseau asserts that some level of material equality is necessary to ensure that liberty comes before profit.Liberty (or freedom) is the basic premise around which The Social Contract is structured: Rousseau's principal question is how people can preserve their liberty in a political union. While he is against overly eager capitalism. he argues that gross material inequality can put liberty up for sale. Rousseau is equally insistent on defending our right to private property. he also concedes that very few states are ready for such laws. Rousseau would presumably accuse communist states (there were none around during his time) of pursuing equality to such an extent that it takes precedence over liberty. Does this mean that very few states are ready for freedom? He explains that some states are not yet civilized enough to receive laws and some states are too deeply set in old prejudices to adapt to new laws. Nonetheless. we would no longer be free. are the root cause of human misery and evil. In Chapter 12. he does not join socialist or communist thinkers in recommending the abolition of private property altogether. he . If everything we did were for the benefit of the state.

since France invaded and annexed the island in 1769. Napoleon made himself into a lawgiver. This constitution was never implemented. Clearly. nor do they enjoy civil freedom. One of these rare cases Rousseau mentions is Corsica. he is contrasting civil society with the state of nature. instinctive manner. two years after he wrote The Social Contract. Though hardly as Rousseau had envisioned it. where we exist in a pre-moral. Chapters 1-2 . Because they live in society and must be rational. ##Napoleon## was born in Corsica." as this little man became Emperor of France and marched his armies all the way to Moscow. In 1764. but Rousseau is not clear how this morality manifests itself. he also suggests that morality is something that comes about with the creation of laws: laws and life in civil society are what make a person moral. When Rousseau talks about laws and civil society making a person moral.asserts that morality is more important for ensuring the well-being of a state than any of its explicit laws. Book III. In that same year. though. They are not in the state of nature. Corsica did indeed "astonish Europe. It is not entirely clear how things stand with barbarian civilizations or people living in absolute monarchies. it is rarely sufficient to raise them up into the civil freedom of a republic. Thus we run into a paradox of sorts: a people needs to be moral to some extent in order to receive laws. and his Code Napoleon remains a vital legal precedent from parts of Europe to once Frenchcontrolled Louisiana. Rousseau was invited to draw up a constitution for Corsica. And though not of the sort Rousseau might have imagined or esteemed. they must have some sort of moral life. However. and it is an interesting case. but they can only become moral when they have laws.

which are discussed at length in Book II. To walk around the block. The will of the body politic is expressed in the laws. the more powerful the government is. each individual will be only a small part of the sovereign. There is no kind of social contract between a government and the rest of the people. which deals only with general matters. On the other hand.Summary Rousseau opens Book III with an explanation of government and the executive power that it wields. . the larger the population. just as a strong government is needed to control a large population. since the people do not surrender their power or will to the government in the way that they do to the sovereign. I must decide to walk around the block (will). The strength that puts these laws into practice is found in the executive power of the government. the government will need to be able to exercise a great deal of power. Thus. A great many dangers arise when government and sovereign are confused or mistaken for one another. and I must have the power in my legs to do it (strength). Because the government deals with particular acts and applications of the law. and so each individual will be less inclined to follow the general will and more inclined to follow his or her own particular will. the more tempted the magistrates in the government will be to abuse their power and take advantage of their position. can be analyzed into will and strength. The government is an intermediary body that can be modified or disbanded according to the sovereign will (or general will). a strong sovereign is needed to control a strong government. In a large state. just like those of a person. it is distinct from the sovereign. Thus. The actions of a state. In order to keep so many people in line. the greater force the government must have relative to each individual.

like the sovereign. making the general will subordinate to its own will. as well as a supreme magistrate or chief that acts as its leader. In those books. and the stronger and more active relative to the people it will be. the main difference being that the sovereign acts according to its own interests.While there is obviously no precise mathematical relationship that can determine the proportionate power of government. or general. The fewer magistrates there are. Rousseau proposes that the government. In a large state. will. and the general will that expresses the will of the people as a whole. the more the corporate will shall resemble particular wills. The difficulty lies in arranging matters so that the government never acts solely on its own behalf. councils. and has its own assemblies. while the government acts according to the interests of the sovereign. the corporate will shall resemble the general will. the government still has a life and ego of its own. and titles. Commentary The first two books of The Social Contract deal with the abstract level of political right. With a great many magistrates. but it will also be relatively weaker and less active. can be considered a unified body. The ratio of the power of the government to the power of the people should be equal to the ratio of the power of the sovereign to the power of the government. Rousseau explains the . fewer magistrates are desirable. Nonetheless. where a strong government is needed. the corporate will that expresses the will of the government. Rousseau suggests the following ratio as a good formula. Any magistrate in government will have to exercise three different kinds of will: his individual will that pursues his own interests. honors.

