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arcerlas

Lstrateglcas
v. !6, n. !!, dezembro de 20!!, 8rasllla-U|
Parc. Estrat. | Braslia - DF | v. 16 | n. 33 | p. 1-314 | jul-dez 2011
ISSN 1413-9375
Editora
+t|+n+ dc C+|v+||o |||cs
Conselho editorial
^d||+no |+t|st+ ||+s (|und+,)
|c|t|+ |o|||m+nn |cc|c| (||||)
|du+|do |+umg|+tz V|ott| (Consu|to|)
|v+ndo ||||+ dc |+u|+ c ||v+ (CC||)
C||d+ |+ss+|| (C Ccstio ccno|og|c+ c ^mb|cnt+|;||)
|+u|o |o||y (|n|)
||c+|do ||c|sc|ows|y (Cc+|)
|on+|do |ot+ +|dcnbc|g (Consu|to|)
Projeto grfico e diagramao
|du+|do O||vc||+
||ogo |o|+cs
Capa e reconstruo de grficos
|+||+n+ |||to
Endereo para correspondncia
C| : ||oco ^ |d Co|o|+tc Ccntc| s+|+ o: C|| ;o;:-,oo
||+s|||+ || tc|c|oncs (o) ,:::,ooo cm+|| cd|to||+,cgcco|gb|
arcerlas Lstrateglcas v.c n.,, dezembro zo
^ |cv|st+ |+|cc||+s |st|+tcg|c+s c ub||c+d+ scmcst|+|mcntc c|o Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos (CC||) c tcm o| ||n|+ cd|to||+| d|vu|g+|
c dcb+tc| tcm+s n+s +|c+s dc c|cnc|+ tccno|og|+ c |nov+io (C|) ||st||bu|io g|+tu|t+ ||+gcm .ooo cxcm|+|cs ||son|vc| c|ct|on|c+mcntc
cm |ttwwwcgcco|gb|;+|cc||+s
O Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos (CC||) c um+ +ssoc|+io c|v|| scm ||ns |uc|+t|vos c dc |ntc|cssc ub||co u+||||c+d+ como O|g+n|z+io
oc|+| c|o cxccut|vo b|+s||c||o sob + suc|v|sio do ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ Const|tu|-sc cm |nst|tu|io dc |c|c|cnc|+ +|+ o suo|tc
cont|n|o +os |occssos dc tom+d+ dc dcc|sio sob|c o||t|c+s c |og|+m+s dc c|cnc|+ tccno|og|+ c |nov+io (C|) ^ +tu+io do Ccnt|o cst+ con-
ccnt|+d+ n+s +|c+s dc |osccio +v+||+io cst|+tcg|c+ |n|o|m+io c d||usio do con|cc|mcnto
|st+ cd|io d+ |cv|st+ |+|cc||+s |st|+tcg|c+s co||csondc + um+ d+s mct+s do Cont|+to dc Ccstio CC||;|C|;.o++
|+|cc||+s |st|+tcg|c+s nio sc |csons+b|||z+ o| |dc|+s cm|t|d+s cm +|t|gos +ss|n+dos | c|m|t|d+ + |c|oduio c +|m+zcn+mcnto dos tcxtos dcsdc
uc c|t+d+ + |ontc
Presidente
|+||+no ||+nc|sco |+|+nc
Diretor executivo
|+|c|o dc |||+nd+ +ntos
Diretores
^nton|o C+||os |||guc||+ C+|vio
|c|n+ndo Cosmc ||zzo ^ssunio
Cc|son Comcs
Conselho de Administrao CGEE
|du+|do |o+cy| |||cgc| (||cs|dcntc)
^|ysson |+o||nc||| (C|^)
C+||os ^|bc|to ||bc||o dc X+v|c| (||C)
C+||os ^mc||co |+c|cco (|c|cs dos +ssoc|+dos)
C|cmcntc C+nz |uc|o (||ccsc)
|n|o |u+|tc ||nto (cb|+c)
C|+uc|us O||v+ (C||)
C|+uco ^nton|o ^|b|x (||nc)
Cu|||c|mc |+|co dc ||m+ (^nc|)
|ndexada em. |+t|ndcx ||CO ub||s||ng b|b||otcc+s |ntc|n+c|on+|s d+s |nst|tu|ocs ||c||g+n |n|vc|s|ty |+|y|+nd |n|vc|s|ty |n|vc|s|tc du
ucbcc w|nbu|nc |n|vc|s|ty o| cc|no|ogy |c|+w+|c t+tc |n|vc|s|ty |+t|on+| |c|cnsc |n|vc|s|ty +n |osc t+tc |n|vc|s|ty |n|vc|s|ty o|
\|scons|n-\||tcw+tc| u+||||c+d+ no u+||s;C+cs
Cu|||c|mc ^|y ||ons|| (^n|otcc)
|c|cn+ |onc|+n| |+dc| (||C)
|s+ ^ssc| dos +ntos (^b|t|)
|o|gc |u|s ||co|+s ^udy (|o|o)
|u|z ^nton|o |od||gucs |||+s (|C|)
|+||o |cto |o|gcs (Con|+)
|c|son |u,|moto (|||C)
Odcn||do c|xc||+ cn+ (CO||C|)
|+|+c| |ucc|cs| (C||)
Co |+|cc||+s |st|+tcg|c+s ; Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos v 1 n
1 (m+|o 1o) v 1 n (sct 1c) n o (m+| 1) ||+s|||+ Ccnt|o
dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c
|nov+io 1o-1c 1-
v 1o n !! (dcz .011)
cmcst|+|
||141!-!
1 |o||t|c+ c govc|no - ||+s|| . |nov+io tccno|og|c+ 1 Ccnt|o dc Ccs-
tio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos n ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io
C|| !.!o(c1)(0)
Sumrio
05
Aos Leitores
ICID - Conferncia Internacional do Clima, Sustentabilidade e
Desenvolvimento em Regies Semiridas
09
Adaptacin a los impactos del cambio climtico en la zona
semirida Mexicana
| (cse | Gcoa'e 8acs | |a. |es.c\ |
23
Effects of Cear Hydroenvironmental Development Project
(Prodham) on the Leading Role of Communities in Cangati
River Hydrographic Microbasin in Canind-CE
| |.aac |oa ae /eaecs /aaes | |ao.s.c /a.oe Ca.a'.ao:e
|aoa |
41
Community-based adaptation of tribal women to climate
change in semi-arid India
| |aao 8cse |
53
Climate change adaptation and food insecurity in Maradi
District Niger
| /cassa oa ^oca /aocaaa aoa Cnen ||O| |
75
Some historical reflections on the development of a major semi-
arid region: The Brazilian northeast
| ::e/ao | |coc. |
85
Individual land tenure and the challenges of sustainable land use
and management in a semi-arid region in China
| +coao .nac |
109
Vulnerabilidade e resilincia socioambiental no contexto
da mudana climtica: o caso do Programa Nacional de
Produo e Uso de Biodiesel (PNPB)
| /a:o Ooeoae | |o'c |oe |a |c.ee |
Cincia, tecnologia e inovao
135
Indstrias do futuro e tecnologias emergentes: viso
de um futuro sustentvel
| /aa |a:oa |aac..c ae ^'oeaa | Ca'cs ^aas:c Ca'aas ae /caes |
163
A dispora cientfica brasileira: perspectivas para sua
articulao em favor da cincia brasileira
| |'aoe:n 8a'oa.ne.s, | |aaaac ac Cca:c e :'.a |
177
Caractersticas e impactos do Fundo Setorial de
Infraestrutura
| |a.aoc /a:os Ccs:a |c.ca |
205
A promoo da excelncia gerencial nos institutos e
centros de P&D brasileiros: para alm dos modismos
gerenciais
| /a.co |asco |soea'ac ^'oaaeae | /aa 8ea: /a.naac 8coa.e'' |
231
Condies histricas e aspectos atuais da C&T na
Regio Metropolitana do RJ: notas preliminares de
pesquisa
| 8as'oa |eea `aoes | |e:c \aooa /caa |
257
O papel do BNDES no financiamento do setor de
energia eltrica no Brasil
| :ocoe Jaeoao | |a |.aac Ca.a'.ao:e |
281
|caaoa tecnolgico: proposta de uma mtrica
para levantamento de demandas e ofertas
tecnolgicas
| |'as |eea |ces (aoc | |a |aaaac acs :ao:cs a.aes |
^'coa \eco.a 8eoaac /ee'es |essca |
Memria
297
Rodolpho von Ihyering, o pai da piscultura
Aos leitores
^ |cv|st+ |+|cc||+s |st|+tcg|c+s dc numc|o ,, uc +|cscnt+mos +os nossos |c|to|cs ncstc ||n+|
dc .o++ c + ||mc||+ |oduz|d+ sob + gcstio dc |+||+no ||+nc|sco |+|+nc uc cst+ ||cntc do
CC|| dcsdc ,u||o +ss+do
|cst+ cd|io tcmos um con,unto dc +|t|gos dc d|vc|s+s +|c+s do con|cc|mcnto d|v|d|dos cm
t|cs scocs |cd|c+mos + ||mc||+ +|tc || Con|c|cnc|+ |ntc|n+c|on+| sob|c o C||m+ ustcnt+-
b|||d+dc c |cscnvo|v|mcnto cm |cg|ocs cm|+||d+s (|C||++s) |c+||z+d+ cm +gosto dc .o+o cm
|o|t+|cz+ (C|) ^ |C||++s |o| um+ cont||bu|io b|+s||c||+ +o |occsso d+ ||o+.o con|c|cnc|+
d+s |+ocs |n|d+s sob|c |cscnvo|v|mcnto ustcnt+vc| uc sc|+ |c+||z+d+ cm .o+. no ||o dc
|+nc||o Os tcxtos +u| o|c|cc|dos sio |c|cscnt+t|vos d+s d|vc|s+s |cg|ocs scc+s do |+nct+ c o
con,unto d+ ob|+ |o| csc||to o| +uto|cs dc v+||+d+ |occdcnc|+ no|tc c |+t|no +mc||c+nos cu-
|ocus +s|+t|cos c +|||c+nos
|os b|ocos scgu|ntcs d|vu|g+mos |csu|t+dos dc csu|s+s c |oost+s mctodo|og|c+s +|+ o
dcscnvo|v|mcnto |cg|on+| cng|ob+ndo os |nst|tutos c ccnt|os dc csu|s+s |o o||+| +|+ o |u-
tu|o +uto|cs dc d|st|nt+s +|c+s |c||ctcm sob|c +s |ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs
+|cm dos modc|os +|+ caaoas tccno|og|cos |+ +|nd+ um+ |c||cxio sob|c + d|+so|+ c|cn-
t|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c os c+m|n|os cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ no +|s ||n+|mcntc n+ scio |cmo||+ um+
+g|+d+vc| |c|tu|+ sob|c +s +nd+n+s dc |odo|||o Von |||c||ng c|o sc|tio no|dcst|no n+||+d+
o| su+ ||||+
^g|+dcccmos nov+mcntc +os nossos |c|to|cs c co|+bo|+do|cs uc gcnt||mcntc cn||uccc|+m +s
ub||c+ocs do CC|| cm .o++ Cc|t+mcntc cont|nu+|cmos cm .o+. com o nosso cs|o|o no
c+m|n|o dc |oduz|| um+ |cv|st+ dc u+||d+dc c dc |ntc|cssc +c+dcm|co cm|cs+||+| c soc|+|
|o+ |c|tu|+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
Adaptacin a los impactos del cambio climtico en
la zona semirida Mexicana
Jose L. Gonzalez Barrios
1
*, Luc Descroix
2
**
' ||||^| Ccnt|o |+c|on+| dc |nvcst|g+c|on ||sc|||n+||+ cn |c|+c|on ^gu+-uc|o-||+nt+ ^tmos|c|+ ^| ..-! |+|uc |ndust||+|
Comcz |+|+c|o |u|+ngo !01 |cx|co
'' |nst|tut dc |cc|c|c|c ou| |c |cvc|ocmcnt (|||) |+bo|+to||c d|tudcs dcs |+ns|c|s cn |yd|o|og|c ct |nv||onncmcnt
(|||) ||! !c041 C|cnob|c Ccdcx ||+ncc
Resumo
|csu|s+ ||d|o|og|c+ c cdo|og|c+ no scm|+||do
mcx|c+no |cvc|ou um |occsso dc c|osio ||d||c+
cx+cc|b+d+ c|+s +|tc|+ocs c||m+t|c+s c mud+n+s
no uso d+ tc||+ Os |csu|t+dos d+ |nvcst|g+io |ns-
||+|+m um |og|+m+ dc +d+t+io cx|toso com
um+ v|sio +mb|cnt+| cconom|c+ c soc|+| O ||o-
g|+m+ dc c|v|os ^mb|cnt+|s ||d|o|og|cos (|^|)
cons|stc no +g+mcnto dc mio dc ob|+ |oc+| +|+
const|uio dc ob|+s dc consc|v+io do so|o c d+
+gu+ cm +|c+s |ocns+s + |cst+| sc|v|os +m-
b|cnt+|s ||d|o|og|cos Os bcnc||c|os cconom|cos
do |^| sio d|st||bu|dos cnt|c os |+b|t+ntcs d+s
comun|d+dcs sc|cc|on+d+s c cnt|c os |cg|t|mos |o-
||ct+||os d+ tc||+ O s+|+||o c bom c +,ud+ + m+ntc|
+s csso+s cm su+s comun|d+dcs c + |cduz|| + m|-
g|+io +|+ +s g|+ndcs c|d+dcs ou +|+ o cxtc||o|
cm busc+ dc t|+b+||o ^ +v+||+io dos c|c|tos dc
ob|+s dc consc|v+io do so|o c d+ +gu+ c o tcm+
d+s +t|v|d+dcs +tu+|s m+s os |csu|t+dos u+||t+t|-
Resumen
|a o.es:a.co nac'c.a , eaa/c'c.a eo 'a coa
seoaaa oe\.aoa na aes:c eo e.aeo.a ao c
.esc ae ecsco na.a e\a.eoaac c e' .aooc
.'oa:.c , e' .aooc ae asc ae' sae'c |cs esa':a
acs ae o.es:a.co nao osaac ao caoa
ae aaa:a.co e\:csc .co aoa .sco aooeo:a'
e.coco.a , sc.a' |' |caoa ae :e..cs ^o
oeo:a'es |ac'c.cs |:^|) .coss:e eo e' ac ae
oaoc ae coa 'c.a' aa 'a .cos:a..co ae coas
ae .cose.a.co ae' sae'c , ae' aaa eo aeas sas
.e:o'es ae cc.coa se..cs aooeo:a'es n
ac'c.cs |cs oeoe.cs e.coco.cs ae' |:^| se
as:oa,eo eo:e 'cs nao:ao:es ae 'as .coaoaaaes
e'eaas , eo:e 'cs 'e:ocs cseeaces ae :eeocs
|' sa'ac es oaeoc 'c .aa' .co:oa,e a e:eoe a
'cs co'aaces eo sas .coaoaaaes , a asooa 'a
oa.co na.a aoaes .aaaaes c e' e\:aoec eo
oas.a ae :aoac |a e.a'aa.co ae 'cs e/e.:cs ae 'as
coas ae .cose.a.co ae' sae'c , e' aaa es :eoa
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
!0
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduccin
|u|+ntc |os u|t|mos +os |+ |nvcst|g+c|on dc| mcd|o ||s|co y b|o|og|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ mcx|c+n+
|+ c|m|t|do onc| cn cv|dcnc|+ |+ cx+cc|b+c|on dc |os |occsos dc dcg|+d+c|on dc| mcd|o ||s|co y
|um+no o| un c+mb|o dc uso dc| suc|o dcso|dcn+do y o| |os cmb+tcs dc un c||m+ c+mb|+ntc y
c+d+ vcz m+s d|||c|| dc |cvc| |o cu+| d|||cu|t+ sc||+mcntc +scgu|+| |+ d|son|b|||d+d dc |os |ccu|sos
||d||cos ncccs+||os y |+s cond|c|oncs +dccu+d+s +|+ |+ |oducc|on +g|occu+||+
|os |+b|t+ntcs dc |+ zon+ +||d+ y scm|+||d+ |u|+| uc ocu+ c| ,,/ dc| tc|||to||o mcx|c+no sc
t|+ns|o|m+n +s| cn m|g|+ntcs otcnc|+|cs uc sc d|||gcn |+c|+ |+s ||nc|+|cs c|ud+dcs dc| +|s
o |+c|+ c| cxt|+n,c|o cn busc+ dc mc,o|cs cond|c|oncs dc v|d+ uc g+|+nt|ccn |+ sob|cv|vcnc|+
|+m|||+| |st+ s|tu+c|on cs o||gcn dc g|+ndcs |ob|cm+s cconom|cos dc sob|cob|+c|on y dc
m+|g|n+c|on soc|+| +|+ |os m|g|+ntcs cn |+s +g|omc|+c|oncs uc |os |cc|bcn |+ dcg|+d+c|on dc
bosucs +st|z+|cs y suc|os cs un+ +mcn+z+ +|+ c| mcd|o+mb|cntc y un+ |o|m+ dc dcsc|t|c+-
c|on dc cst+s |cg|oncs scm|+||d+s +| mod|c+| c| b+|+ncc ||d||co dc |+s |+dc|+s (mcnos |ctcnc|on
dc +gu+ m+s cscu|||m|cnto |nst+nt+nco y c|os|on) y dc |+s cucnc+s (m+yo| cscu|||m|cnto dc
+vcn|d+ mcno| cscu|||m|cnto dc b+sc) sc |+cc m+s d|||c|| c| +|ovcc|+m|cnto dc |+s
+gu+s t+nto cn |+ +|tc +|t+ dc |+s cucnc+s scm|+||d+s como +gu+s +b+,o +| +cc|c|+| c| +zo|vc
dc |+s |cs+s |o| ot|+ +|tc sc s+bc uc |+s +gu+s |n|t|+d+s cn |+ |c||+ son |+s uc +||mcnt+n
+os dcsucs c| m+nto ||c+t|co dc |+ zon+ +||d+ dc |+ Com+|c+ |+gunc|+ cn c| su| dc| |cs|c|to
C|||u+|ucnsc (||oustc +,,e) |+ d|sm|nuc|on dc |+ |n|t|+c|on +gu+s +|||b+ od||+ d|sm|nu|| |+
|cc+|g+ dc cstc m+nto y +cc|c|+| |+ dcsc|t|c+c|on dc |+s zon+s +||d+s
vos sio obv|os + |ctcnio do so|o c |ctcnio dc
+gu+ m+nutcnio d+ cobc|tu|+ vcgct+| |ctcnio
dc csso+s cm su+s comun|d+dcs bcm-cst+| soc|+|
O |^| como um+ cst|+tcg|+ dc +d+t+io +os
|m+ctos d+s +|tc|+ocs c||m+t|c+s dcvc cncont|+|
um cco cm out|+s +|tcs do |cx|co +|+ |c||c+|
os scus bcnc||c|os no +mb|cntc ||s|co c |um+no d+
zon+ scm|+||d+
alavras-cbave v+||+b|||d+dc c||m+t|c+ c|c|tos +m-
b|cnt+|s dcscnvo|v|mcnto sustcnt+vc| o||t|c+s |ns-
t|tuc|on+|s ||ocs dc cxc||cnc|+s no |cx|co
ae a.:.aaaes a.:aa'es ec sas esa':aacs .aa':a
:.cs sa':ao a 'a .s:a e:eo.co ae' sae'c , e:eo.co
ae' aaa oao:eooeo:c ae 'a .coe:aa .ee:a'
e:eo.co ae co'aaces eo sas .coaoaaaes oeo
es:a sc.a' |' |:^| .coc es:a:ea ae aaa:a.co
a' oa.:c ae' .aooc .'oa:.c aeoea eo.co:a
e.c eo c:cs 'aaes ae /\.c .co e' o ae e'
.a sas oeoe.cs eo e' oeac /s.c , naoaoc ae 'a
coa seoaaa
alabras clave .aao'aaa .'oa:.a ee.a
scoes aooeo:a'es aesac''c scs:eoo'e c':.as
os::a.coa'es 'e..coes ae e\eeo.as eo /\.c
^d+t+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ |cx|c+n+
!!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
|+ vu|nc|+b|||d+d dc| mcd|o ||s|co y |um+no cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ mcx|c+n+ ucdc s|n cmb+|go
sc| m|t|g+d+ y cont|+||cst+d+ mcd|+ntc |+ +doc|on dc +ct|v|d+dcs o|g+n|z+d+s cn to|no
+| cu|d+do dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| y +| |mu|so dc cond|c|oncs uc mc,o|cn oco + oco |+s
cond|c|oncs dc v|d+ dc |os |+b|t+ntcs dc cst+ zon+ uc |+cc| |stud|+| |+s |c|+c|oncs c+us+
c|ccto dc| dctc||o|o dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| cn cs+s |cg|oncs y |oonc| |+s cst|+tcg|+s m+s
c|t|ncntcs +|+ cont|+||cst+| |os c|cctos noc|vos |stud|+| |+ |o|m+ cn uc sc d+n |os |occsos
n+tu|+|cs y |oduct|vos +|+ cv|t+| |+s cond|c|oncs +dvc|s+s +| mcd|o b|o||s|co y |um+no
mcd|+ntc cst|+tcg|+s dc +d+t+c|on uc c|m|t+n un+ m+yo| |otccc|on dc |os |ccu|sos
y un+ m+yo| cst+b|||d+d y scgu||d+d + |+ ob|+c|on +| cs c| c+so dc |+ cxc||cnc|+ dc| |og|+m+
dc sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos uc sc ||cv+ + c+bo cn c| no|tc dc |cx|co
|csucs dc un+ |cscnt+c|on dc |+ zon+ dc cstud|o sc +bo|d+|+n |os +ntcccdcntcs uc |+n
ucsto cn cv|dcnc|+ |+ vu|nc|+b|||d+d dc| mcd|o ||s|co y |um+no dc cs+ zon+ scm|+||d+ mcx|c+n+
y sc |cscnt+|+n |os ||nc|+|cs |csu|t+dos dc| |og|+m+ dc sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos
|m|cmcnt+do
2. La zona de estudio
|+ zon+ dc cstud|o +b+|c+ un+ cxtcns|on dc 1000 |m. cn |+ |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+| dc| cst+do
dc |u|+ngo (no|tc ccnt|o dc |cx|co) y sc s|tu+ cnt|c |+s coo|dcn+d+s .4 y .o dc |+t|tud no|tc
y 10o y 10 dc |ong|tud ocstc |+ toog|+||+ dc |+ zon+ cs +cc|dcnt+d+ cn su +|tc occ|dcnt+|
y ondu|+d+ con co||n+s y v+||cs cn su +|tc o||cnt+| con un+ +|t|tud uc v+ dc |os 100 + |os
.o00 mct|os sob|c c| n|vc| dc| m+| (||gu|+ 1) || c||m+ cs dc t|o cont|ncnt+| scm|+||do con un+
cst+c|on dc ||uv|+s |mo|t+ntc dc ,un|o + sct|cmb|c un+ cuc+ cst+c|on dc ||uv|+s dc |nv|c|no
dc octub|c + cnc|o y un+ m+|c+d+ cst+c|on scc+ dc |cb|c|o + m+yo |+ |uv|omct||+ +nu+| cn |+
zon+ osc||+ cnt|c 400 y 00 mm +nu+|cs |os suc|os |cdom|n+ntcs cn |+ zon+ dc cstud|o son
dc t|o C+mb|so| |cozcm y |ctoso| dcs+||o||+dos sob|c |oc+s vo|c+no-c|ut|v+s (|gn|mb||t+s
||o||t+ y ob+) |+ vcgct+c|on n+tu|+| cs dc +b+n+ dc +st|z+| con +c+c|+s c|o cn |+s +|tcs
m+s +|t+s dc mont++ (+|||b+ dc |os 100m) |+ vcgct+c|on |cdom|n+ntc cs un bosuc dc cnc|no
y |no t+mb|cn con +st|z+|cs
|+ ||d|og|+||+ dc cst+ |cg|on cst+ o|g+n|z+d+ o| un s|stcm+ dc d|cn+,c cn c+uccs dc ||+c|uc|os
+||oyos y ||os uc b+,+n dcsdc |+s +|tcs m+s +|t+s dc |c||+ y +t|+v|cs+n |+ +|tc ondu|+d+ |+c|+
|+s |+n|c|cs cndo||c|c+s m+s b+,+s y +||d+s dondc dcscmboc+b+n n+tu|+|mcntc |+s +gu+s
dc| ||o |+z+s +ntcs dc |+ const|ucc|on dc |+s |cs+s |cg|on+|cs |+z+|o C+|dcn+s y ||+nc|sco z+|co
|+ zon+ dc cstud|o t|cnc un+ +ct|v|d+d cscnc|+|mcntc +g|occu+||+ con +|ovcc|+m|cnto dc |+s
g|+ndcs cxtcns|oncs dc +st|z+|cs y sc t|c||+s cu|t|v+d+s con |o||+,cs dc tcmo|+| (m+|z +vcn+)
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
!2
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
uc son +|ovcc|+d+s +|+ |+ c||+ y cngo|d+ dc g+n+do bov|no +|+ c| mc|c+do n+c|on+| y
no|tc+mc||c+no
|n |+s u|t|m+s dcc+d+s |+ zon+ dc cstud|o sc |+ v|sto +|cct+d+ o| un |ntcnso c+mb|o dc uso
dc suc|o con c| |oos|to dc +umcnt+| c| uso dc |os |ccu|sos n+tu|+|cs d|son|b|cs (+gu+ suc|o
vcgct+c|on) +|+ |+ |oducc|on g+n+dc|+ y +g||co|+ |sto |+ |ovoc+do un dcscu|||b||o cnt|c |+
c++c|d+d dc soo|tc dc| s|stcm+ y |+ c+|g+ |c+| dc |os s|stcm+s |oduct|vos |o cu+| |+ ||cv+do +
un+ dcg|+d+c|on +u|+t|n+ dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| dc |+ zon+ uc sc t|+ducc cn un+ |mo|t+ntc
c|os|on dc| suc|o y un+ m+|c+d+ csc+scz dc +gu+
^dcm+s dc csos |ob|cm+s dc o||gcn |oduct|vo y dc c++c|d+d dc soo|tc |cb+s+d+ |+ zon+
dc cstud|o |+ s|do +|cct+d+ o| c| c+mb|o c||m+t|co uc +|ccc dcs+||cg|+| |os c||odos ||uv|osos
cn tc|m|nos dc |ntcns|d+d y du|+c|on dc |+s ||uv|+s +s| como cn su un||o|m|d+d gcog|+||c+ c|
c+mb|o c||m+t|co t|cndc + |+cc| |+s ||uv|+s dc vc|+no m+s bo||+scos+s y v|o|cnt+s +umcnt+ndo
con c||o |+ +g|cs|v|d+d y |uc|z+ dc| +gu+ sob|c |+ suc|||c|c dc| suc|o dcsnudo y sob|c |+s |+nt+s
vu|nc|+b|cs cn gc|m|n+c|on o cn |os cst+dos |n|c|+|cs dc| c|cc|m|cnto vcgct+| (cst+d|o dc
|+ntu|+) |st+s cond|c|oncs ucdcn sc| cons|dc|+d+s como dc ||csgo o| s|gn|||c+| un+ c|d|d+
otcnc|+| dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| |oduct|vo uc sc t|+ducc como un+ dcsc+|t+||z+c|on dc
suc|os y dc |+ vcgct+c|on |c|b+cc+ +nu+| o cu|t|v+d+ dc |os c+mcs|nos y cucos g+n+dc|os
uc const|tuycn c| g|ucso dc |+ ob|+c|on uc |+b|t+ cs+s |cg|oncs m+|g|n+d+s y dcs|+vo|cc|d+s
t+nto c||m+t|c+mcntc como cconom|c+mcntc
^ cont|nu+c|on sc |cscnt+n |os ||nc|+|cs +ntcccdcntcs y cstud|os c|cnt|cos ||cv+dos + c+bo
cn |+ zon+ dc cstud|o uc oncn cn cv|dcnc|+ |+ n+tu|+|cz+ dc| |ob|cm+
|lgura +. |b|c+c|on dc |+ zon+ dc cstud|o (|zu|c|d+) y comun|d+dcs bcnc||c|+d+s (dc|cc|+)
^d+t+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ |cx|c+n+
!!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
3. Impactos de los sistemas productivos y del cambio climtico
|+ vu|nc|+b|||d+d dc| mcd|o ||s|co dc |+ zon+ dc cstud|o |+ s|do ob,cto dc numc|osos t|+b+,os
dc |nvcst|g+c|on (|csc|o|x |ouvc|ot 1 |csc|o|x e: a' .000+ Conz+|cz |+|||os e: a' .004)
|+s |nvcst|g+c|oncs m+s |cc|cntcs ccnt|+n su +tcnc|on cn |+ suc|||c|c dc| suc|o y su cobc|tu|+
vcgct+| y+ uc t|cncn un +c| dctc|m|n+ntc cn |+ ||d|od|n+m|c+ dc| +gu+ dc ||uv|+ y cn |os
|occsos dc |n|||t|+c|on cscu|||m|cnto y c|os|on (|csc|o|x e: a| .00c Conz+|cz |+|||os e: a'
.00c Conz+|cz |+|||os e: a' .00b)
|os cstud|os dc c+mb|o dc uso dc suc|o ||g+dos + |+ cvo|uc|on dc cst+do dc |+ suc|||c|c |+n
+||o,+do |csu|t+dos contundcntcs cn c| scnt|do dc uc + mcno| cobc|tu|+ vcgct+| m+yo|
scns|b|||d+d dc| suc|o + |os |occsos dc c|os|on y dc cscu|||m|cnto dcso|dcn+do (|csc|o|x e: a'
.000b |csc|o|x ct +| .001 |csc|o|x e: a' .004) |os |csu|t+dos dc cstos t|+b+,os cn cuc+s
suc|||c|cs dc obsc|v+c|on (dc 0. + .0 |m.) |cvc|+n un+ c|os|on +nu+| cn m+nto dc |+st+ .c
|g dc suc|o o| mct|o cu+d|+do uc co||csondc + un cscso| dc 1c mm +o-1 y un+ c|os|on
+nu+| cn c+|c+v+s dc |+st+ 1. tonc|+d+s dc suc|o o| mct|o cu+d|+do uc co||csondc + un
cscso| dc 10 mm +o-1 (Conz+|cz |+|||os e: a' .00) |stos v+|o|cs |cscnt+n s|n cmb+|go
g|+ndcs v+||+c|oncs cs+c|o-tcmo|+|cs cn |unc|on dc |+ |uv|omct||+ +nu+| y dc| cst+do dc |+
suc|||c|c dc| suc|o (|csc|o|x |ou|cn+|d .00) || cstud|o dc |+ c|os|on ||d||c+ cn m+nto y cn
c+|c+v+s |+ d+do |ug+| + |+ |oucst+ dc mctodos dc mcd|c|on y scgu|m|cnto m+s +d+t+dos
+| |occso c|os|vo (|csc|o|x ct +| 1b Conz+|cz-|+|||os e: a' .00) +s| como t+mb|cn + |+
|ccomcnd+c|on dc mcd|d+s +||+t|v+s y co||cct|v+s + co|to y mcd|+no |+zo (+nc|cz Co|cn e:
a' .00+ Conz+|cz |+|||os e: a' .00+)
|+s |nvcst|g+c|oncs sc |+n |ntc|cs+do t+mb|cn cn |+s |o|m+s c |ntcns|d+dcs dc |oducc|on
g+n+dc|+ y |c|+c|on+n |+s zon+s m+s dcg|+d+d+s con +uc||+s uc osccn un+ c+|g+ +n|m+|
|+st+ cu+t|o vcccs suc||o| + |+ c++c|d+d n+tu|+| dc |+s suc|||c|cs |o||+,c|+s o dc +gost+dc|o
(V||+montcs ct +| .004) |+ c|os|on cs c+us+d+ ||nc|+|mcntc o| c| sob|c-+sto|co y c|
|sotco dc| g+n+do uc |ovoc+ un+ |uc|tc com+ct+c|on dc| suc|o mod|||c+ndo |+ cst|uctu|+
y |+c|||t+ndo c| cscu|||m|cnto y |+ c|d|d+ dc c|cmcntos ||nos (|csc|o|x e: a' .00)
+mb|cn sc |+n cstud|+do |+s cond|c|oncs n+tu|+|cs dc| mcd|o ||s|co uc son m+s suscct|b|cs
+ |+ dcg|+d+c|on ||s|c+ dc| mcd|o |sto cs c| t|o dc suc|o c| t+m+o dc |+ suc|||c|c d|cn+d+ o
+|c+ dc cont||buc|on |+ |ntcns|d+d dc |+ ||uv|+ c udo dcmost|+| uc cn |os suc|os con m+yo|
|oo|c|on dc ||mos y cn |+s g|+ndcs suc|||c|cs dc |+s sub-cucnc+s (dc 4000 + 000 |m.) |+
c|os|on cn m+nto ucdc ||cg+| + sc| dos o|dcncs dc v+|o| (c|cn vcccs) m+yo| uc |+ c|os|on
c+us+d+ o| |+s c+|c+v+s (c|ccto dc csc+|+) (|csc|o|x e: a' .00c)
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
!4
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
|+s |nvcst|g+c|oncs sc |+n o||cnt+do t+mb|cn + cstud|+| |+s v+||+b|cs ||d|o-c||m+t|c+s y sus
|c|+c|oncs con c| uso y m+nc,o dc |os |ccu|sos +gu+ suc|o y vcgct+c|on |os c|cctos dc| c||m+
d|||c||cs dc |cvc| como |c|+d+s g|+n|z+d+s |n|c|o y du|+c|on dc| c||odo dc ||uv|+s un||o|m|d+d
gcog|+||c+ dc |+ |uv|omct||+ y dc su |ntcns|d+d tcmc|+tu|+s cxt|cm+s uc |+n |ovoc+do
un+ c+sc+d+ dc consccucnc|+s cn c| mcd|o ||s|co y |um+no dc cst+ zon+ (|csc|o|x e: a' 1+
|csc|o|x e: a' .00.+ +nc|cz Co|cn ct +| .00c +nc|cz Co|cn e: a' .00b)
|os ||nc|+|cs |csu|t+dos dc t+|cs |nvcst|g+c|oncs oncn cn cv|dcnc|+ |os c+mb|os ||d|o|og|cos
dc |+s cucnc+s vc|t|cntcs m+s dcg|+d+d+s uc sc t|+duccn cn un+ +|tc|+c|on dc| |cg|mcn dc
cscu|||m|cnto c |n|||t|+c|on dc| +gu+ dc ||uv|+ con |csucst+s ||d|o|og|c+s m+s |+|d+s y v|o|cnt+s
gcnc|+ndo cscu|||m|cntos dc +vcn|d+ m+s |mo|t+ntcs c|o con mcno| du|+c|on con un+
d|sm|nuc|on co||c|+t|v+ dc |os cscu|||m|cntos dc b+sc uc |cvc|+n un+ c|d|d+ dc c++c|d+d dc
+|m+ccn+m|cnto ||d||co dc| suc|o y un+ m+yo| vu|nc|+b|||d+d + |os |nccnd|os (V||+montcs .000
|csc|o|x e: a' .00.b) |os |cco|||dos dc c+mo cn |+ zon+ dc cstud|o +o|t+n |n|o|m+c|on uc
con|||m+ |+ g|+n |nc|dcnc|+ dc |nccnd|os cn +|c+s dc bosuc dc |no-cnc|no uc |+n dc,+do sus
|uc||+s cn |os +|bo|cs sob|cv|v|cntcs o muc|tos dc |c
|umc|osos |+n s|do |os +|t|cu|os ub||c+dos sc+|+ndo |+s consccucnc|+s ||d|o|og|c+s dc t+|cs
cond|c|oncs |n cmb+|go |os c|cctos dc cst+ dcg|+d+c|on dc| mcd|o ||s|co t+mb|cn sc cx|cs+n cn
|+ ob|+c|on |um+n+ y+ uc +| c|dc|sc g|+du+|mcntc c| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| (suc|o vcgct+c|on
|ccu|sos ||d||cos +|m+ccn+dos cn |o|m+ dc |umcd+d dc| suc|o) |os |+b|t+ntcs dc |+ |cg|on
ucd+n cxucstos + cond|c|oncs +mb|cnt+|cs c+d+ vcz m+s d|||c||cs +|+ ||cv+| + c+bo sus |+bo|cs
|oduct|v+s y +scgu|+| su sob|cv|vcnc|+ (|n+|d |omb+|d .004)
^ +|t|| dc 14 |+ nucv+ |cy dc tcncnc|+ dc |+ t|c||+ c|m|t|o |+ |nd|v|du+||z+c|on dc |+s t|c||+s
co|cct|v+s y |+ d|v|s|on +|cc|+||+ dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| Con c||o sc |+cc m+s cv|dcntc un
||+cc|on+m|cnto tc|||to||+| y |+ ++||c|on dc un+ v+||+d+ g+m+ dc cond|c|oncs dc| suc|o y dc
|+ vcgct+c|on uc |+ccn m+s d|vc|s+ |+ c+||d+d dc c+d+ |o|cd+d ^ c+s| dos dcc+d+s dc
csc ||+cc|on+m|cnto cn +|gun+s comun|d+dcs sc ucdc obsc|v+| uc |+ dcg|+d+c|on dc
+|gunos s|t|os co|cct|vos |+ s|do m+s |ntcns+ uc |os s|t|os cons|dc|+dos como ||v+dos o| |+
|nd|v|du+||z+c|on dc| tc|||to||o |sto |ccuc|d+ |+ t|+gcd|+ dc |os comunc|os (|+|d|n 1oc) s|n
cmb+|go cn |os s|t|os dc +|o|+c|on |nd|v|du+| cx|stcn t+mb|cn +|gunos c+sos dc |oduct|v|smo
+ u|t|+nz+ uc co|nc|dcn con s|tu+c|oncs dc |cnt+ dc dc|cc|os + tc|cc|os |sto con||cv+|+ + |+
dcg|+d+c|on t+mb|cn dc csc t|o dc tcncnc|+ dc |+ t|c||+ cn |+ zon+
|+ m|g|+c|on dc |os |o|ct+||os sc +cc|c|o +ntc |+ |+|t+ dc odc| cconom|co y +ntc |+s ob|cs
cond|c|oncs dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| +|+ scgu|| |oduc|cndo dc m+nc|+ |nd|v|du+| o co|cct|v+
^d+t+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ |cx|c+n+
!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
|st+ s|tu+c|on y |os |csu|t+dos dc |os t|+b+,os dc |nvcst|g+c|on co||csond|cntcs |ns||+|on
|+ |nst|umcnt+c|on dc un |og|+m+ dc +cc|on con un cn|ouc m+s |ntcg|+| +|+ comb+t|| c|
|ob|cm+ dc |+ c|d|d+ dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| y |um+no dc |+ |cg|on |+ |n|c|+t|v+ |uc ||+m+d+
||og|+m+ dc c|v|c|os ^mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos (|^|)
4. Resultados del PSAH
|n .00 c| gob|c|no |cdc|+| mcx|c+no ,unto con c| gob|c|no cst+t+| dc |u|+ngo +co|d+|on onc|
cn m+|c|+ c| |og|+m+ dc sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos (|^|) +|+ |cst+u|+| c| mcd|o
b|o||s|co + t|+vcs dc ob|+s dc consc|v+c|on |ob+d+s con cx|to +|+ |ctcnc| c| suc|o |+ |umcd+d
y con c||o |+c|||t+| |+ |nst+|+c|on dc |+ vcgct+c|on m+ntcnc| |+ c+nt|d+d y c+||d+d dc| +gu+ dc
cscu|||m|cnto c |nduc|| |+ |cc+|g+ dc m+ntos +cu||c|os
|n |+ cst|uctu|+ dc| |og|+m+ +|t|c|+|on |+ Com|s|on n+c|on+| |o|cst+| (CO|^|O|) |+
cc|ct+||+ dc mcd|o +mb|cntc y |ccu|sos n+tu|+|cs (||^||^) |+ ||ocu|+du||+ dc |otccc|on
+| +mb|cntc (||O|||^) |+ cc|ct+||+ dc |ccu|sos |+tu|+|cs y |cd|o ^mb|cntc dc| Cob|c|no dc
|u|+ngo (|||^) gob|c|nos mun|c|+|cs con +|c+s bcnc||c|+d+s y |cst+do|cs dc sc|v|c|os
(|n|d+dcs dc +|ovcc|+m|cnto |o|cst+| dc |+s comun|d+dcs |o|cst+|cs como cc|u+ncs)
uc |ntcg|+|on |os cxcd|cntcs y somct|c|on +| |ondo |+s c+nd|d+tu|+s dc |+s +|c+s |o|c|+s
+|+ |c+||z+| |+s ob|+s |oucst+s cn un m+nu+| dc ob|+s y |+ct|c+s dc |+ |nst|tuc|on |ccto|+
(CO|^|O| .004) c,ccut+d+s cn ct++s uc son suc|v|s+d+s cn c| tc||cno o| un |csons+b|c
dc |+ o||c|n+ |cst+do|+ dc sc|v|c|os
|| |og|+m+ cmczo con |+ +|ob+c|on dc un+ suc|||c|c modcst+ (un+ comun|d+d bcnc||c|+d+
con 4000 |cct+|c+s cn .00o) c|o |uc cxtcnd|cndosc |+|d+mcntc (|+st+ oc|o comun|d+dcs
bcnc||c|+d+s con 1400 |cct+|c+s cn .00) +ntc c| cx|to dc |csucst+ |ovoc+do cn |os |+b|t+ntcs
dc |+s comun|d+dcs bcnc||c|+d+s |+ m+no dc ob|+ |uc +g+d+ o| d|c|o |og|+m+ con un bucn
s+|+||o (cu|v+|cntc + !0 do|+|cs +mc||c+nos d|+||os +|ox|m+d+mcntc) |o cu+| +t|+,o |+ +tcnc|on
dc c+s| tod+ |+ |uc|z+ |oduct|v+ dc |+s comun|d+dcs ||ucb+ dc c||o son |os |cg|st|os dc |omb|cs
y mu,c|cs dc 1o + 0 +os uc sc |cc|ut+|on +|+ t|+b+,+| cn |+s ob|+s d|vc|s+s como
^co|don+m|cnto dc m+tc||+| vcgct+| |csu|t+ntc dc |+s od+s dc +|bo|cs y +|bustos +|+ |cduc||
|+ vc|oc|d+d dc| cscu|||m|cnto dc| +gu+ +umcnt+| |+ |umcd+d dc| suc|o d|sm|nu|| |+ c|os|on y
|o|c|+| |+s cond|c|oncs |+vo|+b|cs +|+ |+ |cgcnc|+c|on n+tu|+|
Const|ucc|on dc |cs+s o b+||c|+s con m+tc||+|cs d|vc|sos (|cd|+ m+tc||+| vcgct+| ||+nt+s
cost+|cs dc t|c||+) +|+ d|sm|nu|| |+ vc|oc|d+d dc cscu|||m|cnto dc| +gu+ y |+ c|d|d+ dc suc|o
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
!6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
|m|cmcnt+c|on dc ob|+s dc cont|o| dc |+ c|os|on cn m+nto y cn c+|c+v+s (+comodo dc
m+tc||+| vcgct+| muc|to cn tc||+z+s y |+dc|+s c+bccco dc c+|c+v+s y +||nc dc t+|udcs con |cd|+
+comod+d+)
||omoc|on dc |+ consc|v+c|on dc +|c+s con vcgct+c|on n+tu|+| o |c|o|cst+d+ +|+ cv|t+| |+
c|d|d+ dc vcgct+c|on y |+ m+x|m+ c+t+c|on dc +gu+ cn c| suc|o
|nst+|+c|on dc |ct|c|os dc +dvc|tcnc|+ |+c|+ |+s bucn+s |+ct|c+s dc conv|vcnc|+ con c| mcd|o
|o|cst+| |+c|cndo ||+m+m|cntos + |cst+| +yud+ +|+ consc|v+| y |otcgc| c| bosuc cv|t+ndo
t+|+s dcsmontcs b+su|+ c |nccnd|os |o|cst+|cs
|nst+|+c|on dc |ct|c|os dc +dvc|tcnc|+ sob|c |+ v|g||+nc|+ c|m+ncntc dc| mcd|o |o|cst+| o| |+
+uto||d+d +mb|cnt+|
|| |og|+m+ dc sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs |n|c|o con un |ondo y du|+c|on dctc|m|n+dos uc |+
sc|v|do +|+ +oy+| comun|d+dcs o| un c||odo dc |+st+ c|nco +os (+ +|t|| dc .00 c|
c||odo dc +oyo sc |cdu,o + ! +os) y cn suc|||c|cs bcnc||c|+d+s con un+ cxtcns|on m+x|m+
dc 4000 |cct+|c+s
|+ gu|+ . mucst|+ +|gun+s dc |+s ob|+s uc |uc|on |c+||z+d+s cn d||c|cntcs comun|d+dcs bc-
ncc|+d+s y |+ |csucst+ dc |os t|+b+,+do|cs o|g+n|z+dos cn cu+d||||+s dc t|+b+,o uc +yud+n +
|ccuc|+| +u|+t|n+mcntc c| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| uc sc cst+b+ c|d|cndo |+ cv+|u+c|on dc |os
c|cctos dc |+s ob|+s dc consc|v+c|on dc| suc|o y c| +gu+ cs tcm+ dc +ct|v|d+dcs +ctu+|cs c|o sus
|csu|t+dos cu+||t+t|vos |+n s+|t+do + |+ v|st+ dcsdc |+ ||mc| tcmo|+d+ dc ||uv|+s |ctcnc|on dc|
suc|o y dc| +gu+ |ctcnc|on dc ob|+do|cs
^ctu+|mcntc c| |^| ||cg+ + su n cn muc|+s comun|d+dcs ||oto con |csu|t+dos s+t|s|+cto||os
uc s+|t+n + |+ v|st+ |ctcnc|on dc suc|o +umcnto dc |+ vcgct+c|on |cst+u|+c|on +u|+t|n+ dc|
ccos|stcm+ y un||o|m|z+c|on o |cst+b|cc|m|cnto dc +|c+s ||+cc|on+d+s +dcm+s dc| +||+|go dc |+
ob|+c|on + sus comun|d+dcs dc o||gcn
|n cmb+|go c| |og|+m+ dcbc d+| |ug+| + un+ |+sc d||c|cntc y +uton+nc|+b|c dc |os t|+b+,os dc
consc|v+c|on +|+ odc| m+ntcnc| |+s suc|c|cs |cst+u|+d+s y cx+nd|||+s + |+s +|c+s vcc|n+s no
bcncc|+d+s o| c| |og|+m+ +|+ +scgu|+| sus sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos
|||o s|gn|c+ |+ ncccs|d+d dc m+s m+no dc ob|+ c|o t+mb|cn s|gn|c+ |+ ncccs|d+d dc |ccu|sos
cconom|cos +|+ ||cv+||+s + +c+bo
^d+t+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ |cx|c+n+
!7
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
^co|don+m|cnto dc m+tc||+| vcgct+| Co|doncs dc |cd|+ +comod+d+ cn |+dc|+s
Const|ucc|on dc |cs+s dc |cd|+s Cu+d||||+ dc t|+b+,o
Const|ucc|on dc |cs+s dc ||+nt+s C+bccco dc c+|c+v+s y +||nc dc t+|udcs
|lgura :. Ob|+s |c+||z+d+s o| c| ||og|+m+ dc c|v|c|os ^mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos
|s o| c||o uc |os |csu|t+dos dc| |og|+m+ sc o||cnt+n |+c|+ |os |+b|t+ntcs dc |+ |cg|on +||d+
s|tu+d+ +gu+s +b+,o uc sc bcncc|+ dc |os sc|v|c|os ||d|o|og|cos dc |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ m+s +|t+
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
!8
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
uc +| consc|v+| cn bucn cst+do scgu||+ gcnc|+ndo c| +gu+ dc cscu|||m|cnto y dc |n|t|+c|on
dc bucn+ c+||d+d +|+ m+ntcnc| |+ sob|cv|vcnc|+ y |os |occsos |oduct|vos dc cs+ |mo|t+ntc
|cg|on +||d+ vcc|n+
|n .010 sc |+nzo c| |oyccto dc +go vo|unt+||o o| sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos
uc |ctcndc scns|b|||z+| + |+ ob|+c|on bcnc||c|+d+ +gu+s +b+,o y uc od|+ cont||bu|| + |+
c|cnn|z+c|on dc |os t|+b+,os dc consc|v+c|on +gu+s +|||b+ cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+
^ctu+|mcntc csc +go vo|unt+||o dc sc|v|c|os sc cncucnt|+ cn |+sc dc |ucb+ con c| bcnc||c|o
||sc+| dc |+ dcducc|on dc |mucstos +|+ u|cn +o|t+ s|n cmb+|go |+ m+yo| |cc+ud+c|on no sc
csc|+ uc vcng+ dc |+s |ndust||+s o g|+ndcs g|uos cconom|cos |nd|v|du+|cs s|no dc| g|ucso dc |+
ob|+c|on uc dcsdc su modcst+ +|t|c|+c|on cconom|c+ od|+ sum+| |+s m+yo|cs +o|t+c|oncs
cconom|c+s como succdc cn ot|+ |cg|on dc| no|tc dc |cx|co (|c||+ dc z++||n+mc y |+b|t+ntcs
dc |+ c|ud+d dc +|t|||o) +|+ d+| m+yo| v|+b|||d+d + cstc |oyccto (C+n+|cs .00)
|s ucs |mo|t+ntc y ncccs+||o scns|b|||z+| + |os |+b|t+ntcs dc |+ |cg|on +||d+ +gu+s +b+,o +|+
uc sus +o|t+c|oncs cconom|c+s vo|unt+||+s +scgu|cn c| +go dc m+no dc ob|+ su||c|cntc y
|+ +m||+c|on g|+du+| dc suc|||c|cs |otcg|d+s |+st+ ||cg+| + cub||| c| 100 ` dc |o |cuc||do
y |cst+u|+| con c||o dc m+nc|+ com|ct+ c| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| dc cst+ zon+ o|o +s| od|+
com|ct+|sc c| csucm+ |+ntc+do dc m+nc|+ |ntc||gcntc dcsdc c| ||nc||o y |c+||z+| con c| |+
consc|v+c|on y |cst+u|+c|on dc cst+ zon+ scm|+||d+ mcx|c+n+ como un+ cx|tos+ +d+t+c|on + |os
|m+ctos +dvc|sos dc| c||m+ y dc |+s +ct|v|d+dcs |um+n+s
5. Conclusin
^ |+ |uz dc |os |csu|t+dos cxucstos +|||b+ c| |og|+m+ dc sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos sc
c||+ como un+ ||mc|+ ct++ dc |+ so|uc|on + mcd|+no |+zo con un+ v|s|on m+s |ntcg|+| dc|
|ob|cm+ y dc sus so|uc|oncs o| un |+do |+ vu|nc|+b|||d+d n+tu|+| dc| mcd|o b|o||s|co + c|c|t+s
+ct|v|d+dcs |oduct|v+s uc |cu|c|cn dc cont|o| +|+ cv|t+| uc sc+n +bus|v+s y o| ot|o |+do
|+ |ncc|t|dumb|c y |+ v+||+b|||d+d dc| c||m+ uc cs o| c| momcnto d|||c|| dc |cdcc|| c|o uc cs
c+d+ vcz m+s cstud|+d+ y +n+||z+d+ o| g|uos dc t|+b+,o c|cnt|co
|| |og|+m+ dc sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos cs un |og|+m+ ||oto |mo|t+ntc c|o +un
|nsu||c|cntc +|+ |cst+u|+| tod+s |+s +|c+s dc |ntc|cs ||d|o|og|co y+ uc t|cnc un+ du|+c|on
dctc|m|n+d+ +| ||n+| dc| cu+| |os gcsto|cs dc |os |ondos scm|||+ busc+|+n |+c|||t+| |+ o|g+n|z+c|on
dc |+s comun|d+dcs bcnc||c|+d+s +|+ scgu|| consc|v+ndo y +m||+| |+s suc|||c|cs |otcg|d+s
c|o con |+ +yud+ dc |+ soc|cd+d |oc+| o dc +gu+s +b+,o mcd|+ntc |+ conc|cnt|z+c|on dc |+
|mo|t+nc|+ dc |+ consc|v+c|on y |os bcnc||c|os uc |cd|tu+ cn tc|m|nos dc sum|n|st|o dc +gu+
^d+t+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ |cx|c+n+
!9
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
dc bucn+ c+||d+d +|+ c| consumo g+n+dc|o +g||co|+ y |um+no +s| como +|+ c|cv+| |+ scgu||d+d
||d|o|og|c+ cn c| +|c+ mcd|+ntc |+ |cducc|on dc |+ c|d|d+ dc| suc|o y c| m+ntcn|m|cnto dc |+
c+||d+d dc| +gu+ |+ consc|v+c|on dc m+n+nt|+|cs y c| m+ntcn|m|cnto dc |+ c++c|d+d dc |cc+|g+
dc m+ntos +cu||c|os c| m+ntcn|m|cnto dc cscu|||m|cnto dc b+sc cn coc+ scc+ y |+ |cvcnc|on
dc |nund+c|oncs o dcs||z+m|cntos dc suc|o mcd|+ntc |+ dc||m|t+c|on y consc|v+c|on dc +|c+s dc
+mo|t|gu+m|cnto || |cto cs cv|t+| |+ dcg|+d+c|on dc cs+ zon+ scm|+||d+ dc mont++ ub|c+d+
cn |+ |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+| uc |c|cscnt+ c| +|m+ccn n+tu|+| dc| +gu+ dc |+s ||uv|+s y cv|t+|
|+ dcsc|t|||c+c|on dc |+s zon+s +||d+s ub|c+d+s +gu+s +b+,o uc dccndcn com|ct+mcntc
dc |+s +gu+s |o|+nc+s t+nto suc|||c|+|cs como subtc||+nc+s +|+ su sob|cv|vcnc|+ y +|+ sus
+ct|v|d+dcs cconom|c+s
|| |^| dcbc|+ +yud+| cntonccs + |+ +doc|on dc| +go vo|unt+||o o| sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs
uc c|m|t+ c|cnn|z+| + mcd|+no |+zo |+s |+bo|cs dc |cst+u|+c|on dc| ccos|stcm+ y c| cm|co
dc m+no dc ob|+ |oc+| uc +||+|guc + |+ ob|+c|on + sus comun|d+dcs dc o||gcn y |+c|||tc con c||o
un+ |+|d+ |ccuc|+c|on dc| +t||mon|o n+tu|+| y |oduct|vo
|st+s mcd|d+s sc |og|+|+n scgu|+mcntc con c| +oyo sostcn|do dc| g|ucso dc |+ ob|+c|on dc
u|cn sc csc|+n |+s +o|t+c|oncs cconom|c+s m+s s|gn|c+t|v+s
|+ +d+t+c|on dc |+ ob|+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co +s+ |||cmcd|+b|cmcntc o|
|+ |cst+u|+c|on dc| mcd|o b|o||s|co y o| c| +||+|go dc |+ ob|+c|on + sus |ug+|cs dc o||gcn |o cu+|
d+ |ug+| + ot|+s oc|oncs dc consc|v+c|on |gu+|mcntc v|+b|cs y cx|o|+b|cs uc v+|d||+n |+ cn+
dc sc| |ob+d+s +|+ bcncc|+| un m+yo| numc|o dc |cct+|c+s dc cst+ zon+ scm|+||d+ ^s| o|
c,cm|o |os |og|+m+s dc c+tu|+ dc c+|bono dc |otccc|on dc |+ d|vc|s|d+d b|o|og|c+ y
dc consc|v+c|on dc s|t|os con bc||cz+ csccn|c+ son t+mb|cn oc|oncs |mo|t+ntcs + v+|o|+| cn
|+s comun|d+dcs scns|b|||z+d+s +|+ g+|+nt|z+| c| bucn cst+do dc |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ mcx|c+n+
|cd|d+s dc cont|o| +dm|n|st|+t|vo sc|+n s|n cmb+|go ob||g+to||+s +|+ |mcd|| |+ o||t|z+c|on dc
|+s cst|uctu|+s dc cstos |og|+m+s y +|+ uc |os |ccu|sos |cc+b+dos dc |+ ob|+c|on bcncc|+-
||+ sc+n m+nc,+dos con +bso|ut+ t|+ns+|cnc|+ y |oncst|d+d most|+ndo cn todo momcnto |os
costos dc |+s ob|+s dc consc|v+c|on |c+||z+d+s y |os bcncc|os +mb|cnt+|cs y soc|+|cs |oduc|dos
+ |+ ob|+c|on uc |os |c+||zo y + |+ ob|+c|on uc |os n+nc|o
|+s nucv+s |oucst+s dc c|cnn|z+c|on y dc |c||c+ dc |+s ob|+s dc consc|v+c|on dcbcn sc|
+com++d+s dc un+ +c|tu|+ |+c|+ |os mc|c+dos |ntc|n+c|on+|cs (bonos dc c+|bono +go dc
sc|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos |otccc|on dc +|c+s b|od|vc|s+s) uc c|m|t+n |cst+u|+| |os
ccos|stcm+s scm|+||dos dc |cx|co y dc ot|+s |cg|oncs dc| mundo
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
20
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
Agradecimientos
|os +uto|cs dcsc+n cx|cs+| su +g|+dcc|m|cnto + tod+s |+s |nst|tuc|oncs uc ||c|c|on os|b|c
cstc t|+b+,o cn +|t|cu|+| +| CO|^C +| ||||^| +| ||| y + |os |+b|t+ntcs dc |+s comun|d+dcs dc
|o|c|+s |scob+| y ^ncx+s C|cncg+ dc |scob+| +n |osc dc |+ |oc+ cc|u+ncs +s| como + |+s
un|d+dcs dc sc|v|c|os |o|cst+|cs dc cc|u+ncs o| su +m+b|||d+d y d|son|b|||d+d cn c| t|+b+,o
dc c+mo dc cst+ |nvcst|g+c|on
Referencias
||O|| | lydrocblmle et geocblmle lsotoplque de la nappe pbreatlque de la Comarca
Lagunera Hord-Mexlque !csc (|octo|+|c) |n|vc|s|tc dc |+||s ++ O|s+y |+||s ||+ncc +,,;
C^|^|| | c|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs +n+||s|s dc dos c+sos |n ||C||||O O||| ||O||V||||^|
||^||O||O O|||||| || |^ |^C||^ ; ||| C+mus |+gun+ o||con Co+|u||+
|cx|co .oo, Memorlas o||con Co+|u||+ |cx|co .oo,
||C|O|X | |O|V||O || |scu|||m|cnto y c|os|on cn |+ |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+| |olleto clentlco
n ; C||||-|^|^ Comcz |+|+c|o |u|+ngo |cx|co +,,;
||C|O|X | |O|V||O || ||^|^ | Ccog|+||+ dc |+s ||uv|+s cn un+ cucnc+ dc| |o|tc dc |cx|co
|cg|on+||z+c|on dc |+s |cc||t+c|oncs cn |+ |cg|on ||d|o|og|c+ ,e |olleto clentlco n s C||||-
|^|^ Comcz |+|+c|o |u|+ngo |cx|co +,,;
||C|O|X | C||||z | |O||||^| | |ct|odcs dc mcsu|c dc |c|os|on +ctuc||c +||c+t|ons d+ns
|cs ||c+|cs du ud (||+ncc ct |+ |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+|c) Mexlque 8ull. du keseau Lroslon n
+; .,,-.,| +,,;b
||C|O|X | V||^|O|| | ^|^^ | |O||||^|| | CO|z^||z-|^|||O || ||m+ct du
su|+tu|+gc ct du dcbo|scmcnt su| |c|os|on dcs so|s d+ns |+ |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+|c) 8ull. du
keseau Lroslon n.o .+s-.,+ .ooo
||C|O|X | ||CO||| CO|z^||z-|^|||O || V||^|O|| | |O|||| ^ |oc+|
|+cto|s cont|o|||ng gu||y o| +|c+| c|os|on |n t|c |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+| (|o|t|c|n |cx|co) |n
|||||^|O|^| ||O||| O| C||| ||O|O| ||||| C|O|^| C|^|C| |u|oc+n oc
|o| o|| Consc|v+t|on C+t|o||c |n|v o| |ouv+|n ^||| .ooo ||ussc|s |c|g|um .ooo Abstracts
||ussc|s |c|g|um .ooo
||C|O|X | V||^|O|| | V^|C||| | CO|z^||z-|^|||O || ||V| | |nucncc o|
so|| su||+cc |c+tu|cs +nd vcgct+t|on on |uno +nd c|os|on |n t|c \cstc|n |c||+ |+d|c (|u|+ngo
|o|t|wcst |cx|co) CA1LHA v |, n . ++,-+,, .oo+
^d+t+c|on + |os |m+ctos dc| c+mb|o c||m+t|co cn |+ zon+ scm|+||d+ |cx|c+n+
2!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
||C|O|X | |O|V||O || V^|C||| | |v+|u+t|on o| +n +ntcccdcnt |cc||t+t|on |ndcx to modc|
|uno y|c|d |n t|c \cstc|n |c||+ |+d|c (|o|t|-wcst |cx|co . or lydrology v.e, ++|-+,o .oo.
||C|O|X | CO|z^||z |^|||O || V^||||V^||| || V||^|O|| | |O|||| ^ ^n
cxc||mcnt+| +n+|ys|s o| |yd|odyn+m|c bc|+v|o| on so||s +nd ||||s|ocs |n + subt|o|c+| mount+|nous
cnv||onmcnt (\cstc|n |c||+ |+d|c |cx|co . or lydrology v .ee +-+| .oo.b
||C|O|X | CO|z^||z |^|||O || V||^|O|| | ||V| | Cu||y c|os|on +nd |+nd usc
c|+ngcs on t|c ||||s|ocs o| t|c wcstc|n s|c||+ m+d|c |n CULLY eroslon under global cbange (cd
|| | |ocscn C V+|cnt|n C|+tc| +. +e,-+;| +cd |c|u+n c|cncc +nd cc|no|ogy ||css
C|cngdu C||n+ .oo|
||C|O|X | |O||||^| | |cs |o|mcs dc|os|on d+ns |+ |c||+ |+d|c Occ|dcnt+|c (|o|d Oucst du
|c|uc 8ull. Labo.kbod. Ceomorpb |yon ||+ncc n ,,-,| +-+, .oo,
||C|O|X | |||||| ^-| C^||||| | ^|OC| O V||^|O|| | CO|z^||z |^|||O ||
cd|mcnt budgct +s cv|dcncc o| |+nd-usc c|+ngcs |n mont+|ncous +|c+s two st+gcs o| cvo|ut|on |n
|||||| |||C| . (|d |o|ow|tz ^| |cs | \+|||ng) .e.-.;o |AlS ubl .,. |^| ||css
\+|||ng|o|d || .oo,
||C|O|X | CO|z^||z |^|||O || V||^|O|| | |O||||^|| | ^|^^ | ||V| |
||^|^ | Cu||y +nd s|cct c|os|on on subt|o|c+| mount+|n s|ocs !c|| |cscct|vc |o|cs +nd t|c
sc+|c ccct CA1LHA v ;. n .oos ,.,-,,, .oos
CO|z^||z |^|||O || ||C|O|X | V||^|O|| | |O||||^|| | |||||C^^C|| ^
|^C|^ | |O|| C| |O|||| ^ |^O ||^||^ | Cond|c|oncs uc |+vo|cccn |+ c|os|on y c|
cscu|||m|cnto cn m+nto |n LA S|LkkA MAUkL OCC|ULH1AL, una ruente de agua amenazada
(|d |csc|o|x | Conz+|cz |+|||os || |st|+d+ |) C+ ; +e+-+;s |d|c|oncs ||||^|-||| Comcz
|+|+c|o |u|+ngo |cx|co .oo|
CO|z^||z |^|||O || ||^|^ ^V^|O | CO|z^||z C||V^|| C |^O | ^|C||z
CO||| | ||C|O|X | ||os|on cn c+|c+v+s cn |+ cucnc+ +|t+ dc| ||o |+z+s |m+cto dc| c+mb|o
dc uso dc| suc|o |n CO|C||O |^C|O|^| || ||||C^C|O| +, |cs+ | ||d|o|og|+ y |+nc,o
|ntcg|+do dc cucnc+s ^c+u|co |cx|co .oo, Memorlas ^c+u|co |cx|co .oo,
CO|z^||z |^|||O || ||^|^ ^V^|O | |^O ||^||^ | CO|z^||z || CO|z^||z
C||V^|| C |ctodo|og|+ dc obsc|v+c|on dc c+|c+v+s dc c|os|on cn un+ cucnc+ ||d|o|og|c+
cxc||mcnt+| Agroraz v ; n , ++,-+., .oo;
CO|z^||z |^|||O || |||Oz V|||^|O|O |^ V^|||z|||^ ||||z || ||V||^
CO|z^||z | ||^|^ ^V^|O | ||C|O C^C|^|O | ||os|on ||d||c+ dc suc|o y c+|bono
o|g+n|co cn |+ cucnc+ +|t+ dc| |+z+s |n ||^|^ |||||^C|O|^| || ^C|O|O||^ .o |^z-
|||| |ov .oos |,s-|e| Comcz |+|+c|o |u|+ngo |cx|co .oos Memorlas Comcz |+|+c|o
|u|+ngo |cx|co .oos
|osc |+|||os |uc |csc|o|x
22
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -.. ,u|-dcz .011
CO|z^||z |^|||O || ||C|O C^C|^|O | |O||C^ C||||||O ^ V^|||z|||^ ||||z
|| c|v|c|os +mb|cnt+|cs ||d|o|og|cos cn |+ |c||+ dc |+ C+ndc|+ |u|+ngo |cx|co kevlsta
Cbaplngo Serle 7onas Arldas v s n+ |,-|s .oo,
CO|z^||z |^|||O || V^||||V^||| || ||C|O|X | ^|C||z CO||| | |m+cto dc| c+mb|o
dc uso dc suc|o cn |+ ||d|od|n+m|c+ suc|c|+| dc un+ cucnc+ |cccto|+ dc +gu+ |n |||||O|
||^|C^ ||| ^C|^ CO|^C Cocoyoc |o|c|os |cx|co .oo, Memorlas Cocoyoc
|o|c|os |cx|co .oo,b
|^|||| C !c t|+gcdy o| t|c commons Sclence n+e.+,es +.|,-+.|s +,es
||^|| |O||^|| | |n+ |ont++ cn v|+s dc| +b+ndono |n LA S|LkkA MAUkL OCC|ULH1AL, una
ruente de agua amenazada (|d |csc|o|x | Conz+|cz |+|||os || |st|+d+ |) C+ . e,-s,
|d|c|oncs ||||^|-||| Comcz |+|+c|o |u|+ngo |cx|co .oo|
^|C||z CO||| | ||^z |^||||^ C O|||^ \ C||||O||| C O|O|^ | V|||^|||V^ |
CO|z^||z |^|||O || CO|z^||z C||V^|| || V+||+b|||d+d c||m+t|c+ cn |cx|co +|gunos
|m+ctos ||d|o|og|cos soc|+|cs y cconom|cos |ngenlerla bldraullca en Mexlco v ., n| ,-.| .oos
^|C||z CO||| | C||^|O |^|||| | V|||^|||V^ | ||^|^ | CO|z^||z |^|||O ||
CO||||O | |v+|u+c|on dc +|tc|n+t|v+s +|+ |+ consc|v+c|on dc |+ cub|c|t+ vcgct+| cn |+ +|tc
+|t+ dc |+ cucnc+ |+z+s-^gu+n+v+| mcd|+ntc c| s|stcm+ dc +yud+ +|+ |+ tom+ dc dcc|s|oncs USS.
Agroraz v, n , ,,-e. .oo,
^|C||z CO||| | CO|z^||z |^|||O || ||^z |^||||^ C V||^||z V^||| | C+mb|o
c||m+t|co y vu|nc|+b|||d+d cco|og|c+ |m+cto cn |+s v+||+b|cs ||d|o|og|c+s dc |+s cucnc+s |n
MAHLO COMAkAUO UL CULHCAS l|UkOLOC|CAS, |ncertldumbre Cllmatlca, vulnerabllldad
Lcologlca y Conlcto Soclal (Com CO|z^||z |^|||O || ^|C||z CO||| | .,-|,
|d|c|oncs |C CO|^C ||^C ||||^| |||^ o||con Co+|u||+ |cx|co .oo,
V||^|O|| | Comportement bydrodynamlque des mllleux dans la Slerra Madre Occldentale.
causes et consequences de leur evolutlon !csc docto|+|c |n|vc|s|tc |osc| |ou||c| dc C|cnob|c
|nst|tut dc Ccog|+||c ^||nc C|cnob|c ||+ncc .ooo
V||^|O|| | ^|^^ | C^|C|^ C |O||||^|| | |^||^| | |^C|^ | |O|||C||z
C^|^||||O |C |cm+s|+do g+n+do y dcm+s|+dos |c+do|cs un+ cconom|+ m|nc|+ |n LA
S|LkkA MAUkL OCC|ULH1AL un+ |ucntc dc +gu+ +mcn+z+d+ (|d |csc|o|x | Conz+|cz |+|||os
|| |st|+d+ |) C+ s +s,-+,, |d|c|oncs ||||^|-||| Comcz |+|+c|o |u|+ngo |cx|co .oo|
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
Effects of Cear Hydroenvironmental Development
Project (Prodham) on the Leading Role of
Communities in Cangati River Hydrographic
Microbasin in Canind-CE
1
*
Ricardo Lima de Medeiros Marques
2
** , Francisco Mavignier Cavalcante Frana
3
***

' |+c| |ssucd +t t|c |cucst o| cc|ct+||+t o| \+tc| |csou|ccs o| t|c t+tc o| Cc+|+ undc| t|c consu|t|ng sc|v|cc +g|ccmcnt no
001;.010;||OC||||| ||-^||||O|^| |O^|;||;C|
'' ^g|onom|st |c |n |u|+| |conomy cc|ct+||+t o| \+tc| |csou|ccs o| t|c t+tc o| Cc+|+
''' |conom|st |c |n |u|+| |conomy cc|ct+||+t o| \+tc| |csou|ccs o| t|c t+tc o| Cc+|+
Abstract
||O||^/ a.:cos o Caoa: |.e |/8 s:a:ea o
.oo aoa .ee .co'e:ea o .oo, 'e, o.'aaea :ne
o:caa.:co c/ n,aceo.cooeo:a' ese.a:co
.a:e aoa sc' oaoaeoeo: eo.cooeo:a' oco
:co aoa .co:c' :e.noaes a'' sac:ea o, :ne
a:.a:co c/ 'c.a' ca'a:co ^: :ne saoe :oe
:ne ce.: eo.caaea :ne s:eo:neoo c/ 'c.a'
/aoe caoa:cos aoa seos:.:, oco'a
:co aoa eaa:co c/ 'c.a' sc.a' a.:cs :c a.: o a
sas:aoao':, s.eoac
|os::a:coa' ae.e'coeo: a.aeoess aoa eo.co
oeo:a' eaa.a:co c/ |aaa .cooao:, a''c.ea ao
eo.cooeo:a' e.c.e, aoa ese.a:co c.ess :c
s:a: o Caoa: |.e o.coaso 'a: ec: coea
:ce:ne :ne eo.cooeo:a' ese.a:co e.coco.
ae.e'coeo: aoa oc.eoeo: c/ 'c.a' ca'a:cos
'/e aa':, w:n :na: e\eeo.e eeseo:a:.es c/
.cooao:, assc.a:cos aoa se.ea' os::a:cos o
.c'.ea o |ce.: a.:cos :ncan :ne o.coa
so /aoaeoeo: 8caa aeo:/, es:ao'sn o'e
Resumo
^s +ocs ||O||^| n+ m|c|ob+c|+ ||d|og|+c+
(|||) do ||o C+ng+t| comc+|+m cm .oo+ c |o-
|+m conc|u|d+s cm .oo, ||+s |nc|u||+m + |nt|odu-
io dc |csc|v+io ||d|o+mb|cnt+| d+ +gu+ c m+-
nc,o do so|o mon|to|+mcnto +mb|cnt+| c tccn|c+s
dc cont|o|c tod+s +o|+d+s c|+ +|t|c|+io d+
ou|+io |oc+| ^o mcsmo tcmo o |o,cto |n-
ccnt|vou o |o|t+|cc|mcnto dc o|g+n|z+ocs |oc+|s
dc +g||cu|to|cs c mob|||z+io scns|b|||d+dc c |c-
+|+io dos +to|cs soc|+|s |oc+|s +|+ +tu+| cm um
ccn+||o dc sustcnt+b|||d+dc
O dcscnvo|v|mcnto |nst|tuc|on+| consc|cnt|z+io
c cduc+io +mb|cnt+| d+ comun|d+dc do |gu+u
c|m|t|u + |ccuc|+io +mb|cnt+| c um |occsso
dc |csc|v+io n+ m|c|ob+c|+ do ||o C+ng+t| |ssc
cs|o|o |cun|u |csc|v+io +mb|cnt+| dcscnvo|v|-
mcnto cconom|co c mc||o||+ d+ u+||d+dc dc v|d+
d+ ou|+io |oc+| |ss+ cxc||cnc|+ c|m|t|u +os
|c|cscnt+ntcs dc +ssoc|+ocs comun|t+||+s c |nst|-
tu|ocs cnvo|v|d+s n+s +ocs do ||o,cto +t|+vcs do
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
24
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduction
!|s +|t|c|c |s st|uctu|cd |nto two +|ts Onc |c|c|s to ||O||^| |ts |u|| dcs|gn +nd oc|+t|on
|n |ou| sc|cctcd |yd|og|+||c b+s|ns !c sccond +|t |n tu|n |ocus on|y on C+ng+t| ||vc| |||
w||c| w+s t|c +|c+ w|c|c t|c ||o,cct |+d + mo|c cxtcndcd +nd systcm+t|c |ntc|vcnt|on |n
t|+t ||| soc|occonom|c (||^|^ .o+o) +nd b|o|ys|c+| (||-C| .o+o) mon|to||ng
+ct|v|t|cs wc|c c||o|mcd w|c|c ||o,cct |csu|ts +nd |m+cts wc|c sc|cnt|c+||y |cco|dcd ^v+|-
|+b|||ty o| t|+t |n|o|m+t|on w+s dcc|s|vc |o| t|c sc|cct|on o| C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| to bc +n+|yzcd
|o| t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| |ts commun|t|cs |nvo|vcd w|t| t|c ||o,cct
oeo: aoa oco:c :ne a.:cos aoa e'a:ea esa':s
^/:e se.eo ,eas c/ e'a .c neo ,, e.eo:s .ee
ne'a :c s:eo:neo :ne naoao aoa sc.a' .a:a' a
oe. cs:co c/ 'c.a' ca'a:co o e'a:co :c .ae
.:n oa:aa' esca.es aoa /a'' .:eosn e\e.se
.as cose.ea
ne 'eaao c'e s a'sc nn'n:ea o eeooa'a:co
c/ n,aceo.cooeo:a' a.:.es o'eoeo:ea aoae
:ne |ce.: as .cooao:es ae oco'ea oc: co',
:c oao:ao :ne e\s:o .cs oa: a'sc :c :aos/e
:ne e\eeo.e :c c:ne seoaa ecos o Ceaa
|: s oc:ea :na: a/:e :ne aea:ae c/ ||O||^/
:e.no.aos .cooao:es na.e .co:oaea :c .ae
.:n :ne eo.cooeo: ese.a'', o, e.eo:o
caoa .'eaao.e o, /e aoa /e''o c/ .'a, /ces:
:ees :ea:o .as:e aoa coc:o sas:aoao'e
e.coco. a.:.:es |eaao c'e .as escoso'e /c
sc'a/.a:co c/ ||O||^/ :e.noaes o nea:
aoa ooa c/ ca'a:co '.o o a'' /ca |/8s
asss:ea o, ||O||^/
keywords. |c.a' 'eaao c'e CaooaCe
:eoaa eco |,acan. o.coaso :c.a'
ae.e'coeo: |os::a:coa' ae.e'coeo:
Consc||o dc ^dm|n|st|+io d+ m|c|ob+c|+ |dcn-
t|c+| cst+bc|ccc| |m|cmcnt+| c mon|to|+| +s
+ocs c +|c+n+| |csu|t+dos |c|+c|on+dos ^os sctc
+nos dc t|+b+||o dc c+mo ,, cvcntos |o|+m |c-
+||z+dos +|+ |o|t+|ccc| o c+|t+| |um+no c soc|+|
+|+ mc||o|+| +s +t|tudcs d+ ou|+io |oc+| +|+
um+ mc||o| gcstio dos |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s c |omo-
vc| + |c+||z+io dc um+ c|d+d+n|+ |cn+
O +c| do |o,cto sc dcst+c+ t+mbcm cm +sscgu-
|+| dc |o|m+ c|m+ncntc + +doio dc |+t|c+s ||-
d|o+mb|cnt+|s |m|cmcnt+d+s no mb|to do ||o-
,cto n+ mcd|d+ cm uc +s comun|d+dcs sio mo-
b|||z+d+s nio +cn+s +|+ m+ntc| os t|+b+||os cx|s-
tcntcs m+s t+mbcm +|+ t|+ns|c||| su+ cxc||cnc|+
+|+ out|+s |cg|ocs scm|+||d+s no Cc+|+ |otc-sc
uc +os + s+|d+ dc tccn|cos do ||O||^| +s
comun|d+dcs cont|nu+|+m + cu|d+| do mc|o +m-
b|cntc cscc|+|mcntc +t|+vcs d+ |cvcnio ||m-
cz+ do so|o o| |nccnd|o c +o co|tc dc +|vo|cs d+
m+t+ c|||+| |omovcndo o t|+t+mcnto dc |cs|duos
c +s +t|v|d+dcs cconom|c+s sustcnt+vc|s |m +c|
|mo|t+ntc do |o,cto |o| g+n|+| co|+ocs c mcn-
tcs d+ ou|+io |oc+| cm |c|+io +o uso dc tcc-
n|c+s +mb|cnt+|mcntc c soc|+|mcntc sustcnt+vc|s
alavras-cbave. +c| dc ||dc|+n+ |oc+| C+n|ndc-
-Cc cm|+||do m|c|ob+c|+ ||d|og|+c+ dcscnvo|-
v|mcnto soc|+| dcscnvo|v|mcnto |nst|tuc|on+|
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
2
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
1.1. Cear Hydroenvironmental Development Program (PRODHAM)
|c |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct ||O||^| w+s |m|+ntcd by t|c
uc||ntcndcncc o| |yd|+u||c \o||s (O||||^) |n +|tnc|s|| w|t| |||C||| |o| suc|v|s|on
o| soc|occonom|c +nd b|o|ys|c+| mon|to||ng systcms |ts ob,cct|vc w+s to |omotc
|yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |ccovc|y |n |ou| |yd|og|+||c m|c|ob+s|ns (|||) |oc+tcd |n Cc+|+ scm|+||d
|cg|on w|t| +ct|vc |nvo|vcmcnt o| |oc+| ou|+t|ons
||O||^| +ct|ons st+|tcd |n +,,, +nd com|ctcd |n .oo, com||sc t|c |nt|oduct|on o| |y-
d|ocnv||onmcnt+| |csc|v+t|on w+tc| +nd so|| m+n+gcmcnt +nd +|t|c|+to|y cnv||onmcnt+|
mon|to||ng +nd cont|o| tcc|n|ucs |n sc|cctcd +|c+s ^t t|c s+mc t|mc t|c |o,cct cncou|+gcd
t|c st|cngt|cn|ng o| |oc+| |+|mc| o|g+n|z+t|ons +nd scns|t|v|ty mob|||z+t|on +nd +w+|cncss o|
||| soc|+| +cto|s
||O||^| const|tutcd + ||ot cxc||mcnt+| |o,cct dcvc|ocd |n |ou| +|c+s o| t|c scm|+||d
|cg|on o| t|c t+tc o| Cc+|+ c|cct|on o| ||O||^| oc|+t|on +|c+s w+s b+scd on + +|t|c|-
+to|y d|+gnos|s m+dc |n +,,, !c |ou| sc|cctcd +|c+s |nc|udcd t|c |yd|og|+||c m|c|ob+s|ns
o| C+ng+t| ||vc| |n t|c mun|c|+||ty o| C+n|ndc |+touc ||vc| |n t|c mun|c|+||ty o| |+|+mot|
|csuc||o ||vc| |n t|c mun|c|+||ty o| ^|+tub+ +nd +|g+do;O|t|c|c+ ||vc|s |n t|c mun|c|+||t|cs
o| |+cot| +nd |+|m+c|+
!c o||g|n+| dcs|gn o| |o,cct |nc|udcd t|c cv+|u+t|on o| wo||s c+|||cd out +|mcd +t + |+|-
|c+c||ng d|us|on o| tcstcd mct|odo|og|cs tcstcd +nd +d+tcd to d|c|cnt +|c+s o| t|c t+tc
o| Cc+|+ scm|+||d |cg|on !us |n +dd|t|on to t|c |m|+nt+t|on o| tcc|no|og|cs +nd |yd|ocnv|-
|onmcnt+| |+ct|ccs +|t|c|+to|y soc|occonom|c +nd gcocnv||onmcnt+| mon|to||ng o| ||O|-
|^| +ct|ons w+s c||o|mcd by |||C|||
^ct|v|t|cs c||o|mcd undc| t|c ||o,cct t|+t wc|c most suo|tcd by t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| commu-
n|t|cs ||v|ng |n C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| |n t|c d|st||ct o| |gu+u |nc|udcd
+) |nv||onmcnt+| cduc+t|on
|+||ng t|c bcnc||tcd ou|+t|on +w+|c |n|o|mcd +nd |now|cdgc+b|c o| cnv||onmcnt+|
|ssucs t|+t +|c most |c|+tcd to ||| |c+||ty +nd dcvc|o|ng sm+|| +ssoc|+tcd commun|ty
|og|+ms
m+||ng sccto|-|c|+tcd soc|ocnv||onmcnt+| +nd |ys|c+|-cnv||onmcnt+| d|+gnoscs to
gu|dc ||o,cct +ct|ons
d|sc|os|ng t|c |csu|ts o| suc| d|+gnost|cs du||ng +ct|ons |o| scns|t|z+t|on +nd cnv||onmcnt+|
cduc+t|on o| +ssoc|+t|ons sc|oo|s +nd gcnc|+| ou|+t|on
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
26
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
|m|cmcnt|ng +ct|ons |o| mob|||z+t|on +nd c++c|ty bu||d|ng o| +ssoc|+t|ons |um+n
|csou|ccs to m+|c sm+|| commun|ty |og|+ms on soc|ocnv||onmcnt+| +nd |oduct|vc
m+ttc|s |c+s|b|c
b) Commun|ty |cvc|omcnt
|+||ng t|c |oc+| +ssoc|+t|on cnt|t|cs conso||d+tcd |ov|dcd w|t| |c+dc|s|| +nd
s||||cd |um+n |csou|ccs +nd +b|c to dcvc|o sm+|| ,o|nt coo|d|n+tcd |u|+| commun|ty
dcvc|omcnt |og|+ms
suo|t|ng t|c |m|ovcd c||o|m+ncc o| +ssoc|+t|ons t||oug| + t|+ns+|cnt
oc|+t|on |nc|ud|ng |nccnt|vc to t|c +dot|on o| st|+tcg|cs |o| soc|+| |nc|us|on |cndc||ng
o| +ccounts +nd consu|t+t|on +nd |n|o|m+t|on +mong t|c|| mcmbc|s
cst+b||s||ng cnt|c|cncu||+| +|tnc|s||s |o| t|c |m|+nt+t|on o| ,o|nt +ct|ons +mong
scvc|+| ||| +ssoc|+t|ons |n +dd|t|on to cncou|+g|ng t|c c|c+t|on o| |oc+| d|scuss|on +nd
cxc||cncc cxc|+ngc |o|ums +nd t|c const|tut|on o| ,o|nt|y m+n+gcd ||n+nc|+| |csou|ccs
suo|t|ng t|c o|g+n|z+t|on o| dwc||c|;|oducc| +ssoc|+t|ons +nd t|c c++c|ty bu||d|ng
o| t|c|| mcmbc|s (m+n+gc||+| +ccount|ng tcc|n|c+| ctc) |o| commun|ty usc +nd
m+|ntcn+ncc o| |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |n||+st|uctu|c nctwo|| const|uctcd by ||O||^|
2. Prodham work methodology and action strategies
|ct|odo|ogy +dotcd by ||O||^| |nc|udcd t|c c||cct|vc +|t|c|+t|on o| |nvo|vcd
ou|+t|ons +nd +ss|m||+t|on o| ncws |o|ms o| |occdu|cs t|+t +||owcd t|osc ou|+t|ons to
|u||y |cc| co-+ut|o|s o| cnv||onmcnt+| |ccovc|y |occsscs |+t +|so |cd to t|c dcvc|omcnt o|
+ wo|| |ocuscd on +w+|cncss o| ou|+t|ons +nd +gcnts |nvo|vcd |n |o,cct oc|+t|on +|c+s
w|t| |cscct to t|c|| c|m+ncnt |csons|b|||ty |o| |csc|v+t|on +nd mu|t|||c+t|on o| t|+t
|yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |ccovc|y +nd |csc|v+t|on cxc||cncc
|o|nt wo|| w|t| commun|t|cs +|mcd to cnsu|c +n c||cct|vc +|t|c|+t|on o| soc|+| +cto|s |n
|o,cct |+nn|ng +nd m+n+gcmcnt +nd + g|c+tc| t|+ns+|cncy o| +ct|ons +nd +||c+t|on o|
||n+nc|+| |csou|ccs
||s w+y + wo|| systcm w+s dcvc|ocd w|c|c |c+dc|s||s +nd |c|cscnt+t|vcs o| scvc|+|
commun|t|cs bcc+mc +w+|c o| t|c scoc o| ||o,cct t|c |mo|t+ncc o| c|c+t|on o| d|scuss|on
|o|ums +nd c|cct|ng |c|cscnt+t|vcs t|+t wc|c comm|ttcd to t|c commun|ty dcvc|omcnt +nd
t|c +|t|c|+to|y m+n+gcmcnt |occss
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
27
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
o cnsu|c t|c co||cct +||c+t|on o| |unds +||oc+tcd by t|c t+tc to +ssoc|+t|ons +|| |c+dc|s||s
+|t|c|+tcd |n t|+|n|ng |n b+s|c +ccount|ng w||c| +||owcd t|c sc|cct|on o| commun|ty
+ccount+nts t|+t +|c tod+y |csons|b|c |o| t|c w|o|c m+n+gcmcnt o| ||| +ssoc|+t|ons ||s
+ct|on +cc|cd|tcd t|c commun|t|cs w|t| b+n| |nst|tut|ons +nd cnsu|cd + bcttc| |omtncss |n
|c|c+sc o| |unds ||om ot|c| govc|nmcnt+| |o,ccts
o |u|t|c| st|cngt|cn t|+t co-m+n+gcmcnt +ct|on t|+|n|ng;mon|to||ng o| +ct|v|t|cs
w+s dcvc|ocd |o| scvc|+| |oc+| commun|ty +ssoc|+t|ons +nd |n|o|m+| g|ous w|t| t|c m+|n
ob,cct|vc o| suo|t|ng t|c|| o|g+n|z+t|on +nd |ov|dc t|cm w|t| |nst|umcnts |o| t|+ns+|cnt
oc|+t|on by cncou|+g|ng t|c +dot|on o| st|+tcg|cs |o| soc|+| |nc|us|on (gcndc| cu|||b||um
+nd yout| +|t|c|+t|on) |cndc||ng o| +ccounts ou|+t|ons mob|||z+t|on +nd consu|t+t|on;
|n|o|m+t|on +mong mcmbc|s ^|m|ng to |nc|c+sc t|c sc||-cstccm o| ou|+t|on |cs|d|ng |n
t|c +|c+ st|cngt|cn t|c sccu|+t|vc m|nd +nd |cdccm t|c |oc+| cu|tu|+| |dcnt|ty t|c |o,cct
suo|tcd t|c |o|m+t|on o| cu|tu|+| g|ous
||scuss|on on t|c |ntc||c|+t|ons|| bctwccn cnv||onmcnt+| dcg|+d+t|on ovc|ty +nd
soc|occonom|c dcvc|omcnt |cd ||O||^| to |o|mu|+tc +n |ntc|vcnt|on |oos+| +|mcd
to cncou|+gc t|c gcnc|+| ou|+t|on to +dot sust+|n+b|c |+ct|ccs cons|stcnt w|t| t|c
cnv||onmcnt w|c|c t|cy ||vcd
|m|c +ct|ons suc| +s |c|o|cst+t|on |n u|b+n +|c+s +nd c|||+|y |o|cst sc|cct|vc w+stc co||cct|on
comost|ng +dcu+tc |+nd||ng +nd usc o| w+tc| |csou|ccs +v+||+b|c |o| |um+n consumt|on
(c|stc|ns wc||s ctc) +n|m+| m+n+gcmcnt c|+ngc o| |n+dcu+tc +g||cu|tu|+| |+ct|ccs +nd
+dot|on o| c|c+n tcc|no|og|cs +mong ot|c|s wc|c cncou|+gcd
Oc|+t|on too| |+cc |n commun|t|cs w|t| t|c +ss|st+ncc o| mun|c|+| sc|oo| tc+c|c|s +nd
cnv||onmcnt+| ovc|scc|s w||c| +ctcd on ||s| |+cto|s to w||c| t|c ou|+t|on |s sub,cct by
g|v|ng ||o||ty to |+m||y +nd cst+b||s||ng t|cs bctwccn t|c commun|ty +nd t|c govc|nmcnt
^ subst+nt|+| |m|ovcmcnt o| cnv||onmcnt+| cond|t|ons mon|to||ng w+s |mmcd|+tc|y
soug|t cscc|+||y w|t| |cscct to w+stc |ssucs to |cducc s|gn|||c+nt|y t|c o||ut|on o| w+tc|
|csou|ccs +nd d+m+gcs to d||n||ng w+tc| su|y
3. Characterization of Cangati river HMB
|n|o|m+t|on |ov|dcd |n |tcms bc|ow wc|c cxt|+ctcd ||om t|c |co|t on C+ng+t| ||vc| |||
t+|t|ng |o|nt ||-C| (.oo,) +nd ||om t|c oc|occonom|c |v+|u+t|on o| t|+t b+s|n |nc|udcd |n
||^|^ (.o+o)
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
28
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
3.1. Location and Extension
C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| |s |oc+tcd |n t|c mun|c|+||ty o| C+n|ndc t+tc o| Cc+|+ bctwccn sout|
+|+||c|s 04! +nd 044. +nd mc||d|+ns !.1 +nd !.o wcst o| C|ccnw|c| |t |s |nsc|tcd |n
C|o|o ||vc| |yd|og|+||c b+s|n |n t|c |ct|oo||t+n |cg|on o| |o|t+|cz+ +nd covc|s + su||+cc
+|c+ o| o!0 |cct+|cs (cc ||gu|cs 1 +nd .)
|lgure + |+ o| C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| +nd |ts |oc+t|on |n Cc+|+ m+
ou|cc :||C| ...a)
|lgure : - ^|| v|cw o| |gu+u d|st||ct C+n|ndc-C|
ou|cc ||O||^/
|t |s |u||y |nc|udcd |n t|c ||st||ct o| |gu+u t|c sc+t o| w||c| |s |oc+tcd on t|c m+|g|ns o| |cdc|+|
||-o.o |o+d ,, |m ||om t|c sc+t o| |c mun|c|+||ty o| C+n|ndc +o| |m ||om t|c c+|t+| c|ty o|
t|c t+tc |o|t+|cz+ !c ||st||ct o| |gu+u |nc|udcs mo|c t|+n tcn commun|t|cs vc o| w||c|
+|c |oc+tcd |n C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| |+||+ |ov+ C+c|mb+ dc |+|xo |gu+u |+gcs +nd io |u|z
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
29
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
3.2. Socioeconomic Prole of Cangati River Hydrographic Microbasin
a) opulatlon
C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| |oc+tcd |n t|c ||st||ct o| |gu+u |+s + ou|+t|on o| c1 |n|+b|t+nts d|st||butcd
ovc| .1! |+m|||cs ||c|ob+s|n su||+cc +|c+ |s o |m
.
co||csond|ng to + dcmog|+||c dcns|ty
o| 111 |n|+b|t+nts c| |m
.