how we should will them to be. both of which apply generally to all people equally and at all times. He concerns himself there with the sovereign and with laws.principles according to which a republic that upholds freedom and equality might exist. how we can put matters into effect. and such confusions lead thinkers like Grotius or ##Hobbes## to assert that there is a social contract binding subjects to a government of one person. Instead of discussing a sovereign or laws that are general and apply to all. discussing how a republic should be governed rather than the principles on which it should be founded. in Book I. On the whole. The importance Rousseau normally places on this distinction further highlights his own confusion of this distinction when. Now he discusses strength and force: how we can make things be the way we want them to be. In Book III Rousseau makes the transition from abstract to practical and from legislative to executive. who is also the sovereign." The discussion of the relative strengths of sovereign. Rousseau's distinction between will and strength is closely linked to the distinction between force and right. A proper distinction between force and right is necessary to grasp the subtleties of legitimate government. he deals with will and right: he discusses simply how things ought to be. and people can be a bit confusing. Chapter 7. he insists that people who do not obey the social contract must be "forced to be free. he discusses a government that is made up of a select group of magistrates and that exercises power in particular cases. Rousseau tries to explain . A failure to do so leads to a confusion between government and sovereign. Rousseau is very careful to distinguish between force and right. In the first two books. government.

himself in terms of mathematical analogies whose clarity can be helpful. Rousseau concludes that the larger the state becomes. On the contrary. Similarly. But. as a single individual. I also think and act with a corporate will. and such precise ratios can be misleading. the more my particular will shall take precedence over my participation in the general will. A strong government does not mean a large government. especially since there is no precise numerical measure for political power. each individual's particular will is so much stronger than his general will because his particular will concerns only himself. I also think and act with the general will in mind. in a large state. However. as he himself acknowledges. Rousseau's calculations are based on the assumption that every citizen exercises more than one kind of will. If I am a magistrate in government. In a state with ten thousand people. To prevent selfish anarchy. the less I constitute the sovereign. In a large state. and exercise a particular will. Rousseau argues that a large population needs a strong government to keep it in line. in concert with my fellow magistrates. as a member of the sovereign. Thus. . we won't find the precision of mathematics in moral calculations. each individual will care less about the well-being of the state. I act first and foremost in my own interests. The larger the state becomes. In a state with just one hundred people. I will constitute only one one-hundredth of 1 percent of the sovereign. I will constitute 1 percent of the sovereign. Rousseau asserts that the smaller a government is the stronger it is. and will care more about himself. while his general will concerns a large group of which he is only a small part.

the government is an aristocracy. In a small government. Rather. the larger the population. Chapters 3-7 Summary Rousseau roughly distinguishes three forms of government. the corporate will of each magistrate will be stronger. it seems. especially Aristotle. Rousseau is very skeptical about the viability of democracy. as Rousseau has already noted. is that each individual will feel less committed to the general will. the fewer magistrates there should be. The larger the population. He claims that "there has never been a true democracy. The danger.in a large government. When there is only one magistrate (or in some cases a small handful of magistrates). There is not one form of government that is best for all. Book III. the government is a democracy. small states to democracy. or the Geneva that he grew up in. and intermediate states to aristocracy. the government is a monarchy. and there . and so he thinks of the ideal political unit as a small city-state. When all or most of the citizens are magistrates. is that the corporate will of a small government will be so much stronger than the general will that the general will shall be ignored. Rousseau's ideas are deeply indebted to Greek political philosophers. The danger. Thus. the corporate will of each magistrate will be weak. then. When fewer than half the citizens are magistrates. of large states. large states are well suited to monarchy. and he will be more interested in his own particular will. like Athens or Sparta. the smaller the government that controls them should be. and so the general will might be neglected. A large country is ill suited to his recommendations.