|n .oo, .ee|/ o| tot+| ou|+t|on w+s u|c ||||tc|+tc !+t c|ccnt+gc |s |cduccd to +,,+/
w|cn t|c +gc |+ngc o| o-e yc+|s o|d |s d|s|cg+|dcd |unct|on+| ||||tc|+tcs +ccountcd |o| ,se/ o|
tot+| ou|+t|on bc|ng |s,/ |n t|c m+|c gcndc| +nd e,,/ |n t|c |cm+|c gcndc|
b) Soclal lnrrastructure
|n .00 most |+m|||cs dwc||cd |n m+son|y |ouscs (c14!`) Ot|c| tycs o| |ouscs |nc|udc mud
|ousc (1oo`) +nd |m|ovcd mud |ousc (10`)
|n gcnc|+| dwc|||ngs |+vc mo|c t|+n onc w+tc| su|y sou|cc uc| sou|ccs wc|c g|oucd |nto
c|stc|ns w+tc| |o|cs +nd wc||s uscd by c!` o| |+m|||cs |csc|vo||s +nd c|+y |ts by ` co||cct|vc
C^C|C| +nd |oc+| govc|nmcnts systcms by .11` ot|c| |n||cucnt|y uscd sou|ccs |nc|udcd
dcs+||n+to| |nd|v|du+| ||ng systcm +nd t+n| t|un| w||c| wc|c togct|c| uscd by .!` o| |+m|||cs
cwc|+gc w+s u|tc dc||c|cnt |n most dwc|||ngs |n !.` scw+gc |s d|soscd on g|ound
su||+cc 1o4` |+vc not to||ct |n t|c b+t||oom +nd !1.` |+vc no b+t||oom |omcst|c w+stc
dcst|n+t|on w+s st||| + concc|n +s .4o4` o| |+m|||cs d|soscd w+stc on vcgct+t|on o| on t|c
m+|g|ns o| ||-0.0 |o+d |ost common |+ct|cc w+s bu|n|ng +dotcd by o4!` o| |+m|||cs
^s mc+ns o| t|+nso|t+t|on |+m|||cs uscd cscc|+||y b|cyc|cs (o01`) t+mcd +n|m+|s (40`)
+nd moto|cyc|cs (c.`) Ot|c| mc+ns o| t|+nso|t+t|on t|+t +|c |css uscd |nc|udc moto| c+|
c+|t o| ||g|t c+|t +nd t|uc|
c) |armlng productlon
|+|n usc o| |+ndcd cst+tc so|| w+s +g||cu|tu|c mcnt|oncd by s,.o/ o| |oc|t|cs .,oo/ usc
so|| |o| +stu|c ,;,/ |o| |o|csts o| |c|o|cst+t|on +nd .s+;/ o| |oc|t|cs |+vc |+||ow |+nd
|+|n +g||cu|tu|+| |oducts |n C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| |nc|udcd m+|zc +nd bc+ns most|y cx|o|cd |n
|ntcg|+tcd c|os +|t|oug| somc |ndccndcnt c|os |+vc bccn |dcnt|cd +t + |owc| sc+|c uc|
c|os +s b|o+d bc+ns ||cc +nd cotton +|so occu| +|t|oug| t|c|| y|c|ds +|c |ow |c|ds +|c vc|y
|ow duc to |+c| +nd oo| d|st||but|on o| |+|ns +nd |n+dcu+tc c|o m+n+gcmcnt +s no tcc|n|c+|
+ss|st+ncc |s +v+||+b|c
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
!0
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
||vcstoc| +nd sm+|| +n|m+| |oduct|on w+s s|gn|c+nt +nd com||scd +|cu|tu|c |ow|s
bov|nc ov|nc cu|nc +nd o|c|nc c+tt|c |+|n |oduct so|d w+s m||| +ccount|ng |o| ,+s,/ |o-
||owcd by sw|nc (+,,,/) bcc| (+sso/) cggs (++es/) |oncy (;eo/) c||c|cn (,,o/) c+||nc +n|-
m+|s (|o+/) +nd s|cc (on|y oeo/)
|n +dd|t|on to +g||cu|tu|c +nd ||vcstoc| C+ng+t| ||vc| ||| dwc||c|s c||o|m cxt|+ct|vc +ct|v|t|cs
to obt+|n |cc|cs |xt|+ct|vc +ct|v|t|cs |nc|udcd co+| |oduct|on m+nu|+ctu|c o| b+|bccuc s|ts
+nd s||ng
omc |oducc|s uscd +g||cu|tu|+| dc|cns|vcs vctc||n+|y |oducts +nd sc|cctcd sccds su||cd by
Cc+|+ cc|ct+||+t o| |+nd |cvc|omcnt
d) Lconomlc lnrrastructure
|n||+st|uctu|c w+s d|v|dcd |nto two scgmcnts +s |o||ows w+tc| |csou|ccs +nd +cccss|ons \+tc|
|csou|cc |n||+st|uctu|c com||scd |ousc|o|d c|+y |t w+tc| |o|c (|czomct||c wc||) c|stc|ns
(|+|n c|stc|ns) +nd +|tcs|+n wc||s +nd +cccss|ons com||scd s|cc cns w+|c|ouscs ||ou| |ouscs
|gst|cs +nd st+b|c;co||+|
\+tc| |csou|cc |n||+st|uctu|c w+s const|tutcd o| 111 un|ts d|st||butcd ovc| t|c commun|t|cs
||oduct|vc +cccss|ons |nc|udcd . |cccs o| cu|mcnt (t|+cto| cu|t|v+to| s||n||c| |o|+gc
m+c||nc moto| ums ctc)
^g||cu|tu|+| dc|cns|vcs vctc||n+|y |oducts +nd sc|cctcd sccds su||cd by
Cc+|+ cc|ct+||+t o| |+nd |cvc|omcnt wc|c uscd
e) Assoclatlvlsm
|n .00 t|c|c wc|c ||vc (0) +ssoc|+t|ons |n t|c m|c|ob+s|n onc |n c+c| commun|ty +s |o||ows
^ssoc|+t|on o| m+|| |+|mc|s o| io |u|z |+|m ^ssoc|+t|on o| m+|| ||oducc|s o| |gu+u ^ssoc|+t|on
o| |ou|+t|on ctt|cd |n |+gcs ^ssoc|+t|on o| m+|| ||oducc|s o| |+||+ |ov+ +nd ^ssoc|+t|on o|
m+|| ||oducc|s o| C+c|mb+ dc |+|xo |ou| (4) o| t|cm wc|c |n |u|| oc|+t|on +nd onc (1) +|t|oug|
du|y o|g+n|zcd w+s w+|t|ng |o| C||| |ssu+ncc ^|| o| t|cm wc|c sm+|| |oducc| +ssoc|+t|ons
|t w+s notcd t|+t +|| +ssoc|+t|ons dc||vcd ||om |oc+| |c+dc|s||s cxcct |o| |+||+ |ov+ w||c| |+d
+ co||cct|vc n+tu|c +nd +|so |cco|dcd t|c |cscncc o| |cm+|c |c+dc|s|| ^s suc| ob,cct|vcs o|
t|osc ||vc +ssoc|+t|ons |nc|udcd c||g|b|||ty to +|y |o| govc|nmcnt+| |nccnt|vcs c||o|m+ncc o|
||| tc|||to|y govc|n+ncc w+y to m+|c +cccss to b+n| |o+ns c+s|c| commun|ty |m|ovcmcnt
(s|c|ncss +nd m+tc|n|ty +||ow+ncc +nd |ct||cmcnt) sccds |o| |+nt+t|on +nd |c|cscnt+t|on to
ub||c bod|cs
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
!!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
^|| o| t|cm wc|c |ocuscd on +ss|st|ng sm+|| |oducc|s most o| w||c| +|c cng+gcd |n |+|-
m|ng |oduct|on |t w+s +|so notcd t|+t m+ny +ct|v|t|cs ty|c+| o| u|b+n- |u|+| sccto| occu-
||cd |n commun|t|cs
4. Participation instruments
Onc o| t|c b+s|c +sccts o| t|c mct|odo|ogy dcvc|ocd by ||O||^| |s t|c |ntc|vcnt|on
|n cnv||onmcnt+| soc|+| cconom|c +nd cduc+t|on+| +ct|v|t|cs w|t| tot+| |nvo|vcmcnt o| |oc+|
ou|+t|on w||c| wc|c |m|+ntcd |n +n |ntcg|+tcd +nd s|mu|t+ncous m+nnc| |o| t|+t |t |+d
to cst+b||s| scvc|+| +|t|c|+t|on |cvc|s t|c most |mo|t+nt o| w||c| |nc|udcd const|tut|on o|
+ m+n+gcmcnt bo+|d w|t| +n cxccut|vc co||cg|+tc +g|ccmcnts w|t| |oc+| +ssoc|+t|ons w||c|
+||owcd t|c +|t|c|+to|y |m|+nt+t|on o| +ct|ons |ntc|vcnt|on |+nn|ng +nd mon|to||ng t|c
st|ong c++c|ty bu||d|ng o| |oducc|s +nd ot|c| soc|+| +cto|s |n scvc|+| +ct|v|t|cs
+nd t|c |m|cmcnt+t|on o| ot|c| +|t|c|+to|y m+n+gcmcnt |nst|umcnts suc| +s |oc+| g|ous
co||cct|vc wo|| g|ous ||n+nc|+| |unds commun|ty |+nd|c|+|t |+cto|y
||om t|+t c|scct|vc ||O||^| c||o|mcd t|c |o||ow|ng +ct|v|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |||
|n t|c c||od o| .oo+ t||oug| .oo,
+b|c 1 - |csu|ts obt+|ncd by ||O||^| |n .001-.00 c||od
|n C+ng+t| ||vc| m|c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-Cc
Uescrlptlon or actlons Unlt Completed
lydroenvlronmental worls
cd|mcnt |ct+|n|ng d+ms |+c| c.c
|ndc|g|ound d+ms |+c| c0
||+tc C|stc|ns |+c| 1o
C|||+|y |o|csts |cct+|c 1!1c
Ldapblc worls
|c+d covc| |cct+|c 10
||y-|+|m|ng systcm |cct+|c ..0
u||ound|ng tonc |+|||c|s |ctc| .co1
|cvc| vcgct+t|on b+|||c|s |ctc| .14
c||+c|ng |ctc| 44o
kerorestatlon
|m|+nt+t|on o| |o|cst |csc|vc |+c| 1
ccd||ng |oduct|on |+c| 4oc4!
|c|o|cst+t|on |cct+|c .1
|cc|+m+t|on o| dcg|+dcd +|c+s |cct+|c !0
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
!2
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
Uescrlptlon or actlons Unlt Completed
roductlon system
|cmonst|+t|vc tcc|n|c+| un|t || |+c|
Lnvlronmental educatlon and tecbnlcal capaclty bulldlng
|vcnts o| cnv||onmcnt+| cduc+t|on |+c| 1o
|vcnts o| tcc|n|c+| c++c|ty bu||d|ng |+c| 1
Organlzatlonal Strengtbenlng
|vcnts o| o|g+n|z+t|on+| st|cngt|cn|ng |+c| .0
Ulssemlnatlon or successrul experlments
cc|n|c+|-sc|cnt|c boo|s |m o
^c+dcm|c d|ssc|t+t|ons |+c| !
|nst|uct|on+| tcxtboo|s |+c| 11
||O||^| |n|o|m+t|on g+tcw+y |+c| 1
ou|cc :||C| ...o)
4.1. Start of Leading Role upon the Constitution of the
Management Committee
|u||ng ||O||^| wo||s t|c ||m+|y |o|c o| t|c m+n+gcmcnt comm|ttcc const|tutcd o|
|c|cscnt+t|vcs o| commun|ty +ssoc|+t|ons +nd ot|c| |oc+| govc|nmcnt+| |nst|tut|ons (sc|oo|s
ctc) w+s |ts |nvo|vcmcnt +s + +|t|c|+nt o| t|c ||o,cct st|+tcg|c |+nn|ng
|n +dd|t|on t|c comm|ttcc g+vc +ss|st+ncc to |o,cct m+n+gcmcnt +nd dcc|s|on m+||ng
|occss on |m|cmcnt+t|on o| +ct|ons +nd mcc|+n|sms |n t|c |cscct|vc oc|+t|on +|c+s |t
+|so suc|v|scd t|c +ccounts |c|+tcd to t|c +g|ccmcnt w|t| t|c sc|cctcd commun|ty +ssoc|+t|on
to mon|to| t|c usc o| |unds ^|| +ct|ons wc|c st|ong|y d|scusscd +nd dcc|s|ons wc|c m+dc by
conscnsus (cc ||gu|c !)
|c comm|ttcc w+s const|tutcd o| t||cc (!) o| |ou| (4) |c|cscnt+t|vcs o| c+c| commun|ty
|nc|ud|ng t|c |cs|dcnt o| +n +ssoc|+t|on +nd ||s;|c| +|tc|n+tc +nd + |c+dc| o| ||o,cct tc+m |t
+|so |nc|udcd + scc|ct+|y to d|+|t t|c mcct|ng m|nutcs |cct|ngs wc|c sc|cdu|cd |cgu|+||y +nd
|nc|udcd + g|c+t mob|||z+t|on +nd |nvo|vcmcnt o| commun|ty
|c cxccut|vc co||cg|+tc w+s + sccto| |n t|c m+n+gcmcnt comm|ttcc w||c| |m|cmcntcd +||
+ct|ons +nd |cndc|cd +ccounts
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
!!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
|lgure , O|g+n|z+t|on+| c++c|ty bu||d|ng cvcnt |n |gu+u C+n|ndc-C|
ou|cc ||O||^/
4.2. Introduction of a PRODHAM Culture in Farming Activities and
Peoples Behavior
||O||^| mct|odo|ogy c|c+tcd + ||nd o| cu|tu|c |o| |oc+| ou|+t|ons modus oc|+nd|
w|t| |cscct to t|c|| os|t|on on t|c m+ttc| o| c+|c w|t| n+tu|+| |csou|ccs by |cvcnt|ng
dc|o|cst+t|on |cduc|ng t|c usc o| wood to m+|c co+| |c|+nt|ng t|c c|||+|y |o|cst us|ng t|c so||
by +dot|ng contou| ||nc |+nt|ng mct|od +nd c+||ng w|t| w+stc +nd ot|c| sust+|n+b|c |+ct|ccs
|cy bcc+mc +w+|c o| t|c |+ct t|+t t|c|| su|v|v+| dccnds d||cct|y on t|c|| c+|c w|t| w|+t |s
most |mo|t+nt |o| t|cm t|+t |s t|c |+nd |y c+||ng w|t| t|c |+nd |t m+y +c||cvc + bcttc| y|c|d
+s cv|dcnccd by t|c cxc||cncc w|t| stonc b+|||c|s (cc ||gu|c 4) tc||+ccs +nd contou| ||nc
cu|t|v+t|on w||c| |+vc |ov|dcd + cont|nuous |m|ovcmcnt |n c|o y|c|ds
|lgure |gu+u |+|mc|s const|uct|ng + stonc b+|||c|
ou|cc ||O||^/
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
!4
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
|oc+| ou|+t|ons os|t|vc os|t|on on c+|c w|t| w+stc +nd t|c bcst |o|m o| cx|o|c |t w+s
d|sscm|n+tcd ^vo|d|ng dc|o|cst+t|on +nd |c|+c|ng t|c c|||+|y |o|cst |+vc bccomc + |+b|t |o|
|gu+u commun|ty
4.3. Association Strengthening
||O||^| |s +n |nnov+t|ng |o,cct t|+t +dots ncw mct|odo|og|cs |o| t|c+tmcnt
o| cnv||onmcnt+| dcg|+d+t|on |n t|c m|c|ob+s|n by us|ng ncw mct|ods o| wo||s |n |u|+|
cnv||onmcnt suc| +s t|osc |ocuscd on +dd|css|ng |ob|cms gcnc|+tcd by ||oods t||oug|
t|c |m|+nt+t|on o| |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| +nd cd+||c wo||s ncw |o|ms o| cu|t|v+t|on +nd
cscc|+||y t|c |o|m o| +dd|css|ng t|c |ob|cm t||oug| t|c co||cct|vc +w+|cncss o| |oc+| |c+||ty
st|cngt|cn|ng o| +ssoc|+t|on o|g+n|z+t|ons +nd cont|nucd c++c|ty bu||d|ng o| +|| st+|c|o|dc|s
|c|c|o|c +|t|c|+to|y mct|odo|og|cs wc|c +dotcd +s + st|+tcgy to cnsu|c t|c |nvo|vcmcnt o|
|oc+| ou|+t|ons |n t|c |cso|ut|on o| |ob|cms
^t t|c bcg|nn|ng o| +ct|v|t|cs + wo|| w+s c+|||cd out to sc|cct +n +ssoc|+t|on to m+n+gc t|c ||o-
,cct w||c| w+s g|vcn t|c n+mc o| |ot|c| ^ssoc|+t|on |o| w||c| t|c Commun|ty ^ssoc|+t|on o|
m+|| ||oducc|s o| |gu+u w+s c|cctcd !+t +ssoc|+t|on w+s sc|cctcd bcc+usc |t w+s t|c most o|g+-
n|zcd o| +|| |+d + bcttc| st|uctu|c +nd w+s +b|c to +ssumc t|c |o,cct m+n+gcmcnt |csons|b|||t|cs
|o||ow|ng t|c s|gn|ng o| t|c +g|ccmcnt w|t| |gu+u +ssoc|+t|on t|c c++c|ty bu||d|ng o| |ts o -
cc|s w+s sc|cdu|cd (scc ||gu|cs , +nd e) w|t| cm|+s|s on cont|o| o| +ccounts t||oug| +ccoun-
t|ng cou|scs |n +dd|t|on to cou|scs scvc|+| +ct|v|t|cs wc|c c||o|mcd by t|c +ssoc|+t|on w|c|c
no +ct|ons wc|c t+|cn w|t|out t|c |nvo|vcmcnt o| |ts bo+|d +nd mcmbc|s
|lgure , ||O||^| m+n+gc|s +nd tcc|n|c|+ns +nd |c+dc|s||s o| |gu+u d|st||ct +t +n o|g+n|z+t|on+|
st|cngt|cn|ng cvcnt
ou|cc ||O||^/
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
|lgure o |ct+|| o| + c++c|ty bu||d|ng wo||s|o |n |gu+u C+n|ndc-C|
ou|cc ||O||^/
4.4. Target-Public Participation
^ |oos+| |o| wo|| ,o|nt|y w|t| commun|t|cs w+s |o|mu|+tcd to cnsu|c +n c||cct|vc +|t|c|+t|on
o| soc|+| +cto|s |n |o,cct |+nn|ng +nd m+n+gcmcnt +nd + g|c+tc| t|+ns+|cncy o| +ct|ons
+nd +||c+t|on o| ||n+nc|+| |csou|ccs
^ wo|| systcm w+s dcvc|ocd w|c|c |c+dc|s||s +nd |c|cscnt+t|vcs o| scvc|+| commun|t|cs
bcc+mc +w+|c o| t|c scoc o| ||o,cct t|c |mo|t+ncc o| c|c+t|on o| d|scuss|on |o|ums |o|
t|c |o,cct +nd ot|c| +ct|v|t|cs occu|||ng |n t|c +|c+ |n +dd|t|on to t|c |mo|t+ncc o| c|cct|ng
|c|cscnt+t|vcs t|+t wc|c comm|ttcd to t|c commun|ty dcvc|omcnt +nd t|c +|t|c|+to|y
m+n+gcmcnt |occss
o cnsu|c t|c co||cct +||c+t|on o| ||n+nc|+| |csou|ccs +||oc+tcd by t|c t+tc +|| |c+dc|s||s
+|t|c|+tcd |n t|+|n|ng |n b+s|c +ccount|ng w||c| +||owcd t|c sc|cct|on o| commun|ty
+ccount+nts t|+t +|c tod+y |csons|b|c |o| t|c w|o|c m+n+gcmcnt o| +ssoc|+t|ons ||s +ct|on
+cc|cd|ts t|c commun|t|cs w|t| b+n| |nst|tut|ons +nd cnsu|cs + bcttc| |omtncss |n |c|c+sc o|
|unds ||om ot|c| govc|nmcnt+| |o,ccts
|n c|osc +|tnc|s|| w|t| mun|c|+| cduc+t|on scc|ct+||+ts + ||tc|+cy systcm w+s |m|+ntcd
|o| +|| +du|ts |nvo|vcd |n |o,cct +ct|v|t|cs w||c| |cd to |now|cdgc dcmoc|+t|z+t|on +nd soc|+|
|nc|us|on |occss
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
!6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
^|m|ng to |nc|c+sc t|c sc||-cstccm o| ou|+t|on |cs|d|ng |n t|c +|c+ st|cngt|cn t|c sccu|+t|vc
m|nd +nd |cdccm t|c |oc+| cu|tu|+| |dcnt|ty t|c ||o,cct suo|tcd t|c |o|m+t|on o| +|t|st|c +nd
cu|tu|+| g|ous
4.5. Spontaneous Adherence
\o|| succcss w+s not dccnd+nt on t|c tcc|n|c+| |o,cct tc+m o| somc |oc+| |c+dc|s||s on|y
but +|so on t|c |ntc|cst +nd |u|| sont+ncous +d|c|cncc o| scvc|+| +|tnc|s +nd |oc+| |nst|tut|on+|
+nd soc|+| +cto|s (|+m|||cs;|oducc|s commun|ty o|g+n|z+t|ons govc|nmcnt+| cnt|t|cs co|o|+tc
cnt|t|cs ctc) (scc ||gu|c )
|lgure ) |gn|ng o| +g|ccmcnt bctwccn ||-C| +nd |gu+u Commun|ty ^ssoc|+t|on |n C+n|ndc-C|
ou|cc ||O||^/
5. Results from leading role
5.1. Organizational Strengthening
|ost cxcctcd c||ccts o| t|+t comoncnt |c|c| to t|c c|c+t|on o| cond|t|ons |o| t|c occu||cncc
o| c|+ngcs to t|c bc|+v|o| o| C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c m|c|ob+s|n |oducc|s w|t| |cscct
to t|c usc o| tcc|no|og|cs |o| so|| +nd w+tc| |csc|v+t|on const|uct|on o| |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+|
|n||+st|uctu|cs +nd t|c +dot|on o| t|+t |oos+| by |oducc|s +s + d+||y |+b|t
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
!7
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
|n t||s scnsc + |u|| wo|| o| c++c|ty bu||d|ng w+s dcvc|ocd |o| |c+dc|s +nd ot|c| soc|+| +cto|s
+b|c to mob|||zc t|c commun|t|cs tow+|d +n +w+|cncss wo|| to |ccovc| +nd |csc|vc n+tu|+|
|csou|ccs (w+tc| so|| +nd vcgct+t|on) +s wc|| +s t|c tcc|n|ucs |o| usc o| suc| |csou|ccs +|m|ng
to |m|ovc t|c m|c|ob+s|n ou|+t|ons |||c cond|t|ons +nd t|c|| |c||c+t|on |n ot|c| +|c+s w|c|c
n+tu|+| |csou|ccs +|c +t + dcg|+d+t|on |occss
C++c|ty bu||d|ng cou|scs wc|c +|so o||c|cd to +ssoc|+t|on o|||cc|s to |nc|c+sc t|c|| s||||s to
m+n+gc t|cm by cst+b||s||ng +|t|c|+to|y st+nd+|ds +nd mct|odo|og|cs +nd |ov|dc t|cm
w|t| cond|t|ons to |c||c+tc suc| tcc|n|ucs |n ot|c| +|c+s |n s|m||+| cond|t|ons ^|so scvc|+|
cou|scs on +ssoc|+t|on tcc|n|ucs wc|c |c|d w||c| wc|c +ttcndcd by |c|cscnt+t|vc o| scvc|+|
|oc+| commun|t|cs |n +dd|t|on to suc| cou|scs ot|c| cou|scs |o| cx|o|+t|on o| ct bott|cs
+|cu|tu|c +nd ot|c| cou|scs wc|c o||c|cd
5.2. Socioeconomic and Environmental Eects
|c soc|occonom|c c||cct o| t||s wo|| w+s t|c +|t|c|+to|y |occss t|+t |ov|dcd t|c |oc+|
soc|+| +cto|s w|t| t|c undc|st+nd|ng o| commun|tys |c+||ty +nd |+nn|ng o| +ct|ons +s wc|| +s t|c||
+|t|c|+to|y |m|+nt+t|on |nvo|v|ng scvc|+| soc|+| scgmcnts o| C+ng+t| ||vc| m|c|ob+s|n (scc ||gu|c c)
|cw cconom|c +ct|v|t|cs cmc|gcd ||om scvc|+| ||O||^| +ct|ons ^mong t|cm t|c |oduct|vc
usc o| scd|mcnts +nd w+tc| +ccumu|+tcd |n succcss|vc d+ms cu|t|v+t|on |n undc|g|ound d+m
+|c+s contou| ||nc cu|t|v+t|on cont|o| o| g|ound c|c+|+ncc by |||c +nd d|sscm|n+t|on o| +|cu|tu|c
|n scvc|+| commun|t|cs |o| |ncomc gcnc|+t|on |n scvc|+| commun|t|cs st+nd out |n +dd|t|on to
ct bott|c usc |o| b|oom |oduct|on
|lgure s |ct+|| o| ub||c cvcnt suo|tcd by ||O||^| |n |gu+u C+n|ndc-C|
ou|cc ||O||^/
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
!8
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
6. Major di culties found
|+,o| const|+|nts t|+t ||m|tcd t|c |c+d|ng |o|c |n ||O||^| +|c+s |nc|udcd
a) opulatlons educatlon level
|c g|c+t |ob|cm o| commun|t|cs |n |o|t|c+stc|n scm|+||d |cg|ons |s t|c ou|+t|ons |ow
cduc+t|on |cvc| |n C+ng+t| ||vc| m|c|ob+s|n cduc+t|on |cvc| |s +|so |ow +nd t|c ou|+t|on |s
unw||||ng to |m|ovc t|+t s|tu+t|on |ndc| ||O||^| +n +ttcmt w+s m+dc to comb|nc
commun|ty +ct|v|t|cs o| |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| wo|| |m|+nt+t|on w|t| +ttcnd+ncc to +du|t
||tc|+cy cou|scs but m+ny wo||c|s |cs|stcd to t|+t notw|t|st+nd|ng somc |og|css w+s +c||cvcd
b) Lacl or lncentlves to adopt recommended edapblc and agrlcultural practlces
|n |+ct t|c |+c| o| |nccnt|vc dc||vcd ||om m+ny |+cto|s |nc|ud|ng t|c |+c| o| ||n+nc|ng |o| c|o
|m|+nt+t|on ||g| cost o| |m|+nt+t|on o| somc +g||cu|tu|+| |+ct|ccs suc| +s +g|os||vo+sto|+|
systcm +nd t|c cx|stcncc o| + g|c+t numbc| o| |+nd|css |oducc|s Ovc|com|ng suc| st|uctu|+|
|ob|cms w||| dccnd on t|c |m|+nt+t|on o| |+nd tcnu|c |co|g+n|z+t|on to g|vc cvc|ybody
+cccss to |+nd +nd t|c c|c+t|on o| ||n+nc|ng sou|ccs to m+|c |oc+| cconom|c +ct|v|t|cs |c+s|b|c
c) Ulscontlnulty or kOUlAM actlons
^not|c| g|c+t |ob|cm w+s t|c d|scont|nu|ty o| ||O||^| +ct|ons duc to govc|nmcnt
c|+ngcs |u||ng t|c yc+|s o| ||o,cct |m|+nt+t|on c|+ngcs |n t|c govc|nmcnt occu||cd
w||c| c+uscd t|c +o|ntmcnt o| |ou| d|||c|cnt ||o,cct m+n+gc|s |n on|y 10 yc+|s b||ng|ng
sc||ous conscucnccs to ||o,cct |m|+nt+t|on +nd mon|to||ng +nd gcnc|+t|ng d|sc|cd|t |n |oc+|
commun|t|cs
d) Lacl or rlnanclng to lmplement actlons not lncluded ln tbe roject
|ost |oducc|s |+vc no +cccss to |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c|c|o|c |+vc no +cccss to c|cd|t
||O||^| on t|c ot|c| |+nd d|d not +nt|c|+tc t|c ||n+nc|ng o| |oduct|vc +ct|v|t|cs t|+t
|+d bccn |dcnt|||cd +nd cou|d bc d|sscm|n+tcd +nd st|cngt|cncd to g|vc t|c |+m|||cs +n |ncomc
+|tc|n+t|vc +nd cnsu|c st+b|||ty ^s t||s |s + ||ot |o,cct m+ny +ct|ons wc|c not +nt|c|+tcd onc
o| w||c| w+s ||n+nc|ng suc| |oduct|vc +ct|v|t|cs || |unds to ||n+ncc suc| |oduct|vc +ct|v|t|cs
|+d bccn +v+||+b|c |ob+b|y t|c cconom|c c||cct wou|d |+vc bccn mo|c v|s|b|c
|||ccts o| Cc+|+ |yd|ocnv||onmcnt+| |cvc|omcnt ||o,cct (||od|+m)
on t|c |c+d|ng |o|c o| Commun|t|cs |n C+ng+t| ||vc| |yd|og|+||c ||c|ob+s|n |n C+n|ndc-C|
!9
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
e) |rregular preclpltatlon
^not|c| s|gn|||c+nt |+cto| t|+t m+dc +ct|v|t|cs d||||cu|t c+us|ng t|c|c|o|c + g|c+tc| |m+ct
on t|c cconom|c c||o|m+ncc o| ||O||^| wo||s w+s t|c scvc|+| yc+|s o| d|oug|t |n .00
+nd .00 |+|ns wc|c sc+|cc |n t|c |cg|on w|+t g|c+t|y +||cctcd t|c cconom|c cx|o|+t|on o|
|m|+ntcd |n||+st|uctu|c +nd cd+||c |+ct|ccs suc| +s contou| ||nc cu|t|v+t|on d|y |+|m|ng
+nd +g|os||vo+sto|+| systcm
r) Ulscontlnued capaclty bulldlng
||O||^| wo||s wc|c +dvc|sc|y +||cctcd by |nst|tut|on+| +nd +dm|n|st|+t|vc c|+ngcs t|+t
|ntc||c|cd w|t| t|c dcvc|omcnt o| wo||s +nd gcnc|+tcd somc d|scont|nu|ty o| c++c|ty
bu||d|ng +ct|ons +s + |csu|t o| dc|+ycd |c|c+sc o| |unds to t|c mot|c| +ssoc|+t|on
g) kestrlcted partlclpatlon or otber lnstltutlons
cvc|+| |nst|tut|ons |+d bccn |nv|tcd to +|t|c|+tc |n ||O||^| wo||s bot| |o| +|||n|ty m+ttc|s
+nd s|m||+| ob,cct|vcs bctwccn suc| |nst|tut|ons +nd ||O||^| but t|+t w+s not oss|b|c
|c|c w+s +|w+ys somc const|+|nt t|+t |cc|udcd t|c|| +|t|c|+t|on |n t|c c+sc o| |m+tc|cc
+||cgcd|y t|c|c wc|c no |unds +v+||+b|c |o| |ts c||cct|vc +|t|c|+t|on |n t|c m|c|ob+s|n +|c+
|c|c|o|c t|c ||o,cct |+d +n |nsu|||c|cnt tcc|n|c+| +ss|st+ncc |t +c+|s t|+t t|c un+v+||+b|||ty
o| ||n+nc|+| |csou|ccs |cc|udcd t|c |nst|tut|ons +|t|c|+t|on |+t |ob|cm cou|d |+vc bccn
ovc|comc || t|c |o,cct |+d +nt|c|+tcd |csou|ccs |o| s|gn|ng +n +g|ccmcnt w|t| t|c |nst|tut|on
|nc|ud|ng t|c +||oc+t|on o| |unds w|+t wou|d |+vc m+dc |ts +|t|c|+t|on ob||g+to|y
b) Ueep-rooted bablts
^dot|on o| somc tcc|n|ucs |nt|oduccd by t|c ||o,cct w+s |cst||ctcd by dcc- |ootcd
|+b|ts o| ||| |+|mc|s cc|n|ucs t|+ns|c||cd ||om |+t|c| to son gcnc|+t|on +|tc| gcnc|+t|on
const|tutcd t|c m+|n |+cto| t|+t |cst||ctcd t|c |m|+nt+t|on o| ncw tcc|n|ucs
7. Conclusions
|c+d|ng |o|c |nduccd by ||O||^| w+s + |+cto| t|+t cn+b|cd t|c |m|+nt+t|on o| + d|vc|s|||cd
u+nt|ty o| o|| w+tc| +nd vcgct+t|on |csc|v+t|on wo||s |+t |c+d|ng |o|c |cd to t|c cmc|gcncc
o| |oc+| |c+dc|s w|o bcc+mc t|c g|c+t dc|cndc|s o| |m|cmcntcd +ct|ons +s t|cy +c|now|cdgcd
by t|c d+y-to-d+y |+ct|cc t|c c||cct|vcncss o| scvc|+| |oc+| +ct|ons suc| +s t|c |cduct|on o|
w+tc| c|os|on +ct|on by t|c const|uct|on o| stonc b+|||c|s +nd tc||+ccs +s wc|| +s t|c |ctcnt|on
o| scd|mcnts by succcss|vc d+ms |n |oduct|on tc|ms t|c|c w+s +n cx|css|vc |nc|c+sc o| d|y
||c+|do |+|ucs ||+nc|sco ||+n+
40
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .!-40 ,u|-dcz .011
c|o |oduct|v|ty +s + conscucncc o| + g|c+tc| so|| +nd w+tc| |ctcnt|on cn+b|cd by
|nt|oduccd cu|t|v+t|on tcc|n|ucs suc| +s d|y |+|m|ng contou| ||ncs stonc b+|||c|s tc||+ccs ctc
|c+d|ng |o|c |s +|so ||g|||g|tcd |n c|cnn|+||z+t|on o| +ct|ons |m|cmcntcd by t|c ||o,cct +s
commun|t|cs +|c mob|||zcd not on|y to m+|nt+|n t|c cx|st|ng wo||s but +|so to t|+ns|c| t|cm
ot|c| |ntc|cstcd |oducc|s |t |s notcd t|+t +|tc| t|c dc+|tu|c o| ||O||^| tcc|n|c|+ns
commun|t|cs |+vc cont|nucd to c+|c w|t| t|c cnv||onmcnt cscc|+||y by |cvcnt|ng g|ound
c|c+|+ncc by |||c +nd |c|||ng o| c|||+|y |o|cst t|ccs t|c+t|ng w+stc +nd |omot|ng sust+|n+b|c
cconom|c +ct|v|t|cs |c+d|ng |o|c w+s |csons|b|c |o| so||d|||c+t|on o| ||O||^| tcc|n|ucs |n
|c+|t +nd m|nd o| ou|+t|on ||v|ng |n +|| |ou| |||s +ss|stcd by ||O||^|
^t t|c c|os|ng o| t|csc conc|us|ons cxcc|ts o| + ,ou|n+||st|c +|t|c|c |oduccd by t|c ||css
^dv|so|y O|||cc o| t|c cc|ct+||+t o| \+tc| |csou|ccs +|c t|+nsc||bcd bc|ow
|| ^nton|o |+o|cio dc ous+ |u|t+do o1 yc+|s-o|d no |ongc| tc+c|cs ||s n|nc g|+ndsons w|+t
|c |+d |c+|ncd ||om ||s |+t|c| +nd g|+nd|+t|c| +bout |ow to wo|| |n t|c |+nd |ow |c tc+c|cs
w|+t |s ||g|t |nt|| s|x yc+|s +go |c |+d sccn t|c so|| mc|t|ng +t |ugc c|os|ons Co|n |c+vcs +nd
bc+ns wc|c t||own to t|c |||c |n g|ound bu|n|ng bc|o|c |c|+nt|ng |c |+nd w+s |c|t c|c+n
+nd s+nd bcc+mc d+|| |c t|oug|t t|+t |t w+s t|c bcst w+y to c|c+n t|c so|| || |+o|cio |||c
||s |+t|c| +nd g|+nd|+t|c| cu|t|v+tcd down t|c s|oc \|cn |t |+|ncd |c w+|tcd |o| ||ood somc
m|nutcs |+tc| \+tc| |uno|| c+|||cd cvc|yt||ng down +nd +|| c|os wc|c |ost
^|so +cco|d|ng to || |+o|cio
^t t|c bcg|nn|ng o| t|c |o,cct t|c|c wc|c c|os|ons t|+t ocncd |oom |o| co|c to gct |ns|dc |ut
now t||s |s |+|d|y sccn o mc ||O||^| |s + |+|mc| cduc+to| od+y co|c |now t|+t || t|cy |+||
to c+|c |o| t|c cnv||onmcnt |t w||| bc wo|sc ^t |c+st |c|c |oduct|v|ty |+s |nc|c+scd
References
C|^|^ |||C| 8aslc munlclpal prole C+n|ndc |o|t+|cz+ .oo,
||^|^ | | C Coo|d Socloeconomlc evaluatlon or kOUlAM results and lmpacts kOUlAM
and suggested pollcles |o|t+|cz+ ||- C|;|||C||| .o+o
||-C| Ceoenvlronmental evaluatlon or conservatlonal practlces lmplemented ln Cangatl klver
mlcrobasln, Canlnde-CL |o|t+|cz+ ||-C|;|||C||| .o+o
||-C| Clobal socloeconomlc analysls or Cangatl klver bydrograpblc mlcrobasln ln tbe munlclpallty
or Canlnde-CL st+|t|ng o|nt |co|t |o|t+|cz+ O||||^;|||C||| .oo,
||-C|;O||||^ :oo, Annual kOUlAM keport. |ortaleza ||-C| .o+o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
Community-based adaptation of tribal women to
climate change in semi-arid India
Purabi Bose
1
*

' |s |u|+b| |osc (c|t|zcn o| |nd|+) ||| studcnt |o|cst +nd |+tu|c Consc|v+t|on |o||cy C|+|| C|ou \+gcn|ngcn || |O |ox
4 o00^^ \+gcn|ngcn t|c |ct|c||+nds
Abstract
|es:e o:eoa:coa' ec:s :c c:e.: naoao
n:s .'oa:e o:a:co c'.es ae oc: aaeaa:e
', aaaesso :ne co'eos c/ .a'oeao'e .cooao
:es '.o o aa aoa seo aa coes 's ae
aoa',es nc. .'oa:e .naoe c'., 'aos oa, o
:e/ee .:n :ne e\s:o) aaa:a:co s:a:ees c/
.a'oeao'e .cooao:es aoa 'c.a' os::a:cos aoa
c.aes e.cooeoaa:cos co nc. .'oa:e .naoe
c'., aoa c.ess .ao oe::e aea'
.:n :ne c.o oea:.e oa.:s |s.assco s oasea
co .ase s:aaes c/ .a'oeao'e /ces: aeeoaeo: :o
a' .cooao:es /co acan:coe seoaa |a
as:nao |oaa |oaos oa.a:e :na: c:ne.se .e''
o:eoaea oa: .co:aa.:o c'., o:e.eo:cos .ao
aa.ese', ae.: :oa' '.e'nccas a:.a'a', .co
eo +e: .cooao:,oasea aaa:a:co s:a:ees aa
c:ea o, :oa' ec'e /a' :c ao a::eo:co as c
:eo:a' sc'a:cos o c'., c.esses |e.cooeoaa
:cos :c .cao:e :ns /a'ae ae ca:'oea
Resumo
^cs+| dos cs|o|os |ntc|n+c|on+|s +|+ |otcgc|
os d||c|tos |um+nos o||t|c+s dc m|t|g+io d+s
+|tc|+ocs c||m+t|c+s nio t|+t+m +dcu+d+mcntc
d+ |cso|uio dos |ob|cm+s d+s comun|d+dcs vu|-
nc|+vc|s uc v|vcm cm zon+s +||d+s c scm|+||d+s
|stc +|t|go +n+||s+ como os |+nos dc o||t|c+s dc
mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ odcm |ntc||c||| com +s cst|+-
tcg|+s (cx|stcntcs) dc +d+t+io dc comun|d+dcs
vu|nc|+vc|s c |nst|tu|ocs |oc+|s c o|c|ccc |ccomcn-
d+ocs sob|c como + o||t|c+ c |occssos dc mu-
d+n+s c||m+t|c+s odcm ||d+| mc||o| com os scus
|o||os |m+ctos ncg+t|vos ^ d|scussio c b+sc+-
d+ cm cstudos dc c+so dc g|uos t||b+|s vu|nc|+-
vc|s dccndcntcs d+ o|cst+ cm |cg|ocs su,c|t+s
scc+ no scm|+||do |+,+st|+n |nd|+ Os |csu|t+dos
|nd|c+m uc |ntc|vcnocs dc o||t|c+s bcm |ntcn-
c|on+d+s m+s cont|+d|to||+s odcm +|ct+| +dvc|-
s+mcntc os mc|os dc subs|stcnc|+ t||b+| +|t|cu|+|-
mcntc +s mu||c|cs |o cnt+nto +s cst|+tcg|+s dc
+d+t+io b+sc+d+s n+ comun|d+dc +dot+d+s o|
|u|+b| |osc
42
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduction
||scou|sc on c||m+tc c|+ngc +nd |o|cst cm|+s|zcs t|c ||s|s +nd |m+ct on |o|cst |+ndsc+cs
+nd on |o|cst-dccndcnt co|c |n m+ny dcvc|o|ng count||cs |o|cst|y +|tc| +g||cu|tu|c |s
t|c sccond |+|gcst |+nd usc +nd t|c m+,o| sou|cc o| ||vc|||ood |n oo| |u|+| +nd t||b+| +|c+s
^d+t+t|on |+s bccomc +n |mo|t+nt so|ut|on to coc w|t| c||m+tc c|+ngc Cont|+|y to
common |ntc||ct+t|ons +d+t+t|on docs not |c|+tc so|c|y to t|c |csons|b|||ty o| vu|nc|+b|c
|oc+| commun|t|cs but |+t|c| to t|c |csons|b|||ty o| +|| t|osc w|o +|c c+us|ng vu|nc|+b|||ty
|nc|ud|ng t|osc w|o +|c +ccount+b|c |o| |t
|oo| |u|+| co|cs +d+t+t|on to d|oug|t sto|m o| ||ood |s not + ncw |cnomcnon |o|
ccntu||cs co|c +c|oss t|c g|obc |+vc +d+tcd us|ng d|vc|sc |oc+| st|+tcg|cs to coc w|t| soc|o-
cco|og|c+| v+||+b|||ty \|t| t|c g|ow|ng concc|n +bout c||m+tc c|+ngc +nd |ts |m+ct on t|c
||vc|||ood o| t|c oo| +|t|cu|+||y m+|g|n+||zcd womcn +nd c|||d|cn |t |+s bccomc cvcn
mo|c |mo|t+nt to undc|st+nd t|c +d+t+t|on |now|cdgc o| |oc+| commun|t|cs cvc|+| |co|ts
+nd documcnts ||n| c||m+tc c|+ngc vu|nc|+b|||ty +nd |um+n ||g|ts |ssucs to +dd|css t|c |+|gc|
ongo|ng dcvc|omcnt c|+||cngcs +nd |ntc|n+t|on+| ncgot|+t|ons C+nnon w|gg +nd |owc|| (nd)
st+tc t|+t t|osc wo|st +||cctcd by c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngc +|c t|c wo||ds oo| w|o +|c
vu|nc|+b|c to |oss o| ||vc|||oods +nd +sscts |ungc| +nd |+m|nc +nd t|cy |+vc |cw o| no suo|t
systcms |+|g|n+||zcd g|ous suc| +s oo| t||b+| co|c o|tcn ||vc |n d|oug|t- |onc o| ||ood-
||s| zoncs w|t|out su|||c|cnt s+|cty ncts suc| +s |nsu|+ncc to coc w|t| +ny |osscs |o|covc|
t|cy |+c| t|c +b|||ty (owc|) to |n||ucncc govc|nmcnt o||c|cs by dcm+nd|ng |otcct|on o| |c||c|
suo|t |us t|c|| d+||y ||vc|||ood |s c|+||cng|ng cvcn w|t|out c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty o| c|+ngc |c
|+|gc| ucst|on o| m+|g|n+||zcd commun|t|cs b+s|c |um+n ||g|ts |s +t |ssuc
|c ob,cct|vc o| t||s +c| |s to c|uc|d+tc |c|+t|vc|y ncg|cctcd |oc+| +d+t+t|on st|+tcg|cs |o|
co|ng w|t| d|oug|ts |n scm|-+||d oo| t||b+| +|c+s o| |nd|+ |o|c scc|||c+||y t||s +c| |s
concc|ncd w|t| |o|cst-dccndcnt vu|nc|+b|c t||b+| womcns cxc||cnccs o| d|oug|ts +nd t|c||
c||o|ts to coc w|t| t|c |csu|t+nt c|+ng|ng cnv||onmcnt |c ncxt scct|on dc+|s w|t| t|c study
csso+s t||b+|s dc|x+m dc g+n|+| + +tcnio como
otcnc|+|s so|uocs nos |occssos o||t|cos |cco-
mcnd+ocs +|+ comb+tc| cst+ |+||+ sio dcsc||t+s
alavras-cbave. + scc+ os ovos |nd|gcn+s o|cst+
+d+t+io vu|nc|+b|||d+dc
keywords. acan: oaeocas ec'es /ces: aa
a:a:co .a'oeao':,
Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on o| t||b+| womcn to c||m+tc c|+ngc |n scm|-+||d |nd|+
4!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
+|c+ +nd mct|odo|ogy |c ||nd|ngs o| t||s cm|||c+| c+sc study +|c t|cn |cscntcd |c |+st
scct|on conc|udcs t|+t t|c|c |s nccd |o| |u|t|c| sc|cnt|||c +nd |+ct|cc-b+scd |csc+|c| to cnsu|c
t|+t t||b+| womcns vo|ccs +|c |c+|d +nd t|+t t|cy c+n |n||ucncc |o|cst tcnu|c o||c|cs +nd |o-
oo| d|oug|t- ||s| |cduct|on +ct|v|t|cs
2. Te study area
2.1. Te Bhil tribe of western India
|nd|+s c0 m||||on ct|n|c m|no||ty |nown +s c|cdu|cd ||bcs (|cncc|o|t| uscd +s |ntc|c|+ngc+b|c
w|t| t|c tc|m t||b+| co|c) +|c |+|gc|y |o|cst dccndcnt |o| t|c|| ||vc|||oods +nd |n|+b|t +||d
+nd scm|-+||d |cg|ons |t |s cst|m+tcd t|+t t|c|c +|c +|most
00 |ccogn|zcd c|cdu|cd ||bcs (|n|+ .00) |ncc |t |s t|c st+tc govc|nmcnt t|+t +d,ud|c+tcs on
w|ct|c| o| not + t||bc c+n bc |ccogn|zcd +s suc| o|tcn t|c|c +|c dcm+nds |o| |o|m+| |ccogn|t|on
by somc commun|t|cs w|o |ccogn|zc t|cmsc|vcs +s v+n v+s|s o| +d|v+s|s |n o|dc| to |ccc|vc cc|t+|n
bcnc||ts +nd sc|cmcs ||om t|c st+tc +nd t|c ||g|t to +|y |o| |csc|vcd osts |n govc|nmcnt bod|cs
|n t|c |+st dcc+dc v|o|cncc |+s c|utcd |n scvc|+| +|ts o| |nd|+ ovc| t|c |ssuc o| non-|ccogn|t|on o|
scvc|+| ct|n|c m|no||ty g|ous +s c|cdu|cd ||bcs |n |+y .00c |+,+st|+n st+tc |n t|c wcstc|n |cg|on
o| |nd|+ s+w ||ots duc to |otcsts by t|c Cu,+| + +sto|+||st commun|ty |n suo|t o| t|c|| dcm+nd
to bc |ccogn|zcd +s + c|cdu|cd ||bc Cu,+|s +|c c|+ss|||cd by t|c govc|nmcnt +s |nsc|cdu|cd ||bcs
(|+voo|| .00) |ctc|ogcnc|ty w|t||n c|cdu|cd ||bcs |s |mmcnsc +nd somct|mcs obsc|vcd w|t||n
t|c s+mc t||bc +c|oss gcog|+||c+| bound+||cs |+v|ng d|st|nct |+ngu+gcs +nd d|+|ccts |+b|ts bc||c|s
|c||g|on +nd custom+|y |+ct|ccs ^|most c4 c|ccnt o| |nd|+s t||b+| ct|n|c m|no||ty ||vc |n |o|cstcd
+|c+s dccndcd on |o|cst- b+scd cconom|cs +nd cxc||cncc t|c g|c+tcst ovc|ty (undc|||n ct +| .00)
|c ou|+t|on |n t||s study |s t|c |||| t||bc ||||s +|c t|c t|||d |+|gcst c|cdu|cd ||bc |n |nd|+
+|tc| t|c Conds +nd t|c +nt|+|s +nd onc o| t|c oo|cst |cy +|c t|c |cdom|n+nt t||bc |n t|c
cont|guous scm|-+||d t||b+| d|st||cts |n t|c |||t| c|cdu|cd ^|c+s o| Cu,+|+t |+d|y+ ||+dcs|
+nd |+,+st|+n st+tcs |n wcstc|n +nd ccnt|+| |nd|+ C|t|ng t|c wo|| o| scvc|+| sc|o|+|s |ossc
(.00) o|nts out t|+t du||ng t|c co|on|+| c||od t|c stc|coty|c+| |m+gc o| w||d |||| t||bcs w+s
b+scd on d|scou|sc t|+t v|cwcd t|c ||||s +s + co|c |o|ccd by owc||u| |c-|||t|s| |+,ut +nd
|+|+t|+ |u|c|s |nto t|c |cmotc |o|cst t|+cts ||om w|c|c t|cy bcc+mc + sou|cc o| |+|d|ng +nd
d+co|t|y |u||ng co|on|+| |u|c |||c ot|c| |o|cst-dwc|||ng commun|t|cs t|c ||||s |ost cont|o| o| t|c
|o|cst|+nd duc to t|c |nt|oduct|on o| + st+tc monoo|y on t|mbc| ctt|cd +g||cu|tu|+| |+ct|cc
w+s |nt|oduccd |n t|c |cg|on by b+nn|ng s|||t|ng cu|t|v+t|on |c|c +|c somc |nst+nccs o| |c||g|ous
|u|+b| |osc
44
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
g|ous t|+t +ttcmtcd to convc|t t|c ||||s but t||s d|d not |u||y succccd |n t||s |cg|on |n ot|c|
wo|ds t|c ||||s wc|c cxoscd scvc|+| cxtc|n+| |o|ccs t|+t +||cctcd t|c|| ||vc|||oods
|cy wc|c suoscd to bc t|+d|t|on+||y + m+t||+|c|+| soc|cty +nd most commun|t|cs +|so
|+vc t|c|| own t|+d|t|on+| o| custom+|y |nst|tut|ons Ovc| t|c yc+|s t|c m+,o||ty o| ||||s |+vc
bccomc sctt|cd +g||cu|tu|+||sts |||c m+|nst|c+m soc|cty |+ct|c|ng +t||||nc+| ||ns|| |n |c|+t|on
to |+nd t|t|c +nd |oc|ty ||g|ts (|+v|s|+| .00!)
2.2. Semi-arid dry deciduous degraded forestland
|c n+tu|c o| w|+t const|tutcs + |o|cst |+s bccn + dcb+t+b|c |ssuc g|ob+||y bcc+usc |t |s
d||||cu|t to +|||vc +t + s|ng|c o||cy dc||n|t|on o| |o|cst t|+t c+n +|y |n t|c cont|nuum o| |o|cst-
dccndcnt co|c t|ccs +nd b|od|vc|s|ty +mong ot|c| |+cto|s (|oo|dw|,| +nd ||n+ng .00)
|nd|+n |cg|s|+t|on +nd d|||c|cnt +cto|s |+vc + numbc| o| contcnd|ng dc||n|t|ons |c wo|d |o|cst
s|gn|||cs + d|||c|cnt mc+n|ng to t||b+| co|c |t mc+ns |omc |+b|t+t cu|tu|c +nd cconom|c v+|uc
|o| t|c|| ||vc|||oods |o| |o|cst dc+|tmcnts on t|c ot|c| |+nd t|c |o|cst |s +n +dm|n|st|+t|vc
un|t o| |+nd c+tcgo||z+t|on +nd |otcct|on ^ dc||n|t|on |ooscd by t|c |n|on ||n|st|y o|
|nv||onmcnt +nd |o|csts |c+ds t|us +]n +|c+ undc| Covc|nmcnt cont|o| not|||cd o| |cco|dcd
+s |o|cst undc| +ny ^ct |o| consc|v+t|on +nd m+n+gcmcnt o| cco|og|c+| +nd b|o|og|c+|
|csou|ccs (|+stog| .00!) ||s dc||n|t|on || |m|cmcntcd wou|d |+vc conscucnccs |o| t|c
|oc+| |n|+b|t+nts o| t|c |o|csts +|t|cu|+||y |o| t|c ||||s w|o |n|+b|t |o|cst v|||+gcs +nd dcg|+dcd
|o|cst|+nds t|+t +|c not su|vcycd |cco|dcd o| not|||cd ||b+| |+nd-usc |+ct|ccs +|c t|+d|t|on+||y
b+scd on o|+| cu|tu|c |+c| o| documcnts +s |oo| o| ownc|s|| |+s ||sto||c+||y dc||vcd t|c
||||s o| t|c|| |oc|ty ||g|ts m+||ng t|cm so-c+||cd cnc|o+c|c|s |n t|c +|c+ t|+t |+s bccn t|c||
+nccst|+| |+nd |o| ccntu||cs o |cct||y t||s |o|cst |||| .00 w+s +sscd |n |nd|+
On +vc|+gc t|c +g||cu|tu|+| |+nd|o|d|ng o| + |||| |ousc|o|d |s |css t|+n + |cct+|c ^g||cu|tu|c
|s |+|n |cd +nd |+bou| |ntcns|vc |oo| so|| u+||ty duc to so|| c|os|on +nd |ow |+|n|+|| +|c m+,o|
dctc|m|n|ng |+cto|s |o| t|c c|o|cc o| c|o d|vc|s|ty |n t|c ||c|d C|os g|own du||ng t|c |na/
saooe) sc+son +|c |+|gc|y |+|n-|cd non-|yb||d v+||ct|cs o| m+|zc +nd m|||cts suc| +s oaa
|eoose:ao :,ncaes) a:| o| ||tt|c m|||ct w||c| |o|m t|c st+|c d|ct o| t||s |cg|on \|c|c+s
m+|zc |s g|own on c|ccnt o| t|c |+|n-|cd c|ocd +|c+s |n t||s |cg|on most o| t|c m|||cts
+|c t|+d|t|on+| c|os g|own +s |ntc|c|o|ng omc o| t|c m|||cts +|c |+vc + ||g| nut||cnt v+|uc
+|c d|oug|t |cs|st+nt +nd g|ow c+s||y on d|y +nd dcg|+dcd |+nd |n somc g|oundw+tc| ||||g+tcd
+|c+s w|c+t |s onc o| t|c |ao (w|ntc|) c|os |c c||m+tc |s t|o|c+| w|t| t|c tcmc|+tu|c
|c+c||ng 4 dcg|ccs Cc|s|us |n t|c summc| mont|s ||om |+|c| to |unc w|t| +n +vc|+gc |+|n|+||
o| o0mm to 0mm bctwccn |unc +nd ctcmbc|
Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on o| t||b+| womcn to c||m+tc c|+ngc |n scm|-+||d |nd|+
4
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
||oug|ts |+vc bccn + |ccu||cnt |cnomcnon |n t|c scm|-+||d |cg|on o| wcstc|n |nd|+ |owcvc|
t|c |m+ct |s mo|c scvc|c duc to |oss o| |o|cst tcnu|c +nd + ||g| dccndcncy on |+|n-|cd
+g||cu|tu|c t|+t o|tcn |csu|ts |n c|o |+||u|c |c dct+||cd cv+|u+t|on |co|t ::a:e c/ :ne wc'as
/oc:es ... (||no||ty ||g|ts C|ou |ntc|n+t|on+| .00c) o|nts out t|+t d|sc||m|n+t|on +g+|nst
m|no||ty g|ous +nd |nd|gcnous commun|t|cs |n |nd|+ m+|cs |t |+|dc| |o| t|cm to coc w|t| t|c
|m+cts o| c||m+tc c|+ngc Onc o| t|c |+cto|s mcnt|oncd |n t|c |co|t |s t|+t t||b+| commun|t|cs
|+|c|y |ccc|vc +ny d|oug|t-|c|+tcd |c||c| +c|+gcs ||y dcc|duous dcg|+dcd |o|csts no |ongc|
|ov|dc s+|cty ncts |o| t|c |o|cst-dccndcnt |||| t||bc |us duc to |ccu||cnt c|o |+||u|c somc
||||s +|c |o|ccd to m|g|+tc |o| wo|| to su|cmcnt t|c|| |ncomc |vc|y yc+| |nc|c+s|ng numbc|s
o| t|c |||| ou|+t|on m|g|+tc to nc|g|bou||ng towns +nd c|t|cs ||om t||s |cg|on to wo|| +s
|ow-+|d uns||||cd c+su+| |+bou|c|s ^cco|d|ng to undc|||n ct +| (.00c 1!cc ) suc| t|cnd |s +
|c||cct|on not ,ust o| |nc|c+scd |ncomc oo|tun|t|cs |n +g||cu|tu|c +nd ot|c| dom+|ns but +|so
o| dcc|c+scd +v+||+b|||ty o| tycs o| |o|cst |csou|ccs t|+t m|g|t |+vc bccn +bund+nt |n t|c +st
C+tt|c uscd to sc|vc +n |mo|t+nt cconom|c |unct|on |n |||| ||vc|||oods but duc to dc|ct|on
o| |oddc| t|c c+tt|c numbc| c| |ousc|o|d ||uctu+tcs cvc|y yc+| |o|covc| t|c g+uc|+|
(commun+| g|+z|ng) |+nd |s c|t|c| dcg|+dcd o| cnc|o+c|cd o| |+s bccn c|oscd ||om ocn
g|+z|ng ||b+| womcn su||c| t|c wo|st |m+ct o| d|oug|t ovc|ty |+nd +||cn+t|on +nd sc+|c|ty
o| n+tu|+| |csou|ccs (^g+|w+| .001) \|t| t|c |cst||ct|ons on +cccss to commons |t |s t|c t||b+|
womcn w|o bc+| t|c b|unt o| t|c |+|ds|| |nvo|vcd |n co||cct|ng ot+b|c w+tc| |||cwood
|oddc| mcd|c|n+| |+nts +nd ot|c| non-t|mbc| |o|cst |oducts |on-t|mbc| |o|cst |oducts
suc| +s |oncy :eoaa 'ea.es |cs,cs oe'aoc\,'co) oanaa /'c.es /aana.a oa.a) .nc:a
Cassa :ca) +nd |cs|ns su|cmcnt to somc cxtcnt t|c |ncomc o| |||| |ousc|o|ds |n somc
t||b+| d|st||cts t|c co||cct|on o| non-t|mbc| |o|cst |oducts |s |cst||ctcd to mcmbc|s o| |o|cst
usc|s comm|ttccs o| v|||+gc mcmbc|s |o|m+||y |otcct|ng t|c +d,o|n|ng |o|csts
3. Empirical data and method
|c cm|||c+| d+t+ uscd |n t||s +c| dc||vc ||om ||c|dwo|| undc|t+|cn du||ng two summc|
sc+sons (.00c +nd .00) w||c| wc|c two consccut|vc d|oug|t yc+|s |n
sc|cdu|cd +|c+s o| scm|-+||d wcstc|n |nd|+ |c study w+s conductcd |n |+nsw+|+ d|st||ct o|
|+,+st|+n st+tc (w|t| onc o| t|c ||g|cst ovc|ty |nd|c+to|s) w|t| + |+|gc ou|+t|on o| |||| +nd
||||+|+ t||bcs |c s|tc sc|cct|on w+s b+scd on + numbc| o| |cy c||tc||+ suc| +s sc|cdu|cd +|c+s
dom|n+tcd by t||b+| commun|t|cs somc |o|m o| t||b+| custom+|y |nst|tut|ons |n t|c m+n+gcmcnt
o| common oo| |csou|ccs (C||s) t||b+| co|cs dccndcncc on n+tu|+| |csou|ccs +nd t|c
|m|cmcnt+t|on o| |o|cst dcccnt|+||z+t|on (|o|cst ||g|ts ^ct .00o) |c|o|m
|u|+b| |osc
46
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
^ c+sc-study mct|od us|ng + +|t|c|+to|y +|o+c| w+s cm|oycd |nc|ud|ng |n- dct|
u+||t+t|vc |ntc|v|cws w|t| two womcns sc||-|c| g|ous ||om two nc|g|bou||ng v|||+gcs |n t|c
d|st||ct |n +dd|t|on |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|d |ntc|v|cws wc|c conductcd w|t| 1. womcn-|c+dcd
|ousc|o|ds +nd cxccut|vc comm|ttcc mcmbc|s o| v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|ons |n t|csc v|||+gcs
|n v|cw o| t|c ||g| ||||tc|+cy |+tc sc+son+| m|g|+t|on o| t||bc mcmbc|s (|o| w+gc |+bou| |n
nc|g|bou||ng c|t|cs) +nd |c|cv+ncc to t|c study ob,cct|vcs + comb|n+t|on o| d+t+ co||cct|on
+|o+c|cs w+s cm|oycd |n|o|m+| mcct|ngs obsc|v+t|on undc| n+tu|+| cond|t|ons |ocus
g|ou d|scuss|ons +|t|c|+to|y m+|ng +nd |ntc|v|cws (|n 14)
|n u+||t+t|vc stud|cs |t |s oss|b|c |o| c|cct|ons o| |csondcnts to bc |n||ucnccd (|cu|s 1o) |n
t||s study t||s c||cct cou|d |c||cct c|t|c| owc| d|||c|cncc bctwccn |oc+| co|c +nd |csc+|c|c|s
+nd;o| t|c d|oug|t +t t|c t|mc t|c study w+s conductcd (|+||cy 1c) |o| t|c u+||t+t|vc d+t+
+n+|ys|s + d+t+b+sc o| codcs w+s dcvc|ocd t|c |ntc|v|cw tcxts wc|c codcd +nd t|c d+t+ wc|c
vc||||cd (|um+| .00)
4. Community-based adaptations (CBA): ndings
|c tc|m +d+t+t|on |s o|tcn m|sundc|stood +s t|c |csons|b|||ty o| |oc+| commun|t|cs to +d,ust
to t|c c|+ng|ng cnv||onmcnt |+c|ng on t|cm t|c bu|dcn to dc+| w|t| t|c c|+ng|ng s|tu+t|on
||s |s + n+||ow undc|st+nd|ng o| t|c tc|m ^d+t+t|on c+n +|so cncom+ss |o||st|c d|mcns|ons
o| t|c |oc+| +d+t+t|on w|t| +n |nc|us|vc +|o+c| soc|+| o||t|c+| +nd cconom|c +s wc|| +s
g|ob+| dcvc|omcnt o||cy (|c|d ct +| .00) but mo|c b|o+d|y on t|c commun|ty |cvc| |+t|c|
t|+n on +n |ndccndcnt |nd|v|du+|s |csonsc to d|oug|t Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on (C|^)
|s + |c|+t|vc|y ncw concct ^ s|m|c mc+n|ng o| commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc c|+ngc
|s + commun|ty-|cd |occss b+scd on commun|t|cs ||o||t|cs nccds |now|cdgc +nd c++c|t|cs
w||c| s|ou|d cmowc| co|c to |+n |o| +nd coc w|t| t|c |m+cts o| c||m+tc c|+ngc (|c|d
ct +| .00 1!) |owcvc| commun|ty |s |+|c|y + wc||-dc||ncd concct ^g|+w+| +nd C|bson (1
o!!) +|guc t|+t || commun|ty |s v|cwcd +s + un|||cd o|g+n|c w|o|c t|cn |t |+||s to +ttcnd to
d|||c|cnccs w|t||n commun|t|cs +nd |gno|cs |ow t|csc d|||c|cnccs +||cct |csou|cc m+n+gcmcnt
outcomcs |oc+| o||t|cs +nd st|+tcg|c |ntc|+ct|on w|t||n commun|t|cs +s wc|| +s t|c oss|b|||ty
o| |+yc|cd +|||+nccs t|+t c+n s+n mu|t||c |cvc|s o| o||t|cs |o| cu|t+b|c o||cy +nd dcc|s|on
m+||ng suc| dct+||s +bout commun|ty |cu||c +ttcnt|on
\|t||n + commun|ty d|||c|cnt scct|ons |+vc d|||c|cnt owc| (o||t|c+|) +nd c++c|ty to undc|t+|c
+d+t+t|on |+|g|n+||zcd oo| |||| womcn +|c +||cctcd by dc|ct|ng |||cwood +nd |oddc| +nd
|nc|c+s|ng |ood s|o|t+gc |o|covc| t||b+| womcns vo|ccs |+|c|y |n||ucncc o||t|c+| dcc|s|on
m+||ng (^g+|w+| 1!) |nc|ud|ng |n |c|+t|on to t|c|| nccds |c|+t|ng to +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc
Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on o| t||b+| womcn to c||m+tc c|+ngc |n scm|-+||d |nd|+
47
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
v+||+b|||ty o| c|+ngc \|t| ||m|tcd scoc to |n||ucncc o||t|c+| dcc|s|on m+||ng + dcccnt|+||zcd
|oc+| |nst|tut|on |+ys + s|gn|||c+nt |o|c |cccnt|+||z+t|on +|gucs ||bot (.004) |cu||cs + s|gn|||c+nt
t|+ns|c| o| d|sc|ct|on+|y owc|s to |oc+| bod|cs w|o +|c +ccount+b|c to t|c ou|+t|on |n t|c||
,u||sd|ct|on |o| cx+m|c |oc+| c|cctcd govc|nmcnt e ao ao.na,a: o |nd|+ |||| womcns
||m|tcd oo|tun|ty to +|t|c|+tc |n o||t|cs |cst||cts t|cm ||om vo|c|ng t|c|| o|n|on +bout
c||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +ct|v|t|cs
4.1. Community-based adaptation of village A
\|t| two consccut|vc d|oug|t yc+|s (.00c +nd .00) most |o|cst-dccndcnt |||| mcn m|g|+tcd
to nc|g|bou||ng c|t|cs |o| d+||y w+gc |+bou| cm|oymcnt |us |||| womcn wc|c |ousc|o|d
|c+ds |o| +|most s|x to c|g|t mont|s du||ng t|csc d|oug|t sc+sons ^|most two dcc+dcs +go
du||ng d|oug|t yc+|s most |||| |+m|||cs wc|c +b|c to |cm+|n |n t|c|| v|||+gcs +nd +d+t to t|c
c||m+tc |m+cts by dccnd|ng on non-t|mbc| |o|cst |csou|ccs |owcvc| |n |cccnt yc+|s w|t|
|ccu||cnt d|oug|ts ovc| |ongc| c||ods dcg|+d+t|on o| |o|csts +nd uncc|t+|n |o|cst tcnu|c ||g|ts
non-t|mbc| |o|cst |csou|ccs |+vc bccomc +n |nsu|||c|cnt sou|cc o| ||vc|||ood |||| womcn |n t||s
v|||+gc st+|tcd to wo|| +s + commun|ty to |+cc t|c c|+||cngcs o| c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngc
(cxc||cnccd +s d|oug|t) |c v|||+gc g|ou |oc+| govc|nmcnt (g|+m +nc|+y+t) s|owcd no
|ntc|cst |n womcns nccd |o| |oddc| (to |ccd ||vcstoc|) o| |ncomc-gcnc|+t|on +ct|v|t|cs On t|c
ot|c| |+nd t|c ncw|y sc|cctcd v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|on cxc|udcd t|c womcn ||om t|c dcc|s|on-
m+||ng |occss ||s c|+ngc w+s c|+||cng|ng |o| womcn w|o co||cct |||cwood +nd |oddc| ||om
t|c |o|cst |c ncw|y |o|mcd |n|o|m+| womcns commun|ty +|mcd to |cv|t+||zc t|c |nd|gcnous
+nd sc|cnt|||c st|+tcg|cs |o| co|ng w|t| d|oug|t
|c t||b+| womcns C|^ m+|n|y too| t|c |o|m o| |o|t|cu|tu|c on |+|m |+nd |nt|oduc|ng t|c
||tc|cn g+|dcn +nd d|oug|t-|cs|st+nt m|||cts |o| +g||cu|tu|c ||b+| ||ns|| |c|+t|ons |c|cd t|cm
to suo|t c+c| ot|c| |n |ousc|o|d c|o|cs +nd |n |+|m|ng d|oug|t-|cs|st+nt m|||cts |cy too|
t|c |n|t|+t|vc to cx|o|c d|||c|cnt v+||ct|cs o| t|+d|t|on+| m|||cts t|+t wou|d to|c|+tc t|c d|oug|t
+nd d|y so|| cond|t|ons |n t|c |||st yc+| t|c c|os |+||cd ||s |cd to + c|+ngc |n st|+tcgy +nd to
c|c+t|ng |cssu|c on t|c d|st||ct govc|nmcnt to suo|t t|c|| +d+t+t|on |+ct|ccs |und|ng
to suo|t t||s |n|t|+t|vc w+s +|ovcd +nd t|c ncxt yc+| w||c| w+s +g+|n + d|oug|t yc+| t|c
t||b+| womcn succcss|u||y |+|mcd t|c d|oug|t |cs|st+nt m|||cts |c mcn o| t|c |ousc|o|d on
t|c ot|c| |+nd |n|t|+||y ooscd t|c womcns |ntc|cst |n |+ct|c|ng |o|t|cu|tu|c on |+|m|+nd
|c |+ct t|+t most womcn wc|c dcvo|d o| +ny |+nd tcnu|c ||g|ts m+dc t|cm dccndcnt on
t|c mcn o| t|c|| |ousc|o|d |owcvc| t|c suo|t o| t|c |oc+| o|g+n|z+t|on +nd t|c t|+|n|ng o|
t|c womcns g|ou |c|cd t|c womcn to g+|n +|ov+| ||om t|c|| |ousc|o|d |c+d +nd t|c
womcn wc|c cmowc|cd by t|c |+ct t|+t t|cy cou|d now +cccss t|c m+||ct |xc|+ngc o| t|c||
+g||cu|tu|+| outut |n t|c m+||ct g+vc t|cm |ndccndcncc (cconom|c +nd o||t|c+| |c|+t|ons)
|u|+b| |osc
48
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
|cc+usc o| t|c|| succcss |o|t|cu|tu|c +nd + commun|ty-b+scd +|o+c| to +|tc|n+t|vc c|os
wc|c cxtcndcd to t|c ot|c| nc|g|bou||ng v|||+gcs
4.2. Community-based adaptation of village B
^s |n v|||+gc ^ t||s v|||+gc w+s |+c|ng cxt|cmc |m+cts ||om c||m+tc c|+ngc |o|covc| +bout .
c|ccnt o| t|c |ousc|o|ds wc|c bc|ow t|c ovc|ty ||nc +nd mo|c t|+n |+|| |+d no sccu|cd (|o|cst)
|+nd tcnu|c ||g|ts ||b+| womcn |n v|||+gc | c|c+tcd + commun|ty g|+|n sto|+gc |+c|||ty t|+t |c|cd
t|c |+m|||cs w|o |+c|cd |csou|ccs ^not|c| |mo|t+nt +scct o| t|c|| C|^ w+s t|c|| c|+|m on t|c||
t|+d|t|on+| ||g|t to co||cct a:cna sccd ||om t|c |o|cst \|t| t|c |nc|c+s|ng dcm+nd |o| a:cna
sccds |n t|c |oc+| m+||ct t|c v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|ons dcn|cd womcn t|c ||g|t to co||cct t|c sccd ||om
t|c |o|cst ||oug| C|^ ,+t|o|+ (+ d|oug|t |cs|st+nt |+nt) w+s |+ntcd +s + |cncc on t|c|| |+|m|+nd
+nd on commun+| +|c+s (g|+z|ng |+nd) |u||ng t|c d|oug|t yc+| t|c t||b+| womcns commun|ty too|
t|c |n|t|+t|vc to ncgot|+tc w|t| t|c d|st||ct t||b+| dcvc|omcnt o|||cc |n m+||ct|ng t|c a:cna sccd
|u||ng t|c C|^ |m|cmcnt+t|on |occss t|c v|||+gc | t||b+| womcn wc|c +b|c to nctwo|| +nd
cst+b||s| good ||n|s d||cct|y w|t| t|c buyc|s ||s |c|cd t|cm to gct t|c m+||ct |+tc w|t|out +y|ng
comm|ss|on to +n +gcnt |o|covc| co||cct|vc sc|||ng |csu|tcd |n + bcttc| ||cc +nd t|c |occcds
wc|c d|st||butcd +mong t|cm dccnd|ng uon c+c| wom+ns sccd |oduct|on |c +mount o|
a:cna sccd co||cctcd ||om t|c womcns own |+nt+t|ons (|+ntcd +s |cnccs on |+|m |+nd +nd |n
ocn-+cccss;g|+z|ng |+nd) +s +|t o| t|c|| C|^ +ct|v|ty w+s g|c+tc| t|+n t|c tot+| u+nt|ty co||cctcd
by t|c v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|ons ||om |o|cst|+nd |c womcns g|ou dcm+ndcd |c-sc|cct|on o|
t|c womcn w|o wou|d |o|d + sc+t on t|c cxccut|vc comm|ttcc o| t|c v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|on
||cv|ous|y t|c womcn |c|cscnt+t|vcs |n t|c v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|on wc|c conncctcd by ||ns|| to
t|c |cw c||tc o||t|c+| mcmbc|s o| t|c |nst|tut|on |nd||cct|y t|c|| +d+t+t|on tcc|n|uc to su|v|vc
c||m+tc c|+ngc cn+b|cd t|c womcn to g+|n o||t|c+| owc| +t v|||+gc |cvc|
5. Discussion
^g|+w+|s (||+|t .00) ||+mcwo|| on +d+t+t|on |nst|tut|ons +nd ||vc|||oods |ov|dcs +n
|ntc|cst|ng d|mcns|on |o| +n+|ys|s ||s ||+mcwo|| c|+ss|||cs t|c b+s|c co|ng st|+tcg|cs
to countc|+ct cnv||onmcnt+| ||s|s to ||vc|||oods |nto ||vc +n+|yt|c+| c+tcgo||cs mob|||ty (ovc|
s+cc) sto|+gc (+c|oss t|mc) d|vc|s|||c+t|on (+c|oss +sscts) commun+| oo||ng (+c|oss |ousc|o|ds)
+nd cxc|+ngc (+cccss to m+||cts) |nst|tut|ons +cco|d|ng to t||s ||+mcwo|| +|c |mo|t+nt |n
|c|n|o|c|ng d|||c|cnt ||vc|||ood |+ct|ccs |s|ng ^g|+w+|s +d+t+t|on +s +n +n+|yt|c+| ||+mcwo||
t||s +c| b||c||y d|scusscs commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on by t||b+| womcn
Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on o| t||b+| womcn to c||m+tc c|+ngc |n scm|-+||d |nd|+
49
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
^s obsc|vcd ||om t|c +bovc two c+scs t||b+| womcn |+ccd t|c c|+||cngc o| dcccnt|+||zcd
|oc+| govc|nmcnt (ao.na,a:) |n v|||+gc | t|c v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|on |cs|stcd by not s|+||ng
|n|o|m+t|on t|c|cby |nc|c+s|ng un|cd|ct+b|||ty +nd by cxc|ud|ng t|c vu|nc|+b|c g|ous t|c
t||b+| womcn ||nd|ngs |nd|c+tc t|+t d|||c|cnt ||nd o| |nst|tut|ons (scc +b|c 1) |n||ucncc o| ||ndc|
commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on st|+tcg|cs ||oc|ty ||g|ts +nd |o|cst tcnu|c |+y + c|uc|+| |o|c |n
commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on |+ct|ccs \omcn w|t|out tcnu|c ||g|ts |+cc t|c c|+||cngcs o|
+cccss to |csou|ccs +nd dcc|s|ons |c|+t|ng to c|+ng|ng |+|m|ng systcms
|c cm|||c+| cv|dcncc |n t||s +c| o|nts to +n |ntc|cst|ng |c|+t|ons|| bctwccn t|c |nst|tut|on
+d+t+t|on st|+tcgy +dotcd +nd ||vc|||oods |owcvc| t||s +c| +|gucs t|+t o||t|c+| owc|
+nd |c|cscnt+t|on o| m+|g|n+||zcd g|ous +|c cu+||y |mo|t+nt |t |s oss|b|c to +c||cvc
commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc c|+ngc w|t|out t|c suo|t o| |oc+| |nst|tut|ons ||
t|c |cvc| o| ||s| (|c|c d|oug|t) |s vc|y ||g| +nd m+y |+vc + ncg+t|vc |m+ct on ||vc|||oods
omc o| t|c womcn |n t|csc v|||+gcs wc|c not +|t o| t|c +d+t+t|on |occss duc to t|c||
|ousc|o|ds cconom|c s|tu+t|on +nd t|c |ow ||s| o| d|oug|t ||n+||y t|c c+sc study +|so |nd|c+tcs
t|+t womcns |ntc|cst |n o||t|c+| +|t|c|+t|on |n v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|ons |s ||g| ||s cou|d bc
duc to t|c|| dccndcncy on t|c |o|cst |o| t|c|| ||vc|||ood cscc|+||y du||ng d|oug|t yc+|s |c
,+t|o|+ |+nt bcc+mc +n |mo|t+nt commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on |o| two |c+sons |ts d|oug|t
|cs|st+ncc +nd m+||ct dcm+nd uc| os|t|vc |m+cts o| commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on |c|cd
to |m|ovc t|c ||vc|||ood outcomcs o| t|c |o|cst-dccndcnt t||b+| |ousc|o|ds
6. Conclusion and recommendations
||s +c| +ttcmtcd to s|ow t|c |o|c o| t||b+| womcns co||cct|vc +ct|v|t|cs |n undc|st+nd|ng
t|c |mo|t+ncc o| +d+t+t|on to ||cucnt d|oug|ts |n t|c scm|-+||d |cg|on o| wcstc|n |nd|+
|owcvc| |t m+y bc +|gucd w|ct|c| t|csc +ct|v|t|cs c+n bc cons|dc|cd +s + |csonsc to ||cucnt
c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty o| +s + |csonsc to concc|n +bout oss|b|c |utu|c c||m+tc c|+ngc |cvc|t|c|css
|t |s cv|dcnt ||om t||s c+sc study t|+t t||b+| womcn |otcct t|cmsc|vcs by v+||ous +d+t+t|on
mcc|+n|sms Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on by d|vc|s|||c+t|on (+g|o-|o|cst|y |o|t|cu|tu|c) +ssct
oo||ng +mong ||ns||;|+m|cts +nd m|g|+t|on to t|c c|t|cs o| w+gc |+bou| cn+b|cd t|cm to
ovc|comc t|c c||m+tc st|css ^s obsc|vcd v|||+gc |o|cst |nst|tut|ons |+y +n |mo|t+nt |o|c |n
cn+b||ng (o| oss|b|y ||ndc||ng) t|c |n|t|+t|vcs o| commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on |+ct|ccs
Cont|nuous d|+|oguc +nd |cncgot|+t|on +|c |cu||cd to s|+c c|+ng|ng o||t|c+| |c|+t|ons bctwccn
t|c m+|n +cto|s ^t |oc+| |cvc| t|c|c |s nccd |o| + s|||t tow+|ds dcvo|ut|on o| d|sc|ct|on+|y
dcc|s|on m+||ng +nd t|c t|+ns|c| o| tcnu|c ||g|ts to m+|g|n+||zcd t||b+| commun|t|cs |nc|ud|ng
womcn |o|covc| t|c|c |s nccd to st+tuto|||y |ccogn|zc + |o|cst m+n+gcmcnt |nst|tut|on by
|u|+b| |osc
0
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
d|||c|cnt ||nc m|n|st||cs +nd dc+|tmcnts m+n+g|ng |o|csts |n t||b+| +|c+s ^t n+t|on+| |cvc| t|c|c
|s nccd |o| + const|tut|on+| +|o+c| to |o|cst|y |c|o|m |n w||c| t|c st+tc s|ou|d bc +ccount+b|c
^ c|c+| t||b+| o||cy t|+t st|csscs t|c |ccogn|t|on o| t|+d|t|on+| |o|cst +nd |+nd tcnu|c ||g|ts o|
t||b+| co|c |s + |cy |cu||cmcnt |o| t|c succcss o| co|ng w|t| c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty |c concct
o| +d+t+t|on +s co|ncd |n t|c wcstc|n wo||d +nd by cxtc|n+| +gcnts (dono|s |csc+|c|c|s ctc)
|s cv|dcnt|y d|||c|cnt ||om t|c c|cct|on o| oo| m+|g|n+||zcd t||b+| commun|t|cs |c|c|o|c
t|c|c |s +n u|gcnt nccd to |cv|s|t w|+t commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on |m||cs |n t||b+| +|c+s |o|
t|c m+n+gcmcnt o| dcg|+dcd |o|csts |u+||y t|c|c |s nccd |o| cm|||c+| |csc+|c| to cx+m|nc
|o|c o| commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on +nd ||g|ts-b+scd o||c|cs |n t|c cu||cnt dcccnt|+||zcd
+|o+c| to |o|cst m+n+gcmcnt |n t||b+| +|c+s
|o||t|c+| owc| |s +n |mo|t+nt +scct o| c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngc |o||t|c+| +|t|c|+t|on by
vu|nc|+b|c t||b+| womcn |s c|uc|+| to cnsu|c t|+t t|cy |n||ucncc o||cy +nd t|+t t|c|| vo|ccs +|c
|c+|d |n m+,o| |o|cst +nd c||m+tc ncgot|+t|ons |o| ncgot|+t|ons +t |oc+| (v|||+gc) |cvc| co|cs
|c|cscnt+t|on |nc|ud|ng t|c o|n|on o| vu|nc|+b|c ou|+t|ons |s csscnt|+| ||s bcgs t|c ucst|on
+s to w|o |s vu|nc|+b|c +nd c+||s |o| |oc+| |now|cdgc to so|vc t|c |ob|cm t|c |oc+| c|cct|on
o| w|+t |s +t ||s| +nd |ow |t c+n bc so|vcd +nd w|+t nccds to bc ||o||t|zcd by o||cym+|c|s
|o| ncgot|+t|ons +t n+t|on+| |cvc| |n +dd|t|on to t|c +bovc |t w||| mc+n nctwo|||ng +nd o||cy
+dvoc+cy w|t| mu|t|- d|sc|||n+|y |nst|tut|ons cnsu||ng dcvo|ut|on o| owc| |m|cmcnt+t|on
mon|to||ng +nd |cv|cw|ng +d+t+t|on |+ct|ccs +||oc+t|on o| |und|ng +nd |csou|ccs ^nd +t
g|ob+| |cvc| ncgot|+t|ons must |nvo|vc t|+ns+|cnt dc+|s t|+t bcnc||t t|c vu|nc|+b|c g|ous suc|
+s c|||d|cn |nd|gcnous co|cs +nd oo| womcn |c undc||y|ng |occss o| suc| ncgot|+t|ons
nccds to bc cmowc|mcnt o| m+|g|n+||zcd g|ous w|t|out +ny d+ngc|ous |m+ct on t|c||
||vc|||oods +nd cnv||onmcnt
^ g|c+t +mount o| |csc+|c| |s nccdcd to documcnt +nd +n+|ysc t|c commun|ty- b+scd +|o+c|
|o|cst +nd |+nd tcnu|c ||g|ts o| t||b+| womcn +nd ot|c| vu|nc|+b|c g|ous cou|d com|cmcnt
t|c|| c||m+tc c|+ngc +nd v+||+b|||ty +d+t+t|on |+ct|ccs |+|nst|c+m|ng commun|ty-b+scd
+d+t+t|on |n dcvc|omcnt |o,ccts |s not t|c on|y ot|on ||cx|b|c |oc+||zcd |+t|c| t|+n
+dot|on o| + s|ng|c commun|ty-b+scd +|o+c| s|ou|d bc |ocus o| d|sc|ct|on+|y dcc|s|on-
m+||ng |occss o| c|cctcd |oc+| |nst|tut|ons |c succcss o| commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on
dccnds on |cccnt |o|cst tcnu|c |c|o|m t|+t g|vcs |ccogn|t|on o| t|c |o|cst tcnu|c ||g|ts o| t|c
c|cdu|cd ||bcs +nd ot|c| |o|cst- dccndcnt co|c |c|c |s nccd to cx|o|c + |o||st|c +nd
com|c|cns|vc undc|st+nd|ng o| v+||ous +d+t+t|on st|+tcg|cs (|nc|ud|ng |oc+| |n|t|+t|vcs) +nd
cx|st|ng |o|cst o||cy +ct|v|t|cs to coc w|t| d|oug|ts |n scm|-+||d |cg|ons |+t |s mo|c sc|cnt|||c
+nd cm|||c+| cv|dcncc |s nccdcd on |ow + g|vcn g|ou o| + m+|g|n+||zcd ou|+t|on +t ||g| ||s|
(o| d|oug|t o| ||ood) w||| bc +||cctcd by c||m+tc c|+ngc
Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on o| t||b+| womcn to c||m+tc c|+ngc |n scm|-+||d |nd|+
!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
|c |cy |ccommcnd+t|on |s t|+t |oc+| |n|t|+t|vcs (suc| +s t|osc dcsc||bcd |n t||s +c|) s|ou|d
|ov|dc +n oo|tun|ty |o| govc|nmcnt |csc+|c| |nst|tut|ons dono|s +nd o||cym+|c|s to
|ccogn|zc +nd |omotc commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on st|+tcg|cs On +n ot|m|st|c notc + w|n-
w|n s|tu+t|on |o| sust+|n+b|c |o|cst m+n+gcmcnt w|t|out +ny ncg+t|vc |m+cts (o| c||m+tc st|css
o| c|+ngc) on vu|nc|+b|c g|ous |s oss|b|c to +c||cvc
References
^C|^\^| ^ ||+|t Adaptatlon, lnstltutlons and llvellboods .oo;
^C|^\^| ^ C||O| C |nc|+ntmcnt +nd d|scnc|+ntmcnt t|c |o|c o| commun|ty |n n+tu|+| |csou|cc
consc|v+t|on World Uevelopment v .; n | e.,-e|, +,,,
^C^|\^| | oc|+| sccu||ty +nd t|c |+m||y co|ng w|t| sc+son+||ty +nd c+|+m|ty |n |u|+| |nd|+
Agrlculture and luman values +,e-+e, +,,,
____ |+|t|c|+to|y cxc|us|ons commun|ty |o|cst|y +nd gcndc| +n +n+|ys|s |o| out| ^s|+ +nd +
concctu+| ||+mcwo|| World Uevelopment v ., n +o +e.,-+e|s .oo+
|^||| || Metbods or soclal researcb , cd !c ||cc ||css |cw o|| +,;s
|^V||^| ^ ||b+| o||t|cs +nd d|scou|scs o| cnv||onmcnt+||sm |n C||||O|C| | ||C ^
cds Hature ln tbe global soutb. envlronmental projects ln Soutb and Soutbeast Asla |u|c
|n|vc|s|ty ||css |u||+m |C .oo,
C^||O| \|CC | |O\||| | Soclal vulnerablllty, sustalnable llvellboods and dlsaster |co|t
to |||| Con|ct +nd |um+n|t+||+n ^ss|st+ncc |c+|tmcnt +nd ust+|n+b|c ||vc|||oods uo|t
O cc |+tu|+| |csou|ccs |nst|tutc |n|vc|s|ty o| C|ccnw|c| C|+t|+m sd
|^VOO|| | |csc|v+t|on |o| Cu,+|s + +sto|+| c|scct|vc Lconomlc and olltlcal Weelly v|. n s
,s,,-,s,| .oo;
|||^| | kesearcb metbodology . cd +gc |ub||c+t|ons ||+cc o| ub||c+t|on .oo,
|||| | Cu||cnt c|+||cngcs |+c|ng +|t|c|+to|y |u|+| +|+|s+| ubllc Admlnlstratlon and Uevelopment
v+e ,;-;. +,,e
|O| | Cultlvatlng development. An etbnograpby or ald pollcy and practlce ||uto ||css |ondon .oo,
|||O|| ||C| C|O|| |||||^|O|^| State or tbe Worlds Mlnorltles .oos C||m+tc C|+ngc
cc|+| ||no||ty ||g|ts C|ou |ntc|n+t|on+| |ondon .oo .oos
|OO||\||| | v+n |||^|C | || wc c+nnot dcnc |t wc c+nnot s+vc |t |n |O||CO| ^| v
^V||||| | \| | cds |orest and cllmate cbange. adaptatlon and mltlgatlon |ocnbos
|ntc|n+t|on+| \+gcn|ngcn !c |ct|c||+nds .oo,
|u|+b| |osc
2
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 41-. ,u|-dcz .011
|^OC| ^ lerelnarter, rorests. Uown to Lartb Ccnt|c |o| c|cncc +nd |nv||onmcnt |cw |c||| |unc
v +, ,,- || .oo;
|||| | ^|^| | |||C|| | C^||O| |||||C^| ^ Commun|ty-b+scd +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc
c|+ngc +n ovc|v|cw |n |||| | ^|^| | |||C|| | C^||O| |||||C^| ^ cds artlclpatory
learnlng and actlon. communlty-based adaptatlon to cllmate cbange |||| |ondon .oo,
|||O |C Waltlng ror democracy. tbe polltlcs or cbolce ln natural resource decentrallzatlon. World
kesource |nstltute \+s||ngton |C .oo|
|||^ || ||no||ty ||g|ts + c+sc study o| |nd|+ |nternatlonal ournal on Mlnorlty and Croup klgbts
v+. n | ,,,-,;| .oo,
|||||||| \| ^|C|||| ^ |||C||| | |||C|| | |^| | ^|OO | \|||||
||vc|||oods |o|csts +nd consc|v+t|on |n dcvc|o|ng count||cs +n ovc|v|cw World Uevelopment
Oxrord v ,, n , +,s,-+|o. .oo,
|||||||| \ |^C||| | |||||| | |rom excluslon to ownersblp: Cballenges and opportunltles
ln advanclng rorest tenure rerorm ||g|ts +nd |csou|cc |n|t|+t|vc \+s||ngton |C .oos
|| || Case study researcb. deslgn and metbods +gc |ub||c+t|ons !ous+nd O+|s C^ +,,|
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
Climate change adaptation and food insecurity in
Maradi District Niger
Moussa na Abou Mamouda
1
*
' C|c||| ^nt+ ||o |n|vc|s|ty |+|+| cncg+| - m+moud+m,o|+ngcsn n+mo|yd|o,y+|oo||
Abstract
|o /aaa as:.: `e) oce :nao ./ c/ :ne
ca'a:co s .cocsea c/ /aoes a.:.o a
ao /ea a.a':ae |c.e.e oe.aase c/ .'oa:e
.aao':, aoa .naoes ao/a'' nas oe.coe
ao.e:ao e:ne .coo :cc ea', :cc 'a:e :cc
oa.n c :cc '::'e Oo :ne c:ne naoa seascos ae
oe.coo snc:e aoa aooaa' :eoea:aes oce
e\:eoe |ao e.cas /e'a .s: aoa sa.e, o
(aoaa, ...7 aoco /aaa as:.: .cooao:es
o /aaaa.a aoa Gao) ao a'aoo ec:
s:a:ea :ne /c''c.o c.e ./ c/ o:e.e.ea /aoes
saa :na: :ne, eo:e', .cosaoe :ne na.es: as:
a/:e :nee oco:ns |ao :ne eoaoo ooe
oco:ns o :ne ,ea aoa oe/ce :ne oe\: na.es:
:nese .cooao:es asea :c ae.e'c soa'' a:co
aoa o.coe eoea:o a.:.:es /co /a: aoa
.ee:ao'es :ne, caa.ea 8a: oe.aase c/ .'oa:e
.aao':, aoa .naoe :nese /aoes ae /a.o
a :eoeoacas .na''eoe o /e:.no sa/a.e aoa
caoa .a:e /c a:co ^s a esa': ao,
aaa:a:co s:a:e, .a a:co oe.aoe sc .cs:',
oao', oe.aase c/ nn c' .es aoa a//.a':
a..ess :c eoe, se..es) :na: : s ca: c/ oao, soa''
/aoes ea.n |o cae :c eosae :ne /cca se.a:,
Resumo
|o d|st||to dc |+|+d| (||gc|) m+|s dc so/ d+ o-
u|+io c comost+ o| +g||cu|to|cs |+t|c+ndo
um+ +g||cu|tu|+ dc scuc||o |o cnt+nto dcv|do
v+||+b|||d+dc c + mud+n+s c||m+t|c+s + c|uv+
to|nou-sc |ncc|t+ v|ndo ccdo dcm+|s t+|dc dc-
m+|s mu|to ou ouco |o| out|o |+do +s cst+ocs
cstio sc to|n+ndo m+|s cu|t+s c +s tcmc|+tu|+s
+nu+|s m+|s cxt|cm+s |u|+ntc + v|s|t+ dc c+mo
c |cv+nt+mcnto +ntc||o| cm ,+nc||o dc .oo; cnt|c
+s comun|d+dcs do d|st||to |+|+d| (|b||| |+|+-
d+w+ c C+b|) um |c|+to||o +|+|m+ntc dcc|+|ou o
scgu|ntc m+|s dc ,o/ dos +g||cu|to|cs cnt|cv|st+-
dos d|ssc|+m uc consomcm tot+|mcntc su+s co-
||c|t+s |ogo +os t|cs mcscs' |u|+ntc os |cst+ntcs
novc mcscs do +no c +ntcs d+ |ox|m+ co||c|t+
css+s comun|d+dcs costum+v+m dcscnvo|vc| c-
ucn+s +t|v|d+dcs dc ||||g+io c dc gc|+io dc |cn-
d+ com + |oduio dc ||ut+s c |cgumcs |+s o|
c+us+ d+ v+||+b|||d+dc c mud+n+s c||m+t|c+s cs-
scs +g||cu|to|cs cstio cn||cnt+ndo um g|+ndc dc-
s+o n+ busc+ dc +gu+s suc|c|+|s c subtc||nc+s
+|+ ||||g+io Como |csu|t+do u+|uc| cst|+tcg|+
dc +d+t+io o| mc|o dc ||||g+io to|nou-sc tio
c+|+ (||nc|+|mcntc dcv|do +os |cos c|cv+dos
|ouss+ |+moud+
4
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
:nese .cooao:es eoea'', se::'e /c scoe .co
oe.naosos o.'aao sc.a' oe:.co sc'aa:,
aoa a':eoa:.e '.e'nccas soa'' s.a'e a:co
c oa:co |c.e.e a:co nas oe.coe 'ess
caa.:.e oe.aase c/ .a:e s.a.:, aoa nne
oooao aooaa' :eoea:aes ne co', coe .e
Gca'o) /'c.o a.css /aaa .:, aoa .n.n ase
:c /'c. /c a: 'eas: s\ oco:ns a/:e :ne aoo
seasco s oc. /'c.o /c co', coe :c :.c oco:ns
oe.aase eaa.:co o aooaa' ecoa' ao/a'' aoa
a'sc oe.aase c/ a aao

'' se: as:eao o `ea a


oenocao .cao:, c/ `e Ccoooa:co c/ a''
:nese s:esscs oaes /aaa as:.: /eaeo:',
e\csea :c /cca ose.a:, |o :ns .ase .cooao:es
:eoa :c o'eoeo: se.ea' .co oe.naosos :c
eosae :ne /cca se.a:, ns ae a::eo:s
:c aoaes:aoa :nese .co oe.naosos sc as :c
o/co c'., aoa ae.sco oaes a: a'' 'e.e's o
:ne e\'ca:co c/ .a,s aoa oeaos c/ aaao .a'ae
co scoe c/ :nese .co oe.naosos :c :aos/co
:neo o:c aaa:a:co 8e.aase c/ :ne :aos
ocaoaa, 'oaes :na: : o'es :ns ae snc.s
:na: aaa:a:co :c .'oa:e .naoe snca'a oc 'coe
oe .cosaeea co', as a 'c.a' oa: oa': s.a'e oa':
'e.e' c.ess |e, .cas /cca se.a:, aaa:a:co
.co oe.naoso sc.a' .a:a' c'., c.ess
keywords. /cca se.a:, aaa:a:co .co oe.n
aoso sc.a' .a:a' c'., c.ess
'' ||by+ d+m |n no|t|c|n +|t o| ||gc||+ + s+nd d+m o|
o000m` unvc||cd |n 1! to +||cv|+tc t|c |m+cts o| 10s
d|oug|ts |n t|c +|c| +nd cnsu|c |ood sccu||ty |n ||gc||+
do ct|o|co c + d|cu|d+dc dc +ccsso +os sc|v|os
dc cnc|g|+) uc cst+ |o|+ do +|c+ncc dc mu|tos c-
ucnos +g||cu|to|cs ^ m dc g+|+nt|| su+ scgu|+n-
+ +||mcnt+| css+s comun|d+dcs gc|+|mcntc dc-
scnvo|vcm +|guns mcc+n|smos dc conv|vcnc|+ |n-
c|u|ndo |o|m+io dc |cdcs soc|+|s so||d+||cd+dc c
out|+s +|tc|n+t|v+s ||||g+io cm cucn+ csc+|+ ou
m|g|+io |o cnt+nto + ||||g+io to|nou-sc mcnos
|odut|v+ o| c+us+ d+ csc+sscz dc +gu+ c tcmc-
|+tu|+s m+|s c|cv+d+s O un|co ||o (Cou|b|) uc u|
+t|+vcs d+ c|d+dc dc |+|+d| c uc costum+v+ u||
c|o mcnos o| sc|s mcscs +os + tcmo|+d+ dc
c|uv+s +go|+ cst+ u|ndo o| +cn+s +- . mcscs
o| c+us+ d+ |cduio n+ |cc||t+io +nu+| |cg|o-
n+| c t+mbcm o| c+us+ dc um+ b+||+gcm cons-
t|u|d+ + mont+ntc n+ ||gc||+ um +|s v|z|n|o dc
||gc| ^ comb|n+io dc todos cstcs |+to|cs cst|cs-
s+ntcs |+z dc |+|+d| um d|st||to ||cucntcmcntc
cxosto |nscgu|+n+ +||mcnt+| |cstc c+so +s co-
mun|d+dcs tcndcm + |m|cmcnt+| v+||os mcc+n|s-
mos dc cn||cnt+mcnto +|+ g+|+nt|| su+ scgu|+n-
+ +||mcnt+| |stc +|t|go tcnt+ cntcndc| csscs mc-
c+n|smos dc cn||cnt+mcnto dc modo + |n|o|m+|
os dcc|so|cs cm todos os n|vc|s n+ cx|o|+io dc
|o|m+s c mc|os dc +g|cg+| v+|o| cm +|guns dcsscs
mcc+n|smos dc cn||cnt+mcnto +|+ t|+ns|o|m+-
-|os cm +d+t+io |o| c+us+ d+s ||g+ocs t|+ns-
||ontc|||+s uc |nd|c+ cstc t|+b+||o most|+ uc
+ +d+t+io mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ nio dcvc m+|s
sc| cons|dc|+d+ +cn+s como um |occsso |oc+|
m+s s|m um |occsso cm csc+|+s c n|vc|s mu|t||os
alavras-cbave. scgu|+n+ +||mcnt+| +d+t+io
mcc+n|smo dc cn||cnt+mcnto c+|t+| soc|+| |o-
ccsso o||t|co
1. Introduction
|+| +w+y ||om dcb+tc +nd cont|ovc|s|cs +t |ntc|n+t|on+| |cvc| |cg+|d|ng t|c cx|stcncc o| + c+usc
+nd c||cct ||n| bctwccn +nt||oogcn|c g|ccn|ousc g+scs +nd t|c obsc|vcd g|ob+| w+|m|ng t|c
|m+cts o| c||m+tc c|+ngc +|c +n undcn|+b|c |c+||ty |c +dvc|sc c||ccts o| c||m+tc c|+ngc on ||vcs
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011


+nd ||vc|||oods o| t|c oo| +do no |ongc| nccd to bc dcmonst|+tcd |n m+ny +|c||+n count||cs
c|tu|b+t|ons on no|m+| sc+son+| cyc|cs +|c obsc|vcd ovc| t|mc +nd s+cc t|c |+|n bcg|ns c|t|c|
too c+||y o| too |+tc tot+| +nnu+| mont||y +nd d+||y |+|n|+|| vc|y o|tcn |c+c| uncxcctcd ||g|c|
o| |owc| t||cs|o|ds +nd t|c g|ob+| t|cnds +|c gcnc|+||y |n dcc|c+sc C|ob+| t|cnds o| m+x|mum
+nd m|n|mum tcmc|+tu|cs +|c uncxcctcd|y |nc|c+s|ng bcc+usc o| g|ob+| w+|m|ng
|vcn || g|+ss|oots commun|t|cs +|c not +b|c to undc|st+nd t|c c+uscs o| g|ob+| w+|m|ng t|cy
+|c |owcvc| +w+|c o| t|c |+ct t|+t somct||ng unusu+| +bno|m+| +nd ncg+t|vc |s |+cn|ng
bcc+usc t|c |m+cts o| t|csc c|+ngcs +|c |c|t on |oc+| ||vc|||oods
|c|ng +w+|c o| t|c |cscnt +nd |utu|c c|+||cngcs oscd by c||m+tc c|+ngc on t|c|| soc|o cconom|c
dcvc|omcnt |oc+| commun|t|cs d|d not w+|t |o| cxtc|n+| |c| to dcvc|o co|ng mcc|+n|sms
+nd su|v|vc |n |+ct t|csc commun|t|cs |+vc ||vcd |n t|c s+mc tc|||to|y |o| gcnc|+t|ons +nd
ccntu||cs +nd +s + |csu|t t|cy |+vc bccn +b|c +utonomous|y o| +ss|stcd to su|v|vc +nd cvcn
+d+t to cnv||onmcnt+| c|+ngcs || t|c ncg+t|vc |m+cts o| t|csc c|+ngcs +|c |c|t |oc+||y t|c |cy
c|cmcnts nccdcd |o| +n c||cct|vc +nd c|||c|cnt +d+t+t|on +|c gcnc|+||y ||n|cd to +|+mctc|s +nd
|+cto|s t|+t +|c bcyond t|c |oc+| |cvc| o| sc+|c |c c+sc study o| |+|+d| |n t|c sout|c|n +|t
o| ||gc| +||ows us to ||g|||g|t t|+t mu|t| |cvc| +nd mu|t| sc+|c c|+|+ctc||st|cs o| c||m+tc c|+ngc
+d+t+t|on |n + |ood |nsccu|c contcxt
2. Context of Niger
||gc| |s + |+nd |oc|cd count|y w|t| +n +|c+ o| 1 .o 000 |m. out o| w||c| t||cc u+|tc| |s b+||cn
(||gu|c 1)
|c +||d|ty g|+d|cnt w||c| |s dcc|c+s|ng ||om no|t| to sout| cngcndc|cd |ou| cco|og|c+| zoncs
(|) t|c +|+|+ zonc (|cs t|+n 10 mm o| |+|n|+|| c| yc+|) w||c| occu|cs 000 |m` o| `
o| count|y tot+| +|c+ (||) + +|c|o +|+|+ zonc (1!0-!0 mm o| |+|n|+||) covc||ng 10 000 |m` o|
1. ` o| t|c cnt||c tc|||to|y (|||) t|c +|c||+n zonc (!0-o00 mm) covc||ng 1. 000 |m` o| 10`
+nd (|v) t|c oud+n|+n zonc (mo|c t|+n o00 mm)w||c| covc|s +|ound 1! 000 |m` o| 1` o| t|c
count|ys +|c+ c0` o| ||gc|s tot+| ou|+t|on |s sctt|cd |n t|c +|c||+n +nd oud+n|+n zonc
|c|cscnt|ng 11` o| t|c tot+| +|c+ o| t|c count|y
|ncc +,eo t|c +nnu+| |+|n|+|| |+s cons|dc|+b|y dcc|c+scd (scc gu|c .) !c ||g|cst d|m|nut|on
w+s obsc|vcd +t t|c bcg|nn|ng o| t|c +,;os +nd sos w|cn t|c |+|n|+|| |ndcx +c||cvcd m|n|m+|
v+|ucs w||c| |cd to sc||ous |ood dcc|ts
|ouss+ |+moud+
6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
|lgure + |oc+t|on o| ||gc|
1
9
5
0
1
9
5
3
Year
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
R
a
i
n
f
a
l
l

i
n
d
e
x
1
9
5
6
1
9
5
9
1
9
6
2
1
9
6
5
1
9
6
8
1
9
7
1
1
9
7
4
1
9
7
7
1
9
8
0
1
9
8
3
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
8
|lgure : ^nnu+| |+|n|+|| |ndcx |n ||gc|
ou|cc `a:coa' |e.:co c/ /e:ecc'c, n:://...oe:ecoeoe:/n:o'/.'oa:..|.n:o ...!
!c +bovc g|+| s|ows t|+t s|ncc +,s. |ood |oduct|on |n |+|+d| |s convc|sc|y |oo|t|on+| to
ou|+t|on g|owt| !|s s|tu+t|on s|ows t|c cxtcnt to w||c| co|c |n |+|+d| +|c not |cs|||cnt
to +ny |ood s|o|t+gc t|+t m+y occu| (||gu|c ,)
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
7
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
1
9
8
2
1
9
8
3
Food production Index Population
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
5
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
7
1
9
8
8
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
1
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
4
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
6

|lgure , |vo|ut|on o| +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on vs ou|+t|on |n ||gc| ||om 1c. to 1o
ou|cc `a:coa' |o.cooeo:a' |'ao /c sas:aoao'e |e.e'coeo: n:://o.n .oaoa:aa's.eo.esoe/oe/oe/a/
o'eoeo:a:co/ac.aoeo:s/oeaa/.na..n:o
3. Context of Maradi region
3.1. Climate
|+|+d| |cg|on |s c|+|+ctc||scd by + no|t|-sout| |+|n|+|| g|+d|cnt |+ng|ng ||om .oo mm to ;,o
mm |n t|c cxt|cmc sout|c|n +|t o| |+|+d| t|c no|m+| +nnu+| |+|n|+|| |s eoo ;,om +nd t|c
|+|n|ng sc+son |+sts , to | mont|s |c+n tcmc|+tu|cs v+|y ||om .,, C to ,.;C |n ^|||;|+y
|c|+t|vc |um|d|ty +c||cvcs m+x|mum |+tcs (+|most +oo/) |n ^ugust w||c| |s +|so t|c |+|n|cst
mont| ||n|mum |c|+t|vc |um|d|ty (|cs t|+n +o/) |s |c+c|cd bctwccn |cccmbc| +nd |+|c|
w|cn t|c +tmos|c||c tcmc|+tu|c |s m|n|m+| (||gu|c |)
|+|+d| |cg|on cou|d bc d|v|dcd |nto t||cc +g|o-cco|og|c+| zoncs
^ +|c|o +|+||+n zonc ||m|tcd by t|c +||+ V+||cy +nd covc||ng t|c m+|n +|t o|
|+|o|o css+ou+ +nd |+y+|| dc+|tmcnts ||s |s t|c ||nc|+| ||vcstoc| |+|m|ng zonc
un|o|tun+tc|y t||c+tcncd by comct|t|on |n |+nd usc ||om +g||cu|tu|c |c |+un+
|cv|ous|y ||c| +nd d|vc|sc |s now+d+ys |n nct |cg|css|on cvcn |n |csc|vc +|c+ o|
C+d+bcg| m+|n|y bcc+usc o| d|oug|ts +nd o+c||ng
|ouss+ |+moud+
8
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011