it is in his best interests to keep the people he governs in harsh subjection so that they can never revolt. as the corporate will becomes nothing more than a particular will. (1) Natural aristocracy. with simple and honest citizens who have little ambition or greed. which Rousseau considers the worst kind of aristocracy. there is a great danger that the combining of legislative and executive functions will corrupt the laws and lead to the ruin of the state. democracy is also very susceptible to civil strife. frequently found in primitive civilizations. are placed in charge. a monarch will rarely assign these positions wisely. where certain families govern everybody else. As long as the magistrates can be trusted to govern justly. by their nature. There are three main kinds of aristocracy.never will be. When the government and the sovereign are the same body. just as he does about democracy. If a king wants his power to be absolute. However. Monarchies are best suited to large states. or those who are best suited to govern. Because it is so unstable. where elders and heads of families govern a village or tribe. where a number of ranks of princes and underlings can be assigned. Rousseau expresses serious reservations about monarchy. A successful democracy would need to be small. Monarchy is tremendously efficient. which Rousseau considers the best kind of aristocracy. (3) Hereditary aristocracy. (2) Elective aristocracy. Rousseau believes that aristocracy is an excellent form of government. where those with power or riches. However." States. since all power rests in the hands of one man. It is better to have a select group of the best men govern than to have everyone try to govern together regardless of qualifications. tend toward having a smaller number take charge of the affairs of government. this can be dangerous. and few monarchs have the strength to .

govern large states single-handedly. Aristotle values the "good life. On the whole. meaning that the state will not keep a fixed course. For all these reasons and more. Aristotle makes a similar distinction between democracy. but tends to favor aristocracy. to ancient Greek and Roman thinkers. While Rousseau values freedom above all. Commentary In reacting against the philosophers of the previous generation who support absolute monarchy. these elections are prone to serious corruption. and monarchy. his main reason for having reservations about democracy and . depending on whether government is by the many. the few. such as ##Hobbes## or Grotius. Rousseau's main reason for preferring aristocracy--or rather. No government is strictly one of these three forms: all are mixed to some extent. or by a single person. Perhaps. aristocracy. it is difficult to find a good king. Rousseau also notes that each successive king will have a different agenda. he owes a tremendous debt to Aristotle's ##Politics##. Aristotle also concedes that different forms of government suit different people. There is also a problem of succession: if kings are elected. A monarchy needs to assign power to lesser magistrates and a democracy needs some sort of leader to direct it." and sufficiently disregards the value of freedom to endorse slavery. and if there is a hereditary succession. however. the differences are more interesting than the similarities. For example. but recommends mixing forms in order to maintain a balance of power. dividing the government into different parts will dissipate its powers. if the government is too powerful relative to the sovereign. In particular. there is the constant risk of incompetent rulers. Rousseau looks even further back. Rousseau prefers simple forms of government. In that work.

monarchy--is that he is deeply concerned about cordoning off executive power and the corporate will as distinct entities. Much of the modern world is made up of representative democracies. as Rousseau perceives it. he does not mean democracy in the sense that we experience it today. is that the executive body may become corrupt and no longer serve the . of course. We should recognize that when Rousseau talks about democracy and the dangers it entails. In a democracy. The idea of forming the social contract is to ensure the freedom of each citizen. every citizen would be required to sit in assembly together and deliberate on matters of state. the corporate will is nothing other than the particular will of the monarch. Freedom does not rely on the executive work of carrying out day-today matters of state. while in a monarchy. is that it fails to distinguish between the executive and the legislative. The people as a whole are needed only as a legislative body. we can understand why Rousseau recommends democracy only to small states. According to this scheme. When Rousseau talks about "democracy. where the people are involved in politics only to the extent of electing officials to represent them in government. The dangerin a government of a select few. The main problem with direct democracy. the corporate will and the general will are liable to be confused. and Rousseau discusses the formation of government precisely so that only a select group will have to deal with such matters." he means direct democracy. This freedom would be seriously curtailed if each citizen had to devote as much time to government as elected officials normally do. This is enough to ensure the mutual freedom of all citizens. where the people are the officials who sit in government. If we imagine trying to do this in a country like the United States. to agree upon the laws and to agree to observe them.

as employed by Aristotle. that Rousseau does not insist that aristocracy is always the best form of government. such as his home city of Geneva. but Rousseau intends it in the Greek sense. every monarch will face the temptation to govern in his own interests. a select group of magistrates will take on executive duties. "Aristocracy" literally means "rule of the best. We should reiterate. if anything. This term has been taken in modern times to mean an undeserving and ineffectual upper class. and these magistrates will be skilled. on a sense that moderate-sized city-states." In a perfect world. large states are hard to govern regardless of the form of government. and not in the interests of the people. Chapters 8-11 Summary . His preference for aristocracy is based.people. there is no objective standard to distinguish the monarch's particular will from his corporate will as representative of the people. Because the executive body is reduced to a single person. Rousseau acknowledges that this is not always the case in an aristocracy. but seems to think that the dangers of aristocracy are fewer and more easily avoided than those either of democracy or monarchy. are ideal." which Rousseau contrasts with the literal meaning of "democracy": "rule of the many. however. This danger is especially present in a monarchy. Book III. While monarchy is the best form of government for large states. efficient. and will serve the interests of the people. Democracy is better suited to small states and monarchy to large states. It might seem odd that a philosopher who so ardently defends liberty and equality should favor aristocracy. As a result.

. A growing population is a sign of prosperity. Political associations exist in order to ensure the protection and prosperity of their members. In hot climates. and need fewer people to work the land. Colder. The closer the relationship between the government and the people. and the friction between the two can cause the government to degenerate. people tend to eat less. the less the taxes levied by the government will hurt the people. Considering the many disputes regarding what makes a good government. The government is inevitably at odds with the sovereign. Democracy can survive where there is little surplus and monarchy thrives where there is a great surplus. The government of a state does not produce any goods itself. while hotter. northern countries have little surplus and can support democracy. All these considerations serve as evidence that monarchical government thrives in hot climates. Rousseau agrees with Montesquieu that it is not possible in every environment. and so a sign of good government. Rousseau suggests that climate determines government to a great extent. southern countries have great surplus and support monarchy. making them easier to govern. have more fertile soil.Though freedom is desirable. and so must live off the surplus produced by the people. culture. Because fewer people are needed. Such usurpation breaks the social contract so that citizens become free of their social obligations only to be subjected by force. The state dissolves into anarchy when the government usurps sovereign power. the population will be more spread out. Thus. and other factors are nowhere near as important. Rousseau suggests that the objective and easily calculated factor of population is the best measure. Either the government will contract--going from democracy to aristocracy or from aristocracy to monarchy--or the state itself will dissolve. Peace.

The friction between government and sovereign is bound to destroy all states eventually. each individual does not produce these goods equally. States. not for the sake of profit. but also producing enough to take care of the government. to each according to his need. While farmers and tailors produce food and clothing. the farmers and the tailors are responsible not only for producing sufficient food and clothing for themselves. Each individual needs to consume a certain fixed quantity of goods--food. each citizen paying taxes that are proportional to the profit he makes from whatever business or trade he undertakes. and Rousseau notes that even Sparta and Rome (his two favorites) devolved after a time. clothing. like humans. and we could read this as a simple endorsement of capitalism: magistrates get paid a certain sum for serving in government." Farmers will give up a certain amount of their food. Magistrates get paid taxpayers' money. so it is more likely that he is thinking along the lines of the Marxist slogan: "from each according to his ability. Commentary Rousseau's peculiar analysis of the effect climate holds on government rests on a certain picture of production and consumption. and they can use this money to buy food and clothing for themselves. etc. then. they become strong with tradition. . However. However. but simply because they produce more food than they need and they recognize that their surplus food is needed to feed government magistrates. The longevity of a state relies on its legislative power: if the laws are upheld for a long time. Rousseau is a bit vague in his formulation. government magistrates produce nothing of the sort. Rousseau tends to speak negatively about finance and profit motives. are only mortal. According to Rousseau.

could his theory be proved wrong? And what kind of theory is it? It would seem that he considers this theory to be a self-evident truth. it is rather unsatisfying that those of us who might dispute it are given no grounds to raise an objection. When no such incentive exists. he is making the rather naive assumption that the quantity of goods produced will remain fixed regardless. but does not seem to consider that productivity depends heavily on how the goods are distributed. Capitalism and consumerism have had such astonishing success (we will leave aside the question of whether this is for the better or worse) because everyone has the direct incentive of profit to increase productivity. and the kinds of soil and people found in different lands. Even if the south were filled with democracies and the north with monarchies. Rousseau discusses climate.If this is what Rousseau means. but monarchy relies on a large . Rousseau concedes that there is obviously no direct correlation between what degree of latitude a state occupies and the kind of government it has. Rather than discuss economics. but he also interestingly asserts that the actual facts of the matter have little bearing on the truth of his theory. History suggests that workers who have nothing to gain personally from producing a surplus will be less diligent in producing that surplus. then. his theory that hotter climates tend to produce monarchies would still hold: it would just mean that the other factors he discusses outweigh the considerations of climate. This bold assertion raises two questions: How. productivity tends to decline. One might also think it odd that Rousseau claims that democracy thrives on a small surplus. However. and the surplus becomes smaller. His discussion of climate seems to be less like a theory and more like blind dogmatism. Rousseau lists a number of factors that determine the size of a surplus.