|lgure |c |+|+d| |cg|on
^ s+|c||+n zonc covc||ng t|c |cst o| |+|o|o |+y+|| +nd css+ou+ dc+|tmcnt |nc|ud|ng +
sm+|| +|t o| t|c no|t|c|n +|t o| ^gu|c dc+|tmcnt ||s zonc |s com||scd bctwccn t|c
+||+ V+||cy +nd t|c Cou|b|n |+b+ |c m+|n |+nd usc |s +g||cu|tu|c +nd ||vcstoc| b|ccd|ng
|c soud+no s+|c||+n zonc |s |oc+tcd |n t|c cxt|cmc sout| o| t|c |cg|on +nd covc|s t|c
dc+|tmcnts o| Cu|d+n |oumd,| |+d+|oun|+ +nd ^gu|c +nd bcg|ns ||om Cou|b|n |+b+
u to t|c bo|dc| w|t| ||gc||+ |c m+|n |o|cstcd +|c+s t|c |+|c +nd t|c Cou|b| (Cou|b|n
|+b+) o| |+|+d| +s wc|| +s ou| study +|c+ (|b||| |+|+d+w+ +nd C+b|) +|c s|tu+tcd |n t|+t
zonc |c no|m+| +nnu+| |+|n|+|| |s o00 mm +nd dcmog|+||c |cssu|c |s vc|y ||g|
3.2. Population
|n .00 |+|+d| |cg|on covc|s 41 o |m
.
(!!`) w|t| + ou|+t|on cst|m+tcd +t ..0.0!
|n|+b|t+nts o| .04` o| ||gc|s ou|+t|on |c +nnu+| cvo|ut|on |+tc o| t|c ou|+t|on |s !o` |n
|+|+d| |cg|on w|||c +t n+t|on+| |cvc| t||s |+tc |s !1` |c ou|+t|on dcns|ty |s . |n|+b|t+nts;
|m. |n |+|+d| +nd c |n|bts;|m. +t n+t|on+| |cvc|
4. Te study area
!c |cscnt study cnt|t|cd |ood ccu||ty +nd C||m+tc C|+ngc ^d+t+t|on |n |+|+d| w+s
conductcd |n t||cc study +|c+s |+|+d+w+ (+ count|y s|dc +|ound |+|+dy c|ty) |b||| v|||+gc
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
9
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
(+.|m |+| +w+y ||om |+|+d| c|ty |n |c |o|t|-\cst) +nd C+b| (,, |m ||om |+|+d| c|ty |n t|c
sout|) !c t+b|c bc|ow s|ows dcmog|+|y +nd tot+| numbc| o| |ousc|o|ds |n c+c| s|tc |n .oo,
opulatlon ln study sltes
Sltes opulatlon ln 200 Humber or bousebolds
|+|+d+w+ 1o !0o .
C+b| V|||+gc . o. !
|b||| V|||+gc 14 40 1 co
5. Objectives
!c ob,cct|vcs o| t||s +c| +|c t||cc |o|d
(|) ^n+|ys|s +nd undc|st+nd|ng o| d|||c|cnt co|ng mcc|+n|sms undc|t+|cn by commun|t|cs
|n |+|+d| to |+cc c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngcs so +s to |n|o|m o||cy +nd dcc|s|on
m+||ng on |ow to bu||d on t|csc co|ng st|+tcg|cs +nd dcs|gn;|m|cmcnt +d+t+t|on
+nd |ntcg|+tc |t |n o||cy +nd dcvc|omcnt |+nn|ng
(||) |+scd on t|c com|c|cns|vc undc|st+nd|ng o| commun|t|cs mu|t| sc+|c mu|t| |cvc| co|ng
mcc|+n|sm to t|c +dvc|sc c||cct o| |ood |nsccu||ty t||s +c| |cvc+|s t|+t +d+t+t|on to
c||m+tc c|+ngc s|ou|d no |ongc| bc cons|dc|cd +s on|y + |oc+| |occss bcc+usc |ts +|so
bc|ng govc|ncd by d||vc|s +t ||g|c| |cvc|s +nd sc+|cs
(|||) |cc+usc o| t|c |cy |mo|t+ncc o| t|c soc|+| c+|t+| |n t|c +bovc co|ng mcc|+n|sms t|c
sccond ob,cct|vc o| ou| |csc+|c| |s to undc|st+nd t|c |o|c o| soc|+| nctwo||s +nd |+c|||t|cs
w|t||n t|c commun|ty |n t|c ||g|t +g+|nst |ood |nsccu||ty |n + c|+ng|ng c||m+tc
6. Methodology and tools
|c +n+|ys|s too|s wc uscd cons|st o| |ousc|o|d su|vcys |o| +|t|c|+t|vc +sscssmcnt o|
vu|nc|+b|||ty to c||m+tc c|+ngcs +nd ||n|s w|t| |ood |nsccu||ty ^n c-+gc| ucst|onn+||c |+s
bccn uscd to co||cct u+nt|t+t|vc +nd u+||t+t|vc d+t+ |n c+c| o| t|c t||cc s|tcs ^ ||tc|+tu|c
|cv|cw w+s +|so undc|t+|cn to |dcnt||y |cv|ous sc|cnt|||c wo|| undc|t+|cn on t|c |ssuc o|
c||m+tc dcvc|omcnt +nd |ood sccu||ty
|o| cvc|y s|tc (C+b| |b||| +nd |+|+d+w+) t||cc |ntc|v|cwc|s wc|c |n c|+|gc o| d+t+ co||cct|on
t||oug| t|c ucst|onn+||c |vc|y |nvcst|g+to| w+s |n c|+|gc o| dc|oy|ng t|c ucst|onn+||c
|ouss+ |+moud+
60
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
|n ,o |ousc|o|ds w||c| g|vcs 0 |ousc|o|ds c| s|tc +nd + tot+| o| .0 |ousc|o|ds |c ||||cd
ucst|onn+||cs wc|c +sscsscd +nd +n+|yscd by t|c usc o| | st+t|st|c+| too| |c su|vcy w+s
conductcd w|t||n t||cc d+ys so +s o g|vc su|||c|cnt t|mc to t|c |ntc|v|cwc|s +nd +|so |nsu|c t|c
+v+||+b|||ty o| |c+ds o| |ousc|o|ds cscc|+||y |n t|c c||od o| |+|m|ng +ct|v|t|cs (^ugust;ctcmbc|)
|n o|dc| to |nsu|c t|+t t|c |ntc|v|cwc|s |+vc + good undc|st+nd|ng o| t|c cxcctcd outcomcs
o| t|c su|vcy + onc-d+y t|+|n|ng w+s o|g+n|scd |o| t|cm +nd t||s w+s +n oo|tun|ty to gct
+ common undc|st+nd|ng o| cvc|y ucst|on |n t|c ucst|onn+||c |c ucst|onn+||c t+|gctcd
subs|stcncc |+|mc|s +nd t|c m+|n ucst|on |+|scd |nc|udc t|c s|zc (mcn +nd womcn) o| t|c
|ousc|o|d t|c gcndc| o| |ousc|o|d |c+d t|c cu|t|v+tcd +|c+ by owncd t|c |ousc|o|d t|c
|ousc|o|d ||vc|||ood +sscts t|c +|tc|n+t|vcs co|ng st|+tcg|cs undc|t+|cn by t|c |ousc|o|d
mcmbc|s |n c+sc o| |ood |nsccu||ty t|c |o|c o| soc|+| nctwo||s |n t|c ||g|t +g+|nst |ood
|nsccu||ty t|c |o|c o| m|g|+t|on ctc
7. Ecological and social vulnerability
|n t|+t +|t o| ||gc| w|c|c +g||cu|tu|c |s t|c m+|n +ct|v|ty (mo|c t|+n c0` o| t|c ou|+t|on) t|c
|+|n|+|| |+s cons|dc|+b|y dcc|c+scd c+sons +|c bccom|ng s|o|tc| +nd +nnu+| tcmc|+tu|cs +|c ||s|ng
(||gu|c )
1
9
3
2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1
9
3
6
1
9
4
0
1
9
4
4
1
9
4
8
1
9
5
2
1
9
5
6
1
9
6
0
1
9
6
4
1
9
6
8
1
9
7
2
1
9
7
6
1
9
8
0
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
8
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
6
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
4
|lgure , |vo|ut|on o| |+|n|+|| |n |+|+d| ||om 1!. to .004
!c +bovc g|+| s|ows t|c cvo|ut|on o| +nnu+| |+|n|+|| ||om +,,. to .ooe |n |+|+d| |cg|on !c
g|ob+| t|cnd on t|+t t|mc c||od o| ;. yc+|s |nd|c+tc + dcc|c+sc o| ,o/ |n +nnu+| |+|n|+|| (||gu|c e)
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
6!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
1
9
3
2
-0,60
-0,40
-0,20
0,00
0,20
0,40
0,60
0,80
1
9
3
6
1
9
4
0
1
9
4
4
1
9
4
8
1
9
5
2
1
9
5
6
1
9
6
0
1
9
6
4
1
9
6
8
1
9
7
2
1
9
7
6
1
9
8
0
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
8
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
6
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
4
|lgure o |+|n|+|| +nom+||cs |n |+|+d| ||om 1!. to .004
!c +bovc g|+| ||g|||g|tcd t|c obsc|vcd +nom+||cs |n tot+| +nnu+| |+|n|+|| |n com+||son w|t|
t|c no|m+| s|tu+t|on w||c| |s eoo mm;yc+| !|s g|+| s|ows t|+t s|ncc t|c bcg|nn|ng o| t|c
;os t|c tot+| +nnu+| |+|n|+|| |n |+|+d| w+s |owc| t|+n eoo mm
|+|n |cd +g||cu|tu|c |s mo|c +nd mo|c un|oduct|vc !c +nnu+| y|c|ds +|c no |ongc| su c|cnt
to covc| |ousc|o|d |ood nccds bc|o|c t|c ncxt |+|vcst !c ||gu|c ; bc|ow s|ows t|+t |css t|+n
+;/ o| |ntc|v|cwcd |ousc|o|d ((|) +nd (||)) dcc|+|cd t|+t t|cy c+n cnt||c|y |c|y on t|c|| |+|vcst
du||ng o, to +. mont|s to covc| +|| |ousc|o|d |ood nccds bc|o|c t|c ncxt |+|vcst !c ot|c|s
(|c|cscnt|ng s,/) c+n |c|y on t|c|| |ood |oduct|on |o| |cs t|+n , mont|s |n t|c yc+|
(ii)
(i)
(iii)
(iv)
]3,6]
39,5%
[0,3]
18,1%
>12 months
0,4%
]9,12]
16,4%
]6,9]
25,6%
(v)
|lgure ) |umbc| o| mont|s covc|cd by |ood |oduct|on |n |ntc|v|cwcd |ousc|o|ds
|ouss+ |+moud+
62
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
m+|| sc+|c ||||g+t|on |+s bccomc cost|y +nd |css |oduct|vc bcc+usc o| w+tc| sc+|c|ty +nd too
||g| tcmc|+tu|cs du||ng t|c co|d sc+son w|||c ||u|ts +nd vcgct+b|cs nccd |ow tcmc|+tu|cs
|o| bcttc| dcvc|omcnt |c g|+| bc|ow s|ows t|c cvo|ut|on o| m+x|mum (cu|vc (|)) +nd
m|n|mum (cu|vc (||)) +nnu+| tcmc|+tu|cs |n |+|+d| ||om 1o1 to .010 |n |+nu+|y w||c| |s t|c
co|dcst mont| |n |+|+d| |c g|ob+| t|cnd |s +n |nc|c+sc (||gu|c c)
0
1
9
6
1
1
9
6
3
1
9
6
5
1
9
6
7
1
9
7
4
1
9
7
6
1
9
7
8
1
9
8
0
1
9
8
2
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
8
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
2
1
9
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1
9
9
6
1
9
9
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2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
(i)
y = 0,0692x + 28,526
y = 0,0487x + 13,243
(ii)
Figure |vo|ut|on o| m|n|mum +nd m+x|mum tcmc|+tu|cs |n |+|+d| ||om 1o1 to .00.
ou|cc n:://...:a:eocoe:/
On t|c ot|c| |+nd +s s|own by t|c ||gu|c , bc|ow s;/ o| |+|mc|s wc |ntc|v|cwcd |+vc
+g||cu|tu|c (|nc|ud|ng ||vcstoc| |+|m|ng) +s ||nc|+| sou|cc o| |ncomc
Agriculture
87,6%
Other
3,9%
Trade
8,5%
Figure |+|n ||vc|||oods |n |ntc|v|cwcd |ousc|o|ds
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
6!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
|n +dd|t|on +g||cu|tu|c |s csscnt|+||y |+|n |cd +nd |+ct|ccd w|t| t|+d|t|on+| mc+ns du||ng + |+y
sc+son |+st|ng ! to 4 mont|s ||om |unc to ctcmbc| |n t|+t +|t o| ||gc| t|c +nnu+| |u|+|
|ncomc |s on|y 0 000 C|^ ||+ncs (100 ||) +nd t|c most vu|nc|+b|c |ousc|o|ds +|c gcnc|+||y
|c|d by uncm|oycd womcn |ou|+t|on g|owt| |s +|so +n |mo|t+nt d||vc| o| soc|o cco|og|c+|
vu|nc|+b|||ty |n |+|+d| ^+|t ||om |+v|ng + ||g| ou|+t|on g|owt| |+tc |+|+d| |cg|on |s |ost|ng
.0` (. .0. 0! |n|bts) o| ||gc|s tot+| ou|+t|on +cco|d|ng to t|c .001 ccnsus |cc+usc o|
u|b+n|s+t|on dc|o|cst+t|on +nd cxtcns|vc +g||cu|tu|c so|| |c|t|||ty |+s cons|dc|+b|y dcc|c+scd +nd
|c|t|||zc|s +|c ||g||y nccdcd but +|c st||| out o| |c+c| o| m+,o||ty o| |+|mc|s bcc+usc o| ovc|ty
+nd |+c| o| subs|d|cs ||om govc|nmcnt
8. Multi scale multi level coping/adaptation strategies
undertaken by farmer communities in Maradi
o +dd|css t|c +bovc soc|o cco|og|c+| vu|nc|+b|||t|cs |+|mc|s +nd t|c|| |c|+t|vcs |m|cmcntcd +
v+||ous sct o| co|ng mcc|+n|sms +s wc|| +s ot|c| st|+tcg|cs |o| +d+t+t|on |n c+sc o| b+d |ood
|oduct|on |cd |ntc| +||+ by sc+|cc |+|n|+|| +s + |csu|t o| c||m+t|c v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngcs |n o|dc|
to cnsu|c t|c|| |ood sccu||ty |csc mcc|+n|sms |nc|udc
8.1. Social networks
|oc+| co|ng st|+tcg|cs +t |ousc|o|d |cvc| suc| +s s+|c o| +n|m+|s c|+|ts ctc |n o|dc| to
||n+ncc u|c|+sc o| |ood
Cooc|+t|on +t t|c cxtcndcd |+m||y v|||+gc o| |ocus g|ou |cvc| to st||vc |o| bcttc|
|+|vcsts ctc
|c sc+|c| |o| +nd u|c|+sc o| |ood +t d|st||ct |cvc| +|t|cu|+||y ||om |ntc|-commun|ty
cc|c+| b+n|s
|c sc+|c| |o| +nd u|c|+sc o| |ood ||om ot|c| d|st||cts +nd +gcnc|cs w|t||n t|c count|y
cscc|+||y ||om t+tc cc|c+| b+n|s
|c sc+|c| |o| +nd u|c|+sc o| |ood ||om nc|g|bo||ng count||cs (|+|| |u|||n+ |+so
|cn|n ctc) t|+n|s ||nc|+||y to cc|c+| b+n|s ut |n |+cc |n t|c ||+mcwo|| o| |cg|on+|
+cco|ds suc| +s t|c O|g+n|z+t|on Communc |cn|n-||gc|
cmo|+|y m|g|+t|on to nc|g|bo||ng count||cs to conduct |ncomc gcnc|+t|ng +ct|v|t|cs
+nd m+|c |cm|tt+nccs |n +dv+ncc o| |o||ow|ng |+|ny sc+son
|ouss+ |+moud+
64
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
|c|m+ncnt m|g|+t|on ovc| |ongc| d|st+nccs to w|c|c wo|| oo|tun|t|cs +|c +v+||+b|c
c|t|c| on + |cg|t|m+tc o| c|+ndcst|nc b+s|s
|tc
^|| t|csc co|ng mcc|+n|sms +|c m+|n|y b+scd on commun|t|cs soc|+| c+|t+|
Others Countries
Others Regions
Rural Community
Village
Household
Neighboring countries:
markets, infrastructures,
international agreements
Regional:
markets, infrastructures
Rural Community:
markets
Village:
solidarity, markets
Household:
solidarity
Capital
Physical Social
Politico Institucional
Natural Financial
|lgure +o |u|t| sc+|c mu|t| |cvc| commun|ty co|ng mcc|+n|sms |n |+|+d|
|csc mu|t| |cvc| +nd mu|t| sc+|c |ood |nsccu||ty co|ng mcc|+n|sms +dotcd by |+|mc|s |n
|+|+d| +|c +ctu+||y +|t o| t|c|| d+y by d+y |||c s|ncc tcns o| yc+|s +nd s|ncc c||m+tc |+s |c+||y
c|+ngcd +nd w|cncvc| |ood +nnu+| |oduct|on |s not |c||+b|y su|||c|cnt to covc| |ood nccds +t
|ousc|o|d |cvc| bc|o|c ncxt |+|vcst
^t |ousc|o|d |cvc| co|c tcnd to sc|| t|c|| v+|u+b|c |tcms to by |ood |csc v+|u+b|c |tcms
+|c gcnc|+||y domcst|c +n|m+|s +nd |+m||y ot|c| |cc|ous ob,ccts |t |s |mo|t+nt to ||g|||g|t
t|c |mo|t+nt |o|c |+ycd by womcn +t |ousc|o|d |cvc| bcc+usc t|cy +|c gcnc|+||y t|c onc
w|o own t|c v+|u+b|c |tcms to bc so|d |n suc| d||||cu|t c||ods Ou| su|vcys |cvc+|cd t|cn t|+t
o|yg+mous |ousc|o|ds (two t||cc o| |ou| w|vcs) |+vc + bcttc| co|ng;+d+t|vc c++c|ty
^t v|||+gc +nd commun|ty |cvc| t|+t |ood |nsccu||ty co|ng mcc|+n|sm |s govc|ncd by so||d+||ty
w||c| st||| cx|st|ng +s + soc|+| c+|t+| but bctwccn |||cnds +nd |c|+t|vcs g|v|ng sc|| |c| |n d||||cu|t
c||ods ||s ||nd o| so||d+||ty |s gcnc|+||y obsc|vcd du||ng wcdd|ng cc|cmon|cs +nd b+t|sms
^t ||g|c| |cvc|s o| ot|c| |cg|ons +nd su||ound|ng count||cs t|c cx|stcncc +nd |ox|m|ty o| |ood
m+||cts +s wc|| +s t|c |u|cs govc|n|ng t|csc m+||cts +|c somc |cy d||vc|s o| |ood sccu||ty |c
+v+||+b|||ty o| |o+d |n||+st|uctu|cs c+n |+c|||t+tc +cccss to ot|c| |cg|ons |n ||gc| o| to nc|g|bou||ng
count||cs |n o|dc| to su|y |ood b+n|s +nd +|so to |owc| t|c ||cc o| t|c |ood |ntc|n+t|on+|
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
+cco|ds bctwccn ||gc| +nd su||ound|ng count||cs c+n +|so |omotc |ood +nd co|cs mob|||ty
+nd t|us |+c|||t+t|ng commun|t|cs mcc|+n|sms o| cnsu||ng |ood sccu||ty
|c +bovc ||gu|c 11 s|ows t|+t +ny +d+t+t|on +ct|on +|m|ng +t +ssu||ng |ood sccu||ty +t
|ousc|o|d v|||+gc commun|ty |cg|on o| nc|g|bou||ng count||cs |cvc| concc|ns +nd t|us must
t+|c |nto +ccount t|c cond|t|on |n w||c| t|c nc|g|bou||ng |ousc|o|ds +nd v|||+gcs |cg|ons
+nd count||cs +|c ||s |s +|t|cu|+||y t|uc bcc+usc o| t|c ||g| m|g|+to|y dyn+m|cs g+|ncd by
concc|ncd commun|t|cs |n t|c cvcnt o| |ood |nsccu||ty |c cx+m|c o| |ood b+n|s +nd |c|+tcd
m+n+gcmcnt |n |+|+d| c+n +|so |||ust|+tc t||s |+ct
Solidarity 27,7%
Other 3,2%
Picking 2,9% Trade 25,0%
Exodus 10,6%
Irrig 10,0%
Prt 1,4%
Farm work 16,3%
Livestock
breeding 2,9%
|lgure ++ Co|ng mcc|+n|sm +ct|v|t|cs undc|t+|cn by |ntc|v|cwcd |+|mc|s |n |+|+d|
8.2. Food Banks in Maradi
|ood b+n| |s t|c tc|m common|y uscd to dcs|gn+tc + commun|ty b+scd o|g+n|s+t|on (|+|mc|
o|g+n|s+t|on) m+n+g|ng + |ood stoc| o| s|m|y +ny ot|c| sto|+gc commun|ty systcm |c voc+b|c
|c ob,cct|vc o| |ood b+n|s |s to |m|ovc |ood sccu||ty |n c||on|c+||y |ood |oduct|on dc||c|t
zoncs bcc+usc o| c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngc |c stoc|s o| |ood +|c d|st||butcd |o| ||cc o|
so|d +t |ow cost to commun|t|cs |n t|c cvcnt o| |ood c||s|s subscucnt to c||m+t|c const|+|nts
|c su|vcys wc conductcd |n |+|+d| |cvc+|cd t|+t t|c |ood stoc|s w||c| sc|vc to su|y |ood
b+n|s |o| t|c bcnc||t o| dc||c|cnt zoncs +|c boug|t +nd c|+nnc||cd ||o ot|c| |cg|ons o| ||gc| |||c
z|ndc| o| +|ou+ |cscct|vc|y s|tu+tcd .00 |m +nd .0 |m |+| +w+y ||om |+|+d| |n c+sc t|csc
nc|g|bou||ng |cg|ons +|c +|so |ood dc||c|cnt co|c |+vc to t|+vc| to ot|c| count||cs |||c ||gc||+
|u|||n+ |+so o| |+|| |n somc c+scs |o| st|uctu|+| o| c||m+tc |c|+tcd |c+sons |ood |s s|m|y
un+v+||+b|c o| +t + ||cc so ||g| t|+t t|c oo| c+nnot +||o|d |t |n t||s c+sc t|c sctt|ng +nd su|y
|ouss+ |+moud+
66
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
o| |ood b+n|s |s ,co+|d|scd |c+d|ng to t|c +b+ndon o| |ood b+n|s +s +n +d+t+t|on;co|ng
st|+tcgy Ou| su|vcy |n |+|+d| |cvc+|cd + s|m||+| c+sc |n t|c c0s w|cn Ccnc|+| ^b+c|+ |u|cd
||gc||+ +nd dcc|dcd to c|osc bound+||cs bctwccn ||gc||+ +nd ||gc| ||s s|tu+t|on comb|ncd
w|t| ot|c| d||vc|s m+dc |moss|b|c t|c cx|stcncc o| |ood b+n|s |n |+|+d| +nd cont||butcd to +
scvc|c |+m|nc |n ||gc| dcnom|n+tcd || |o|+|| |+m|nc |o| t|c c||cumst+nccs
|+ |cg|on dc |+|+d| ||nst+| dc |cg|ons dc |us|cu|s +ut|cs +ys s+|c||cns +v+|t cn c||ct connuc
unc c||odc dc scc|c|cssc cou|cc dcs +tt+ucs +c||d|cnncs cn 1c!;c4 |+|+d| |cg|on |n t|c
m+nnc| o| ot|c| |cg|ons |n m+ny ot|c| count||cs |n t|c +|c| |+s c||cct|vc|y cncountc|cd +
c||od o| d|oug|t cou|cd w|t| |ocust +tt+c|s |n 1c!;1c4 |c |m+ct o| t|csc d|oug|ts +nd
|ocust |nv+s|on wou|d |+vc bccn +ttcnu+tcd by t|c su|y o| |ood |oducts ||om nc|g|bou||ng
|cg|ons o| v|||+gcs w|c|c suc| d|oug|ts +nd |ocust +tt+c|s d|d not occu| |y t|c w+y onc o|
t|c su|||s|ng c||ccts o| c||m+tc c|+ngc obsc|vcd |n |+|+d| +nd st|+ngc|y c|cc|vcd by |oc+|
commun|t|cs |s w+s t|+t d|s+||ty |n |+|n|+|| +ttc|ns bctwccn two nc+|by v|||+gcs +nd cvcn
bctwccn two +|c+s |n t|c s+mc town |o| cx+m|c w|cn + t|undc|sto|m occu|s |t c+n |+|n down
+ |ot |n + v|||+gc w|||c t|c g|ound |s s|m|y d|y |n t|c ncxt v|||+gc ||s unusu+| |cnomcnon |s
+|so obsc|vcd by commun|t|cs bctwccn two ncxt +|c+s o| t|c s+mc v|||+gc
|t +c+|s oncc +g+|n t|+t || t|c |m+cts o| c||m+tc c|+ngcs +|c c+s||y obsc|vcd |oc+||y
+d+t+t|on to t|csc |m+cts c+n bc |n||ucnccd by ot|c| |occsscs +t ||g|c| |cvc|s +nd t|us
ncccss|t+tcs +n +|o+c| not on|y + |oc+| +|o+c| but +t ||g|c| |cvc|s +s t|c c+uscs o| |oc+|
vu|nc|+b|||ty cou|d bc |cd by d||vc|s occu|||ng c|scw|c|c
8.3. Te case of Maradi Goulbi (river in Hausalanguage)
|c ||vc| b+s|n o| t|c Cou|b| o| |+|+d| covc|s +n +|c+ o| c |m
.
out o| w||c| ! c0! |m
.
+|c
|oc+tcd |n ||gc||+ +nd t|c |cst |n ||gc|1 |c |+|+d| Cou|b| w|t| |ts |ntc|m|ttcnt |yd|o|og|c
|cg|mc ||sc |n ||gc||+ c|osscs ||gc| v|+ |+|+d| +nd +|tc| + |un o| +bout 1!0 |m |ctu|ns to
||gc||+ +nd ||n+||y |c,o|n t|c ||m+ ||vc| w||c| |n |ts tu|n ||ows |nto t|c m+|n ||gc| ||vc| bcd
Onc o| t|c most ||m|t|ng |+cto|s |o| c||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on |n t|c +g||cu|tu|c sccto| |n
|+|+d| |s t|c +cccss to w+tc| |csou|ccs |o| ||||g+t|on ||s w+tc| |o|mc||y |n t|c +st w+s com|ng
||om t|+t t|+ns-bound+|y Cou|b| o| |+|+d| |owcvc| +|tc| t|c d|oug|t o| t|c 0s +uto||t|cs
|n ||gc||+ dcc|dcd to sct + d+m on t|+t ||vc| |n ||by+
.
+ bo|dc| c|ty w|t| ||gc| s|tu+tcd +|ound
100 |m +w+y ||om |+|+d| |ncc t|cn t|c w+tc| |n t|c |+|+d| Cou|b| w||c| oncc ||ows |o|
||vc to s|x mont|s +|tc| t|c |+|n|ng sc+son c+n now+d+ys ||ow on|y |o| onc mont| ||m|t|ng +ny
1 ||o,cct documcnt - |ntcg|+tcd |cosystcm |+n+gcmcnt o| |+nsbound+|y ^|c+s bctwccn ||gc| +nd ||gc||+ C|| ^ugust .00
. ||by+ |n t|c no|t|c|n +|t o| ||gc||g+ + s+nd d+m o| 1o000m` unvc||cd |n 1! |o| ||||g+t|on +nd |yd|o owc| u|oscs
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
67
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
||||g+t|on oss|b|||ty |o| |+|mc|s |n |+|+d| (||gc|) m+|| sc+|c ||||g+t|on |s no |ongc| |c+s|b|c |o|
t|c n|nc |cm+|n|ng mont|s o| t|c d|y sc+son bc|o|c t|c ncxt |+|n|ng sc+son
|c uncc|t+|nt|cs o| ||||g+t|on +s c||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on st|+tcgy |o| |+|n |cd +g||cu|tu|c |n
|+|+d| (||gc|) by t|c mc+ns o| t|c t|+ns-bound+|y |+|+d| Cou|b| w+tc|s dcmonst|+tcs oncc
+g+|n t|+t +d+t+t|on |s + |occss t|+nsccnd|ng |oc+| |c+||t|cs +||s +t ||g| o||t|c+| |cvc| +s wc||
+s +t dcccnt|+||scd |cvc| +|c ncccss+|y |n o|dc| to sct + d|+|oguc bctwccn t|c two count||cs |o|
+ concc|tcd |+|+d| Cou|b| w+tc| |csou|cc m+n+gcmcnt v|t+| |o| ou|+t|on on bot| s|dcs o|
n+t|on+| bound+||cs
^cco|d|ng to t|c |ou|t| ||CC ^sscssmcnt |co|t t|c +nnu+| ||ow o| ||vc|s +nd t|c +v+||+b|||ty
o| w+tc| m+y dw|nd|c ||om 10 to !0` |n somc d|y |+nds o| m|dd|c |+t|tudcs +nd |n d|y t|o|cs
|y .0.0 to .0 m||||on c|sons w||| bc cxoscd to w+tc| sc+|c|ty bcc+usc o| c||m+tc c|+ngc
^cco|d|ng to t|c s+mc |co|t oo| commun|t|cs w||| bc t|c most vu|nc|+b|c bcc+usc o| ||m|tcd
+d+t|vc c++c|ty +nd t|c|| |c||+ncc to c||m+tc-scns|t|vc |csou|ccs |||c w+tc| |csou|ccs +nd
+g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on systcms
|c |mo|t+ncc o| + ||vc| b+s|n +|o+c| |n t|c m+n+gcmcnt o| w+tc| |csou|cc |n c||m+tc
v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngc contcxt +|so ,ust|||cs t|c ncccss|ty o| |oscct|ng +d+t+t|on +ct|ons
concc|v+b|c +t |c|+tcd co||csond|ng sc+|c
!
|n \cst ^|||c+ t|c ||gc| ||vc| s|+|cd bctwccn 0c
count||cs |s +not|c| |||ust|+t|on o| t|c g|ob+| +scct o| +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc c|+ngc bcc+usc
+ny us+gc by + count|y st+tc o| t|c w+tc| o| t|+t t|+ns-bound+|y ccosystcm w||| +||cct w|t| no
doubt t|c +v+||+b|||ty +nd u+||ty o| t|c w+tc| |n t|c ot|c| count||cs downst|c+m
9. Te role of social capital solidarity and community-based
institutions
|xc||cncc s|ows t|+t |n t|c cvcnt o| b+d |ood |oduct|on |cd by +bno|m+| |+|n|+|| o| ot|c|
st|uctu|+| c+uscs commun|t|cs |n t|c +|c| (+nd |n |+|+d| +s wc||) |cc+|| to cndogcnous
mcc|+n|sms on t|c sot |n o|dc| to |cducc |ood |nsccu||ty ^s mcnt|on +bovc t|csc mcc|+n|sms
+|c csscnt|+||y d||vcn by t|c commun|ty-b+scd soc|+| c+|t+| |||c so||d+||ty w||c| const|tutcs
cvcn now+d+ys onc o| t|c ||m+|y +nc|o|s o| t|csc mcc|+n|sms
! ^d+t+t|on +ux C|+ngcmcnts C||m+t|ucs ct Ccst|on dcs |cssou|ccs cn |+u cn ^|||uc dc |Oucst |+o|t dc ynt|csc
\||||O| .1-.4 |cv||c| .00
|ouss+ |+moud+
68
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
|n |+ct + |ousc|o|ds |ood sccu||ty cou|d bc sc+|c|cd t|+n|s to cont||but|ons ||om t|c |+|gc|
|+m||y ||om ncxt v|||+gc |u|+| commun|ty u to t|c ncxt count|y
|

|vcn || |t tcnds to d|s+c+| duc to cconom|c c||cumst+nccs +nd soc|+| c|+ngcs so||d+||ty |s +n
|mo|t+nt c|cmcnt o| |um+n soc|+| c+|t+| w||c| cn+b|cs |+|mc|s w|o cxc||cncc |ood
|oduct|on dcc|t to |ccou|sc to |c| ||om mo|c |uc|y |+|mc|s (gcnc|+||y |c|+t|vcs +nd good
|||cnds) |n t|c s+mc commun|ty v|||+gc o| su||ound|ng +|c+s
|n c+sc t|c b+d |ood |oduct|on concc|ns t|c cnt||c v|||+gc |ousc|o|d |c+dc|s do no |ongc|
|+vc +ny +|tc|n+t|vc but sc|||ng t|c|| +sscts (domcst|c +n|m+|s) to buy |ood |vcn |n t||s c+sc
so||d+||ty |s |+y|ng + |cy |o|c bcc+usc t|c moncy gcnc|+tcd w||| +|so bcnct d||cct|y o| |nd||cct|y
ot|c| un|uc|y c|cmcnts o| t|c commun|ty
!c |+|mc| commun|ty |n |+|+d| +|so |ccc|vcs so||d+||ty cont||but|on (gcnc|+||y n+nc|+|) ||om
|ousc|o|d mcmbc|s w|o m|g|+tcd +nd +|c wo|||ng |n \cst ^|||c+n count||cs |||c ||gc||+ |c-
n|n ogo |vo|y Co+st o| ||by+
On t|c ot|c| |+nd t|c +v+||+b|||ty o| |n||+st|uctu|cs |cgu|+to|y m+||ct mcc|+n|sms o| |ntc| st+tc
+cco|ds govc|n|ng |ood sccu||ty |n t|c +|c| c+n +|so |n||ucncc t|c c|||c+cy +nd t|c c|||c|cncy o| t|+t
|nt|+ +nd |ntc| commun|ty |c +v+||+b|||ty o| |o+d |n||+st|uctu|cs bctwccn v|||+gcs +nd bctwccn
count||cs |+c|||t+tcs cxc|+ngcs sc||-|c| |mo|t +nd cxo|t o| |ood ^ good |cgu|+t|on o| |ood
m+||cts w||| suo|t |ousc|o|ds buy|ng owc| w|c|c+s +||c+t|on o| t+||o|cd b| +nd mu|t| |+tc|+|
+cco|ds bctwccn st+tcs w||| |+c|||t+tc c||cu|+t|on o| goods +nd co|c |o| t|c bcnc||t o| vu|nc|+b|c
ou|+t|ons ||s |s cscc|+||y w|c|c wc +|c c+|||ng uon dcc|s|on m+|c|s to |+y + |cy |o|c
^t count|y |cg|on +nd sub |cg|on+| |cvc|s t|c cx|stcncc o| |c-co|on|+| +nd |nd|gcnous
commun|ty |nst|tut|ons |+s +|w+ys s|+cd soc|+| nctwo|||ng +nd d+y by d+y |||c +t commun|ty
|cvc| |csc |nst|tut|ons |ov|dc + commun|ty sc||-|c| ||+mcwo|| c|t|c| |n |+y o| un|+y
momcnts ^s sccn +bovc |+|mc| |ousc|o|ds |n |+|+d| |+vc |o| m+ny dcc+dcs bccn
cxc||cnc|ng +bno|m+| |+|n|+|| d|oug|ts |ood s|o|t+gc ctc ^g||cu|tu|c |+s +|w+ys bccn t|c
b+c|bonc o| ||vc|||oods +nd |oc+| cconomy |n |+|+d| \|cncvc| +g||cu|tu|c |ood |oduct|on
o| |ood sccu||ty +|c t||c+tcncd by c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngcs commun|ty o|g+n|s+t|ons
+nd |nst|tut|ons +|c t|c bcst st|uctu|cs t||oug| w||c| co|c c+n ||nd +|tc|n+t|vc so|ut|ons
|c |o||ow|ng dcsc||bcs t|csc |nst|tut|ons +nd ||g|||g|ts t|c |o|c suc| |nst|tut|ons +|c |+y|ng |n
commun|tys st|ugg|c +g+|nst |ood |nsccu||ty
4 ^d+t+t|on +ux c|+ngcmcnts c||m+t|ucs ct gcst|on dcs |cssou|ccs cn c+u cn ^|||uc dc |oucst |+o|t dc synt|csc
\||||O| |nd+ | |cv||c| .00
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
69
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
9.1. Te GAYYA
|c C+yy+ |s + ||nd o| occ+s|on+| +nd |n|o|m+| sc||-|c| commun|ty g|ou|ngs |o| |+|m wo||
+nd w|cncvc| |+bo| |o|cc |s nccdcd |c mc+n|ng o| C+yy+ cou|d bc |nv|t+t|on |o| |+|m
wo|| |ns|nu+t|ng +n |nv|t+t|on to t+|c +|t to + wo|| gcnc|+||y |c|+tcd to |+|m|ng C+yy+ |s
t|c|c|o|c + co||cct|vc |+bo| |n w||c| t|c bcnc||c|+|y |s |n c|+|gc o| |ov|d|ng |o| |cst+u|+t|on
(b|c+||+st +nd |unc|) ||s ||nd o| sc||-|c| cou|d bc |n|t|+tcd by |nd|v|du+|s o| by t|c cnt||c
commun|ty by w+y o| so||d+||ty C+yy+ |s gcnc|+||y g+t|c||ng co|c o| 10 to 0 yc+|s o|d