though. and so a larger surplus would be needed. one might be puzzled by Rousseau's assertion that population growth is the best and only means of determining good government. that is because of the laziness of the people and not because of logistical difficulties. noting that the determining factor is not the size of government. In a democracy. the king consumes all the surplus. but Rousseau points out that in ancient times. If the population is healthy and the state is prosperous. that he is talking about what makes a good government. This may seem unrealistic. In an absolute monarchy. Rousseau goes on and on about the importance of freedom and equality. even cities as large as Rome managed the feat. However. there would be more mouths to feed in government. they still do well. Book III. Chapters 12-18 Summary In order that sovereign power may maintain itself. If there are more magistrates in a democracy. not what makes a happy society. it is important that all citizens meet in periodic assemblies. Rousseau is quite astute. but how efficiently goods are cycled through society. We should note. and the people receive nothing in return. in this case. Lastly. Throughout the Social Contract. the people who work are the same people who enjoy the benefits of the surplus. In fact. he goes on immediately afterward to point out that government and sovereign are in constant conflict and will ultimately pull the state apart. If it seems unrealistic today. a state should not be .surplus. Generally. the government in power is likely to remain happily in power whether it ensures the freedom of its people or not. and yet here he suggests that prosperity as reflected in population growth is more important. so even if this surplus is small.

Rousseau derisively speaks of "finance" as the practice of letting one's wallet replace one's duty as a citizen. sovereign power cannot modify itself like that. the people have enslaved themselves by electing representatives to exercise their freedom for them. so assembling the citizens should not be difficult. As a result. Rousseau notes that the ancient Greeks were able to assemble regularly largely because slaves did most of their work. . the more frequently all citizens should assemble. Rousseau suggests that the more powerful the government is. Representation is a modern idea that evolved from feudalism. Often. but rotating the seat of government and popular assembly from town to town. a population that does not want to assemble to exercise legislative power elect representatives to do their work for them. In the unstable case where several towns are united. the lowliest citizen has as much of a voice as the most powerful magistrate. When the citizens are too lazy or reticent to exercise their freedom the government may succeed in undermining sovereign authority. Though there is no set period of time. and the government will often try to dissuade the people from assembling. Second. In such assemblies. First. Rousseau remarks that a state begins to dissolve when the people value comfort over freedom. Rousseau suggests not having a fixed capital. Rousseau addresses the institution of government. these assemblies are a danger to the government.larger than a single town. claiming contrary to the assertion of other theorists that government is not instituted by means of a contract between people and magistrates. and pay representatives and mercenaries rather than serve the state themselves. In the modern world. and Rousseau re-asserts that sovereignty cannot be represented.

He has already remarked on the friction between government and sovereign: the government that wields power will naturally want to act on its own behalf. there would be no higher power to ensure that the contract is honored. and not on behalf of the people as a whole. While in a healthy. but by law. where all citizens must gather . This check is the exercise of popular sovereignty. and therefore not a sovereign act. At every assembly. Third. There should be an agreed-upon period of time. the government can be more or less trusted. Rousseau has spoken about the sovereign as the expression of the general will and the true voice of the people. From the beginning of the book. government is instituted not by contract. the sovereign becomes a democracy--a government where every citizen is a magistrate--and the decision to name certain magistrates is a particular act of government. but the act of assigning certain magistrates is not. momentarily. Once magistrates have been named. A regular assembly of all the people is the best means of ensuring that the government never usurps sovereign power. Thus. The decision to institute a government is indeed an act of sovereignty. the people must vote as to whether the present government and magistrates should be kept in power. happy state. but officers. written into the constitution. Rousseau explains that. and the government and sovereign become two distinct bodies. but only here does he state explicitly how the general will is to make itself heard. and magistrates are not rulers. Commentary The distinction between government and popular assemblies is absolutely crucial to Rousseau's system. some sort of check must exist to keep the government at bay. the sovereign ceases to act like a government.such a contract would be a particular act.

whose influence he acknowledges at other points in The Social Contract. (We . government is disbanded. The demand that all citizens should participate in popular assemblies is unique to Rousseau in the modern world. preventing it from acting against their interests. which drew a great deal of inspiration from his ideas. equality. One of the matters discussed at every assembly is the performance of the government and whether it should be allowed to continue. fraternity" was to be the motto of the ##French Revolution##. Naturally. Rousseau probably got this idea of checks and balances between executive and legislative from Montesquieu. It is a very tall order. there is no need for representation. but one that is essential. the government's power is almost unlimited. and judicial functions. Montesquieu's idea of dividing government into executive. "Liberty. and with the idea of the popular assembly he stresses the importance of fraternity. and when all the people are present. periodic basis. For this reason. it is in the government's best interests to discourage popular assemblies: without them. He has already stressed the importance of liberty and equality. the government as executive is meant to represent the people. to maintaining a healthy state. This allows the people collectively to place a check on the government. and establishing a system of checks and balances between them. Rousseau insists that it be written in law that the people must assemble on a regular. legislative. is most famously put into practice in the American constitution. Though this law can combat the selfish designs of the government.together in an assembly and voice their concerns collectively. it cannot combat the laziness of the people itself. During this time. After all. Rousseau believes.

according to Rousseau. Looking at Rousseau's hated terms--"representation" and "finance"--will help us understand what is lost when people do not exercise popular sovereignty as a group. The general will can only be expressed by the people as a whole. This claim might seem a bit outlandish: most of us who live in modern representative democracies are not "slaves" to the . The first temptation. If those with enough money can buy their way out of service to the state. If we recall.need only look at the voter turnout in most modern democracies to have an idea of how low the likelihood that every citizen would show up to deliberate on matters of state in a large assembly. We might find something similar in modern democracies. the state itself can ultimately be bought. If the sovereign is represented it ceases to be the sovereign. and they will become the slaves of those in charge. If people try to buy their way out of their duty to the state. Those who have no interest in exercising their civil freedom are guaranteed to lose it. where hefty campaign contributions from wealthy interest groups and politically biased journalism can do a great deal to sway an election. and they cannot elect representatives to express this will for them. representation.) The survival of the social contract depends to a large extent on the enthusiasm of the people with regard to this contract. undermines Rousseau's concept of fraternity. Rousseau believes that people can find civil freedom only by entering into the social contract and exercising popular sovereignty. liberty will not be able to stand alone. The temptation toward finance undermines Rousseau's concept of equality. They will no longer have a voice in how the state is run. they are essentially buying their enslavement. When the people undermine equality and fraternity.

While "representation" may not inhibit our freedom too much. and equality. and in unimportant administrative matters. and all who dissent from it must be expelled from the state. That is a sign that the general will is agreed upon by all. we may lack a certain degree of agency from falling too much under the sway of consumer culture. Rousseau would suggest that we lack the initiative and agency we would have if we lived in a true republic. Book IV. the general will continues to exist. While the social contract itself must be agreed upon unanimously. Unanimity in popular decisions is a sign of a healthy state.government. we might say that "finance" has enslaved us to an extent that Rousseau could not have imagined. Chapters 1-4 Summary Though the general will can be silenced or sold to the highest bidder in states that lack the simplicity of peace. However. notably the particular wills of each individual citizen. When everyone is expressing only his own particular will. In the modern world. there are bound to be disagreements. however little it is heeded. unanimity reappears when people vote in accordance with a tyrant either out of fear or flattery. In a worst case scenario. Those who take the losing side of a vote are not having their wills counteracted so much as they are found to be mistaken in determining the general . only a majority of one should be needed. The general will cannot be changed. unity. Even when the will of all ceases to express the general will. it can never be annihilated. In matters of great importance. all other acts of sovereignty may be decided by a majority vote. a vote should need something close to unanimity in order to pass. but it can be subordinated to other wills.

Rousseau particularly admires this last comitia. When acting as a sovereign. and notes that. Generally speaking.will. and integrity that should be common to all citizens. The comitia centuriata was an assembly of all citizens. The comitia curiata was made up of only the inhabitants of the city. Election by choice suits aristocracy. and election by lot is better for filling offices (such as political offices) that require only the common sense. where the only fair method of determining who should bear the responsibility of office would be a random one. thus favoring the voice of the people. and not the wealthier citizens in the outlying countryside. The comitia tribunata was an assembly of the people that excluded senators and wealthy patricians. all the people collectively exercised the sovereign powers of enacting laws and electing officials. Rousseau distinguishes between election by lot (choosing at random) and election by choice. and was generally quite corrupt. in spite of Rome's immense size. election by choice is better for filling offices that require a certain degree of expertise (such as military offices). but the vote was weighted heavily in favor of the wealthy. The former suits a democracy. since the government should be free to choose its own members. There were three different popular assemblies. people must not vote for what they personally desire but for what they perceive to be the general will. Commentary . taking on some executive duties as well. justice. Chapter 4 launches a lengthy discussion of the Roman comitia to show how a large city was able to maintain the sovereignty of the people for such a long time.