|c
bcnc||c|+|y |s vc|y o|tcn |c+d o| + b|g |ousc|o|d |+c||ng wo|| |o|cc + t|+d|t|on+| +ut|o||ty o| +n
+g|obus|ncss |o|dc| +t v|||+gc |cvc| ^ gcnc|+||s+t|on o| C+yy+ to t|c cnt||c commun|ty |s +|so +
w+y o| |nc|c+s|ng commun|ty |ood |oduct|on cscc|+||y w|cn so|| |oduct|v|ty |s t||c+tcncd
by c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngcs
9.2. Samaria
|ut |n + st+ndby by co|on|s+t|on t|c +m+||+ w+s |cv+|o||scd |n ||gc| s|ncc 14 +|t|cu|+||y
|n |ts |unct|on o| soc|+| |||c +n|m+t|on +nd |ts soc|o cconom|c |o|c |nc|ud|ng +||+bct|z+t|on
ub||c |yg|cnc ctc
|c +m+||+ |s t|cn +n +ssoc|+t|on g+t|c||ng yout| o|g+n|s+t|ons +t v|||+gc |cvc| |t |s +|so + movcmcnt
|n w||c| t|c b+s|c ||nc||c |s + g|ou +nd co|cs|on ||+mc o| m|nd |o| t|c co||cct|v|ty +nd t|us
+n |mo|t+nt |+cto| |o| conso||d+t|on o| t|c cnt||c n+t|on + dcvc|omcnt |+cto| +nd + d||vc| o|
c|+ngcs bcc+usc |n ||gc| +m+||+ |s + n+t|on+| w|dc |nst|tut|on +m+||+ |s ||g||y o|g+n|scd |nto
|yc|+|c|y +nd c|+|+ctc||scd by |ts commun|ty s|||t +nd |cscct o| v+|ucs +nd t|+d|t|on+| mo|cs
+m+||+ |+s +n |mo|t+nt |o|c |n commun|ty c++c|ty bu||d|ng +nd t|+|n|ng |o| yout| o|g+n|s+t|ons
cscc|+||y |n t|c cvcnt o| c||scs |||c |ood |nsccu||ty \|cn cduc+t|on o| |s +ssu|cd |||st by |+m||y |t
|s com|ctcd by t|c +m+||+ w||c| |s +ct|ng +s + t|+ns|to|y st|uctu|c bctwccn t|c |+m||y +nd t|c
v|||+gc +nd |s + ||+mcwo|| |n w||c| young co|c c|cc|vc t|c|| |o|c |n t|c commun|ty
9.3. Majalissa
|+,+||ss+ |s + wo|d w|t| +n +|+b|c o||g|n mc+n|ng +sscmb|y |t |s + st|uctu|cd +ssoc|+t|on
gcnc|+||y + g|ou o| young vo|untcc|s +t v|||+gc |cvc| +|m|ng +t g|v|ng +ny nccdcd suo|t to
|oc+| +ut|o||t|cs |n ub||c wo|| |||c st|cct c|c+n|ng ccmctc|y wccd|ng ctc |c |+,+||ss+ +s wc||
+s t|c C+yy+ |s +|so + sc||-|c| ||+mcwo|| |n c+sc o| |ood |nsccu||ty +|so o||c||ng to |ts mcmbc|s
+ bcttc| +|||n|ty +nd tcnds to sct oncsc|| u +s + c|ub o| |||cnds
|cs ouvo||s |oc+ux +u ||gc| omc 1 ^ |+ vc|||c dc |+ dcccnt|+||s+t|on - |+| |c+n-||c||c O||V||| || ^||^| ct |+|+m+m
|||^|| ^|O| !oo +gcs
|ouss+ |+moud+
70
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
9.4. Agro-sylvo-pastoralist groupings
^g||cu|tu|c +nd ||vcstoc| +|c t|c soc|o cconom|c +ct|v|t|cs t|c |||st |m+ctcd by t|c +dvc|sc c||ctcts
o| c||m+tc c|+ngc |n |+|+d| +nd |n gcnc|+| |n ||gc| |c |ntc|||n|+gcs t|c com|cmcnt+||t|cs +s
wc|| +s t|c con|||cts oos|ng st+|c|o|dc|s (|+|mc|s +nd ||vcstoc| |ccc|s) ||om t|csc sccto|s
+|c |cy |+cto|s ncccss|t+t|ng t|c sct u o| +g|o-sy|vo-+sto|+||st comm|ttccs |o| + +|t|c|+t|vc
+nd concc|tcd m+n+gcmcnt o| n+tu|+| |csou|ccs cscc|+||y w|cn t|csc |csou|ccs bccomc
sc+|cc |c dc||n|t|on o| g|+z|ng +|c+s +ssoc|+t|on o| +g||cu|tu|c +nd ||vcstoc| t|c ||g|t
+g+|nst +n|m+| dcsc+scs co||+bo|+t|on bctwccn ||vcstoc| |ccc|s +nd |+|mc|s ctc +|c somc o|
t|c bcnc||ts o| +g|o-sy|vo-+sto|+||st g|ous
9.5. Income generating activity groups
||s ||nd o| o|g+n|s+t|on +|ms +t ||nd|ng +|tc|n+t|vc sou|ccs o| |cvcnuc bcc+usc t|c commun|ty
c+n no |ongc| |c|y on +g||cu|tu|+| |ood |oduct|on w||c| |+s bccomc uncc|t+|n |ncomc
gcnc|+t|ng +ct|v|ty g|ous +|c gcnc|+||y comoscd o| +nd +dm|n|stc|cd by womcn o|g+n|scd
+|ound +ct|v|t|cs |||c sm+|| sc+|c ||||g+t|on c|+|t |ndust|y +nd ot|c| sm+|| t|+dc so +s to gcnc|+tc
moncy t|cy usc to buy |ood +nd cnsu|c |ood sccu||ty ||s |unct|on g|vcs to womcn + |cy |o|c
|n t|c soc|cty cnsu||ng commun|ty |ood sccu||ty
9.6. Village development committee
V|||+gc dcvc|omcnt comm|ttcc |s t|c +ut|o||ty st+tu+t|ng +nd g|v|ng m+|n o||nct+t|ons |n
tc|mcs o| dcvc|omcnt +t commun|ty;v|||+gc |cvc| ||s comm|ttcc cons|sts o| commun|ty
|um+n |csou|ccs t|c c|dc|s |COs dcvc|omcnt +gcnc|cs ctc ||s comm|ttcc |+ys + |cy
|o|c |n t|c cvcnt o| |ood |nsccu||ty cscc|+||y w|cn |t comcs to sctt|ng |ood b+n|s +nd |n t|c
commun|tys |c|+t|ons|| w|t| cxtc|n+| +cto|s ||s comm|ttcc |s +|so |n c|+|gc o| d|st||but|on
o| |ood |c||| w|cn ncccss+|y
9.7. Village animation unit
|||c t|c +m+||+ t|c v|||+gc +n|m+t|on un|t |+ys t|c |o|c scns|t|s+t|on vu|g+||s+t|on
|n|o|m+t|on +nd t|+|n|ng |o| commun|ty mcmbc|s |n tc|ms o| commun|ty |ood sccu||ty t|c
+n|m+t|on un|t |ntc|vcncs |n t|c vu|g+||s+t|on o| s|o|t cyc|c +nd ||g| y|c|d c|o v+||ct|cs t|+|n|ng
on |+|m|ng mct|ods sust+|n+b|c |oduct|on |+cto|s w+tc| +nd |+nd usc
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
7!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
9.8. Water pond management committee
cmo|+|y o| c|m+ncnt w+tc| onds +|c |cy c|cmcnt o| commun|ty n+tu|+| c+|t+| bcc+usc
o| |ts |mo|t+ncc |o| ||||g+t|on |n |ts com|cmcnt+|y |o|c w|t| t|c uncc|t+|n |+|n |cd +g||cu|tu|c
bcc+usc o| c||m+tc c|+ngc |+|+d| |cg|on by |ts +g||cu|tu|c +nd ||vcstoc| voc+t|on cscc|+||y |n
t|c no|t| cxc||cnccs w+tc| +cccss d||||cu|t|cs |o| t|csc soc|o cconom|c +ct|v|t|cs du||ng t|c
cou|sc o| t|c yc+| |c |cg|on |+s 4c onds |nc|ud|ng t|c |+d+|oun|+ |+|c +||ow|ng ||||g+t|on
+nd ||s||ng |owcvc| on|y t|c |ou|||n |ou|+ ond t|c |+d+|oun|+ |+|c t|c |moundmcnt
o| |+||n \+d+ +nd t|c ^|+d+ncy ond +|c c|m+ncnt |n o|dc| to |nsu|c + concc|tcd w+tc|
|csou|cc m+n+gcmcnt +nd +vo|d con|||cts bctwccn usc|s (cscc|+||y +|tc| s|o|t +nnu+| |+|n|+||)
v|||+gc w+tc| ond m+n+gcmcnt comm|ttcc |s sct +nd |nvo|vcs m+ny v|||+gcs
9.9. Food Banks
|ood b+n| |s + |ood sccu||ty dcccnt|+||scd dcv|cc o|g+n|scd +nd m+n+gcd by |+|mc|s +t v|||+gc |cvc|
|t |s + |oc+| dcvc|omcnt too| w||c| +||ows +ssoc|+t|on +nd ou|+| +|t|c|+t|on |n t|c ||g|t +g+|nst
|ood |nsccu||ty |ood b+n| co||+tc +nd buy cc|c+|s stoc| +nd consc|vc t|cm +nd |csc|| t|cm +t
|cduccd ||ccs to |oc+| ou|+t|on du||ng sc+|cc c||ods so +s |nsu||ng v|||+gc |ood su|y +nd
sccu||ty |c |ood |s gcnc|+||y boug|t +|tc| |+|vcst ||om |oducc|s w|o m+dc |ood su||us us|ng
mcmbc|s s+v|ngs o| c|cd|ts ||om dcccnt|+||scd |und|ng systcms |ood b+n|s |oscct d|||c|cnt
sou|ccs o| |und|ng to co||cct cc|+|s +nd t|csc sou|ccs |nc|udc c|+ss|c+| ||n+nc|+| b+n|s m|c|o
||n+ncc |nst|tut|ons +nd dcvc|omcnt |o,ccts +nd |COs o||c||ng bcttc| c+|| |+tcs
9.10. Tontines (adach in Hausa)
|+|t|c|+nts |n + tont|nc comm|t to g|vc + |c-dc||ncd sommc o| moncy +t + dctc|m|ncd
||cucncy |o| cvc|y |ound o| |nst+||mcnt onc o| t|c +|t|c|+nts |s dcs|gn+tcd to bc t|c
bcn||c|+|y o| t|c moncy |n + |ot+t|vc tont|nc t|c bcn||c|+||cs +|c dcs|gn+tcd +t |+ndom bc|o|c
+ny +ymcnt o| wc|| +t t|c bcg|nn|ng o| t|c |occss |n + cumu|+t|vc tont|nc cont||but|ons +|c
not |cd|st||butcd to mcmbc|s but +ccumu|+tcd |n t|c tont|ncs +ccount unt|| t|c mcmbc|s
dcc|dc to s|+|c t|c |cm|tt+ncc |oo|t|on+||y to cvc|yoncs cont||but|on
ont|nc |s gcnc|+||y |o| womcn |c s+v|ngs +|c uscd to coc w|t| d||||cu|t s|tu+t|ons (|||c buy|ng
|ood |n c||scs c||od) o| s|m|y to dc+| w|t| d+y by d+y cxcnscs |n cumu|+t|vc tont|nc t|c
moncy cou|d bc |nvcstcd |n t|c |o|m o| c|cd|ts g|+ntcd to mcmbc|s w|t| |c|und cond|t|ons
co||cct|vc|y +g|ccd bc|o|c|+nd |c c|cd|ts c+n +|so sc|vc |o| ot|c| |ncomc gcnc|+t|ng +ct|v|t|cs
so +s to comcns+tc c||on|c +g||cu|tu|+| dc||c|ts
|ouss+ |+moud+
7z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
9.11. Resourceful women groups or Mata masu Dubara (MMD) in Hausa
|c ||| systcm cons|sts |n t|c c|c+t|on +nd +uto m+n+gcmcnt o| sm+|| s+v|ngs +ccount |n
v|||+gcs |c ||| c+n bc comoscd o| . to 40 mcmbc|s gg|v|ng |cgu|+| ||n+nc|+|
subsc||t|ons o| . to 1000 C|^ ||+ncs |||c t|c c+sc o| tont|nc ||| g|ou mcmbc|s +|c +|so
womcn +ssoc|+tcd +cco|d|ng to t|c|| c++c|ty to s+vc moncy ^|tc| m+ny wcc|s o| +ymcnts
t|c |cm|ttcncc |s g|vcn +s c|cd|ts to ||| g|ou mcmbc|s dccnd|ng on +g|ccd |+tc o| |ntc|cst
v+|y|ng ||om to 10` |c c|cd|t w||c| |s g|vcn |o| + s|o|t tc|m (+|ound onc mont|) |s m+dc
|o||t+b|c t||oug| |ncomc gcnc|+t|ng +ct|v|t|cs |c w|o|c |occss |s suo|tcd by + c++c|ty
bu||d|ng |o,cct (t|+|n|ng scns|t|s+t|on ctc) |o| t|c womcn by non govc|nmcnt+| o|g+n|s+t|ons
|c |ncomc gcnc|+t|ng +ct|v|t|cs sc|vc to cnsu|c + wc|| bc|ng |o| t|c womcn +nd t|c|| |+m|||cs
+nd +|c +n +|tc|n+t|vc ||vc|||ood |o| |+|n |cd +g||cu|tu|c
9.12. Self-help
||s +|t |cs |o|mcs |nst|tut|onnc||cs du c+|t+| soc|+| c|-dcssus cnumc|ccs |cncont|ccs
|+|+d| d+ut|cs mcc+n|smcs d+|dc mutuc||c cx|stcnt cnt|c |cs |nd|v|dus +u sc|n dc |+
commun+utc ^+|t ||om t|c +bovc |nst|tut|on+| |o|ms o| soc|+| c+|t+| |ound |n |+|+d| ot|c|
sc||-|c| mcc|+n|sms cx|st bctwccn |nd|v|du+|s w|t||n t|c commun|ty |csc mcc|+n|sms +|c
|m|cmcntcd w|cncvc| |ts ncccss+|y |n t|c cvcnt o| |ood |nsccu||ty t|csc mcc|+n|sms |nc|udc
|ood +|d g||ts subsc||t|on |o| t|c bcnc||t o| nccdy c|sons |nv|t+t|on to s|+|c |ood c|+||ty
cc|c+| |o+ns (|o| b+t|sms wcdd|ng cc|cmony dc+t| ctc) |o+ns o| moncy ctc
|n t||s mcc|+n|sm womcn +|c |+y|ng + |cy |o|c |cy |ov|dc |c| to t|c|| |usb+nds t|+n|s to
t|c|| |ncomc gcnc|+t|ng +ct|v|t|cs t|cy +|so |nvcst |o| t|c bcnc||t o| t|c cnt||c |ousc|o|d ctc
10. Conclusion and lessons learned
|ndc|st+nd|ng co|ng mcc|+n|sms undc|t+|cn by vu|nc|+b|c commun|t|cs |n |+|+d| s|ou|d
bc t|c cnt|y o|nt |o| +ny +d+t+t|on mc+su|c ||om govc|nmcnt o| non govc|nmcnt bod|cs
|+|mc|s |n |+|+d| |+vc +|w+ys cxc||cnccd c||m+tc v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngcs cvcn || t|cy d|d not
+|w+ys +d+t to t|csc c|+ngcs |n + sust+|n+b|c w+y ^dd|ng v+|ucs to commun|ty co|ng st|+tcg|cs
c+n sust+|n +d+t+t|on w||c| |s + |ong tc|m |occss +nd |ostc| +|o||+t|on by concc|ncd
commun|t|cs |t w+s su|||s|ng to scc t|+t |m|cmcnt+t|on o| +d+t+t|on +nd ot|c| co|ng
st|+tcg|cs by commun|t|cs |s o|tcn o| vc|y |ow cost |||CCC +nd ot|c| |ntc|n+t|on+| |COs
C||m+tc c|+ngc +d+t+t|on +nd |ood |nsccu||ty |n |+|+d| ||st||ct ||gc|
7!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
cst|m+tcd t|c cost o| +d+t+t|on |n dcvc|o|ng count||cs |t |s +|so |mo|t+nt |n + +|t|c|+to|y
m+nnc| to |c+| commun|t|cs c|scct|vc +nd cv+|u+tc t|c cost o| co|ng st|+tcg|cs
\|cn t|c|c |s |ood |nsccu||ty co|c m|g|+tc tcmo|+|||y ||om |+|+d| tow+|ds nc|g|bou||ng
\cst ^|||c+n count||cs |cc+usc o| c|m+ncnt c||m+t|c c|+ngcs t|cy tcnd to movc +nd sctt|c
c|m+ncnt|y |n count||cs |||c ||gc||+ |vo|y Co+st o| ||by+ |osc w|o m|g|+tc to ||by+ tcnd
to |c+c| |u|oc+n count||cs |cg+||y o| not |n +dd|t|on t|c |oot c+uscs o| m|g|+t|ons +|c t|c
un|c||+b|c cond|t|ons o| |oc+| ||vc|||oods bcc+usc |cccnt su|vcys |+vc s|own t|+t co|c m+y
|+vc not m|g|+tcd || mc+ns o| |||c wc|c +v+||+b|c |oc+||y
||s study dcmonst|+tcs t|+t +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc c|+ngc s|ou|d no |ongc| bc cons|dc|cd
on|y +s + |oc+| but + mu|t| |cvc| mu|t| sc+|c |occss |ndccd + |oc| undc|st+nd|ng +nd
|m|cmcnt+t|on o| +d+t+t|on st|+tcg|cs |oc+||y |cu||cs +n+|ys|s bot| +t commun|ty |cvc| +nd
+t ot|c| sc+|cs |n t||s c+sc |nc|ud|ng t|+ns-bound+|y w|c|c |cy d||vc|s occu| |n t||s cx+m|c
t|c const|uct|on o| + d+m +t ||by+ ust|c+m on t|c Cou|b| ||vc| w||c| ||ows ||om ||gc||+
to |+|+d| d|st||ct |n ||gc| mc+ns t|+t ||||g+t|on us|ng t|c Cou|b| ||vc| w+tc| +s +d+t+t|on
ot|on |n |+|+d| |cu||cs cooc|+t|on +nd d|+|oguc bctwccn dcc|s|on m+|c|s bot| |n ||gc| +nd
||gc||+ ||s |s |mo|t+nt to +vo|d m+|-+d+t+t|on |n |+|+d| +nd obv|+tc con|||cts +|ound usc o|
t|+ns-bound+|y ccosystcm |||c t|c Cou|b| o| |+|+d|
References
C|| |ntcg|+tcd ccosystcm m+n+gcmcnt o| t|+nsbound+|y +|c+s bctwccn ||gc| +nd ||gc||+ ^ugust .oo,
(||o,cct documcnt)
O||V||| || ^||^| || |||^|| ^|O| | Les pouvolrs locaux au Nlger omc + ^ |+ vc|||c dc |+
dcccnt|+||s+t|on ,ee .oo,
|O|^ |^ ^|O| |+moud+ ^d+t+t|on mct||cs |n t|c +g||cu|tu|c sccto| t|c ||+ycs cncg+|
c+sc |nv||onmcnt +nd |cvc|omcnt ^ct|on |n t|c !||d \o||d |n |||^-| ^|||c+n ||n|stc||+|
Con|c|cncc on t|c |nv||onmcnt |cct|ng o| t|c |xc|t C|ou +. |unc .oos co|ng |+c| |o|
|xc|t C|ou |cct|ng On C||m+tc C|+ngc ^d+t+t|on - |o|+nncsbu|g out| ^|||c+ ,o |+n
.oo, 1lempo Arrlque n . |cv||c| .oo, ccu||tc ^||mcnt+||c ct o||d+||tc ||son|vc| cm n:://
eoeeeoaaso/|c.aoeo:a:cos/eoc/.o^/ae/.o./.ooa'a/. |n bu||ct|n su| |c c||m+t
ct |c dcvc|ocmcnt
____ Strategy to romote lncluslon Ccndc| m+|g|n+||scd;||s+b|cd C|ous ynt|cs|s |||^ |O|
^|||c+^d+t ^ugust .oo, o,
|ouss+ |+moud+
74
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! !-4 ,u|-dcz .011
____ ^d+t+t|on +nd m|t|g+t|on t||oug| |oduccd cnv||onmcnts t|c c+sc |o| +g||cu|tu|c |ntcns|c+t|on
|n cncg+| lds bulletln vulnerablllty, adaptatlon and cllmate dlsasters v ,e n | Oct .oo,
|O|^ |^ ^|O| |+moud+ |O|^ || ^|| |^||^||^| ollcy paper on energy,
cllmate cbange and poverty allevlatlon - energy ln tbe natlonal adaptatlon programmes or
actlon |^|^s |n ^|||c+ ., Oct .oo,
ULvLLOMLN1 ANU CLlMA1L UAY Survlval at stake: \|+t |s nccdcd |n Cocn|+gcn |o| t|c most
vu|nc|+b|c |n |||||^|O|^| CO||||||C| +nd |||m |cst|v+| |un .oo, ||son|vc| cm n:://
...eoao.a:.nc/'oa/a.ao,ea/
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
Some historical reflections on the development of
a major semi-arid region: The Brazilian northeast
1
*
Stefan H. Robock
2
**
' ||cscnt+t|on +t t|c |||st |C|| |n |o|t+|cz+ |n 1.
'' | | C+|||ns ||o|csso| |mc||tus o| |ntc|n+t|on+| |us|ncss Co|umb|+ |n|vc|s|ty (|^)
Resumo
|stc t|+b+||o |o| +|cscnt+do c|o +uto| n+ ||mc||+
Con|c|cnc|+ |C|| cm 1. c |o| b+sc+do cm scu
cont+to cxtcns|vo c |ntcns|vo com o |o|dcstc c com
o cm|-+||do do ||+s|| ||c +|cscnt+ um+ c|scct|v+
||sto||c+ d+ cvo|uio d+s o||t|c+s ub||c+s +|+
o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do |o|dcstc c most|+ su+
|c|+io dc |ong+ d+t+ com o |ob|cm+ d+s scc+s
no c|+m+do o||gono d+s scc+s ||c dcsc|cvc o
dcscnvo|v|mcnto |nst|tuc|on+| c o |cdom|n|o d+s
|cocu+ocs ||d|+u||c+s du|+ntc m+|s dc um
sccu|o |os +nos c|nucnt+ do sccu|o XX um+
nov+ c|ccio |m|cou cm um u+d|o novo do
dcscnvo|v|mcnto |nst|tuc|on+| com + c||+io do
|+nco do |o|dcstc c d+ ||||| c um+ c|scct|v+
m+|s +m|+ dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto uc comcou + sc
conccnt|+| cm ucstocs dc bcm-cst+| cconom|co O
dcscnvo|v|mcnto dos |ccu|sos |um+nos c |css+|t+do
como um comoncntc c|+vc dc u+|uc| cst|+tcg|+
dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto ^ cxc||cnc|+ ||sto||c+ c
|und+mcnt+| +|+ o dcscn|o dc |utu|+s cst|+tcg|+s
dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto sustcnt+vc| +|+ o |o|dcstc
Abstract
's ae .as eseo:ea o, :ne aa:nc o :ne s:
|C|| Cco/eeo.e o ,,. aoa .as oasea co ns e\
:eos.e aoa o:eos.e .co:a.: .:n :ne `c:neas:
aoa :eoaa c/ 8a' |: eseo:s a ns:c.a' e
se.:.e c/ :ne e.c'a:co c/ ao'. c'.es /c :ne
ae.e'coeo: co :ne `c:neas: aoa snc.s :s 'co
:oe e'a:cosn .:n :ne co'eo c/ :ne acan:s
o :ne sc .a''ea acan: |c'co |: aes.oes :ne o
s::a:coa' ae.e'coeo: aoa :ne eacooao.e c/
:ne n,aaa'. .co.eos aao oce :nao a .eo:a,
|o :ne /:es c/ :ne .eo:a, a oe. e.e:co o
'ea a oe. os::a:coa' ae.e'coeo: /aoe.c
.:n :ne .ea:co c/ :ne 8ao c/ :ne `c:neas: aoa
c/ :J||`| aoa a ocaae ese.:.e c/ ae.e'c
oeo: :na: s:a:ea :c /c.as co e.coco. .e'/ae s
saes 'e ae.e'coeo: c/ naoao esca.es s eo
nasea as a e, .cocoeo: c/ ao, ae.e'coeo:
s:a:e, 'e ns:c.a' e\eeo.e s os:aoeo:a' o
:ne aeso c/ /a:ae sas:aoao'e ae.e'coeo: s:a:e
es /c :ne `c:neas:
tc|+n |oboc|
76
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduction
O|d +gc |+s + |cw v||tucs ^nd onc o| t|csc |s t|c +b|||ty to scc cvcnts w|t||n t|c contcxt o| +
|+t|c| |ong ||sto||c+| c|scct|vc On t|c b+s|s o| +|most 0 yc+|s o| |+m|||+||ty w|t| ||+z|| +nd
+|most 40 yc+|s o| c|osc cont+ct w|t| t|c |o|dcstc | dcc|dcd t|+t my most usc|u| cont||but|on to
t||s con|c|cncc m|g|t bc to |ov|dc somc ||sto||c+| c|scct|vc on t|c dcvc|omcnt cxc||cncc
o| onc m+,o| scm|-+||d |cg|on - t|c ||+z|||+n |o|dcstc
| |||st c+mc to ||+z|| +s + |+v+| O|||cc| du||ng \o||d \+| || +nd scnt + yc+| on +nt|subm+||nc
duty st+t|oncd most o| t|+t yc+| |n t|c |o|t|c+st +t t|c |+t+| +|| b+sc cn yc+|s |+tc| |n 14
w|cn | w+s C||c| |conom|st |o| t|c cnncsscc V+||cy ^ut|o||ty | +ccctcd +n |nv|t+t|on to sc|vc
+s + |n|tcd |+t|ons dcvc|omcnt +dv|sc| to t|c ncw|y c|c+tcd |+nco do |o|dcstc ^t t|+t t|mc
| scnt +not|c| .' yc+|s |n ||+z|| +ss|st|ng |n t|c cst+b||s|mcnt o| t|c ||| Ovc| t|c cnsu|ng
yc+|s | |+vc |ctu|ncd to ||+z|| on ||cucnt +nd cxtcndcd m|ss|ons to wo|| w|t| t|c |+nco do
|o|dcstc ||cct|ob|+s t|c +o ||+nc|sco V+||cy Comm|ss|on +nd ot|c| govc|nmcnt +gcnc|cs
|y +c+dcm|c c+|cc| |+s bccn +s + |o|csso| o| |ntc|n+t|on+| bus|ncss |nc|ud|ng +n +ss|gnmcnt
|n |c|,|ng C||n+ du||ng t|c 1c |cn+nm+n u+|c m+ss+c|c |ut | |+vc +|so cont|nucd my
cconom|c dcvc|omcnt c+|cc| w|t| tcc|n|c+| +ss|st+ncc +ss|gnmcnts |n ||+z|| +nd ot|c| count||cs
suc| +s |nd|+ +nd t|c ||||||ncs |us my o||cnt+t|on |s t|+t o| + dcvc|o|ncnt cconom|st |ut |
s|ou|d +|so notc t|+t my yc+|s w|t| t|c V^ cxoscd mc to cnv||onmcnt+| |ssucs |ong bc|o|c
t|c sub,cct bcc+mc ou|+|
2. Te Northeast Secas
u|n|ng now to t|c ||+z|||+n |o|dcstc +s + scm|-+||d |cg|on du||ng dcc+dcs +nd cvcn ccntu||cs
t|c |o|dcstc dcvc|omcnt |ob|cm w+s cxc|us|vc|y c|cc|vcd +s t|c c||od|c d|oug|t o| t|c
scc+s |c ub||s|cd |cco|d o| t|c scc+s gocs +s |+| b+c| +s 1o14 to t|c |co|ts o| + m|n|ng
|osccto| sc+|c||ng |o| cmc|+|ds |n t|c +n ||+nc|sco V+||cy |ut |t w+s not unt|| t|c scvc|c
d|oug|t o| 1c occu||cd t|+t t|c ||+z|||+n govc|nmcnt o|||c|+||y |ccogn|zcd t|c |o|t|c+st
keywords `c:neas: :eoaa |can: |c'co
|can: |c'., |ecoa' |e.e'coeo: :as:aoao'e
|e.e'coeo:
alavras-cbave |o|dcstc cm|+||do |o||gono d+s
cc+s |o||t|c+ dc cc+s |cscnvo|v|mcnto |cg|on+|
|cscnvo|v|mcnto ustcnt+vc|
omc ||sto||c+| |c||cct|ons on t|c dcvc|omcnt
o| + m+,o| scm|-+||d |cg|on |c ||+z|||+n no|t|c+st
77
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
scc+s +s + n+t|on+| |ob|cm |c 1c d|oug|t c+ug|t t|c |cg|on by su|||sc bcc+usc |t |o||owcd
t|||ty com|o|t|ng yc+|s o| +bund+nt |+|n|+|| |c m+gn|tudc +nd scvc||ty o| t||s c+|+m|ty |+s
bccn |cco|dcd |n t|c ||sto|y o| t|c scc+s w|t| cst|m+tcs o| |+|| + m||||on |n|+b|t+nts o| t|c st+tc
o| Cc+|+ c||s||ng ||om |ungc| t|||st +nd d|sc+sc
|ovcd by t||s g|c+t t|+gcdy |mc|o| |cd|o || cst+b|||s|cd + Comm|ss|on o| |nu||y w|osc
||nc|+| |ccommcnd+t|ons wc|c to |m|ovc t|+nso|t+t|on +nd to bu||d + sc||cs o| d+ms Onc
o| t|c t||cc d+ms |ccommcndcd w+s t|c Ccd|o d+m |n t|c mun|c|+||ty o| u|x+d+ t|+t w+s
st+|tcd |n 1cc4 +nd com|ctcd |n 10o .. yc+|s |+tc| +|tc| m+ny st+|ts +nd stos o m+ny
||+z|||+ns t|c d+m stood +s + symbo| o| |nc|||c|cncy +nd w+stc |n t|c ||g|t +g+|nst t|c d|oug|t
|n 10 + ncw |cdc|+| +gcncy t|c |nsccto||+ o| \o||s ^g+|nst t|c ||oug|t w+s cst+b||s|cd
\|t| s||g|t c|+ngcs |n n+mc t||s |cdc|+| +gcncy |cm+|ncd |n oc|+t|on unt|| |cccnt yc+|s |n
14 t|c |nsccto||+ bcc+mc + |c+|tmcnt (|nown by t|c +c|onym ||OC) +nd t|c 14o
Const|tut|on +||oc+tcd ! c|ccnt o| |cdc|+| t+x |cvcnucs |o| dc|cnsc +g+|nst t|c d|oug|t ||OC
+nd |ts |cdcccsso| +gcnc|cs |c|cscntcd + |ys|c+| o| |yd|+u||c st|+tcgy o| (1) const|uct|ng
wo||s t|+t wou|d |cvcnt o| m|n|m|zc t|c ||+gc||+t|on +nd (.) |ov|d|ng cmc|gcncy +ss|st+ncc
to t|c co|c o| t|c |cg|on du||ng |o|ongcd d|oug|t c||ods
|c |yd|+u||c so|ut|on |o| t|c |o|t|c+st |ob|cm t|+t w+s |o||owcd |o| mo|c t|+n + ccntu|y
|ocuscd on + bcttc| ut|||z+t|on o| t|c |yd|og|+||c b+s|ns o| t|c soc+||cd ||oug|t |o|ygon
Conscucnt|y + |+n w+s |c+|cd |n t|c 1.0s |o| m+||ng usc o| t|c v+||cys o| g|c+tcst |mo|t+ncc
to t|c |o|t|c+st cconomy t||oug| const|uct|on o| d+ms |o+ds ||||g+t|on c|+nnc|s +nd owc|
|+nts |c d+ms +nd |csc|vo||s wc|c |ntcndcd to |ov|dc su||+cc w+tc| sto|+gc ||om 10o to
1 10 ub||c|y owncd |csc|vo||s w|t| + c++c|ty o| oo b||||on cub|c mctc|s wc|c const|uctcd
+nd |und|cds o| sm+|| +nd mcd|um sto|+gc |csc|vo||s wc|c bu||t on + cooc|+t|vc b+s|s w|t| |+nd
ownc|s |o| us|ng undc|g|ound w+tc| ||OC bcg+n + wc|| d|||||ng |og|+m |n 10 +nd w|t||n
0 yc+|s d||||cd 1.4 wc||s +n +vc|+gc o| on|y 100 ncw wc||s c| yc+| |o| t|c |o|ygon
|xtcns|vc t|+nso|t+t|on +nd commun|c+t|on |+c|||t|cs wc|c bu||t by ||OC w||c| |+ycd +
s|gn|||c+nt |o|c |n t|c dcmog|+||c +nd cconom|c |ntcg|+t|on o| t|c |cg|on ^ |+|gc numbc|
o| sm+|| +||||c|ds wc|c bu||t |n t|c |cg|on +nd + m+,o| commun|c+t|ons systcm o| |+d|o st+t|ons
w+s cst+b||s|cd +nd oc|+tcd by ||OC |n cont|+st to t|c m+gn|tudc o| t|c w+tc| sto|+gc
+nd t|+nso|t+t|on +ccom||s|mcnts t|c ||||g+t|on |csu|ts wc|c sm+|| +s w+s +|so t|uc |o| +g|o-
|ndust||+| +nd |sc|cu|tu|+| |csc+|c|
tc|+n |oboc|
78
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
3. Te Failure or the Hydraulic Strategy
|n ||+z|| +s |n ot|c| count||cs |+|gc ub||c wo||s |og|+ms c+n bc v|t|+tcd by o||t|cs +nd ||dd|cd
by sc+nd+|s +|t|cu|+||y |n cmc|gcncy s|tu+t|ons ^nd muc| o| t|c c||t|c|sm +nd cv+|u+t|on
o| t|c ||OC +ct|v|t|cs |+s bccn |n tc|ms o| |nc|||c|cncy +nd |||cgu|+||t|cs |c|c w+s muc|
sc+nd+|| |o| cx+m|c conncctcd w|t| t|c 11 +nd 1c d|oug|ts - suc| +s t|c co||ut |+nd||ng
o| |unds +dd|ng o| +y|o||s |||cgu|+||t|cs |n d|st||but|on o| |c||c| goods +nd o||t|c+| |n||ucncc |n
t|c sc|cct|on o| |o,ccts |n |+ct t|c d|oug|t |+s |ong bccn +n |ntcg|+| +|t o| t|c o||t|c+| sty|c
o| t|c |o|t|c+st |o| dcc+dcs |o|dcst|no o||t|c|+ns b+scd t|c|| c|+|ms |o| |nc|c+scd n+t|on+|
+ttcnt|on +nd |csou|ccs on cx+ggc|+tcd |co|ts o| d|oug|t +nd |+m|nc ^mong m+ny ||+z|||+ns
t||s |cnomcnon |+s bccn |+bc|cd |c |ndust|y o| t|c ||oug|t |ut w|t| t|c dcvc|omcnt
o| +n cxtcns|vc t|+nso|t+t|on nctwo|| +nd |cscvo|| systcm by t|c 1o0s t|c scc+s |+d bccomc
|css + c||od o| |um+n su||c||ng +nd mo|c + o||t|c+| |cnomcnon
||om 1c unt|| t|c c+||y 10s o| |o| mo|c t|+n scvcn dcc+dcs t|c |yd|+u||c so|ut|on to
t|c |o|t|c+st |ob|cm |c|gncd +s t|c und|sutcd go+| o| |cdc|+| o||c|cs +nd +ct|ons |+c|
ncw d|oug|t c||s|s dcmonst|+tcd t|+t cxcns|vc d+ms +nd w+tc| sto|+gc |o,ccts |+d ||tt|c
|m|ovcd t|c cconom|c sccu||ty o| t|c |o|dcst|nos |ut t|c |+c| o| succcss w+s |nv+||+b|y
+sc||bcd to o||t|cs o| dc||c|cnt |m|cmcnt+t|on o| t|c b+s|c o||cy ||cucnt +nd |c+tcd
cont|ovc|s|cs |+gcd ovc| sub|ssucs suc| +s |+|gc vc|sus sm+|| |csc|vo||s +nd su||+cc vc|sus
undc|g|ound sto|+gc |ut t|c b+s|c |||oso|y o| ||g|t|ng t|c d|oug|t t||oug| w+tc|
consc|v+t|on |o,ccts c|s|stcd unc|+||cngcd
|und+mcnt+| c|+ngcs |n govc|nmcnt o||c|cs |cu||c mo|c t|+n t|c ++|cnt |+||u|c o| |ong-
cx|st|ng o||c|cs t|ong|y suo|tcd +|tc|n+t|vc so|ut|ons +|so |+vc to bc +v+||+b|c ^nd by t|c
c+||y 10s suc| +|tc|n+t|vcs wc|c cmc|g|ng |cw |dc+s +bout t|c cconom|c dcvc|omcnt |o|c
o| govc|nmcnt wc|c g|ow|ng |n st|cngt| +nd c|v+d|ng |ntc||cctu+| o||t|c+| +nd govc|nmcnt+|
c||c|cs ^s + countc| |o|cc to t|c |ongst+nd|ng |n||ucncc o| cng|ncc|s |n ||+z|||+n soc|cty tcc|n|cos
t|+|ncd |n cconom|cs bcg+n to ||ow ||om |cccnt|y cst+b||s|cd |+cu|t|cs o| cconom|cs ^nd +n
|nc|c+s|ng numbc| o| cxc||cnccd cng|ncc|s +nd |+wyc|s wc|c s|||t|ng t|c|| |o|css|on+| |ntc|csts
to cconom|c |ob|cms |us wncn +not|c| d|oug|t c||s|s occu||cd |n 11 +ccom+n|cd by t|c
usu+| o||t|c+| sc+nd+|s +nd ou|+| d|s|||us|onmcnt ncw |dc+s +nd suo|t|ng c|sonnc| wc|c
on |+nd to g+|n + bc+c|-|c+d |n t|c st|ugg|c to |cs|+c |cdc|+| o||cy tow+|d t|c |o|t|c+st
omc ||sto||c+| |c||cct|ons on t|c dcvc|omcnt
o| + m+,o| scm|-+||d |cg|on |c ||+z|||+n no|t|c+st
79
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
4. Te New Development Aproach
|c o||cy s|||t |o| t|c |o|t|c+st |csu|tcd ||om ncw |o|ccs +t t|c n+t|on+| |cvc| |+t|c| t|+n
||om st|mu|| o||g|n+t|ng |n t|c |cg|on Cctu||o V+|g+s won t|c |cs|dcnt|+| c|cct|on o| 10 +nd
w+s +|most |mmcd|+tc|y |+ccd w|t| t|c 11 |o|t|c+st d|oug|t c||s|s |o|+c|o |+|c| V+|g+s
||n|stc| o| ||n+ncc v|s|tcd t|c |o|t|c+st |n ^||| 11 to +ttcnd + con|c|cncc on cotton On
||s |ctu|n |+|c| scnt + notc to t|c |cs|dcnt suggcst|ng t|+t + scc|+||zcd c|cd|t |nst|tut|on
bc cst+b||s|cd |o| t|c |cg|on bcc+usc +s |c notcd t|c comb+t o| t|c scc+s t||oug| |+|gc
cng|ncc||ng wo||s |s |ut||c un|css +ccom+n|cd by stcs to st|cngt|cn t|c |cg|on+| cconomy
\|t| V+|g+s +|ov+| ||n|stc| |+|c| d|+|tcd + |+w |n m|d-11 to c|c+tc t|c |+n| o| t|c
|o|t|c+st +s + |cg|on+| c|cd|t +gcncy
|c|c cntc|s +not|c| |mo|t+nt ||sto||c+| |+cto V+|g+s |+d t||cc |o|dcst|nos +s |cs|dcnt|+|
+dv|sc|s - |omu|o dc ^|mc|d+ |csus o+|cs |c|c||+ +nd C|c+nt|o dc |+|v+ |c|tc - w|o wc|c
|nt|m+tc|y |nvo|vcd |n t|c ncw t||n||ng on cconom|c dcvc|omcnt |t w+s not su|||s|ng
t|c|c|o|c t|+t w|cn V+|g+s +s|cd t|c Cong|css to cst+b||s| t|c |+n| o| t|c |o|t|c+st t|c
|o,cct |+d bccn b|o+dcncd |nto + m+,o| |cg|on+| dcvc|omcnt |nst|tut|on w||c| wou|d |+vc
+ scc|+| st+|| |o| |cg|on+| cconom|c stud|cs +nd |+nn|ng - t|c |||| ^s V+|g+s st+tcd |n ||s
|cs|dcnt|+| mcss+gc |c t|t|c |tsc|| \o||s ^g+|nst t|c ||oug|t cx|csscs + ||m|t+t|on |ocus|ng
on t|c |ob|cm +bovc +|| ||om t|c +ng|c o| cng|ncc||ng wo||s |n t|c ||g|t o| +st cxc||cncc +nd
modc|n tcc|n|ucs o| |cg|on+| |+nn|ng |t |s t|mc |o| + dc||n|tc cconom|c +nd soc|+| d||cct|on to
bc |m|csscd uon t|c so|ut|on o| t|c |ob|cm
|c csscncc o| t|c ncw o||cy +|o+c| w+s to |ocus d||cct|y on cconom|c wc||+|c |ob|cms
|+t|c| t|+n on t|c |ys|c+| d|oug|t |cnomcnon |t cm|+s|zcd cconom|c dcvc|omcnt
|+nn|ng +nd +|gucd t|+t ||g|c| |cg|on+| |cvc|s o| |ncomc cm|oymcnt +nd |oduct|on +nd +
g|c+tc| dccndcncc on +ct|v|t|cs ot|c| t|+n +g||cu|tu|c +|c t|c bcst dc|cnscs +g+|nst t|c d|oug|t
|ts b+s|c st|+tcgy w+s to cncou|+gc +|| |cg|on+| oss|b|||t|cs |o| cconom|c g|owt| - m|n|ng +nd
m+nu|+ctu||ng +s wc|| +s +g||cu|tu|c t|c |um|d +|c+s +s wc|| +s t|c scm|-+||d |ntc||o| - +nd t|us
|nc|c+sc t|c |cs|st+ncc o| t|c |o|t|c+st to t|c c||od|c d|oug|ts +s t|cy occu|
|c |+n| o| t|c |o|t|c+st t|+t w+s bo|n out o| +n cconom|c c||s|s bcg+n |ts |||c |n t|c m|dst o|
+ o||t|c+| c||s|s On|y mont|s +|tc| t|c ||| bcg+n oc|+t|ons |n 14 ||cs|dcnt Cctu||o V+|g+s
comm|ttcd su|c|dc wo yc+|s o| o||t|c+| tu|mo|| |o||owcd |nc|ud|ng + c||od w|cn ||+z|| |+d t||cc
d|||c|cnt |cs|dcnts o| t|c |cub||c |n t||cc d+ys ^s t|c |c+d o| t|c ||| sc|vcd +t t|c |c+su|c o|
t|c ||cs|dcnt o| t|c |cub||c t|c |+n| +|so |+d t||cc d|||c|cnt |cs|dcnts bctwccn 14 +nd 1o
|cvc|t|c|css t|c ||| m+dc somc |og|css - cscc|+||y |n |c+||ng c|sonnc| |cg|on+|
|nst|tut|ons +nd ou|+| t||n||ng |o| t|c ncw dcvc|omcnt +|o+c| |t +|so |cssu|cd |uscc||no
tc|+n |oboc|
80
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
|ub|tsc|c| w|cn |c bcc+mc |cs|dcnt |n 1o to c|c+tc +n +gcncy to coo|d|n+tc +|| govc|nmcnt
dcvc|omcnt +ct|v|t|cs |n |o|t|c+st ||+z|| ^t t|c t|mc |ub|tsc|c|s |ntc|cst +nd cnc|g|cs wc|c
dcd|c+tcd to t|c const|uct|on o| t|c ncw |cdc|+| c+|t+| - ||+s|||+ |ut |c +ccctcd t|c |oos+|
w|t| m+,o| mod|||c+t|ons +nd cst+b||s|cd + \o|||ng C|ou |o| |o|t|c+st |cvc|omcnt |n t|c
|xccut|vc O|||cc o| t|c ||cs|dcncy |c \o|||ng C|ou |owcvc| |+d ||m|tcd +ut|o||ty +nd
uncc|t+|n ||n+nc|+| suo|t
\|cn +not|c| m+,o| d|oug|t occu||cd |n 1c +ccom+n|cd by +not|c| sc||cs o| ||OC |+||u|cs
+nd d|oug|t c+nd+|s t|c cconom|c dcvc|omcnt +|o+c| m+dc +not|c| m+,o| +dv+ncc
||cs|dcnt |ub|tsc|c| t|+ns|o|mcd t|c \o|||ng C|ou |nto + ncw st|ong +gcncy ||||| to |+n
+nd coo|d|n+tc +|| dcvc|omcnt c||o|ts |o| t|c |o|t|c+st ^nd |c n+mcd Cc|so |u|t+do w|o |+d
|cccnt|y |ctu|ncd to ||+z|| ||om ||s |n|tcd |+t|ons ,ob |n C|||c +s |c+d o| |||||
| w||| not t+|c t|c t|mc no| +ttcmt to summ+||zc +nd cv+|u+tc t|c succcsscs +nd |+||u|cs o| t|c
||| ||||| +nd ot|c| |nst|tut|ons |n |m|cmcnt|ng t|c ncw st|+tcgy ovc| t|c |+st t|||ty-
somc yc+|s |c|c +|c ot|c|s +t t||s con|c|cncc suc| +s ||s |ubcns V+z d+ Cost+ +nd |||son
|o|+nd+ bcttc| |c+|cd to do so
^ny cv+|u+t|on o| |cg|on+| |og|css |owcvc| must bc b+scd on + com+||son w|t| t|c |cv|ous
s|tu+t|on |n t||s |cg|on +nd |c|+tcd to t|c |||c|y |csu|ts o| + cont|nucd |yd|+u||c +|o+c| On
t||s b+s|s |m su|c t|+t +n ob,cct|vc cv+|u+t|on wou|d conc|udc t|+t t|c c|+ngc |n dcvc|omcnt
st|+tcgy |+s |csu|tcd |n s|gn|||c+nt |cg|on+| |og|css
5. Te Greatest Success: Investment In Human Resources
Onc mct|od o| cv+|u+t|on |s |n tc|ms o| obsc|v+b|c |ys|c+| |csu|ts |n t||s vc|n | |+vc o|tcn
commcntcd t|+t w|cn | +|||vcd |n |o|t+|cz+ |n t|c 10s t|c st|ccts (m+|n|y un+vcd) wc|c
c|owdcd w|t| don|cys +nd |o|sc-d|+wn c+|ts \|cn | |ctu|ncd |n t|c 1o0s t|c s+mc st|ccts
wc|c most|y +vcd +nd ||||cd w|t| |+mb|ctt+s (moto| scootc|s) \|cn | |ctu|ncd +g+|n |n t|c
10s t|c s+mc st|ccts wc|c c|oggcd w|t| sm+|| Vo||sw+gcns ^nd now wc scc +not|c| |cvc| o|
+utomob||c ou|cncc
|ut to my m|nd t|c g|c+t dcvc|omcnt succcss o| t|c |o|t|c+st |+s not bccn t|c c|c+t|on o|
|ys|c+| goods but t|c |css v|s|b|c scct+cu|+| dcvc|omcnt o| |um+n |csou|ccs \|cn | bcg+n
my +dv|so|y m|ss|on |n 14 t|c ||+z|||+n govc|nmcnt |+d |om|scd to |+vc onc o| mo|c ||+z|||+n
cconom|sts +v+||+b|c to +ss|st mc |ut +|tc| + mont| o| s|tt|ng +nd w+|t|ng |o| t||s comm|tmcnt to
bc |u|||||cd | |c+||zcd t|+t | w+s not go|ng to gct t|c |om|scd |c| +nd | bcg+n to undc|st+nd w|y
^t t|+t t|mc |n +|| o| ||+z|| t|c|c wc|c |css t|+n 10 c|sons w|t| t|c cu|v+|cnt o| + |+stc|s dcg|cc
omc ||sto||c+| |c||cct|ons on t|c dcvc|omcnt
o| + m+,o| scm|-+||d |cg|on |c ||+z|||+n no|t|c+st
8!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
|cvc| o| t|+|n|ng |n modc|n cconom|cs ^nd nonc o| t|c |cw t|+|ncd cconom|sts w+s w||||ng to |c+vc
||o (t|c t|cn c+|t+|) o| +o |+u|o to wo|| |n t|c d|st+nt |o|t|c+st |cy w+ntcd to bc u|c||y
+v+||+b|c |n t|c out| |n c+sc t|c ||cs|dcnt o| t|c |cub||c c+||cd on t|cm
|o|tun+tc|y out o| dcsc|+t|on wc dcc|dcd t|+t wc |+d to c|c+tc st+|| by st+|t|ng ou| own
t|+|n|ng |og|+m ||om |und|cds o| +||c+t|ons by |o|dcst|nos wc |cc|u|tcd .0 b||g|t young
co|c +nd |n|t|+tcd t|c |||st o| m+ny t|+|n|ng |og|+ms by t|c |+n| o| t|c |o|t|c+st |c ncxt
|ob|cm w+s t|c +bscncc o| |+c|||t|cs |n t|c |o|t|c+st suc| +s boo|s st+t|st|c+| |co|ts +nd
|o|csso|s |o| t|+|n|ng \c |+d to t+|c +|| o| t|c t|+|nccs to ||o |o| +bout |ou| mont|s to do
t|c t|+|n|ng | s+|d t|+t t||s s|tu+t|on w+s |o|tun+tc bcc+usc |t st+|tcd t|c ||| on + |+|gc +nd
cont|nu|ng |og|+m o| |nvcst|ng |n |um+n |csou|ccs t||oug| |ts own t|+|n|ng |og|+ms +nd by
scnd|ng cm|oyccs ovc|sc+s to |o|c|gn un|vc|s|t|cs
|c|c | must +y t||butc to + g|c+t |o|dcst|no |+u| |+|bos+ + |o|mc| govc|no| o| t|c st+tc
o| Cc+|+ \|cn |+u| |+|bos+ bcc+mc |cs|dcnt o| t|c ||| |n ||s w|sdom |c comm|ttcd t|c
|+n| to + m+,o| |og|+m |o| |nvcst|ng |n |um+n |csou|ccs t||oug| t|+|n|ng b+n| +nd |cg|on+|
c|sonnc| wo ot|c| |o|mc| |cs|dcnts o| t|c ||| - |ubcns Cost+ +nd |||son |o|+nd+ +|so
dcsc|vc |ccogn|t|on |o| |o|cc|u||y cont|nu|ng t||s t|+d|t|on
6. Sustainable Development and the Future
|ow |ct mc tu|n to t|c sub,cct o| sust+|n+b|c dcvc|omcnt |c concct o| sust+|n+b|c
dcvc|omcnt w|t| |ts |ocus on t|c u+||ty o| |||c +nd +vo|d|ng dctc||o|+t|on o| t|c cnv||onmcnt
|c|cscnts + s|gn|||c+nt +dv+ncc |n t|c cvo|ut|on o| dcvc|omcnt st|+tcg|cs On +n ||sto||c+|
notc | m|g|t mcnt|on t|+t |ntc|n+t|on+| concc|n +bout cconom|c +nd soc|+| dcvc|omcnt |+s +
|+t|c| s|o|t ||sto|y d+t|ng b+c| on|y to t|c c+||y 10s |c c|+||cngc now |s to m+|c oc|+t|on+|
+nd to |m|cmcnt t|c sust+|n+b|c dcvc|omcnt concct |+scd on t|c dcvc|omcnt cxc||cncc
o| t|c |o|t|c+st scvc|+| |cy +nd |ntc|-|c|+tcd c|cmcnts cmc|gc +s csscnt|+| |o| |m|cmcnt+t|on
6.1. 1o succeed ln cbanglng prevalllng pollcles and programs,
alternatlve strategles ln operatlonal and pragmatlc rorm must
be avallable.
|t |s not cnoug| to |ocus |+|gc|y o| cxc|us|vc|y on + ncg+t|vc +|o+c| o| c|+bo|+t|ng |n g|c+t dct+||
on t|c s|o|tcom|ngs +nd ||m|t+t|ons o| |cv+|||ng dcvc|omcnt c||o|ts ^s |s bc|ng cm|+s|zcd
+t t||s con|c|cncc muc| wo|| |cm+|ns |n t|+ns|+t|ng t|c sust+|n+b|c dcvc|omcnt gcnc|+||t|cs
|nto scc|||c +nd |c+s|b|c +ct|on |og|+ms
tc|+n |oboc|
8z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
6.2. le alternatlve strategles must go beyond envlronmental
rundamentallsm ror tbe sake or conservatlon.
wo |cy cconom|c conccts must bc |ccogn|zcd |n t|c |o|mu|+t|on o| st|+tcg|cs n+mc|y t|c
nccd |o| +||oc+t|ng sc+|cc |csou|ccs +nd t|c nccd to cons|dc| t|+dc-o||s |+c| |n my c+||y d+ys +t
t|c cnncsscc V+||cy ^ut|o||ty | wo||cd w|t| cnv||onmcnt+| cng|ncc|s w|o |n t|c|| cnt|us|+sm
|o| |csc|v|ng t|c w+tc| so|| +nd |o|cst |csou|ccs o| t|c |cg|on wou|d |+vc +||oc+tcd +|| o| ou|
|csou|ccs to t|c|| |og|+ms +t t|c cxcnsc o| ot|c| comct|ng dcm+nds +nd w|t|out cv+|u+t|ng
t|c t|+dc-o||s t|+t wc|c |nvo|vcd
6.3. le most lmportant element ln any development strategy ls
lnvestment ln buman resources.
| c+nnot ovc|st|css my bc||c| |n t|c +yo|| ||om wc|| concc|vcd |nvcstmcnt |n |um+n |csou|ccs
|c |+ct t|+t t||s con|c|cncc |s bc|ng |c|d |n |o|t|c+st ||+z|| |s +|most cc|t+|n|y + +yo|| ||om
t|c |+|-scc|ng |og|+ms o| t|c |+n| o| t|c |o|t|c+st +nd ot|c|s to |nvcst |c+v||y |n |um+n
|csou|ccs t|+tcg|cs |o| sust+|n+b|c dcvc|omcnt must bc |m|cmcntcd +nd suo|tcd by
co|c o| t|c |cg|on |us + |cg|on o| + count|y must |+vc +n +dcu+tc su|y o| co|c
w|o undc|st+nd t|c dcvc|omcnt |occss +nd |+vc t|c ncccss+|y |now|ow to |m|cmcnt
+|o||+tc st|+tcg|cs +nd sccu|c ou|+| suo|t
6.4. lere must be partlclpatlon ln tbe plannlng process by people and
lnstltutlons tbat are responslble ror tbe lmplementatlon
|u||ng t|c yc+|s | wo||cd +s +n +dv|sc| |n ||+z|| | +|w+ys |+d t|c ||+z|||+n st+|| |c+|c t|c
|co|ts +nd |nvcstmcnt |+ns | g+vc +dv|cc +nd d||cct|on but t|c cnd |oduct w+s t|+t o|
+ ||+z|||+n |y st|+tcgy w+s to bc su|c t|+t t|c co|c |csons|b|c |o| |m|cmcnt+t|on |+d
cont||butcd t|c|| |now|cdgc to t|c |+nn|ng |occss wc|c |+m|||+| w|t| t|c b+s|s |o| m+||ng t|c
+ct|on |ccommcnd+t|ons +nd comm|ttcc to t|c |oos+|s |us wc c||m|n+tcd + dcc|s|on g+
\|cn +n outs|dc| m+|cs |ccommcnd+t|ons t|c |m|cmcntc| |+s to m+|c +n cx||c|t dcc|s|on
to +ccct t|c outs|dc |ccommcnd+t|on |ut w|cn t|c |ccommcnd+t|on |+s t|c |m|cmcntc|s
n+mc on |t t|c dcc|s|on g+ |+s bccn c||m|n+tcd
6.5. le last element l wlll mentlon ls polltlcs
|n + dcmoc|+t|c count|y |||c ||+z|| o| t|c |n|tcd t+tcs t|c |mo|t+ncc o| o||t|cs |n t|c
|o|mu|+t|on +nd |m|cmcnt+t|on o| govc|nmcnt o||c|cs c+nnot bc ovc|cm|+s|zcd |n t|c
omc ||sto||c+| |c||cct|ons on t|c dcvc|omcnt
o| + m+,o| scm|-+||d |cg|on |c ||+z|||+n no|t|c+st
8!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! -c4 ,u|-dcz .011
|n|tcd t+tcs |o| cx+m|c wc +|c now |+v|ng + d||||cu|t t|mc |cduc|ng m|||t+|y cxcnd|tu|cs
dcs|tc t|c cnd o| t|c Co|d \+| Ou| cong|css|on+| |c|cscnt+t|vcs +|c |c|uct+nt to |cducc
cxcnd|tu|cs |o| m|||t+|y b+scs +nd dc|cnsc |ndust||cs t|+t cm|oy co|c |n t|c|| d|st||cts
| dont |+vc +ny c+sy +nswc|s |o| t|c o||t|c+| |ob|cm Onc must |oc t|+t t|c|c +|c o||t|c+|
|c+dc|s on t|c sccnc w|o t+|c + b|o+d |+t|c| t|+n +|oc||+| v|cw tow+|d soc|+| +nd cconom|c
wc||+|c otcnt|+|s +nd |+vc t|c cou|+gc +nd s||||s to |m|cmcnt sust+|n+b|c dcvc|omcnt |og|+ms
|n |ts c+||y d+ys t|c |+n| o| t|c |o|t|c+st w+s |o|tun+tc to |+vc suc| o||t|c|+ns +s |omu|o dc
^|mc|d+ +nd |+u| |+|bos+ +s |cs|dcnts |+u| |+|bos+ oncc cx|+|ncd to mc t|+t |c w+s +b|c to
|cs|st o||t|c+| |cssu|cs on t|c ||| bcc+usc ||s o||t|c+| cxc||cncc +s + govc|no| |+d t+ug|t
||m +bout +|| t|c o||t|c+| |oys
7. Conclusion
|n conc|us|on | w+nt to t|+n| t|c con|c|cncc o|g+n|zc|s |o| |nv|t|ng mc to +|t|c|+tc | +m
|ond o| ||+z|| +nd t|c |o|dcstc omct|mcs w|cn | sc+| |o|tugucsc co|c +s| mc || | +m +
||+z|||+n +nd | tc|| t|cm t|+t | +m + |o|dcst|no dc co|+io - + |o|dcst|no +t |c+|t |c |cg|on
st||| |+s too muc| ovc|ty |ut |c|+t|vc to |ts +st t|c |o|t|c+st |+s m+dc |m|css|vc cconom|c
+nd soc|+| |og|css ^s | |+vc v|s|tcd t|c |cg|on ovc| |cccnt dcc+dcs |vc sccn un+vcd st|ccts
bccomc +vcd cxtcns|vc |ous|ng bu||t ncw ,obs c|c+tcd ncw sc|oo|s +nd un|vc|s|t|cs st+|tcd
+nd +s | oncc to|d + css|m|st|c no|dcst|no o||t|c|+n cvcn t|c bcgg+|s on t|c st|cct |+vc
bccomc bcttc| d|csscd
^bovc +|| w|cn | scc t|c v+|u+b|c |c+dc|s|| |o|c t|+t somc o| my t|+|nccs +nd |o|mc| co||c+gucs
|n t|c |o|t|c+st +|c |+y|ng |n |og|+ms to |m|ovc t|c u+||ty o| |||c | |cc| c|son+||y |cw+|dcd
|o| t|c yc+|s +nd t|c cnc|gy | dcvotcd to t|c |o|t|c+st
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
Individual land tenure and the challenges of
sustainable land use and management in a
semi-arid region in China
Yongjun Zhao
1
*
' |ntc|n+t|on+| ^|||+ncc on |+nd cnu|c +nd ^dm|n|st|+t|on Groningen Centre for Law and Governance, Faculty of Law,
University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
Abstract
Cnoas aa' ae.e'coeo: c'., .:n a /c.as co
s:a:e'ea oa.aaa' 'aoa :eoae nas ,e: :c aaaess
:ne esso .na''eoes c/ aa' c.e:, aoa
oa:aa' esca.e ae:eca:co o seoaa ecos
|o.coaeo: .:n 'c.a' e.c'c.a' sc.a' aoa c':.a'
.coa:cos :ne .aeo: 'aoa :eoae s,s:eo nas /a'ea
:c c//e easao: o.eo:.es o /c''c.o c.eooeo:
c'.es |a:ne : nas .co:oa:ea :c so sc.a'
aoa c':.a' :eoscos ns .ase s:aa, s oasea co
a c.e:,s:.eo .cao:, :na: s e\eeo.o :ne
aa.a:co c/ sc' aa:, aoa oa:aa' asas:es o
`c:n Cnoa |: e\aooes :ne 'oaes oe:.eeo 'aoa
:eoae c.e:, aoa oa:aa' esca.e c.eoao.e
|: eonases nc. :ne 'c.a' easao:, e.e.es
:nese ssaes aoa s:a'es /c '.e'nccas |: aaes
:na: :ne aca:eoess c/ a 'aoa :eoae s,s:eo
.ao co', oe a.ne.ea / :ne /aoeo:ea oa:ae c/
:ne oa.aaa' :eoae .ao oe eaessea :ncan
ooc.a:.e os::a:coa' aesos |: .co:oa:es :c a
.:.a' aoaes:aoao c/ Cnoas aaao e/co
o, a:.a'a:o :ne oeea /c 'aoa :eoae a.es:,
Resumo
^ o||t|c+ dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto |u|+| d+ C||n+ com
um |oco n+ ossc |nd|v|du+| d+ tc||+ d|||g|d+ c|o
|st+do +|nd+ tcm uc cn||cnt+| os dcs+os |c-
mcntcs d+ ob|cz+ |u|+| c dcg|+d+io dos |ccu|-
sos n+tu|+|s cm |cg|ocs scm|+||d+s |ncong|ucntc
com +s cond|ocs cco|og|c+s |oc+|s soc|+|s c o||t|-
c+s o +tu+| s|stcm+ dc ossc d+ tc||+ nio |o| c++z
dc o|c|ccc| |nccnt|vos +os c+moncscs +|+ scgu||
+s o||t|c+s do govc|no |c|o cont|+||o tcm con-
t||bu|do +|+ c|csccntcs tcnsocs soc|+|s c o||t|c+s
|stc cstudo dc c+so c b+sc+do cm um mun|c||o
ob|c uc cst+ +|cscnt+ndo +g|+v+mcnto d+ +||-
dcz do so|o c dcs+st|cs n+tu|+|s no no|tc d+ C||n+
||c cx+m|n+ +s ||g+ocs cnt|c + ossc d+ tc||+ o-
b|cz+ c govc|n+n+ dos |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s ||c cn-
|+t|z+ como os c+moncscs |oc+|s c|ccbcm cst+s
ucstocs c |ut+m c|+ sob|cv|vcnc|+ ||c +|gumcn-
t+ uc + +dcu+io dc um s|stcm+ dc ossc d+ tc|-
|+ so odc sc| +|c+n+d+ sc + n+tu|cz+ ||+gmcnt+-
d+ d+ ossc |nd|v|du+| udc| sc| co|||g|d+ o| mc|o
dc dcscn|os |nst|tuc|on+|s |nov+do|cs Cont||bu|
ong,un z|+o
86
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduction
|+nd dcsc|t|||c+t|on |s onc o| t|c m+,o| cnv||onmcnt+| c|+||cngcs |o| t|c C||ncsc govc|nmcnt to
+c||cvc |ts sust+|ncd |+|d cconom|c g|owt| t||oug| t+c|||ng ovc|ty +nd unsust+|n+b|c n+tu|+|
|csou|cc usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt |n v+st |cg|ons cscc|+||y |n no|t|c|n C||n+ |t |s |n t||s |cg|on t|+t
dust sto|m |s +||cct|ng t|c c+|t+| |c|,|ng +nd ot|c| m+,o| c|t|cs |ust sto|m |s conccnt|+tcd
|n t|c +g|o-+sto|+| zonc |n t||s |cg|on w|c|c |+|m|+nd +nd g|+ss|+nd const|tutc t|c m+,o|
|+ndsc+c +ttc|ns undc| scm|-|um|d +nd scm|-+||d cond|t|ons |n t||s +|c+ dust sto|m |+s
occu||cd ||cucnt|y |o| |nst+ncc t|mcs |n .000 1! t|mcs |n .001 1 s+ndy d+ys |n .00. +nd 4
t|mcs |n .004 |us t|c m+n+gcmcnt o| |+nd dcsc|t|||c+t|on |+s bccomc + m+,o| cnv||onmcnt+|
+gcnd+ o| t|c govc|nmcnt (\^|C ct +| .00) ||s |cg|on |s +|so +mong t|c most not|cc+b|c
oncs t|+t |+vc cxc||cnccd s|+| |cduct|on o| cu|t|v+tcd |+nd (||| |O .00!)
C|ccn|ng t|c |cg|on t||oug| cco|og|c+| const|uct|on |s + m+,o| o||cy |n|t|+t|vc o| t|c ccnt|+|
govc|nmcnt to d|+st|c+||y |m|ovc t|c |u|+| cnv||onmcnt by cn|+nc|ng vcgct+t|on covc|
(||+ng .00o) |owcvc| t||s c||o|t |s scvc|c|y undc|m|ncd by t|c +dvc|sc c||ccts o| cconom|c
dcvc|omcnt on t|c n+tu|+| |csou|ccs +s most |c|o|m o||c|cs |+vc +ccc|c|+tcd |+t|c| t|+n
+vc|tcd |u|+| |+nd dcg|+d+t|on (||||^V|| 1 ^|||| 1 \||||^| 1o) ||on|c+||y
|t |s +|gucd t|+t |t |s t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnts +gg|css|vc c||o|ts to |m|ovc g|+ss|+nd +nd +stu|c
t|+t |+vc |csu|tcd |n t||s |+||u|c |o| t|cy d|s|cg+|d t|c cco|og|c+| |occsscs o| t|c d|y |cg|on |y
|ocus|ng on g|ccn|ng o| cu+t|ng cco|og|c+| const|uct|on w|t| |ntcns|vc |+nd-usc |+ct|ccs suc|
+ u|su|t o| s|o|t-tc|m g+|ns |+s not |cd to t|c +ccom||s|mcnt o| o||cy ob,cct|vcs +nd |+s mct
un|ntcndcd conscucnccs (||^|C .00o)
|u|t|c|mo|c t|c o|g+n|z+t|on o| cco|og|c+| const|uct|on |s |cd|c+tcd on |+nd tcnu|c |c|o|m
|n t|c ost-|c|o|m c|+ du||ng w||c| t|c |o|mc| communcs wc|c |c|+ccd by t|c |ousc|o|d
+|+ um+ com|ccnsio c||t|c+ d+ |c|o|m+ +g|+||+
d+ C||n+ +|t|cu|+ndo + ncccss|d+dc dc d|vc|s|d+dc
dc ossc d+ tc||+ uc s||v+ +o ob,cct|vo g|ob+| dc
uso c gcstio sustcnt+vc| d+ tc||+ c con|o|mc s+d|+s
|c|+ocs cnt|c o cst+do c os c+moncscs
alavras-cbave. |cg|mc dc cconom|+ |+m|||+|
com |csons+b|||d+dc ob|cz+ |c|+ocs dc tc||+
mud+n+ |nst|tuc|on+|
:na: se.es :ne c.ea'' ca' c/ sas:aoao'e 'aoa ase
aoa oaoaeoeo: aoa snaes scaoa s:a:eeasao:
e'a:cos
keywords. |ousc|o|d |csons|b|||ty systcm
c.e:, 'aoa e'a:cos os::a:coa' .naoe
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
87
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|csons|b|||ty ystcm (||) |n t|c c+||y 1c0s |c || +||ows |o| t|c d|st||but|on o| communc-
|c|d |+nd +nd |oduct|on |csou|ccs to |ousc|o|ds w|o +|c cnt|t|cd to usc t|c |csou|ccs |o| +
|ong c||od by |o||ow|ng t|c |u|cs o| govc|nmcnt w|||c |+nd ownc|s|| |csts w|t| t|c v|||+gc
co||cct|vc ^s + common |+ct|cc |+|m|+nd |s d|st||butcd +mong |ousc|o|ds +nd |cnc|ng o|
cnc|osu|c o| g|+ss|+nd |o| g|+ss |c|+b|||t+t|on +nd t|cc |+nt|ng |s t+|cn +s + |o|ound +|o+c|
to d|st||| t|c |nccnt|vcs o| t|c |ousc|o|dc|s |n t|c |occss undc| t|c +ssumt|on t|+t t|cy w|||
|+vc +m|c s+cc to cxc|c|sc t|c|| ||g|ts +nd g+|n d||cct bcnc||ts (||^|C .00o) o + cc|t+|n
cxtcnt |t |+s st|mu|+tcd c+s+nts |nccnt|vcs |n |oduct|on +nd t|us +g||cu|tu|+| dcvc|omcnt
^s + |csu|t unt|| t|c m|d-1c0s tot+| +g||cu|tu|+| outut g|cw by no |css t|+n 4 c|ccnt c| yc+|
(||^|C 1c) C||ncsc c+s+nts |+d cn,oycd g|c+tc| ||ccdom to sc|| su||uscs +|tc| |u||||||ng
ob||g+to|y g|+|n uot+s +s com+|cd w|t| t|c communc c|+
|owcvc| s|ncc 1c +g||cu|tu|+| g|owt| |+s s|owcd down by !c c|ccnt c| yc+| ^nd |u|+|
cnv||onmcnt+| dcg|+d+t|on +nd dc|ct|on o| n+tu|+| |csou|ccs |+vc m+dc m+ny oo| co|c |+||
b+c| to ovc|ty (|| ct +| .00) |+ny sc|o|+|s |o|d t|c +ssumt|on t|+t t|c |ct+|dcd g|owt| +nd
cont|nu|ng ovc|ty +|c c+uscd by t|c |+c| o| c|c+|-cut ||v+tc t|t|cs to |+nd +s |+|m|+nd ownc|s||
|cm+|ns w|t| t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc uc| + |o|m o| ownc|s|| |s o|tcn v|cwcd +s +mb|guous |n
||g|t o| t|c mount|ng cv|dcncc o| |||cg+| |+nd cx|o||+t|on |+nd con|||cts +nd mo|c |mo|t+nt|y
unsust+|n+b|c |+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt |u|t|c|mo|c co||cct|vc ownc|s|| obst|ucts t|c
dcvc|omcnt o| + |c+|t|y |u|+| |+nd m+||ct w||c| |s t|c |cy to t|c |c+||z+t|on o| cconom|cs o| sc+|cs
|n +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on +nd ovc|ty |cduct|on ||s two-t|c|cd |u|+| |+nd systcm t|+t comb|ncs
ub||c ownc|s|| w|t| ||v+tc |+nd usc ||g|ts |s +|so |onc to co||ut|on +nd |cnt scc||ng o| |oc+|
c||tcs o c+|t+||zc on t|c +dv+nt+gcs o| t|c cu||cnt || C||n+ wou|d nccd + mo|c |nd|v|du+||st|c
|nst|tut|on t|+t |+c|||t+tcs t|c dcvc|omcnt o| t|+d+b|c |+nd ||g|ts o| + |u|+| |+nd m+||ct undc| t|c
|u|c o| |+w (C^| .00! C||| .00 |^| 1 +|so scc |O .00 z|||^| .00)
||+m+|| (.004) +|gucs t|+t onc s|ou|d not ovc|cst|m+tc t|c |o|c o| || |n t|c C||ncsc +g||cu|tu|c
|+t|c| govc|nmcnt |ntc|vcnt|on tcc|no|og|c+| +dv+nccmcnt +nd n+tu|+| cond|t|ons |+vc
|+ycd + mo|c |mo|t+nt |o|c |c cu||cnt sm+||-s|zc |ousc|o|d |+|m|ng systcm |+s c+uscd
m+,o| |ob|cms |csc |nc|udc ||+gmcnt+t|on o| |+nd |+nd |ost to +t|s +nd bound+||cs +nd
con|||ct ovc| +cccss to ||||g+t|on systcms +mong v|||+gc g|ous |o|covc| |t m+|cs |+|gc-sc+|c
+g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on cxt|cmc|y d||||cu|t ^cccss to |+nd |+s not bccn t|c b+s|s |o| C||n+s
+g||cu|tu|+| |osc||ty |+nd |s v+|u+b|c bcc+usc o| ||cc suo|t |o| +g||cu|tu|c |+t|c| t|+n t|c
g|c+tc| c|||c|cncy o| sm+||-sc+|c |+|ms
|+ns|o|m|ng t|c || |nto mo|c |nd|v|du+||st|c |+nd tcnu|c m+y not |ov|dc + v|+b|c so|ut|on
^s |u (1 1) o|nts out t|c cu||cnt |+nd tcnu|c systcm |+s cncou|+gcd s|o|t-s|g|tcd
dcc|s|ons +nd |||csons|b|c usc o| |+nd |csou|ccs by t|c c+s+nts |c+s+nts u|suc |mmcd|+tc
+nd s|o|t-tc|m g+|ns +nd t||s |s cx+cc|b+tcd by |+nd ||+gmcnt+t|on |c |+ttc| |+mc|s
ong,un z|+o
88
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
||||g+t|on +nd d|+|n+gc +nd |c+ds to t|c dcg|+d+t|on o| C||n+s +g|o-cco|og|c+| cnv||onmcnt
|oc+| govc|nmcnts do not |unct|on c||cct|vc|y |n o|g+n|z|ng +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on +nd ovc|+||
|u|+| dcvc|omcnt duc to + |+c| o| |csou|ccs +nd dcmoc|+t|c govc|n+ncc On t|c onc |+nd t|c
|+c| o| |csou|ccs +nd good govc|n+ncc |+s ||ndc|cd t|c|| |o|c |n sust+|n+b|c |u|+| dcvc|omcnt
On t|c ot|c| |+nd s|ow +g||cu|tu|+| dcvc|omcnt |+s gcnc|+tcd |nsu|||c|cnt |csou|ccs |o| |oc+|
govc|nmcnts to dc||vc| b+s|c |u|+| sc|v|ccs +nd t|us w|n t|c suo|t o| t|c c+s+nt|y |o|covc|
t|c C||ncsc c+s+nt|y to + |+|gc cxtcnt |+s not bccn o|g+n|zcd |n + w+y t|+t t|c|| |+nd c+n bc
bcttc| ut|||zcd +nd m+n+gcd ^s + |csu|t t|cy |+vc not m+n+gcd to g+|n subst+nt|+| bcnc||ts
||om t|c|| |+nd cxcct |o| t|c u|osc o| subs|stcncc
|n scm|-+||d |cg|ons |n C||n+ |n +|y|ng t|c |nd|v|du+||st |+nd tcnu|c |c|o|m c|+|+ctc||zcd
by t|c || t|c govc|nmcnts go+| o| +vc|t|ng t|c t|+gcdy o| t|c commons (|^|||| 1oc)
|+s not bccn mct +s |t |s |ntc|wovcn w|t| com|cx cco|og|c+| soc|+| +nd o||t|c+| cond|t|ons
w||c| undc|||c t|c +|o||+tcncss o| + s|ng|c |+nd tcnu|c systcm |us t||s +c| c|+||cngcs
+ny |cconcc|vcd modc| o| |+nd tcnu|c w|t| +n +ttcmt to cx||c+tc |ts ||n|+gcs w|t| n+tu|+|
|csou|cc govc|n+ncc +nd |u|+| dcvc|omcnt |o|covc| |t +|ms to t||ow ||g|t on |ow t|c
|| +ctu+||y ||+gmcnts |u|+| soc|+| +nd o||t|c+| |c|+t|ons w||c| +|c |||+|s o| n+tu|+| |csou|cc
govc|n+ncc +nd |u|+| dcvc|omcnt
||+w|ng on t|c c+sc study o| + n+t|on+||y dcs|gn+tcd ovc|ty-st||c|cn county t||s +c| cx|o|cs
t|c undc||y|ng |nst|tut|on+| const|+|nts cscc|+||y concc|n|ng t|c c|+ng|ng |oc|ty ||g|ts
|nst|tut|ons +nd d|scusscs t|c m+,o| |t|+||s o| t|c || |n govc|n|ng t|c usc o| |+nd |csou|ccs
by t|c oo| w|osc ||vc|||oods |+vc bccomc mo|c vu|nc|+b|c to t|c dcg|+d+t|on o| t|csc
|csou|ccsg|+ss|+nd |o|cst|+nd +nd |+|m|+nd |t m+n||csts t|c ||n|+gcs o| c+s+nt ||vc|||oods
|+nd-|nduccd con|||cts +mong d|||c|cnt +cto|s +nd t|c|| contcst+t|ons ovc| |csou|cc ut|||z+t|on |t
cnds by |nd|c+t|ng t|c nccd |o| o||cy c|+ngcs to +||ow |o| c+s+nts co||cct|vc c|o|cc ovc| mo|c
+|o||+tc |+nd tcnu|c systcms t|+t cont||butc to sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc +nd ovc|ty +||cv|+t|on
|n scm|-+||d |cg|ons |n C||n+
2. Ecological conditions, poverty and agricultural policy response
||s c+sc study |s b+scd on t|c ||c|dwo|| conductcd |n Cuyu+n County |cbc| ||ov|ncc |n
.00c |c |csc+|c| mct|ods wc|c m+|n|y u+||t+t|vc +s |t w+s cxt|cmc|y d||||cu|t to g+t|c| d+t+
||om |ousc|o|d su|vcy +nd sc+nt d+t+ ub||s|cd | uscd +|t|c|+nt obsc|v+t|on +s t|c most
c||cct|vc too| o| |csc+|c| +s |t cn+b|cd mc to gct c|osc| to t|c |ntc|v|cwccs +nd |c+|n +bout
t|c|| ||vc|||oods +nd |+nd usc |+ct|ccs |ut most o| t|c |ntc|v|cwccs wc|c |c|uct+nt to sc+|
g|vcn t|c scns|t|v|ty o| t|c |csc+|c| to|c | m+n+gcd to g+t|c| t|c v|cws o| !0 |n|o|m+nts ||om
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
89
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
county +nd towns|| govc|nmcnts +nd |oc+| c+s+nts |n c v|||+gcs o| s||g|t|y d|||c|cnt cconom|c
+nd n+tu|+| cond|t|ons |c ||c|d |csu|ts wc|c su|cmcntcd by govc|nmcnt ub||s|cd +nd
unub||s|cd |co|ts +nd o||cy documcnts
1