When citizens assemble to act as the sovereign. Rousseau draws an important distinction between the general will and the particular will of each citizen. and pursue their own interests instead. . which is the common good. the general will continues to exist even if it is totally disregarded. these votes will almost always be unanimous.If we recall. but the sovereign is in poor shape when no one looks out for its interests. the general will is the will that aims at the common good. this should not reflect that his desires are unpopular so much as it reflects that he was mistaken. the general will continues to exist so long as the sovereign exists. In an unhealthy state. Insofar as Rousseau treats the sovereign as one collective individual. In a healthy state. If a citizen votes for a losing cause. citizens are expected to vote against their own private interests sometimes if they think that will benefit the state as a whole. Just as the particular will of each individual aims toward that individual's best advantage. because all citizens will be intimately aware of the general will and will want nothing more than to vote in accordance with it. the general will is the particular will of this sovereign. Decisions of the sovereign are made in the assembly by means of popular vote. votes in accordance with what he believes the general will to be. If we recall. ignore the general will. just like everyone else. he will simply have made a mistake and thought that the general will was other than what it is. they are expected to place their vote in accordance with what they believe the general will to be. In a healthy state. citizens lose their sense of civic duty. Thus. the general will aims toward the best advantage of the sovereign. They recognize the general will and they aim for it. Even in an unhealthy state. citizens see themselves as only a small part of this more important whole. As a result. If he.

there will be a great disparity between the two. but for what they think is best for all. If they can be deceived into thinking that an unpopular and unhealthy choice is in fact in the interests of all. Suppose the sovereign has to vote on whether Swiss cheese or cheddar should be the official cheese of the state. the will of all and the general will are identical: everyone wants what is in the best interests of the state. In Rousseau's system. The first is how the citizens are meant to know what the general will is. related problem. Not only do most citizens prefer cheddar. However. when people's particular wills start taking precedence over the general will. but for whatever reasons. Even supporters of cheddar cheese will feel obliged to vote in favor of Swiss cheese if they feel this is the expression of the general will. has to do with distinguishing between the general will and the will of all. there is a very vocal and very powerful minority that supports the Swiss cheese movement. This minority manages to persuade the people that in fact most people prefer Swiss cheese and that it is in the common interest to vote for Swiss cheese. Because citizens in the assembly are not meant to voice personal interests. they will be duty-bound to vote for that choice even if it is against their interests. cheddar cheese is closer to the common good and so expresses the general will. However. Rousseau provides no criteria beyond honest intuition for how citizens might determine what they think the general will is. there is no sure way of finding out that the unpopular choice is in fact unpopular. people don't vote for what they want. In modern democracies. In a healthy republic. elections voice the will of all: we add up what each person wants and we go with the most popular choice.There are two related problems with this view. The second. The .

our nefarious Swiss cheese supporters can pass their law and there will be no objective means of showing that this vote did not express the general will.problem (which has been mentioned in the ##Commentary section for Book II." whose business is to maintain a steady balance between sovereign and government and between government and people. how can we distinguish between the two? There seems to be no criteria for how we can look at the results of an election and determine whether the general will was indeed expressed or not. and there may be circumstances under which they must be suspended for the safety of all. Chapters 15## is that both the general will and the will of all are determined by popular vote. A dictator does not represent the people or the laws. Book IV. . Public opinion is closely related to public morality. If both are determined in the same way. Thus. Its only purpose is to defend and ensure the safety of the laws. The censor's office acts as the spokesman for public opinion. The censorial office sustains the laws and public morality by sustaining the integrity of public opinion. In rare cases. Rousseau recommends the establishment of an additional body called the "tribunate. It has no share in executive or legislative power. Chapters 5-9 Summary In certain cases. dictatorship may be necessary to save the state from collapse. and is outside the constitution. so dictators should only be appointed for a short term. which we have seen is in turn closely related to the laws. The laws are inflexible. he acts in concert with the general will only to the extent that it is in the interests of all that the state should not collapse. Obviously dictatorship is volatile and can descend into tyranny.

Third. complete with dogmas and ceremonies. Rousseau admires this kind of religion (and indeed professed to practice it) but suggests that by itself. Rousseau distinguishes three different kinds of religion. there is the kind of religion that Rousseau associates with the Catholic church. First. A healthy state needs citizens who will struggle and fight to make the state strong and safe. However. by replacing true. it will hurt the state. sincere worship with official. there is the "religion of the citizen. Worshipping the Christian God does not necessarily ally one with any particular state. the heads of each state were the gods that that state worshipped. A pure Christian is interested only in spiritual and other-worldly blessings. This religion combines the interests of church and state. and will happily endure hardships in this life for the sake of heavenly rewards. Christianity changed things by preaching the existence of a spiritual kingdom that is distinct from any earthly kingdom. and people of all states may worship this same God. In trying to set up two competing sets of laws--one civil and one religious--it creates all sorts of contradictions . Second. linking the individual to God. which he condemns forcefully. it also corrupts religion. teaching patriotism and a pious respect for the law.Rousseau's final topic for discussion is the controversial issue of civil religion. there is the "religion of man. church and state cease to be identical and a tension arises between the two. among others." which is a personal religion. As a result. In early societies. he suggests. each state believing that its gods were responsible for watching over its people. dogmatic ceremony." which is the official religion of the state. It also breeds a violent intolerance of other nations.

all citizens should also pledge allegiance to a civil religion with a very few basic precepts: the existence of a God. is largely inspired by the cultures of antiquity. Their gods are their parents and their protectors. In advocating civil religion. which should prevent friction between members of different religions. Rousseau advocates a worship of the state that is contrary to the edicts of any form of Christianity. The idea of civil religion." and serves as a common bond that unites the tribes of Israel. the people are free to worship whatever and however they please. justice for all. the sanctity of the social contract and the law. The outrage the book caused arose almost entirely because of the chapter on civil religion. as he has already stated. All people of a certain race or tribe share their gods in common. in ancient times.that prevent the proper exercise of any kind of law. He is frequently referred to as "the God of Israel. to the exclusion of all outsiders. only has power to determine matters that are of public concern. and the prohibition of intolerance. the belief in an afterlife. as Rousseau admits. Rousseau notes that this is true even for the Jewish God of the Old Testament. the worship of these gods was a way of cementing the bonds and traditions that hold a people together. The sovereign. However. . Commentary When The Social Contract was first published. Almost all ancient cultures have a pantheon of gods and a mythology to explain the origin of their people. Thus. the book was condemned and its author found himself a wanted man both in France and in his home state of Geneva. So long as it does not disturb the public interest. Rousseau recommends a compromise between the first two kinds of religion. which was considered blasphemous by the religious authorities of the time.

The question of religion was just one on which Rousseau disagreed bitterly with the atheistic proponents of the Enlightenment. As soon as the apostles began converting gentiles. . The sovereign is only interested in matters that are of public concern. Furthermore. Trying to return to tribal religion would be like trying to return to the state of nature. tribal religions: Christianity has arrived and has taken over. there ceased to be any cultural or racial tie that connected all Christians. Personal faith of this kind is compatible with his political philosophy because it does not intersect at any point with the public life expected of all citizens. However much Rousseau respects the scriptures and the gospels.Christianity is different in that it is an evangelical religion. Rousseau acknowledges that there is no point in trying to replace Christianity with older. Church and state may conflict. but private religion and state should not. Rousseau's Christianity was a personal one. He was neither the first nor the last to accuse the Catholic church of superficiality and an incompatible mixing of the earthly and the heavenly kingdoms. having been brought up in the Calvinist state of Geneva and educated by devout French Catholics. he has little patience for much of the established religion of his day. Rousseau's idea of civil religion is essentially an attempt to return to the ancient idea of cementing good citizenship in faith. more closely allied to a love of nature than a respect for the establishment. Rousseau himself was a devout Christian. They do not find their common heritage on earth. but after death in the kingdom of heaven. and one's private faith does not fall under that umbrella.

Rousseau is careful to make tolerance one of the precepts of his civil religion. Robert. The notion of worshipping the state seems disturbingly totalitarian. On a historical note. His civil religion is not very complicated. Still. Maurice Cranston. Bibliography Rousseau. and is just intended to ensure that the citizens remain productive and obedient. . Trans. during an age when religion has been effectively divorced from the state in most developed countries. Wokler. In agreeing to the social contract. he suggests that lawgivers often invent supernatural origins for the laws for a similar reason: if people believe that the laws came from the gods. but such an action does not prevent an unreasoned subservience to the state. Oxford: Oxford University Press. during the ##French Revolution##. Jean-Jacques. we might argue that citizens sacrifice the rationality and civil freedom that are the purpose for forming the social contract in the first place. Harmondsworth. It is not caught up in a great deal of dogma. they will be less likely to violate them. Rousseau. the attempt to bring them back together might seem uncomfortable. Chapter 7. the state instituted national festivals such as the "Festival of the Supreme Being" that were largely inspired by Rousseau's discussion of civil religion.In Book II. England: Penguin Books. The Social Contract. 1995. Yet in basing this contract to some extent on faith rather than on reason. citizens agree rationally to join together for the betterment of all. 1968.