|c mount+|nous Cuyu+n County |+s + tot+| +|c+ o| !o4 su+|c |||omct|cs +nd + ou|+t|on
o| .!0000 |n 1.4 v|||+gcs |t |s s|tu+tcd to t|c no|t|wcst o| |c|,|ngt|c c+|t+| o| C||n+ (,ust 400
|||omct|cs ++|t) +nd |n t|c sout|c+st o| t|c |nnc| |ongo||+ ^utonomous |cg|on (scc |+)
|c county +|so |+||s w|t||n t|c cco|og|c+||y-st|+tcg|c |cg|on undc| t|c ||cc |o|t| |c|tc|bc|t
||og|+mmc t|+t |s to |otcct C||n+s scm|-+||d +nd +||d |+nd ||om dcg|+d+t|on |c C||ncsc
govc|nmcnt st+|tcd t||s |og|+mmc |n 1c +nd |+nncd to scnd 40 b||||on u+n (1 | |o||+|
= oc u+n) ovc| 0 yc+|s to c|c+tc ! m||||on |cct+|cs o| |um+n-m+dc |o|cst |c||+s +s t|c
|+|gcst govc|nmcnt |o,cct to |c-cng|ncc| t|c |u|+| |+ndsc+c (||^|C .00o 11!) t|c |og+mmc
|s +|so +|mcd +t |cvcnt|ng s+nd sto|ms ||om cntc||ng t|c |nnc| |cg|ons suc| +s |c|,|ng ^vc|+gc
|cc||t+t|on |cm+|ns !.! mm (\^|C ct +| .00 .40!) ^s + |csu|t t|c s|o|t+gc o| w+tc| |s + m+,o|
t||c+t to |+|m|ng |cbc| togct|c| w|t| ot|c| |ov|nccs |n |o|t| C||n+ |oduccs +|most . c|ccnt
o| C||n+s tot+| +g||cu|tu|+| outut +|t|oug| |t |+s +t |ts d|sos+| on|y c|ccnt o| t|c countys w+tc|
|csou|ccs ||||g+t|on |s cxtcns|vc|y uscd |n +g||cu|tu|c (|^||| ct +| .00 1!) |o|covc| |+|gc +|t o|
|ts so|| |s covc|cd w|t| s+|sc vcgct+t|on +s + |csu|t o| s+||n|z+t|on +nd +||+||z+t|on (\^|C ct +| .00)
+|t|oug| |+|gc t|+cts o| g|+ss|+nd +nd |o|csts s|c+d out |n cc|t+|n +|ts
Map ! Cuyu+n County |cbc| ||ov|ncc C||n+
Cuyu+n |s ||g||y |onc to n+tu|+| d|s+stc|s t|+t +||cct +n +vc|+gc o| !0 c|ccnt o| t|c |+|m|+nd
||oug|t occu|s +|most cvc|y yc+| w||c| c+uscs muc| d+m+gc to t|c |+|m|+nd ||s d+m+gc |s
cx+cc|b+tcd by t|c cont|nuous |cduct|on o| +nnu+| |cc||t+t|on |+tc +s + |csu|t |oc+| c+s+nts
|+vc to |nc|c+sc t|c|| |c||+ncc on ||||g+t|on |o| |+|m|ng |conom|c dcvc|omcnt |+s c+uscd
1 |+mcs o| |ntc|v|cwccs v|||+gcs +nd |oc+| govc|nmcnt dc+|tmcnts +|c om|ttcd
ong,un z|+o
90
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
t|c |nc|c+s|ng |oss o| |+|m|+nd |+nd dcg|+d+t|on |oss o| g|+ss|+nd +nd |o|csts ^cco|d|ng|y t|c
n+tu|+| |csou|cc b+sc cscc|+||y so|| |c|t|||ty +nd g|oundw+tc| |cvc| |+s dcc||ncd d|+m+t|c+||y |c
|oc+| cconomy |s const|+|ncd by unsust+|n+b|c n+tu|+| |csou|ccs usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt |oo|
+cccss to ub||c |n||+st|uctu|c +nd tcc|n|c+| sc|v|ccs |+s |cc|udcd m+ny c+s+nts u|su|t o|
bcttc| |+|m|ng +nd m+||ct|ng o| t|c|| |oducc (C||^| CO|| COV|||||| .00! )
|c county |c+tu|cs + comb|ncd cconomy o| cu|t|v+tcd |+|m|ng +n|m+| |usb+nd|y +nd tou||sm
w|||c t|c |cscncc o| |ndust||cs |cm+|ns m|n|m+| duc to |ts v+||ous n+tu|+| +nd |n||+st|uctu|+|
const|+|nts \|t| +n +vc|+gc o| 04! |+ o| +|+b|c |+nd c| c+|t+ |t |+s bccn + n+t|on+||y
dcs|gn+tcd ||o||ty oo| county s|ncc 14 ^ tot+| o| 1.4 v|||+gcs w|t| + ou|+t|on o| !0o
o| ovc| 40 c|ccnt o| t|c tot+| ou|+t|on o| t|c county +|c t+|gctcd |o| ovc|ty +||cv|+t|on
|cs|tc t|c |og|css m+dc cscc|+||y |n t|c |omot|on o| |+|gc-sc+|c vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng s|ncc
1c t|c|c +|c st||| co00 co|c ||v|ng on +n +vc|+gc +nnu+| nct |ncomc |n t|c |cg|on o| 100 |
|o||+|s |ovc|ty |cduct|on cont|nucs to bc + m+,o| t+s| o| t|c county govc|nmcnt (C||^|
CO|| |OV|| ^|||V|^|O| O|||C| .00)
o +dd|css ovc|ty s|ncc 1c t|c county govc|nmcnt |+s sc+||c+dcd t|c dcvc|omcnt o|
+g||bus|ncss cntc|||scs on t|c +ssumt|on t|+t t||s t|+,ccto|y wou|d cn+b|c d|||c|cnt v|||+gcs to
dcvc|o t|c|| cconom|cs o| sc+|cs ^n|m+| |usb+nd|y +nd vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng |+vc bccn |omotcd
+s t|c two most |mo|t+nt cntc|||scs |o| ovc|ty |cduct|on |t |+s bccomc + wc||-|nown |cg|on
|o| su|y|ng m||| bcc| +nd vcgct+b|cs to ot|c| +|ts o| t|c count|y cscc|+||y t|c |o|t| |n .00
|o| cx+m|c c0 c|ccnt o| t|c v|||+gcs o| 40 c|ccnt o| t|c ou|+t|on wc|c |nvo|vcd |n vcgct+b|c
|+|m|ng w||c| occu|cd 1 c|ccnt o| t|c +|+b|c |+nd ||| now t||s sccto| |+s |cm+|ncd t|c most
|mo|t+nt sccto| |n +g||cu|tu|+| dcvc|omcnt (C||^| |OV|| ^|||V|^|O| O|||C| .00)
|owcvc| bc|o|c 1c c+s| c|o |+|m|ng |n t|c county w+s not m+|nst|c+mcd |nstc+d
t|+d|t|on+| c|os suc| +s o+ts +nd ||+x wc|c w|dc|y |+ntcd |o| bot| domcst|c usc +nd t|c
m+||ct +|t|oug| |o||ts |o| t|c c+s+nts wc|c m|n|m+| |csc c|os +|c st||| |+ntcd tod+y
on |c|+t|vc|y sm+|| sc+|cs but t|cy +|c not +s |o||t+b|c +s vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng |+|+dox|c+||y
t|cy +|c mo|c d|oug|t |cs|st+nt t|+n vcgct+b|cs |c |nt|oduct|on o| vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng by
t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt +s +n +|tc|n+t|vc w+s +ssumcd to bc + u|c| ||x to |o|ongcd ovc|ty
yct t|c cxtcnt to w||c| ovc|ty |+s bccn |cduccd |s ||m|tcd \|||c c+s+nts s|||tcd t|c||
t|+d|t|on+| |+|m|ng to t|c modc|n |o|ms t|c m+,o||ty o| t|cm |+vc not bcnc||tcd ||om
t||s sw|tc| |+tu|+| d|s+stc|s w+tc| s|o|t+gc +nd + |+c| o| co||cct|vc o|g+n|z+t|on o| |+|m|ng
const|+|n c+s+nts c||o|ts |n m+x|m|z|ng |+|m|ng c|||c|cncy +nd m+||ct +cccss |ot| t|c
county govc|nmcnt +nd t|c c+s+nts |+vc vo|ccd t|c|| concc|ns +bout t|c sust+|n+b|||ty
o| t|c cu||cnt |+|m|ng mct|ods |n ||g|t o| t|csc c|+||cngcs ^bovc +|| c+s+nts |+c| o|
|n|o|m+t|on on t|c m+||ct c|o|cc ovc| |+|m|ng +nd o||-|+|m|ng cm|oymcnt oo|tun|t|cs
|+s |u|t|c| com||c+tcd t|c|| d||||cu|t ||vc|||oods
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
9!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
3. Changing land relations: from mutual help to conicts
|ndc|st+nd|ng t|c ||sto|y o| |+nd tcnu|c |c|o|m |n t||s county |s |mo|t+nt to t|c +n+|ys|s o| t|c
c|+ng|ng |+nd |c|+t|ons w||c| +|c ccnt|+| to |u|+| dcvc|omcnt +nd v|||+gc govc|n+ncc |c|o|c 14
most +g||cu|tu|+| |+nd |n Cuyu+n County w+s owncd by |+nd|o|ds ||c| c+s+nts +nd mc|c|+nts
O|d|n+|y c+s+nts owncd ||tt|c o| no |+nd +t +|| On|y + sm+|| numbc| o| oo| c+s+nts m+n+gcd
to bccomc sm+|||o|dc|s +|tc| m+ny yc+|s o| |+|d wo|| +nd s+v|ngs |c |+t|o o| |+nd occu+t|on
bctwccn t|c ||c| +nd oo| w+s nc+||y c1+n |nd|c+to| o| + ||g| |cvc| o| soc|+| +nd cconom|c
|ncu+||ty |c m+,o||ty o| t|c c+s+nts m+|nt+|ncd t|c|| ||vc|||oods t||oug| |cnt|ng t|c |+nd o|
t|c |+nd|o|ds +nd ot|c| ||c| c+s+nts ^nd |+nd t|+ns+ct|ons too| d|||c|cnt |o|ms w||c| |nc|udcd
|+nd |c+scs s+|cs mo|tg+gcs +nd t|c ||||ng o| |+|m |+bou|c|s by |+ndownc|s
|c |+nd |cvo|ut|on |cd by t|c Commun|st |+|ty c+||cd |o| t|c +bo||t|on o| t|c cx|o|t|vc |cud+|
|+nd |c|+t|ons w|t| + v|cw to un|t|ng t|c oo| c+s+nt|y to ovc|t||ow t|c |+t|on+||st govc|nmcnt
|+ny |+nd|o|ds |+ndcd |oc|t|cs wc|c con||sc+tcd +nd |cd|st||butcd to t|c oo| c+s+nts |c
v|cto|y o| t||s |cvo|ut|on |+ccd +n |mmcd|+tc c|+||cngc |o| +g||cu|tu|+| dcvc|omcnt s|ncc |t w+s +
d|+st|c |occss o| scvc||ng t|c o|d |oduct|vc |c|+t|ons |c c+s+nts w|t| |cd|st||butcd |+nd cou|d
|+|d|y coc w|t| t|c s|o|t+gc o| |+bou| ||vcstoc| +nd m+c||nc|y w||c| wc|c +|| csscnt|+| to c|||c|cnt
|+|m|ng |c+s+nt cooc|+t|on bcc+mc + ncccss+|y |nst|tut|on to dc+| w|t| t|csc |ob|cms ^|tc|
10 m+ny tcmo|+|y +nd yc+|-|ound mutu+| |c| g|ous wc|c cst+b||s|cd b+scd on vo|unt+|y
||nc||cs |csc g|ous w|t| v+|y|ng numbc|s o| +|t|c|+nt |ousc|o|ds |+ycd +n |mo|t+nt |o|c
|n o||sctt|ng t|c s|o|t+gc o| |um+n +nd tcc|n|c+| c+|t+| t||oug| t|c cxc|+ngc o| |+bou| ||vcstoc|
+nd m+c||nc|y |u||ng t||s c||od t|c numbc| o| t|c mutu+| |c| g|ous |nc|c+scd subst+nt|+||y
|o| |nst+ncc |n 10 on|y .c c|ccnt o| t|c |ousc|o|ds wc|c |nvo|vcd but |n 14 t||s numbc|
|c+c|cd c1 c|ccnt (C||^| CO|| COV|||||| .00! 1)
|c cst+b||s|mcnt o| c+s+nt |oduct|on o|g+n|z+t|ons wou|d not |+vc bccn c+sy w|t|out
govc|nmcnt dom|n+ncc +nd |ntc|vcnt|on |c|| t|+ns|o|m+t|on wcnt t||oug| t||cc st+gcs
^t t|c |||st st+gc |n 1. ||m+|y +g||cu|tu|+| cooc|+t|vcs wc|c ||otcd +nd |o||cd out to
t|c w|o|c county |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds |cm+|ncd +s t|c |+ndownc|s but +|so +s cooc|+t|vc
mcmbc|s w|o |ccc|vcd t|c bcnc||ts b+scd on t|c|| |+bou| cont||but|on |+nd usc m+n+gcmcnt
+nd +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on wc|c +|| +||+ngcd by t|c cooc|+t|vcs ^t t|c sccond st+gc st+|tcd
|n 1o t|c ||m+|y cooc|+t|vcs +nd c+|||c| cst+b||s|cd mutu+| |c| g|ous wc|c t|+ns|o|mcd
|nto +dv+nccd +g||cu|tu|+| cooc|+t|vcs Co||cct|vc |+ndownc|s|| |c|+ccd t|c o|d ||v+tc
ownc|s|| ^|| c+s+nt |ousc|o|ds +utom+t|c+||y bcc+mc mcmbc|s o| t|c cooc|+t|vcs w||c|
+||+ngcd |+|m|ng +nd d|st||butcd |oduct|on m+tc||+|s to t|c mcmbc|s ^t t|c t|||d st+gc
t|csc cooc|+t|vcs wc|c t|+ns|o|mcd |nto communcs + |+|gc| |nst|tut|on t|+t d|s|+ycd mo|c
|c+tu|cs o| co||cct|vc ownc|s|| o| |+ndcd |csou|ccs t|+n t|c |cv|ous |cg|mcs |ndc|sco|cd by
ong,un z|+o
9z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
+ ||g|-|cvc| o| |+nn|ng +nd bu|c+uc|+cy t|c communc u|c||y s|owcd |ts |nc||cct|vcncss |n
|+|m|ng o|g+n|z+t|on +nd |u|+| dcvc|omcnt |c |oc+| govc|nmcnt +ttcmtcd to |m|ovc |ts
c|||c|cncy but |t d|d not |ov|dc |nccnt|vcs to t|c mcmbc|s to st|mu|+tc +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on
ct t||s |+||u|c d|d not |u||y ||c |n t|c communc |tsc|| |c Cu|tu|+| |cvo|ut|on (1oo-1o) +s
c|+|+ctc||zcd by ||c|cc o||t|c+| st|ugg|cs cont||butcd to t|c dcst|uct|on o| soc|+| +nd cconom|c
|c|+t|ons +t +|| |cvc|s w||c| obst|uctcd +nd d|d not |c+vc s+cc |o| |u|t|c| dcvc|omcnt o| t|c
communc (C||^| CO|| COV|||||| .00!)
|c |+nd |c|o|m +gcnd+ |cd by t|c Commun|st |+|ty +c|oss C||n+ m+||s + |und+mcnt+| s|||t
||om ||v+tc |+ndownc|s|| to co||cct|vc ownc|s|| t|+t |s cont|nucd to t||s d+y to m+|nt+|n
t|c cg+||t+||+n ||nc||c Onc c+n |ob+b|y +|guc t|+t t|c co||cct|vc |nst|tut|on m+||s t|c
w+tc|s|cd o| t|c Commun|sts o||cy ||om t|c |+t|on+||st |cg|mc ^s \ong (1!) o|nts out
w|cn t|c Commun|st |+|ty c+mc to owc| |ts 10 ^g|+||+n |c|o|m |+w cont+|ncd no m+,o|
o||cy |nnov+t|on bcc+usc +|| t|c |mo|t+nt |ssucs |+d +||c+dy bccn t||cd out by |ts |cdcccsso|
cscc|+||y t|c |oundc| o| t|c |+t|on+||st |+|tyun +t-scn uns ovc|+|| |og|+mmc |o|
cu+||z+t|on o| |+nd ownc|s|| +nd t|c cont|o| o| c+|t+| w+s |o||owcd by t|c Commun|sts
w|o uscd t|c communc +s +n +|tc|n+t|vc to +c||cvc s|m||+| ob,cct|vcs
|n Cuyu+n County t|c || w+s |||st |nt|oduccd |n 1 |n ||ot v|||+gcs w|t| g|c+t d||||cu|t|cs |m||+|
to t|c |c+||z+t|on o| t|c |cv|ous o||c|cs on t|c modc|s o| cooc|+t|vcs +nd communcs |ts +dot|on
w+s t||oug| st|ong +dm|n|st|+t|vc mc+su|cs w|t|out |u|| c+s+nt conscnt |+nd |+bou| ||vcstoc|
+nd m+c||nc|y wc|c +||oc+tcd to |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds t|+t wc|c g|vcn t|c |csons|b|||ty to mcct
|oduct|on +nd ot|c| cconom|c uot+ +nd t+x sct by t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt w|||c |cc|ng t|c |cs|duc
|o| t|cmsc|vcs On t|c +ssumt|on t|+t t|c || wou|d |ov|dc t|c c+s+nts w|t| mo|c |nccnt|vcs
to cu|t|v+tc t|c|| |+nd |ts outcomc |+s not bccn |om|ncnt |n ||g|t o| ovc|ty +nd n+tu|+| |csou|ccs
dcg|+d+t|on |o|covc| t|c || ||om t|c vc|y bcg|nn|ng cu|t|v+tcd t|c sccds o| |ncu+||ty +s |+|gc
|+|ms wc|c |c+scd to t|c so-c+||cd c++b|c |ousc|o|ds |u||ng t|c 10s +nd 1c0s t|csc |+|ms
wc|c |un w|t| + |ugc |oss o| |o||ts +nd |oc|ty duc to m|sm+n+gcmcnt +nd wc+| govc|n+ncc
|cy wc|c |ctu|ncd to t|c m+n+gcmcnt o| t|c co||cct|vc |n 1! t|c w|o|c county |o||owcd t|c
c+|| o| t|c ccnt|+| govc|nmcnt to st+b|||zc +nd |m|ovc |+|m|+nd cont|+ct|ng |c|+t|ons by g|+nt|ng
!0 yc+|s o| |+nd usc ||g|ts to t|c |ousc|o|ds ^nd |n 1 + sccond |ound o| |+|m|+nd |c+s|ng w+s
c+|||cd out w|t| + v|cw to c|+|||y|ng +nd documcnt|ng |+nd cont|+ct|ng ||g|ts +nd |m|ov|ng |+nd
tcnu|c sccu||ty |c |+ttc| w+s +ssumcd to bc |mo|t+nt to st+b|||zc |+nd |c|+t|ons +nd cncou|+gc
|+nd usc ||g|ts t|+ns|c|s +mong t|c |ousc|o|ds +s somc o| t|cm wou|d |c|c| |c+s|ng t|c|| |+nd
to ot|c|s w|||c undc|t+||ng o||-|+|m cm|oymcnt (C||^| CO|| COV|||||| .00!)
|n s|o|t t|c cg+||t+||+n ||nc||c +nd |+ct|cc concc|n|ng +g||cu|tu|c g|+du+||y |cccdcd w|t| t|c
|nt|oduct|on o| t|c || w|osc +||gnmcnt w|t| st+tc o||c|cs on +g||cu|tu|+| outut to bc mct by
|ousc|o|ds docs not +|w+ys su|t c+s+nts nccds |o| ||vc|||oods +nd soc|+| sc|v|ccs (C|^|C 14)
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
9!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|c |+ct|cc o| |+|m|+nd |c+s|ng u|c||y t||ggc|cd |+nd con|||cts +mong cont|+cto|s v|||+gc
co||cct|vcs +nd |oc+| govc|nmcnt +|tc| 1 ^||cctcd c+s+nts |+c| t|c owc| to |o|d t|c |oc+|
govc|nmcnt +ccount+b|c +nd to ncgot|+tc tc|ms o| cond|t|ons w|t| |t V|||+gc co||cct|vcs +|c
somct|mcs +ccuscd o| co||ut|on |n v|||+gc +||+||s cscc|+||y concc|n|ng uncu+| |+nd +||oc+t|ons
|osc |ousc|o|ds w|t| c|osc |c|+t|ons||s w|t| t|c v|||+gc |c+dc|s somct|mcs |ccc|vc mo|c +nd
bcttc| u+||ty o| |+nd t|+n t|c ot|c|s +nd cvcn do not |u||y com|y w|t| t|c|| cont|+ctu+| tc|ms |n
somc c+scs t|c |+nd o| t|osc w|o |+vc m|g|+tcd to c|t|cs |s |ntcnt|on+||y |ct +nd |cd|st||butcd to
ot|c|s w||c| cont|+vcncs t|c .00. |u|+| |+nd Cont|+ct|ng |+w |c |+ttc| |ov|dcs + ||g|d st+ncc
on u|o|d|ng |+nd tcnu|c sccu||ty +nd cu|ty (C||^| CO|| ||C|||||^| ||||C|O|
||||^| .00) |ut w|cn t|c m|g|+nts w+ntcd to |ctu|n to t|c|| |omcs w|cn t|cy wc|c un+b|c
to ||nd + c|m+ncnt st+y |n t|c c|t|cs t|cy d|scovc|cd t|+t t|c|| |+nd |+d bccn t+|cn +w+y ||s |s
t|c most c||t|c+| |+cto| |o| d|sutcs +nd con|||cts bctwccn c+s+nts +nd v|||+gc |c+dc|s
.
Obv|ous|y |ow to m+n+gc +|o||+tc |+nd usc |o| t|c bcnc||t o| t|c oo| |cscnts + d+unt|ng
c|+||cngc |o| |oc+| govc|n+ncc ||s c|+||cngc +|so cx||b|ts t|c wc+|ncss o| t|c || |n sccu||ng
c+s+nts |+nd usc ||g|ts ||s ||sto||c+| +ccount s|ows t|+t nonc o| t|c |+nd tcnu|c |cg|mcs
|+vc wo||cd c||cct|vc|y |+t|c| t|cy |+vc undc|m|ncd t|c owc| o| t|c oo| +nd |cd to ||s|ng
soc|+| |ncu+||ty +nd con|||cts |n t|c count|ys|dc +s w||| bc d|scusscd |n t|c |o||ow|ng scct|ons
4. Fallacies of land law and policy
4.1. Te grassland enclosure policy
^s Cuyu+n County |s ||stcd |n t|c |ov|nc|+| +nd n+t|on+| cco|og|c+| const|uct|on |+n t|c
county govc|nmcnts go+| |o| t|c ot|m|zcd usc o| |ts ||+g||c n+tu|+| |csou|ccs suc| +s g|+ss|+nd
|+vc bccomc +|+mount |t bc+|s + st|ong bu|dcn to c||cct|vc|y |csc|vc t|c dcg|+d|ng g|+ss|+nd
g|vcn |ts +st |+||u|cs cscc|+||y +|tc| .00. ^ m+,o| ||g|||g|t o| t|c|| c||o|ts |s to |o|| out t|c
g|+ss|+nd cnc|osu|c +nd +n|m+| |usb+nd|y |o||b|t|on o||cy +s t|c c+||y|ng c++c|ty o| t|c
g|+ss|+nd |s c|+|mcd to |+vc |c+c|cd t|c |owcst |cvc| w||c| |s bcyond govc|nmcnt cont|o| |n
t||s |cg+|d t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt dctc|m|ncs to b+n t|c t|+d|t|on+| mct|od o| g|+z|ng dccmcd
to bc d|so|g+n|zcd +nd +tt||but+b|c to t|c t|+gcdy o| t|c commons |t cu+tcs t||s o||cy w|t|
|cvo|ut|on w||c| |m||cs t|c d+unt|ng c|+||cngcs +|c+d o + |+|gc cxtcnt t||s mc+su|c |+s
. |u|+| outm|g|+t|on m+y not cont||butc to |u|+| dcvc|omcnt to + |+|gc cxtcnt g|vcn t|c |+ct t|+t cno|mous u|b+n
cm|oymcnt c|c+t|on |s nccdcd to +ccommod+tc t|c m|g|+nts |owcvc| |t |s ncvc| +n c+sy t+s| |o| |u|+| dcvc|omcnt to
t+|c o subst+nt|+||y ;, c|ccnt o| t|c c+s+nts |+vc to |c+vc t|c count|ys|dc +nd t||s |s +|most un|c+||st|c (scc |+||| ct +|
.oo,) |n|o|m+t|on on v|||+gc d|sutcs +nd con|cts |s b+scd on |ntc|v|cws w|t| |oc+| towns|| govc|nmcnt st+ |n |u|y .oos
ong,un z|+o
94
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|o||owcd t|c ovc|+|| go+| o| t|c C||ncsc govc|nmcnt |n utt|ng |n |+ct|cc t|c so-c+||cd sc|cnt|||c
dcvc|omcnt concct t|+t cm|+s|zcs |um+n-n+tu|c |+|mony +mong ot|c| +sccts
!
|o|covc| t||s o||cy |c|cscnts + m+,o| movc tow+|ds t|c |m|cmcnt+t|on o| t|c .00.
C|+ss|+nd |+w o| C||n+ t|+t scts + st|ong m+nd+tc |o| |oc+| govc|nmcnts ||s |+w st|u|+tcs t|+t
t|c ownc|s|| o| g|+ss|+nd |csts w|t| t|c st+tc w||c| +ss|gns usc ||g|ts to t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc
|c |+ttc| |s +||owcd to |c+sc t|c |+nd to |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds |n +|t|cu|+| ^|t|c|c !! st+tcs
t|c |o||ow|ng
Cont|+cto|s |o| g|+ss|+nd m+n+gcmcnt s|+|| m+|c |+t|on+| usc o| t|c g|+ss|+nds +nd t|cy m+y
not cxcccd t|c stoc|-c+||y|ng c++c|ty vc||||cd by t|c comctcnt +dm|n|st|+t|vc dc+|tmcnt
|o| g|+ss|+nds +nd t|cy s|+|| t+|c suc| mc+su|cs +s g|ow|ng +nd |csc|v|ng |o|+gc g|+ss +nd
|oddc||n o|dc| to |cc t|c b+|+ncc bctwccn g|+ss y|c|d +nd t|c numbc| o| ||vcstoc| |+|scd
(COV|||||| O| C|||^ .00. )
|n csscncc t||s |+w |c|tc|+tcs t|c govc|nmcnts c+|| |o| t|c +|b|t|+|y m+n+gcmcnt o| t|c g|+ss|+nd
|n usc o| t|c c+||y|ng c++c|ty concct |n +dd|t|on |t m+||s no d|||c|cncc ||om t|c .00. |u|+|
|+nd Cont|+ct|ng |+w |n tc|ms o| g|+nt|ng |+nd usc ||g|ts to |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds |us |+|gc
+|t o| t|c g|+ss|+nd |n Cuyu+n |+s bccn +|t|y cont|+ctcd out to |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds t|+t +|c
|cu||cd to s|gn t|c|| usc ||g|ts cont|+cts w|t| t|c county ^g||cu|tu|+| +nd ^n|m+| |usb+nd|y
|u|c+u |n ||nc||c t|c|| g|+z|ng ||g|ts +|c sct +g+|nst t|c numbc|s o| ||vcstoc| to bc |ct by
t|cm w||c| |s |+|d to |m|cmcnt |n |+ct|cc |o| t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt t|c dc||m|t+t|on o|
|ousc|o|d-b+scd g|+ss|+nd w||| +utom+t|c+||y |c+d to t|c |cduct|on o| t|c numbc| o| ||vcstoc|
||s mc+su|c |s +ssumcd to bc usc|u| to |+nd |csc|v+t|on +s t|c c+s+nt usc|s s|ou|d bc m+dc
|csons|b|c |n + |cw c+scs somc +|ts o| t|c g|+ss|+nd +|c |ct |n t|c |+nds o| t|c v|||+gc
co||cct|vc u|c|y |o| t|c u|osc o| n+tu|c consc|v+t|on ||s |+nd |s |cnccd o|| |o| |c|+b|||t+t|on
+s c|t|c| |t |+d bccn cx|o|tcd to +|most cxt|nct|on o| |t |s |onc to |u|t|c| dcg|+d+t|on ^+|t
||om t|c cont|+ctcd +nd |csc|vcd g|+ss|+nd t|c|c |s on|y + sm+|| |oo|t|on o| t|c |+nd |c|t
ocn to commun+| g|+z|ng
|owcvc| t|c +dm|n|st|+t|on o| g|+ss|+nd |otcct|on |s too cost|y +nd d||||cu|t to m+n+gc s|ncc
t|c c+s+nts c+n st||| ||nd w+ys to cut t|c |cncc +nd cntc| t|c |o||b|tcd +|c+s |c g|+ss|+nd
cont|+ct m+n+gcmcnt |+s not succccdcd |n |u||y |cg|stc||ng t|c c+s+nts somc o| w|om |+vc
not +||cd |o| t|c cont|+ct cc|t|||c+tc +s |cu||cd by |+w |o| t|osc w|o |+vc t|c cc|t|||c+tcs
t|cy +|c on|y +||owcd to g|+zc +|o||+tc numbc|s o| ||vcstoc| but |n |+ct|cc onc c+n |+|d|y
tc|| w|ct|c| t|csc numbc|s |+vc bccn |o||owcd
4
|u|t|c|mo|c t|c|c |s + |+c| o| |nst|tut|on+|
! |ntc|v|cws w|t| county ^g||cu|tu|c +nd ^n|m+| |usb+nd|y |u|c+u o cc|s |n |u|y .oos
4 |ntc|v|cws w|t| county ^g||cu|tu|c +nd ^n|m+| |usb+nd|y |u|c+u o cc|s |n |u|y .oos
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
9
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
mcc|+n|sms |o| c||cct|vc mon|to||ng +s county +nd towns|| govc|nmcnts +nd t|c v|||+gc
co||cct|vc do not |+vc c|c+| |o|cs to |+y +nd t|us do not t||n| t|+t t|cy +|c so|c|y |csons|b|c
|o| |t |cy o|tcn b|+mc c+c| ot|c| |o| t||s |+t|c| t|+n utt|ng |o|w+|d mo|c co|c|cnt o||c|cs
|o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd m+n+gcmcnt

|c |nc||cct|vcncss o| t|c |+w |n t|c v|cw o| t|c |oc+| bu|c+u |s duc to c+s+nts |+c| o| modc|n
|now|cdgc o| ||vcstoc| |c+||ng +nd g|+z|ng o |n||ucncc c+s+nts g|+z|ng bc|+v|ou| on t|c
b+s|s o| cco|og|c+| sc|cncc (scc ||+ng .00o) t|c bu|c+u |u|t|c| +ttcmtcd to |nt|oducc ncw
mct|ods to |cvcnt t|c c+s+nts ||om g|+z|ng outs|dc t|c|| |omcs |owcvc| +s t|csc mct|ods
|cu||c |m|ovcmcnts |n t|c usc o| |oddc| +nd |ccd |t w+s too cost|y |o| t|c c+s+nts to |o||ow
t|cm |c c+s+nts |+vc cont|nucd to |gno|c t|csc c+||s +nd m+n+gcd to +vo|d t|c |nscct|on o|
t|c |oc+| bu|c+u st+|| |cg+|d|ng t|c usc o| t|c g|+ss|+nd omc |c|+b|||t+tcd s|tcs dcs|tc bc|ng
wc|| |otcctcd |o| somc t|mc |+vc now bccomc dcg|+dcd +g+|n duc to + c+s+nt |nv+s|on
^cco|d|ng to + ncws |co|t somc |+|gc +|cc|s o| g|+ss|+nd cont|+ctcd out wc|c |ound to bc
uscd |o| c|o|ng g|+z|ng +nd ot|c| |unct|ons w||c| wc|c not +||owcd by |+w |onct|c|css
w|t| t|c |m|cmcnt+t|on o| t|c .00! |cc|cc o| C|+z|ng ||o||b|t|on by t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt
+cccss to g|+z|ng |+s bccomc mo|c +nd mo|c d||||cu|t |o| t|c c+s+nts w|o com|+|ncd t|+t
t|c|| |ncomc ||om |+|m|+nd cu|t|v+t|on w+s so ||m|tcd t|+t t|cy |+d to |c|y on g|+z|ng to
su|cmcnt |t |c |+c| o| +dcu+tc +cccss to g|+ss|+nd |u|t|c| cont||butcs to t|c|| vu|nc|+b|c
||vc|||oods (|`|J^ `| .00o)
|c w|dcs|c+d g|+ss|+nd dcg|+d+t|on |nd|c+tcs t|+t |c|cv+nt g|+ss|+nd |+ws +nd o||c|cs |+cc
ovc|t cm|+s|s on m+n+gcmcnt |ssucs |+t|c| t|+n ||n||ng |t w|t| v|+b|c ot|ons |o| c+s+nt
||vc|||oods o t|c c+s+nts t|c t|+d|t|on+| mct|od o| g|+z|ng |+s cc|t+|n cost-c||cct|vc +dv+nt+gcs
|nc|ud|ng c+sy m+n+gcmcnt o| t|c ||vcstoc| ^s t|c|| own g|+z|ng |u|cs +|c not cons|dc|cd by
t|c govc|nmcnt t|cy do not bc||cvc t|+t t|c cxot|c mct|od o| g|+ss|+nd cnc|osu|c |s |n t|c||
bcst |ntc|csts |n |+ct +s |n ot|c| |cg|ons g|+ss|+nd cnc|osu|c |+s cont||butcd to ovc|g|+z|ng +nd
t|us |+nd dcg|+d+t|on (||^|C .00o) |u|t|c|mo|c w|cn t|c|c |s not muc| |ccw+y |o| t|cm to
usc cvcn t|c|| own cont|+ctcd g|+ss|+nd +s |t |s sm+|| |n s|zc g|+z|ng on t|c |csc|vcd g|+ss|+nd
bccomcs un+vo|d+b|c |o| |nst+ncc c|ccnt o| t|c |n|o|m+nts +c|now|cdgcd t|+t t|cy |ncw
w|+t w+s |+cn|ng but d|d not |now |ow to dc+| w|t| |t |c |cst s|m|y d|d not bc||cvc t|+t
t|cy t|cmsc|vcs s|ou|d bc b|+mcd ^bovc +|| t|cy s+w ||vcstoc| |usb+nd|y +s + bcttc| w+y to
||g|t ovc|ty t|+n ot|c| |+ct|ccs suc| +s vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng ^nd w|cn t|cy s+w t|c |mmcd|+tc
bcnc||ts ||om |t t|cy s|m|y w+ntcd to |o|go ot|c| sc+|cc ot|ons
|c |+c| o| c||cct|vcncss o| o||cy |nst|umcnts |nd|c+tcs t|c |+ct t|+t +s |n m+ny ot|c| +|ts
o| t|c count|y g|+ss|+nd |csc|v+t|on |og|+mmcs +|c not cou|cd w|t| +|o||+tc ovc|ty
^cco|d|ng to county m+g|st|+tc z|+ng Congs unub||s|cd sccc| notcs |n v+||ous cvcnts
ong,un z|+o
96
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
+||cv|+t|on st|+tcg|cs |o|covc| no commun|ty-b+scd |+nd m+n+gcmcnt modc|s b+scd on
|ousc|o|d tcnu|c +|c |ound (scc |+n|s ct +| .00!) |n Cuyu+n g|+z|ng |cm+|ns +s t|c most
|o||t+b|c mc+ns o| ||vc|||oods |o| t|c m+,o||ty oo| +s t|cy c+nnot |c|y uon |+|m|+nd
|oduct|on duc to cnv||onmcnt+| +nd cconom|c const|+|nts +s sccn |n |+tc| d|scuss|ons |cy
s|owcd d|scontcnt ovc| t|c county govc|nmcnts g|+ss|+nd |cc|+m+t|on o||cy w||c| c+uscd +n
|nc|c+sc |n ovc|ty +nd ||s|ng soc|+| con|||cts |n t|c v|||+gc (|`|J^ `| .00o) |c|| v|cws on
+nd +|t|c|+t|on |n g|+ss|+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt |+vc not bccn +t t|c to o| t|c dcvc|omcnt
+gcnd+ o| t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt
|u|t|c|mo|c g|+ss|+nd m+n+gcmcnt |s o|tcn +|gu+b|y comoundcd by t|c |uzz|ncss o| t|c
|ctc|ogcncous +nd |yb||d |oc|ty |c|+t|ons w|c|c v|||+gc co||cct|vcs +nd cvcn |oc+| govc|nmcnts
|+vc mo|c owc| to dctc|m|nc |+nd uscs t|+n t|c c+s+nts +nd w|c|c ||ncs o| |csons|b|||ty o|
g|+ss|+nd m+n+gcmcnt +|c not c|c+||y dcm+|c+tcd +mong d|||c|cnt st+tc +nd non-st+tc +cto|s
(scc |||O| 10 c| .004) |csc |+cto|s cont||butc to oo| g|+ss|+nd govc|n+ncc w||c|
|+s |+d + d||cct |m+ct on t|c c|cct|ons o| t|c c+s+nts |cg+|d|ng g|+ss|+nd usc ^ |om|ncnt
cx+m|c |s t|c ||n|st|y o| ^g||cu|tu|cs n+t|on+| c||cu|+| |n .00o on |ts dcc|s|on to cn+||zc t|c
m|sconduct o| Cuyu+n |oc+| govc|nmcnt st+|| +nd |+nd cont|+cto|s |n g|+ss|+nd usc
o
|t w+s
|co|tcd t|+t t|c county govc|nmcnt +nd + v|||+gc comm|ttcc |+d cont|+ctcd t|c |+nd owncd
by t|c govc|nmcnt +nd v|||+gc co||cct|vc |cscct|vc|y to |oc+| bus|ncssm+n +nd cc|t+|n c+s+nt
|ousc|o|ds w|t|out t|+ns+|cnt |occdu|cs m+dc |nown to t|c |oc+| commun|ty |c |+ttc|
g|ou |+d no |dc+ o| |ow |oc+| govc|nmcnt ||nc +gcnc|cs |+ycd + |cy |o|c o| wc|c |nvo|vcd ||s
|cd to t|c convc|s|on o| |+|gc |cccs o| t|c g|+ss|+nd |nto ot|c| |+nd us+gcs ^cco|d|ng to t|c
.00. C|+ss|+nd |+w o| C||n+ |+nd cont|+cto|s must m+|nt+|n t|c o||g|n+| st+tus o| t|c |+nd |n
t|c two |co|tcd c+scs t|cy m+n+gcd to covc| u t|c|| u|oscs by st+t|ng t|+t t|cy w+ntcd
t|c |+nd |o| cco-tou||sm dcvc|omcnt +nd wou|d t+|c c+|c o| t|c |+nd to +b|dc by t|c |+w On|y
+t + vc|y |+tc st+gc d|d t|c |oc+| commun|ty not|cc t|+t t|cy |+d c|+ngcd |+|gc |ots o| |+nd |nto
c|o|+nd +nd |cnccd t|csc +|ts o|| ||om t|c |cst o| t|c commun|ty |n |+ct t|c two cont|+cto|s
cvcn occu|cd t|c |+nd bc|o|c t|c |oc+| bu|c+us |o|m+||y +|ovcd t|c|| +||c+t|ons (|||||
O| ^C||C||||| .00o) ||s mc+ns t|+t to + cc|t+|n cxtcnt t|c cu||cnt tcnu|c systcm |+s
|+vou|cd t|c owc||u| g|ous |n t|c|| uscs o| t|c |+nd |o| t|c|| own bcnc||ts w||c| |s common|y
|ound |n ot|c| +|ts o| C||n+
o ^cco|d|ng to t|c C|+ss|+nd |on|to||ng +nd uc|v|s|on Ccnt|c o| t|c ||n|st|y o| ^g||cu|tu|c t||s c||cu|+| scnds + c|c+|
mcss+gc to co||ut o c|+|s |nvo|vcd t|+t t|c C|+ss|+nd |+w must bc u|c|d |o| t|c dct+||s o| t|c c+scs scc |tt;;www
g|+ss|+ndgovcn;g|+ss|+ndwcb;^|t|c|c;|ow^|t|c|c+s^|t|c|c||=10!
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
97
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
4.2. Collective forestry reform
|cc |+nt+t|on +nd |csc|v+t|on +|c |cg+|dcd +s cu+||y c|uc|+| +s g|+ss|+nd |csc|v+t|on to
cco|og|c+| |csto|+t|on |c county govc|nmcnt |+s m+dc t|c |o|cst + |und+mcnt+| n+tu|+|
|csou|cc to bc |csc|vcd +nd to bc ||cc ||om |||cg+| |ogg|ng by cst+b||s||ng |o|cst |otcct|on
tc+ms |n c+c| towns|| o + |+|gc cxtcnt t|c|| mc+su|cs |+vc bccn c||cct|vc |n t||s |cscct
|ut t|c c+s+nts +|c not o||c|cd st|ong |nccnt|vcs |n +ny o| t|c |o|cst |+nt+t|on |og|+mmcs
|o| |nst+ncc t|c most |om|ncnt |+nd convc|s|on o| g|ccn |o| g|+|n |og|+mmc +|mcd +t
d|+m+t|c+||y |nc|c+s|ng |o|cst covc|+gc to comb+t so|| c|os|on +nd ||ood|ng

+s |n t|c ot|c|
+|ts o| t|c count|y |+s |ovcd to bc unsucccss|u| duc to m+ny |+cto|s onc o| w||c| |s +
|+c| o| ||n|+gcs bctwccn t|cc |+nt|ng +nd d||cct bcnc||ts ||om |t |o| Cuyu+n |o| |nst+ncc |n
|cccnt yc+|s c+s+nts |ccc|vcd on|y +n cst|m+tc o| 1o0 u+n +nnu+||y c| mu (1 |+ = 1 mu) o|
t|c|| |+nd convc|tcd to |o|cst |+nd ^nd t||s |nc|udcd bot| comcns+t|on +nd + subs|dy ||om
t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt ||s t|ny +mount w+s ,ust |moss|b|c |o| t|c c+s+nts to m+|nt+|n t|c||
||vc|||oods w|cn t|c|| |+nd w+s dcvotcd to |o|csts C|vcn t|c c||m+t|c cond|t|ons |n t||s d|y
|cg|on |t t+|cs +|ox|m+tc|y 1 yc+|s |o| t|c t|ccs to g|ow ^|so t|c |+ntcd t|ccs |+d not bccn
wc|| c+|cd |o| +nd somc cvcn d|cd o|| + |cw yc+|s |+tc| |u|t|c|mo|c +s |c||cctcd by t|c county
|o|cst|y |u|c+u
c
c+s+nts |+c| o| ownc|s|| ovc| t|c t|ccs ut t|c sust+|n+b|||ty o| t|c |o|cst
|og|+mmc +t ||s| ||s +|so +||cs to t|osc t|ccs undc| t|c d||cct m+n+gcmcnt o| t|c v|||+gc
co||cct|vc |n t|c cnd t||s |og|+mmc w+s suscndcd Obv|ous|y b+|+nc|ng t|c |ntc|csts o| st+tc
+nd c+s+nts |n t||s sccto| oscs + d||||cu|t c|+||cngc to dcc|s|on-m+|c|s (scc t|+uss .00)
o +dd|css d|s|nccnt|vcs +nd to cncou|+gc t|c c+s+nts to t+|c +n |ntc|cst |n t|c |o|cst |+nd t|c
|o|cst|y |u|c+u |o||ows t|c cx+m|c o| t|c co||cct|vc |o|cst|y tcnu|c |c|o|m |n sout|c|n C||n+
w|c|c c+scs o| succcss +|c documcntcd

|n |+ct t||s |n|t|+t|vc +dotcd c|scw|c|c w+s t+|cn u


by t|c t+tc Counc|| w||c| |omu|g+tcd t|c .00c O|n|ons on Com|c|cns|vc Co||cct|vc |o|cst
|+nd cnu|c |c|o|m |sscnt|+||y t||s o||cy |s to cmu|+tc t|c || |n t|c m+n+gcmcnt o| co||cct|vc
|o|cst|y |+nd +nd c+s+nts ownc|s|| o| wood +c|oss t|c count|y |t |s sccn +s + m+,o| mc+su|c
to boost t|c cnt|us|+sm o| t|c c+s+nts |nc|c+sc t|c|| |ncomcs +nd m+|c |o|cst|y sust+|n+b|c |t
st|u|+tcs t|+t |oduct|on +nd m+n+gcmcnt o| |o|cst|y s|ou|d bc cnt|ustcd to c+s+nts by |ssu|ng
cxtcnd+b|c 0-yc+| |o|cst |+nd usc cont|+cts w|||c t|c n+tu|c o| co||cct|vc ownc|s|| s|ou|d bc
m+|nt+|ncd |t c+||s |o| cnsu||ng cu+| +cccss to c+s+nts |o|cst|y |+nd ||g|ts +nd gu+|+ntcc|ng
t|c|| ||g|ts to |now +nd +|t|c|+tc |n +ny dcc|s|on-m+||ng |occss +||cct|ng t|c|| |+nd ||g|ts
O c|+||y st+|tcd |n .oo. t||s |og|+mmc |+s bccn t|c |+|gcst |og|+mmc |n t|c C||ncsc cco|og|c+| |otcct|on ||sto|y t|+t
covc|cd ., |ov|nccs +s,; count|cs +nd ,; m||||on c+s+nts (C|| \^|C .ooe)
c |ntc|v|cws |n |u|y .oos
|ncc .oo, co||cct|vc |o|cst|y |c|o|m |+d bccn ||otcd |n |u,|+n ||+ngx| ||+on|ng +nd z|c,|+ng |ov|nccs C||n+ |+s .,, b||||on
mu o| |o|cst |+nd (cu|v+|cnt to eo c|ccnt o| t|c count|ys tot+|) undc| v|||+gc co||cct|vc ownc|s|| w|t| mo|c t|+n |+|| o| t|c
ou|+t|on ||v|ng |n t|csc +|c+s X||||^ ||\ ^C||C .oos)
ong,un z|+o
98
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|o|covc| c+s+nts +|c +||owcd to t|+ns|c| |c+sc o| mo|tg+gc t|c |o|cst |+nd usc ||g|ts w|t||n t|c
tcnu|c c||od |oc+| govc|nmcnt |s +s|cd to cxtcnd ||n+nc|+| |nst|tut|on+| sc|v|ccs to t|c nccdy +nd
cst+b||s| |o|cst|y |nsu|+ncc to |otcct t|c c+s+nts ||om n+tu|+| d|s+stc|s ||s |c|o|m +|so m+|cs
+n cx||c|t c+|| |o| st|cngt|cn|ng ub||c sc|v|ccs to suo|t |o|cst|y cooc|+t|vcs +nd cntc|||scs
w||c| c+n |+y + |c+d|ng |o|c |n |o|cst m+n+gcmcnt +nd |oduct|on to |omotc cconom|cs o|
sc+|c |t |s sct to bc com|ctcd ovc| + -yc+| c||od du||ng w||c| |o|cst |+nd ||g|ts cc|t|||c+tcs
s|ou|d bc |ssucd to t|c |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds b+scd on t|c |cg|st|+t|on o| t|c|| cont|+ctcd |o|cst
|+nd (COV|||||| O| C|||^ .00c X||||^ ||\ ^C||C .00c)
|n |+ct |ong bc|o|c t|c |omu|g+t|on o| t||s o||cy t|c |o|cst|y |u|c+u |+d t||cd to cmu|+tc
s|m||+| mc+su|cs to undc|t+|c co||cct|vc |o|cst|y |c|o|m w|t| vc|y ||m|tcd succcss |c s|og+n
o| st|cngt|cn|ng |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds +w+|cncss +nd |o|cst m+n+gcmcnt ownc|s|| w+s uscd
to |+t|on+||zc t|c o||cy +nd to mot|v+tc t|c c+s+nts |owcvc| t|c |+ttc| d|d not c|cc|vc t||s
o||cy +s somct||ng ncw +s t|c |o|cst |+d +||c+dy bccn undc| t|c m+n+gcmcnt o| t|c co||cct|vc
|o|covc| g|+nt|ng |ong-tc|m usc ||g|ts m|g|t |ncu| mo|c |nst|tut|on+| bu|dcns to s|ou|dc| |o|
t|c |ousc|o|ds s|ncc t|cy do not cxcct to g+|n bcnc||ts ||om t|c |o|cst |oducts w||c| +|c
not +s m+||ct+b|c +s |n t|c +st ^s + st+|| mcmbc| o| t|c bu|c+u |nd|c+tcd
|c co||cct|vc |o|cst|y |c|o|m |c|c c+nnot bc com+|cd w|t| t|c out| w|c|c t|c c+s+nts
c+n s|mu|t+ncous|y |+nt ot|c| cconom|c c|os w|t| t|c |o|cst |c|c t|c c||m+t|c cond|t|ons
,ust c+nnot +||ow t||s |+t |s w|y |t |s not +tt|+ct|vc to t|c c+s+nts o wc m+y not bc +b|c to
cont|nuc t|c |c|o|m |+tc| on
10

\|||st t|c usc ||g|ts |o| + |+|gc |oo|t|on o| t|c co||cct|vc |o|csts wc|c s+|d to bc g|+ntcd to
|nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds t|c |+ttc| wc|c |c|uct+nt to |ccc|vc t|c usc ||g|ts cc|t|||c+tcs |ow to d|v|dc
+nd |cd|st||butc t|c co||cct|vc |o|csts to |nd|v|du+| |ousc|o|ds |s ncvc| +n c+sy t+s| |o| t|c |o|cst|y
|u|c+u o + |+|gc cxtcnt t|c |o|cst |+nd |s suoscd to bc |cd|st||butcd to t|c c+s+nts on t|c
b+s|s o| cu|t+b|c cond|t|ons |n tc|ms o| t|c u+||ty o| t|c |+nd +nd t|c numbc| o| |ousc|o|d
mcmbc|s |n c+scs w|c|c t|c |+nd w|t| oo| u+||ty c+nnot bc |cd|st||butcd c+s||y |t s|ou|d bc
donc t||oug| |c+sc tcndc| +nd +uct|on to t|c nccdy \|cn t||s c+nnot bc |c+||zcd |t |csts w|t|
t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc ^|| t|csc stcs |cu||c sound |+nn|ng +nd +|t|c|+t|on o| t|c commun|ty |n
dcc|d|ng on |ow t|c |o|cst |+nd c+n bcst bc uscd +nd m+n+gcd |o|covc| t|c c+s+nts nccd to
|now w|ct|c| t|c |o|csts cont|+ctcd to t|cm +|c o| cconom|c v+|uc to t|cm Ot|c|w|sc t|cy w|||
|osc |ntc|cst |n |t (|+| .00) |c |cssons ||om t||s county +nd ot|c| |cg|ons |nd|c+tc t|+t |n most
c+scs |oc+| govc|nmcnts +y |nsu|||c|cnt +ttcnt|on to t|c nccds o| t|c |ousc|o|ds +nd co||cct|vc
c||o|ts (||^O \| .004) ^s + |csu|t t|c |c|o|m c+n c+s||y |ncu| d|scontcnt +nd cvcn con|||cts
+mong v+||ous st+|c|o|dc|s |nvo|vcd w||c| dcsc|vcs |u|t|c| stud|cs
10 |ntc|v|cws |n |u|y .oos
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
99
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|c |+c| o| c++c|ty o| t|c |o|cst|y |u|c+u to cont|o| |n+|o||+tc |o|cst |+nd usc ovc|s|+dows |ts
ovc|+|| |o|cst|y |c|o|m +gcnd+ omc st+|| b|+mcd g|+z|ng +s t|c numbc| onc t||c+t to |o|cst|y +nd
cm|+s|zcd t|c nccd to ut + com|ctc sto to |t by scvc|c|y cn+||z|ng t|osc |csons|b|c cscc|+||y
t|c |ousc|o|ds w|t| + b|g numbc| o| ||vcstoc| Obv|ous|y + |+c| o| coo|d|n+t|on bctwccn d|||c|cnt
||nc +gcnc|cs |u|t|c| const|+|ns +ny concc|vcd c||o|ts |n sust+|n+b|c |o|cst |+nd m+n+gcmcnt |csc
|+cto|s +|c |u|t|c| comoundcd by t|c |+tcst |c|o|m +gcnd+ +nd t|c ongo|ng |occss o| |o|cst
dcccnt|+||z+t|on (scc |||||||^| |^||O| 1.) |owcvc| t||s o||cy docs not d|||c| ||om
ot|c| |+ws on t|c |ssuc o| t|c +busc o| owc| by t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc +s t|c |+ttc| |ct+|ns t|c most
owc| |n dcc|s|on m+||ng \|+t mcc|+n|sms s|ou|d bc cst+b||s|cd to cmowc| t|c c+s+nts to
|cc t|c |oc+| c+d|cs |n c|cc| |cm+|n unc|c+| ^s + |csu|t t|c |c+dc|s|| o| t|c |u|+| co||cct|vc
|nc|ud|ng t|c |+|ty scc|ct+|y t|c v|||+gc |c+d +nd ot|c| v|||+gc comm|ttcc mcmbc|s m+y co-
oc|+tc +nd u|suc c|son+|s |ntc|csts +s + co||cct|vc (C^| .00! ooc)
|n s|o|t o||c|cs o| g|+ss|+nd +nd |o|cst |otcct|on +nd ut|||z+t|on |+vc bccn mutu+||y cxc|us|vc
|c |oc+| c+s+nts cou|d on|y |cso|t to s|o|t-tc|m g+|ns somct|mcs +t t|c cost o| t|csc |csou|ccs
(C|| \^|C .00o) ^ |+c| o| coo|d|n+t|on |n |+nd usc |+nn|ng +nd m+n+gcmcnt cont||butcs
to t|c |+||u|c o| t|c |og|+mmcs |n w||c| t|c c+s+nts +|c c+ug|t |n + vo|tcx o| uncc|t+|nty
|cg+|d|ng t|c c|+ngcs |n |+nd usc |moscd by t|c govc|nmcnt |c |c|+t|ons||s bctwccn n+tu|+|
|csou|cc tcnu|c |c|o|m ovc|ty +nd t|c cnv||onmcnt |+vc not bccn su|||c|cnt|y +dd|csscd |n +n
|ntcg|+tcd m+nnc| by t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt |c |c|o|m o| |+nd |csou|cc tcnu|c ||om co||cct|vc
to |ousc|o|d-b+scd |nst|tut|ons s|gn|||cs + s|m||st|c +|o+c| t|+t dc+|ts ||om t|c b|o|ys|c+|
cconom|c +nd o||t|c+| const|+|nts
5. Farmland use, conicting interests and peasant
contestations
5.1. Farmland for livelihoods
|u|+| dcvc|omcnt |o| t|c |oc+| c+s+nts |s not||ng mo|c t|+n t|c m+x|m|z+t|on o| t|c
ut|||z+t|on o| t|c +v+||+b|c |csou|ccs |n t|c u|su|t o| u|c| |csu|ts |n t|c |cduct|on o| ovc|ty
|c|| +tt+c|mcnt to |+nd +stu|c |o|csts +nd ot|c| |csou|ccs cmbod|cs t|c|| |+gm+t|c v+|ucs
tow+|ds t|c|| ||vc|||oods +s d|scusscd c+|||c| ct c+s+nt |c|+t|ons |+vc bccomc |css dyn+m|c
t|+n t|c communc c||od |n t|c 1o0s +nd t|osc |ound |n t|+d|t|on+| ct|n|c m|no||ty g|ous
\|t| t|c m+||ct-o||cntcd o||c|cs |n|||t|+t|ng t|c|| commun|t|cs |nd|v|du+| |ntc|csts ovc|||dc
t|c mcc|+n|sms o| co||cct|vc c|o|cc +nd dcc|s|on-m+||ng on t|c usc o| t|c |csou|ccs |o| t|c
bcnc||t o| +||
ong,un z|+o
!00
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
Vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng |s common|+cc +nd const|tutcs + ||m+|y sou|cc o| |ncomc |o| most
|ousc|o|ds ||s |s |ound most|y |n +|c+s w|c|c so|| cond|t|ons +|c |+vou|+b|c +|t|oug| t|c
|nc|c+s|ng |cvc| o| w+tc| sc+|c|ty |+s bccom|ng + |ob|cm |c v+||ct|cs o| vcgct+b|cs g|own +|c
||m|tcd +c|oss t|c county +nd t||s un+vo|d+b|y |c+ds to comct|t|on ovc| s+|cs +nd m+||ct|ng
out|cts On|y t|osc |ousc|o|ds w|t| |c|+t|vc|y |+|gc| s|zcs o| |+nd m+n+gc to g+|n |c+son+b|c
|o||ts |owcvc| t||s tyc o| |+|m|ng |s sc+son+| +s w|ntc| tcmc|+tu|cs c+n d|o bc|ow -!0
dcg|ccs Cc|s|us |us cxtcns|vc |+|m|ng |s c+|||cd out |n ot|c| sc+sons
Vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng |cu||cs |c+son+b|c c+|t+| |nuts |n tc|ms o| t|mc scnt |n t|c ||c|d usc
o| w+tc| c|cm|c+| |c|t|||zc|s +nd sccds \|c|c t|c|c |s + |+c| o| tcc|n|c+| +nd |und|ng sc|v|ccs
|ov|dcd by t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt t|c g|owc|s +|c vu|nc|+b|c to v+||ous n+tu|+| +nd cconom|c
||s|s |n|cd|ct+b|c n+tu|+| d|s+stc|s c+n c+usc d+m+gc to t|c c|o |c g|owc|s +|c |nc++b|c
o| c||cct|vc|y dc+||ng w|t| t|csc ||s|s |ncc t|cy |+vc no ot|c| w+ys to sc|| t|c|| |oducc t|+n
|c|y|ng on t|c m|dd|cmcn ||om ot|c| |ov|nccs to co||cct |t u|tc o|tcn t|cy +|c |n + wc+|
os|t|on to b+|g+|n ovc| t|c ||ccs o||c|cd
\|t| t|c |nt|oduct|on o| t|c || |+ndom g|ow|ng o| vcgct+b|cs |o| t|c c+s+nts to g+|n ||g|
cconom|c |ctu|ns |+s |c|+ccd t|+d|t|on+| c|o|ng to + |+|gc cxtcnt +s + |csu|t g|+|n |oduct|on
|+s |cduccd subst+nt|+||y |n C||n+ bctwccn 1 +nd .001 t|c |oduct|on o| vcgct+b|cs nc+||y
doub|cd (||C||||||C |||C .00c) ^|t|oug| t|c || |+s st|mu|+tcd +g||cu|tu|c +nd
|omotcd c+s+nts |nccnt|vcs |n +nd c|o|cc ovc| |+|m|ng |n Cuyu+n |+|m|+nd ||+gmcnt+t|on
|+s |cduccd t|c c|||c|cncy o| |+|m|ng Vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng +s c+|||cd out by t|c c+s+nts |s +||n
to d|gg|ng t|c so|| +nd |+nd w|t|out c+||ng +bout t|c ||nd o| |csou|ccs t|cy w||| |c+vc |o| t|c
|utu|c (|| 1 z|| 11 )
V|||+gc |||c |s un|||c t|+t |n t|c +st w|cn un|ty +nd mutu+| |c| |+ycd +n csscnt|+| |o|c |n
o|g+n|z|ng t|c c+s+nts w||c| |s +|t|y duc to ||+gmcntcd |+nd |c|+t|ons |vc|yonc |s |c||ng
||msc|| \c do not |now +bout t|c |utu|c wc ,ust t|y to m+|c cnds mcct +nyw+y |obody
w||| |c| us +s somc c+s+nts c|+|mcd |m||+| |cm+||s wc|c +|so m+dc by t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt
st+||
11
|cs|tc t|c ||s +|t|+| succcss |n ovc|ty |cduct|on |t d|s|+ys +n |nc|c+s|ng wc+|ncss
|n un|t|ng t|c oo| +s |+nd bccomcs ||+gmcntcd |c c+s+nts |+vc |css s+cc |o| t|c soc|+|
o|g+n|z+t|on o| +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on ^nd w|cn t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc most|y |c|cscnts
t|c |ntc|csts o| t|c |oc+| st+tc t|c |o|c o| t|c c+s+nts |n vo|c|ng t|c|| concc|ns ovc| |+nd usc
+nd +g||cu|tu|+| dcvc|omcnt bccomcs m|n|m+| ^s + |csu|t |+nd |s not||ng but + mc+ns o|
||vc|||oods |o| t|c c+s+nts ^|| t|c |n|o|m+nts +g|ccd t|+t t|cy wc|c not su|c w|ct|c| t|c |+nd
bc|ongcd to t|cm \|cn t|c|| |+nd usc cont|+cts cx||c |n +|ound !0 yc+|s t|cy wondc|cd
w|ct|c| t|c|| |+nd ||g|ts wou|d bc +|tc|cd by t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt |+c|ng uncc|t+|nty ovc|
11 |ntc|v|cws |n |u|y .oos
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
!0!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|+nd usc +nd ot|c| +ssoc|+tcd ||g|ts +nd + |+c| o| ub||c suo|t m+ny |n|o|m+nts v|cwcd t|c
C||ncsc c+s+nt|y +s t|c most vu|nc|+b|c g|ou |n t|c count|y
1.
|csc |nst|tut|on+| const|+|nts
osc scvc|c c|+||cngcs |o| t|c sust+|n+b|||ty o| vcgct+b|c |+|m|ng |n t|c county
5.2. Conicting interests in farmland use
||+gmcntcd |+|m|+nd usc c+uscd |+|gc|y by t|c |nt|oduct|on o| t|c || undc||ns com|cx
c+s+nt-|oc+| st+tc |c|+t|ons +s bot| |+vc d|||c|cnt o| cvcn con|||ct|ng |ntc|csts |n t|c |+nd ^s
t|c v+|uc o| t|c |+nd |nc|c+scs w|t| t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt g+|n|ng |nc|c+s|ng cont|o| ovc| |t |oc+|
c+s+nts scc t|c|| |+nd +s t|c|| |+st |cso|t to m+|nt+|n t|c|| ||vc|||oods
|c n+t|on+| o||cy on |+|m|+nd |otcct|on |+ccs st||ct cond|t|ons on |+|m|+nd usc +nd |o||b|ts
|ts convc|s|on |nto non-+g||cu|tu|+| uscs ^cco|d|ng|y t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt sct t|c m+nd+tcs |o|
t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc to dcmo||s| +|| t|c bu||d|ngs suc| +s |gcns |n t|c ||c|d ^nd c+s+nts
|gno|+ncc o| t||s c+|| wou|d |c+d to |o|ccd dcmo||t|on o| t|c|| |oc|t|cs |owcvc| w|cn t|c
c+s+nts bu||t t|c|| |ouscs yc+|s +go t|cy wc|c not |n|o|mcd o| w|ct|c| |t wou|d cont|+vcnc
+ny govc|nmcnt o||c|cs |n |+ct t|c|| |dc+s wc|c cvcn +|ovcd by t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc ^s
t|csc |ousc|o|ds +|c sm+|| |n sc+|c +nd on|y occuy t|c t|ny |ots unsu|t+b|c |o| c|o|ng t|us
||tc|+||y t||s +ct |+s not||ng to do w|t| |+|m|+nd convc|s|on cc||ng t|c suo|t o| t|c v|||+gc
comm|ttccs w+s |ut||c ^s m+ny o| t|cm +|c womcn c|||d|cn +nd t|c c|dc||y |c|t bc||nd |n t|c
v|||+gc t|cy cou|d not |o|m + un|||cd |o|cc +g+|nst oss|b|c |+nd cv|ct|ons |cy +|so |ncw t|+t
t|c c+s+nts wc+|ncss |+d |cd to t|c cv|ct|on o| m+ny o| t|cm +s ncw |+nd dcvc|omcnt t+|cs
|+cc on + |cgu|+| b+s|s
1!
|n |+ct t||s cx+m|c +|so |c||ccts t|+t |+nd usc |+nn|ng +nd m+n+gcmcnt |+s ncvc| bccn +n
c+sy t+s| |o| t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt w||c| |+s bccn undc| mount|ng |cssu|c to bot| |csc|vc
+nd ut|||zc t|c |+nd to |omotc cconom|c dcvc|omcnt |c county docs not |+vc +ny |o|c|gn
com+n|cs oc|+t|ng |n |t +t t|c momcnt o +tt|+ct bus|ncss dcvc|omcnt w|cn cond|t|ons
+||ow t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt must |ov|dc t|c ncccss+|y b+s|c |n||+st|uctu|c +nd t||s |cu||cs
+ |ugc +mount o| |unds to bc ut +s|dc |owcvc| t||s |s cxt|cmc|y d||||cu|t |o| + n+t|on+||y-
dcs|gn+tcd oo| county |||c Cuyu+n |n t|c cnd t|c +cu|s|t|on +nd conso||d+t|on o| |+nd |+s
bccomc + ncccss|ty |n |+vou| o| co|o|+t|ons +nd |c+| cst+tc dcvc|oc|s \|||c c|c+t|ng s+cc |o|
t||s dcvc|omcnt t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt |+s to |cst||ct t|c usc o| |+|m|+nd |o| non-+g||cu|tu|+|
u|oscs by t|c c+s+nts |n o|dc| to st|||c t|c ovc|+|| b+|+ncc bctwccn |+|m|+nd |csc|v+t|on
+nd convc|s|on
1. |ntc|v|cws w|t| |oc+| c+s+nts |c|cscnt|ng d|c|cnt +gcs gcndc| +nd occu+t|on+| g|ous |n d|c|cnt v|||+gcs |n |u|y .oos
1! |ntc|v|cws w|t| |oc+| c+s+nt |ousc|o|ds |n |u|y .oos
ong,un z|+o
!0z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|c county govc|nmcnt ||nc +gcnc|cs +|c t|+cd on t|c +t| tow+|ds cconom|cs o| sc+|c |n
+g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on m+||ng t|c m+x|m|z+t|on o| |+nd usc +nd |+nd +cu|s|t|on un+vo|d+b|y
d||||cu|t |o| t|cm |cy +|| sccmcd to +g|cc t|+t t|c county |+d no ot|c| ot|ons but to |nt|oducc
t|c d|+gon |c+d +g||bus|ncss ('co:ca ,e) to t+|c t|c |c+d |n o|g+n|z|ng sc+|cd |oduct|on
|cy com|+|ncd +bout t|c c+s+nts b+c|w+|dncss o| |dc+s |now|cdgc +nd s||||s |n +d,ust|ng
to t|c dcm+nds o| t|c m+||ct cconomy |owcvc| |o| t|c c+s+nts t|c |+c| o| sccu|c |+nd ||g|ts
+nd t|c mcc|+n|sms |o| t|+ns+|cnt +nd c||cct|vc +|tnc|s|| w|t| +g||bus|ncsscs cou|d on|y
m+|c t|cm c+st doubt on cvc|y +||+ngcmcnt concc|n|ng t|c usc o| t|c |+|m|+nd g|+ss|+nd +nd
|o|csts ^s t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt |+s t|c m+nd+tc to us| |u|t|c| +|c+d cconom|c dcvc|omcnt
|ts con|||ct|ng |ntc|csts w|t| t|c c+s+nts +|c cxcctcd to +||sc
|c d||cmm+ |o| sust+|n+b|c |u|+| dcvc|omcnt m+y |nd|c+tc t|c nccd to |co|g+n|zc t|c c+s+nts
w|o c+n co||cct|vc|y dcc|dc on |ow t|c|| |+nd +nd ot|c| |csou|ccs c+n bc uscd |oc||y ||s
|s +|so + |c|cu|s|tc |o| t|c |c+|t|y g|owt| o| +g||bus|ncsscs |||c t|osc ||ot sc|cmcs t+||ng
|+cc |n sout|c|n C||n+ t|c county ||nc +gcnc|cs st+|| o|ntcd out t|+t t|cy s|ou|d +||ow t|c
c+s+nts to bccomc |+nd s|+|c|o|dc|s +nd bcnc||t ||om +g||bus|ncsscs
14
|us t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc
s|ou|d |+y + b|ggc| |o|c |n un|t|ng t|c c+s+nts +nd +ssu||ng t|cm bcttc| cconom|c |ctu|ns on
+g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on ||t|m+tc|y t||s |cu||cs t|c cst+b||s|mcnt o| scc|+||zcd bus|ncss-o||cntcd
c+s+nt +ssoc|+t|ons |owcvc| t|c cu||cnt o||cy on t|csc o|g+n|z+t|ons |cu||cs + subst+nt|+|
+mount o| c+|t+| to bc |cg|stc|cd +nd t||s wou|d s|m|y mc+n t|+t |o| t|c oo| c+s+nts |t |s
|moss|b|c |o|covc| t|c |u|+| soc|ct+| st|uctu|c |s ||+gmcntcd +nd |t |s cxt|cmc|y d||||cu|t to b||ng
t|c c+s+nts togct|c| ||s +|so dcmonst|+tcs t|c |+||u|c o| t|c v|||+gc co||cct|vc +nd govc|nmcnt
o||cy |n |cv|t+||z|ng t|c soc|+| +nd o||t|c+| dyn+m|cs o| t|c C||ncsc count|ys|dc s|ncc t|c m+||ct
|c|o|m o| t|c |+tc 10s |c+||y 0 c|ccnt o| t|c |oc+| govc|nmcnt st+|| |c|d t|c v|cw t|+t t|c
t|cnd o| t|c |u|+| cconom|c |c|o|m s|ou|d |cvc|sc t|c || |nto gcnu|nc co||cct|vc |+nd usc +nd
m+n+gcmcnt ^nd t||s w+s t|oug|t to bc + w+y to |cv|t+||zc t|c C||ncsc count|ys|dc +nd |c|
t|c c+s+nts coc w|t| t|c|| vu|nc|+b|||t|cs to v+||ous soc|+| o||t|c+| cconom|c +nd n+tu|+| ||s|s
+ssoc|+tcd w|t| |+nd usc |owcvc| |ow to conv|ncc t|c c+s+nts +nd g|vc t|cm +n |nccnt|vc to
|o|m |c|cv+nt +g||bus|ncss g|ous o| +ssoc|+t|ons |cm+|ns + c|+||cngc |o| t|csc +ssoc|+t|ons m+y
bccomc t|c c+usc o| con|||ct|ng |ntc|csts |+t|c| t|+n |c|cscnt|ng co||cct|vc c||o|ts
5.3. Peasants contestations of farmland use
|c sc+|c o| c+s+nts sc||-o|g+n|z+t|on o| cconom|c soc|+| +nd o||t|c+| +ct|v|t|cs |s |+t|c| ||m|tcd
duc to t|c |nst|tut|on+| const|+|nts +s +||c+dy mcnt|oncd |ut t|cy +|c not +ss|vc |cc||cnts o|
14 |owcvc| s|+|c|o|d|ng cooc|+t|vcs |+vc t|c|| ||m|t+t|ons s|ncc t|c mcc|+n|sms |o| mutu+| suc|v|s|on +nd sc||-|cst|+|nts
+|c o|tcn |n+dcu+tc |c|cscnt+t|on o| t|c vu|nc|+b|c oo| |s not st|ong +nd t|c |ntc|csts o| c+|t+| m+y |cdom|n+tc (scc
C|cgg +,,s s+)
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
!0!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
govc|nmcnt |+ws +nd o||c|cs C|+ngcs |n t|c ccnt|+| govc|nmcnt o||cy t|+t |+vou|s +g||cu|tu|c
on t|c onc |+nd |+vc c|c+tcd mo|c |nccnt|vcs |o| t|c c+s+nts to c+|c +bout t|c|| |+nd on
t|c ot|c| |+nd t|cy +|so su| |oc+| con|||cts |+nd-|nduccd con|||cts bctwccn t|c c+s+nts
+nd |oc+| c+d|cs |+vc bccomc + t|o|ny govc|n+ncc m+ttc| ^ |ccu|||ng cx+m|c |s t|c tcns|on
bctwccn |ctu|n|ng c+s+nt m|g|+nts +nd |oc+| c+|dc|s ovc| |+nd |c+||oc+t|on V|||+gc co||cct|vcs
+nd towns|| govc|nmcnts +|c o|tcn com|+|ncd o| u|osc|y |c+||oc+t|ng t|c |+nd w|cn t|c
o||g|n+| |cg+| usc|s m|g|+tc to t|c c|t|cs |n t||s c+sc Cuyu+n |cscmb|cs t|c |cst o| t|c count|y
w|c|c |+|gc numbc|s o| |movc||s|cd |u|+| co|c |+vc bccomc m|g|+nts +s +|t o| t|c ||o+t|ng
ou|+t|on o| .00 m||||on to scc| tcmo|+|y wo|| |n c|t|cs (o||ngc| .00. z|+ng .001) o t|c
towns|| govc|nmcnt t|c |+nd |c|t by t|csc m|g|+nts s|ou|d bc |cd|st||butcd to +ccommod+tc
t|c nccds o| ot|c| g|ous |+|+dox|c+||y t||s |+ct|cc |s no |ongc| c|m|ttcd by |+w t|+t +|ms
to cnsu|c |+nd tcnu|c sccu||ty +nd cx||c|t|y c+||s |o| +n cnd to |+nd |c+d,ustmcnts
1
^s onc
mcmbc| o| t|c |oc+| towns|| govc|nmcnt st+|| |cm+||cd
|c cu||cnt |+nd |+w +nd o||cy do not |c+||y t+|c |nto +ccount t|c |oc+| cond|t|ons sc||ous|y
^nd |t |s somct|mcs cont|+d|cto|y |n tc|ms |o| |nst+ncc |t cns|||ncs womcns |+nd ||g|ts |ut
|| |+nd |c+d,ustmcnts +|c not +||owcd |ow c+n wc g|vc |+nd to t|c womcn w|o m+||y mcn |n
ou| v|||+gcs |cs|dcs t||s t|c |cccnt |+vou|+b|c +g||cu|tu|+| o||c|cs |+vc +ctu+||y cxtcndcd t|c
|nv|t+t|on to t|c m|g|+nts w|o w+nt to |ctu|n to |+|m|ng \|cn t|cy m|g|+tcd to c|t|cs t|cy |c|t
t|c|| |+nd |d|c +nd |ct us m+n+gc |t \c t|cn |c+scd |t to ot|c|s w|o cou|d |+|m t|c |+nd |ow
c+n wc |ctu|n t||s |+nd to t|cm w|cn |t |s |n ot|c|s |+nds |c|| d|scontcnt w|t| us |+s |cd to
s|y|oc|ct|ng c+scs o| ct|t|ons but wc ||nd |t |+|d to mcct t|c|| dcm+nds
1o
|csc con|||cts do not |nd|c+tc t|+t t|c |oc+| c+s+nts |+vc mo|c systcm|c concc|ns ovc| |ow
t|c|| |+nd c+n bc ut|||zcd |n + sust+|n+b|c w+y ct t|csc con|||cts s|ow t|c c+s+nts g|ow|ng
concc|ns +bout t|c|| ||g|ts ||vc|||oods +nd |nc||cct|vc o||c|cs |n t|c contcxt o| w|dcn|ng soc|+|
|ncu+||ty bctwccn d|||c|cnt g|ous ^s + |csu|t |+nd |c+d,ustmcnts m+y ||v||cgc somc w|||c
m+|g|n+||z|ng ot|c|s duc to t|c |+ct|cc o| c|son+||sm c||cntc||sm +nd nctwo|||ng t+ct|cs
c+|||cd out by t|c dom|n+nt g|ou (scc |on|n| .00c) |o|covc| c+s+nts st|ugg|cs |o| |+nd usc
+|c so|+d|c +nd sc|dom o|g+n|zcd systcm+t|c+||y |n tc|ms o| t|c c|c+t|on o| c||cct|vc g|ous
t|+t c+n m+x|m|zc t|c|| |n||ucncc +nd co||cct|vc |o|cc ||s m+y |nd|c+tc t|+t t|c cu||cnt ||
|s |ncxt||c+b|y ||n|cd to t||s w|t| |ts n+tu|c o| ||+gmcnt+t|on o| +g||cu|tu|+| |oduct|on +s wc||
+s soc|+| co|cs|on w||c| |s + d||||cu|t +|c+ o| |csc+|c| +s owc| dyn+m|cs |n + g|vcn sctt|ng
1 ^|t|c|c .; o| t|c .oo. |u|+| |+nd Cont|+ct|ng |+w st+tcs t|+t |+nd +d,ustmcnt |s |o||b|tcd du||ng t|c cont|+ct c||od |vcn
so ^|t|c|c .s st+tcs t|+t |+nd +d,ustmcnt s|ou|d bc donc on t|c |+nd |ctu|ncd by t|c cont|+ctcd |ousc|o|ds to +ccommod+tc
ncw|y |nc|c+scd |ousc|o|ds !us |t |c+vcs s+cc |o| +mb|guous |oc+| |ntc||ct+t|on +s |t |s |+|d to tc|| w||c| |+nd bc|ongs to
t|c |ctu|ncd m|g|+nts
1o |ntc|v|cw |n |u|y .oos
ong,un z|+o
!04
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
c+n ||ndc| |n-dct| |nvcst|g+t|ons +s t||s c+sc stud|cs cncountc|cd |+|+dox|c+||y 0 c|ccnt
o| t|c |ntc|v|cwccs |nd|c+tcd t|+t t|cy wou|d |+t|c| |cc t|c || +s t|cy d|d not t|ust t|c
co||cct|vc |c |cst c|t|c| |c|c||cd t|c o|d communc systcm o| s|m|y |+d no |c|c|cnccs
|ut t|cy +|| t|oug|t t|+t dcvc|omcnt o||c|cs +nd |+ws concc|n|ng t|c|| |+nd ||g|ts s|ou|d bc
st|cngt|cncd omc cvcn cx|csscd t|c|| |nc||n+t|on tow+|ds |+nd ||v+t|z+t|on w||c| wou|d
|dc+||y cns|||nc mo|c sccu|c ||g|ts |o| t|c c+s+nts |ut +|| o| t|cm cx|csscd t|c|| concc|ns
+bout t|c +bscncc o| v|+b|c |oc|ty |c|+t|ons |o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt +nd
ovc|ty +||cv|+t|on +s + w|o|c
6. Conclusions
||s study |nd|c+tcs t|+t t|c convcnt|on+| |nd|v|du+||st|c +|o+c| to |+nd |csou|cc tcnu|c
|+s not b|oug|t +bout v|+b|c so|ut|ons to +dd|css|ng t|c com|cx|ty o| |u|+| ovc|ty +nd |ts
undc||y|ng |nst|tut|on+| const|+|nts |c|y|ng on m+||ct-o||cntcd dcvc|omcnt modc|s C||n+s
cconom|c succcss |+s |ncu||cd scvc|c soc|+| +nd cnv||onmcnt+| costs o + cc|t+|n cxtcnt t|c
|c|+ccmcnt o| t|c co||cct|vc |nst|tut|on suc| +s communc w|t| t|c || |+s cx+cc|b+tcd |ts
dcvc|omcnt+| d||cmm+ |c sc||ous ||+ws o| t||s +|o+c| +nd t|c ||cto||c o| dcvc|omcnt
o||c|cs +|c not |csons|vc to |oc+| b|o|ys|c+| o||t|c+| +nd cconom|c |c+||t|cs (Cut+ 1c) ^s
+ |csu|t t|c cu||cnt |+nd tcnu|c |cg|mc |s +tt||but+b|c to s|o|t-tc|m dcvc|omcnt g+|ns |+t|c|
t|+n sust+|n+b|c |csou|cc usc |n t|c |ong |un |o|covc| |t |s |ntc|wovcn w|t| t|c +bscncc o|
+|o||+tc |nst|tut|on+| mcc|+n|sms |o| c||cct|vc sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt |n +
|cg|on w|c|c ovc|ty +nd n+tu|+| |csou|cc dcg|+d+t|on |cv+||
|c || +s +n cmbod|mcnt o| modc|n m+n+gcmcnt |nst|tut|on |+s bccn + cont||but|ng |+cto|
|o| t|c ||+gmcnt+t|on o| soc|+| |c|+t|ons +nd |s +n cx+m|c o| t|c |+c| o| c++c|ty o| t|c |oc+| st+tc
+nd |+c| o| co||cct|vc +ct|on o| |oc+| commun|ty |n |oc+| dcvc|omcnt |occsscs |c |oc+| st+tc
uts ovc|t cm|+s|s on mcct|ng ||g|c|-|cvc| st+tc dcm+nds |+t|c| t|+n sc|v|ng t|c commun|ty
nccds |||st (|ung ct +| .00 C|||st|+nscn z|+ng 1c) ||s |s |c|n|o|ccd by t|c || w|c|cby
commun|t|cs +|c m+|g|n+||zcd |n |+nd usc |+nn|ng +nd b|o+dc|-|cvc| o| v|||+gc govc|n+ncc |n t|c
contcxt o| ||s|ng soc|+| |ncu+||ty +c|oss t|c count|y |t bccomcs mo|c d||||cu|t |o| t|c st+tc to
o|g+n|zc t|c c+s+nt|y |c |+ct t|+t somc c+s+nts suo|t t|c || +ctu+||y |m||cs t|+t t|cy
m|st|ust ot|c| oss|b|c mc+su|cs |moscd uon t|cm by t|c st+tc |n ot|c| wo|ds t|cy +|c not
g|vcn t|c s+cc to cx|o|c ot|c| bcttc| systcms o| |+nd tcnu|c by t|c st+tc
|c soc|+| |+b||c o| t|c |u|+| soc|cty |s not s|m|c |t |s |mo|t+nt to undc|st+nd |ow mcc|+n|sms
o| owc| |+vc bccn +b|c to |unct|on w|t||n t|c soc|cty +nd bctwccn soc|cty +nd st+tc |n o|dc|
to |nvcst|g+tc t|c +gcnts |csons|b|c |o| soc|+| const|ucts (|ouc+u|t 1co) |n t||s scnsc t||s
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
!0
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
c+sc study s|ows t|+t +|t|oug| mcc|+n|sms |o| c+s+nts co||cct|vc +ct|on |cm+|n unc|c+| +nd
cvcn wc+| t|c|| d+||y st|ugg|cs +|c omn||cscnt |n t|c|| d|so|g+n|zcd +nd s||cnt contcst+t|ons
|owcvc| t|c|| |cs|st+ncc |s not gcnu|nc |n t|c scnsc o| bc|ng o|g+n|zcd w|t| c|c+| mot|vcs +nd
go+|s +s dc||ncd by cott (1c) ||s |nd|v|du+||y-b+scd +nd sccm|ng|y +ss|vc |cs|st+ncc to t|c
|+nd usc |nst|tut|ons |cvc+|s t|c +bscncc o| t|c mcc|+n|sms |o| gcnu|nc c+s+nt +|t|c|+t|on |n
o||cy-m+||ng |occsscs concc|n|ng t|c|| |+nd usc +nd govc|n+ncc
^s t|c c+s+nt-|oc+| st+tc |c|+t|ons bccomc mo|c mu||y +nd com|cx +nd soc|+| dyn+m|cs +mong
d|||c|cnt soc|+| g|ous bccomc mo|c |nt|+ct+b|c |ow to |cv|t+||zc t|c C||ncsc count|ys|dc by
m+||ng t|c com|cx soc|+| o||t|c+| +nd cconom|c |c|+t|ons||s wo|| |o| t|c go+| o| sust+|n+b|c
|+nd usc +nd |u|+| dcvc|omcnt |cm+|ns +n u|t|m+tc c|+||cngc |o| o||cy-m+|c|s w|o nccd
to |ct||n| t|c|| cu||cnt |nst|tut|ons govc|n|ng |+|m|+nd usc +nd n+tu|+| |csou|cc m+n+gcmcnt
|t |s csscnt|+| to t+c||c t|c st|uctu|+| b+|||c|s to |+w +nd o||cy-m+||ng mcc|+n|sms t|+t ut
const|+|nts on t|c |c|cscnt+t|on o| t|c c+s+nts w|osc nccd to +|t|c|+tc |n t|c |occss
s|ou|d bc nu|tu|cd +nd cmowc|cd (C+| .00! || ct +| .004)
|n + nuts|c|| no s|ng|c tyc o| |+nd ownc|s|| bc |t govc|nmcnt ||v+tc o| commun|ty |s +
b|uc||nt |o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt (||ctz ct +| .00!) ^ ncw |o|m o| |+nd
tcnu|c cong|ucnt w|t| |oc+| cconom|c cco|og|c+| o||t|c+| +nd soc|+| cond|t|ons s|ou|d bc
cx|o|cd +nd tcstcd by o||cy-m+|c|s ||s |o|m o| |+nd tcnu|c |+s to sc|vc t|c nccds o|
sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt w||c| |s |+|gc|y |m|ngcd on st+tc-c+s+nt |c|+t|ons |n
|ct|oscct t|csc com|cx |c|+t|ons +|c s|+cd by |+nd tcnu|c +||+ngcmcnts |us |utu|c |+nd
o||cy dcvc|omcnts s|ou|d bc b+scd on sound +n+|yscs o| t|c |ntc|conncct|ons bctwccn |+nd
tcnu|c |+nd usc +nd m+n+gcmcnt +nd soc|o-o||t|c+| |c|+t|ons t|c |m||c+t|ons o| w||c| +|c
c||t|c+| |o| C||n+s t|+ns|t|on to cnsu|c t|c +ccom||s|mcnt o| sust+|n+b|c dcvc|omcnt go+|s |n
scm|-+||d |cg|ons |n +|t|cu|+|
References
|^| |un,|+ng
Stlcklng to tbe target and overcomlng dl cultles to ensure
tbe completlon or tbe tasks or provlnclal collectlve rorestry rerorm sccc| +t t|c |ov|nc|+|
co||cct|vc |o|cst|y |c|o|m coo|d|n+t|on mcct|ng unub||s|cd sccc| notc .oo;
|^|| e: a' Commun|ty-b+scd g|+ss|+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n wcstc|n C||n+ |+t|on+|c ||ot cxc||cncc
+nd o||cy |m||c+t|ons Mountaln kesearcb and Uevelopment v ., n . +,.-+|o .oo,
ong,un z|+o
!06
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
||^|^|| C C||ncsc |+nd |c|o|m |n |ong-tc|m c|scct|vc +nd |n t|c w|dc| c+st ^s|+n contcxt ournal
or Agrarlan Cbange v | n +;. |+n;^| +o;-+|+ .oo|
C^| ongs|un Co||cct|vc ownc|s|| o| c+d|cs ownc|s|| !c non-+g||cu|tu|+| usc o| |+|m|+nd |n C||n+
le Cblna Quarterly |ssuc +;, ee.-eso .oo,
C|^|C |yu+ng-u !c soc|+|-o||t|c+| |occsscs o| +g||cu|tu|+| dcco||cct|v|s+t|on |n + |o|t| C||n+
communc Cblna keport v,o n| ,,,-|oe +,,|
C||| C ccu||ng + |u|+| |+nd m+||ct |o||t|c+|-cconom|c dctc|m|n+nts o| |nst|tut|on+| c|+ngc |n C||n+s
+g||cu|tu|+| sccto| Aslan erspectlve v ., n | .o,-.|| .oo,
C||||^||| | z|^|C | (cds) vlllage lNC.. Cblnese rural soclety ln tbe +,,os |ono|u|u |n|vc|s|ty
o| |+w+|| ||css +,,s
C|| |+|x|ng \^|C ||un
C|ccn |o| g|+|n |og|+mmc +nd |u|+| soc|cty cm|||c+| stud|cs on Cuyu+n county |n C|||^
OC|^| C|||C| ^|||^| CO||||||C| .ooe roceedlngs.ooe
|||z ct +| !c st|ugg|c to govc|n t|c commons Sclence n ,o. +,o;-+,+. .oo,
|O|C^|| | ||sc|||n+|y owc| +nd sub,cct|on |||| (cd) ower |cw o|| |cw o|| |n|vc|s|ty
||css +,se
COV|||||| O| C|||^ Crassland Law or tbe eoples kepubllc or Cblna .oo.
____ kural Land Contractlng Law or tbe eoples kepubllc or Cblna .oo.
____ (Communlst arty Central Commlttee
State Councll oplnlon on promotlng collectlve rorestry tenure rerorm) .oos ||son|vc| cm
n:://eo'snc..o//....7/+/.co:eo:_.+++.!n:o. ^ccsso cm .o |cc .oo,
C||^ ^ ostcolonlal Uevelopments. Agrlculture ln tbe Maklng or tbe Modern lndla |u||+m |C
|u|c |n|vc|s|ty ||css +,,s
C||^| CO|| COV|||||| (Cuyuan County blstory) |+od|ng z|ongguo s+nx|+
||css .oo,
C||^| CO|| ||C|||||^| ||||C|O| ||||^|
(lmprove lnstltutlons and strengtbenlng management to regularlze vlllage cadres bebavlor)
.oo, ||son|vc| cm n:://...,'c..o/oe.s_(eGacas.cae=....+:a=+!!. ^ccsso
cm .o |cc .oo,
C||^| |OV|| ^|||V|^|O| O|||C| (kesearcb report
on poverty and development ln Cuyuan county) unub||s|cd |co|t .oo;
|^|||| C |+gcdy o| t|c commons Sclence v +e. n +.|, +,es
|nd|v|du+| |+nd tcnu|c +nd t|c c|+||cngcs o| sust+|n+b|c |+nd usc
+nd m+n+gcmcnt |n + scm|-+||d |cg|on |n C||n+
!07
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
|||O| \ le rlvatlzatlon or Cblna, tbe Creat keversal |ondon |+|t|sc+n |ub||c+t|ons +,,o
|O | developmental dllemmas. land rerorm and lnstltutlonal cbange ln Cblna |ondon |cw o||
|out|cdgc .oo,
|| \ |ousc|o|d |+nd tcnu|c |c|o|m |n C||n+ |ts |m+ct on |+|m|ng |+nd usc +nd +g|o-cnv||onmcnt
Land Use ollcy v +| n , +;,-+se +,,;
||^|C Agrlcultural rerorm ln Cblna C+mb||dgc C+mb||dgc |n|vc|s|ty ||css +,,s
||^|C | |cccnt|+||z+t|on cco|og|c+| const|uct|on +nd t|c cnv||onmcnt |n ost-|c|o|m C||n+ c+sc
study ||om |x|n |+nnc| |nnc| |ongo||+ World Uevelopment v ,| n ++ +,o;-+,.+ .ooe
|^||| | ct +| New borlzons ror rural rerorm ln Cblna. kesources, property rlgbts and consumerlsm
t+n|o|d Ccnt|c |o| |ntc|n+t|on+| |cvc|omcnt .oo, ||son|vc| cm n:://aeoee'e,
eaa/~a.n/:'aes/:C||_|||._ooo,a/. ^ccsso cm +, |+n .o+o
|||C | ct +| |u|+| c+d|cs +nd govc|n+ncc |n C||n+ |nccnt|vc |nst|tut|on +nd +ccount+b|||ty le Cblna
ournal n e. e+-;; .oo,
|^| |\C |+nd usc ||g|ts |c|o|m +nd t|c |c+| cst+tc m+||ct |n C||n+ + synot|c +ccount o| t|co|ct|c+|
|ssucs +nd t|c |oc|ty ||g|ts systcm roperty Management v +, n | .+-.s +,,,
|| X ct +| (cds) Lnvlronment and poverty. tbe Cblnese practlce and lnternatlonal experlences |c|,|ng
oc|+| c|cnccs ^c+dcm|c ||css .oo,
____:oo,-:oo Status or kural Cblna |c|,|ng oc|+| c|cnccs ^c+dcm|c ||css .oo|
||C||||||C | |||C C ^sscss|ng |+|m|+nd |otcct|on o||cy |n C||n+ Land Use ollcy n ., ,,-
es .oos
|||||||^| |C |^||O| || 8ureaucracy, polltlcs, and declslon-maklng ln post-Mao Cblna
|c||c|cy |os ^ngc|cs |n|vc|s|ty o| C+|||o|n|+ ||css +,,.
||| Cco|gc |O +muc| | C||n+s |+nd |csou|ccs +nd |+nd-usc c|+ngc |ns|g|ts ||om t|c +,,e |+nd
su|vcy Land Use ollcy n .o s;-+o, .oo,
||^O C \| |^ C||n+ co||cct|vc |o|cst|+nds cont||but|ons +nd const|+|nts lnternatlonal |orestry
kevlew v e n ,-| .s.-.,s .oo|
||||| O| ^C||C|||||
(Clrcular or tbe Mlnlstry or Agrlcultures declslon on lnspectlon and punlsbment concernlng
tbe Cuyuan County or lebel rovlnces mlsmanagement or grassland cases) |ssuc n ., .ooe
||||^V|| | |nv||onmcnt+| dcg|+d+t|on |n |c||ong,|+ng o||cy |c|o|m +nd +g|+||+n dyn+m|cs |n C||n+s
ncw |yb||d cconomy Annals or Assoclatlon or Amerlcan Ceograpbers v s; n | ,;,-e+, +,,;
|O|||| || |s C||n+ bccom|ng nco||bc|+| Crltlque or Antbropology v .s n . +|,-+;e .oos
ong,un z|+o
!08
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! c-10c ,u|-dcz .011
^|||| | !c o||t|c+| cconomy o| C||ncsc cnv||onmcnt+| |otcct|on |cssons o| t|c |+o +nd |cng
yc+|s llrd World Quarterly v .o ne +.o+-+.+| +,,,
CO |C Weapons or tbe weak. everyday rorms or peasant reslstance |cw |+vcn +|c |n|vc|s|ty
||css +,s,
O|||C|| || !c o+t|ng ou|+t|on |n t|c c|t|cs m+||cts m|g|+t|on +nd t|c |osccts |o| c|t|zcns||
|n |||| | ||||| || (cds) Cblna o centre. mapplng tbe mlddle marglns or tbe mlddle
klngdom .;,-.,o |+no+ |n|vc|s|ty o| |+w+|| ||css .oo.
|^| |C |o|cst|y |c|o|m +nd t|c t|+ns|o|m+t|on o| st+tc c++c|ty |n ||n-dc-|cc|c C||n+ le ournal
or Aslan Studles v es n | ++e,-++ss .oo,
z|||^| ^ le dynamlcs or soclal-economlc development. an lntroductlon C+mb||dgc C+mb||dgc
|n|vc|s|ty ||css .oo,
\^|C ct +| |cccnt |+nd usc c|+ngcs |n no|t| dust sto|m sou|cc +|c+ +cct|ng |c|,|ng +nd |+n,|n |
^g|o-+sto|+| t|+ns|t|on+| zonc lLLL .|o.-.|o, .oo,
\||||^| || !c b+|bcd w+||s o| C||n+ + contcmo|+|y g|+ss|+nd d|+m+ le ournal or Aslan
Studles v ,, n , ee,-e,+ +,,e
\O|C | Land rerorm ln tbe peoples kepubllc or Cblna. lnstltutlonal transrormatlon ln agrlculture,
New York 8 London ||+cgc| |ub||s|c|s +,;,
X||||^ |ct (Cuyuan. wbat ls beblnd tbe case or lllegal
grassland reclamatlon) .ooe ||son|vc| cm n:://...ne\onaaoe:.co/asn/.oo.o,/,o/
.co:eo:_..o,,.n:o. ^ccsso cm +, |u| .oos
X||||^ ||\ ^C||C C||n+ to us| |o|w+|d co||cct|vc |o|cst|y |+nd |c|o|m +, |u| .oos ||son|vc|
cm n:://....noac.o. ^ccsso cm +, |u| .oos
|| | ||oc|ty |c|+t|ons |n |bct s|ncc dcco||cct|v|s+t|on +nd t|c ucst|on o| |uzz|ncss Conservatlon
and Soclety v . n + +o;-+,+ .oo|
z|| | Co||cct|vcs |+nd |n count|ys|dc s|ou|d bc uscd undc| t+x+t|on Study on Cblnas Land roblems
|c|,|ng C||n+ |conom|c ||css ;s-s+ +,,+
z|^|C | Strangers ln tbe Clty. keconguratlons or Space, ower, and Soclal Networks wltbln
Cblnas |loatlng opulatlon t+n|o|d t+n|o|d |n|vc|s|ty ||css .oo+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
Vulnerabilidade e resilincia socioambiental no
contexto da mudana climtica: o caso do Programa
Nacional de Produo e Uso de Biodiesel (PNPB)

*
Martin Obermaier

**,

Emilio Lbre La Rovere

***
' O |cscntc t|+b+||o sc b+sc|+ n+ tcsc dc douto|+do dc |+|t|n Obc|m+|c| Vc||os c |ovos |||cm+s nos c|tocs |ud+n+s
C||m+t|c+s Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c ^d+t+io no cm|+||do ||+s||c||o (.o++)
'' |+|t|n Obc|m+|c| c douto| cm |+nc,+mcnto cnc|gct|co c|+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| do ||o dc |+nc||o (||||)
''' |m|||o |cb|c |+ |ovc|c c douto| cm tccno|og|+s cconom|c+s n+ |co|c dcs |+utcs |tudcs cn c|cnccs oc|+|cs dc |+||s c
coo|dcn+do| do |+bo|+to||o |ntc|d|sc|||n+| dc |c|o ^mb|cntc (||m+) c o Ccnt|o |ntcg|+do dc |studos dc |c|o ^mb|cntc c
|ud+n+s C||m+t|c+s (Ccnt|o C||m+) d+ ||||
Resumo
|stc +|t|go d|scutc +d+t+io mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| cm |cg|ocs scm|+||d+s como
cst|+tcg|+ dc |cduio d+ vu|nc|+b|||d+dc |oc+| c +
|o|m+io dc |occssos dc t|+ns|io +|+ cst+dos
dc |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| m+|s dcsc,+vc|s ^||-
c+mos o u+d|o tco||co no c+so do ||og|+m+ |+-
c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||) c os
scus cs|o|os +|+ |ntcg|+| +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs
do no|dcstc b|+s||c||o n+ c+dc|+ |odut|v+ dc b|o-
combust|vc|s Os |csu|t+dos |nd|c+m uc cnu+n-
to o |||| |ntcg|+ |c|cv+ntcs comoncntcs +|+
|cduio dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs como + +ss|stcnc|+
tccn|c+ ou +ccsso + mc|c+dos |utu|os m+|s sus-
tcnt+vc|s no scm|+||do no|dcst|no dccndc|io
|und+mcnt+|mcntc dc |c|o|m+s soc|occonom|-
c+s m+|s +m|+s +|+ comb+tc| os |occssos so-
c|+|s cxc|us|vos |und+mcnt+|mcntc um+ +d+t+-
io bcm succd|d+ |m||c+|+ +ocs concc|t+d+s cm
n|vc|s |oc+|s |cg|on+|s c n+c|on+|s
Abstract
ns a:.'e as.asses /ao', /aoe aaa:a:co
:c .'oa:e .naoe o seoaa ecos as 'c.a'
.a'oeao':, eaa.:co aoa /coo :aos:co
c.esses :c.aas oce aesao'e s:a:es c/ sc.c
e.c'c.a' es'eo.e we a', :ns oe:ncac'c.a'
/aoe.c :c :ne .ase c/ :ne `a:coa' |cao co
8caese' |caa.:co aoa Jse |`|8) aoa :s e//c:s
:c o:ea:e /ao', /aoes /co :ne 8a'ao
oc:neas: o:c oc/ae' .cooca:, .naos ne esa':s
oa.a:e :na: .n'e :ne |`|8 aaaesses oc:ao:
.cocoeo:s /c .a'oeao':, eaa.:cosa.n
as :e.no.a' asss:ao.e c oae: a..essoce
sas:aoao'e /a:aes .'' esseo:a'', e', co ocaae
sc.ce.coco. e/cos :c oea .:n .aeo:',
sc.a'', e\.'as.e c.esses |o a:.a'a sa..ess/a'
aaa:a:co .'' oeea .co.e:ea a.:cos a: 'c.a'
ecoa' aoa oa:coa' s.a'e
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
++o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
1. Introduo
^ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| cm +|c+s scm|+||d+s c +|t+mcntc suscct|vc| +os |m+ctos d+ v+||+b|||d+dc
c mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ (||CC .oo;) |o cnt+nto o scto| +g||co|+ tcm most|+do ||sto||c+mcntc
um+ |o|tc c++c|d+dc dc sc +d+t+| + ||scos sc,+m c|cs c||m+t|cos ou nio (|||O| | ||| .oo,)
|m cxcm|o +|t|cu|+| c o sc|tio no|dcst|no do ||+s|| ondc +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs d+ |cg|io ||-
d+m com dcc|ts ||d||cos c scc+s |cco||cntcs dcsdc os ||mo|d|os d+ co|on|z+io d+ +|c+ c tcm
sc +d+t+do + |sso |xcm|os |nc|ucm cnt|c out|os + ccu+||+ cxtcns|v+ com b+sc cm |o||+gcm
c |+mbcdou|os +|+ +||mcnt+io +n|m+| um+ +g||cu|tu|+ comc|c|+| +d+t+d+ + dcc|ts ||d||cos
como + c+n+-dc-+uc+| c o +|godio +ss|m como o |+nt|o dc cu|t|vos dc subs|stcnc|+ |cs|stcntcs
s scc+s |nc|u|ndo m+nd|oc+ m|||o c |c|,io (||^|O || +,|, ^|||^|| .oo,)
O dcscnvo|v|mcnto +g||co|+ no cnt+nto vc|o + um +|to custo soc|o+mb|cnt+| io ||cucntcs os
|c|+to||os sob|c m|g|+io |o|+d+ m+ nut||io c mo|tcs dcv|do +os dcc|ts ||d||cos |cco||cntcs
(|||C||^| +,e, CO|| .oo+) |cstc contcxto + +|t+ dcm+nd+ dc c+|nc nos ccnt|os ||to-
|+|s do +|s do +|godio c d+ c+n+ como .cooca:es +g||co|+s |m||cou no dcscnvo|v|mcnto
d+ +g||cu|tu|+ dc subs|stcnc|+ somcntc como +cnd|cc +g||cu|tu|+ comc|c|+| |sso tcm s|do cv|-
dcnc|+do c|o uso dc so|os dc u+||d+dc |n|c||o| ou tc||+s dcg|+d+d+s +|+ +|c+s dc subs|stcnc|+
mctodos +g||co|+s |ud|mcnt+|cs dcscons|dc|+io do uso dc |c|t|||z+ntcs ou cst|c|d+s (mcsmo
o|gn|cos) c ouco dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc ||||g+io d|cn+gcm ou out|+s tccn|c+s dc |cgu|+mcn-
t+io dc +gu+ (||^|O || +,|, |^|^ CO|| .oo+ C^|V^||O | |C||| .oo,) ^|cm d|s-
so + c||+io cxtcns|v+ dc g+do + |+t|c+ dc uc|m+d+s n+ +g||cu|tu|+ c o uso dcscont|o|+do d+
|cn|+ (cscc|+|mcntc nos cngcn|os +|+ + |oduio dc +uc+|) tcm |cv+do |o|tc dcg|+d+io
d+ c++t|ng+ um dos m+|o|cs b|om+s do +|s (;,, m|| |m.) |nc|u|ndo |occssos dc c|osio
dc so|o dcsc|t|c+io ||+gmcnt+io d+ cobc|tu|+ vcgct+| c c|d+s dc b|od|vc|s|d+dc (||^|O
|| +,|, C^||C||O | ^| .o+o) ^cs+| dc |o/ d+ vcgct+io o||g|n+| d+ c++t|ng+ cst+| |nt+ct+
ouc+s +|c+s d+ |cg|io nio sio cconom|c+mcntc ut|||z+d+s (C^||C||O | ^| .o+o) ^cn+s +/
dc su+ +|c+ cst+ |otcg|d+ (||;||^ c |||| .oo;)
|+ o|t+nto um ++|cntc +|+doxo dc um |+do + vu|nc|+b|||d+dc dc +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs
||cntc os ||scos c||m+t|cos c soc|occonom|cos c do out|o |+do + |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| d+
+g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| como um con,unto +|+ +bso|vc| ou sc |ccuc|+| dc t+|s c|oucs |m out|+s
+|+v|+s +o mcsmo tcmo cm uc + +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do sc|tio c +|t+mcntc vu|nc|+vc| c|+ sc
most|+ cxt|cm+mcntc |cs|||cntc
alavras-cbave. Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o-
+mb|cnt+| ^d+t+io ^g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| cm|+-
||do ||+s||
keywords. \a'oeao':, :c.ce.c'c.a' es'eo.e
^aa:a:co |ao', /aoe :eoaa 8a'
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+++
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
|csu|s+s sob|c +d+t+io mud+n+ do c||m+ tcm |ntcg|+do + c|cnc|+ dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c
|cs|||cnc|+ cm scu c+mo dc cstudo (|^||| | O|O| .ooe C^||O||| .ooe |CC|^
| ^| .oo; |^||| | |^ .o++) ^ +n+||sc dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc tcm sc ccnt|+do no mot|vo d+
vu|nc|+b|||d+dc ou sc,+ o| uc c cm u+|s cond|ocs +to|cs sio vu|nc|+vc|s |css+ |o|m+ dcs-
t+c+m-sc ||g+ocs cx||c|t+s + tcm+s como ob|cz+ cxc|usio soc|+| ou os |m+ctos d+ g|ob+||-
z+io n+ +g||cu|tu|+ cm vcz dc um |oco dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc |cst||to +os |m+ctos d+ mud+n+
do c||m+ (|^||| | |||| .ooe ^|C|| .ooe O||||| | ^| .oos |^|O|| | ||C|| .o++)
|o| out|o |+do |cs|||cnc|+ dcn|d+ como + c++c|d+dc dc um s|stcm+ dc +bso|vc| d|stu|b|os c
sc |co|g+n|z+| num s|stcm+ tot+|mcntc |unc|on+|
+
(C||| | ^| .oos ,,,-eoo) |oc+ n+
c++c|d+dc dc +v+n+| o cst+do dc s|stcm+s soc|o+mb|cnt+|s
.
+t|+vcs dc |occssos dc +|cnd|-
z+gcm c +d+t+io (|c|son ct +| .oo; Cuttc| ct +| .oos) |css+ |o|m+ bo+ |cs|||cnc|+ ou cs-
t+dos m+|s dcsc,+vc|s dc um s|stcm+ sio ||g+dos oss|b|||d+dc dc scgu|| t|+,cto||+s +|+ |utu|os
m+|s sustcnt+vc|s no contcxto dc c|csccntcs |m+ctos c+us+dos c|+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ c d+s
vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs soc|+|s c c||m+t|c+s +tu+|s (|O||| .ooe |||O| | ^| .oo;)
| |mo|t+ntc cntcndc| uc |csost+s |oc+|s +|+ |cduz|| vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs cx|stcntcs (+d+t+io)
nio ncccss+||+mcntc +nd+m no mcsmo com+sso dc |occssos +|+ um+ |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+m-
b|cnt+| m+|s dcsc,+vc| dc um s|stcm+ ||c|+|u|c+mcntc m+|o| (|^||| | \|||| .oo,) |o|t+nto
+n+||s+| +ocs uc tcnt+m |cduz|| vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs cm um u+d|o tco||co dc |cs|||cnc|+ s|stcm|-
c+ const|tu| um |mo|t+ntc c+mo dc cstudos |csu|s+s ncstc mb|to (|||O| | ^| .oo;
|^||| | \|||| .oo, O|^|| | ^| .o+o) tcm sc ccnt|+do cscc|c+mcntc cm como |o-
ccssos ou |cost+s |oc+|s odcm dcs|oc+| s|stcm+s (o| cxcm|o + +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| num+ dc-
tc|m|n+d+ |cg|io) cm d||cio + cst+dos dc aaa:eaoess
,
um+ s|tu+io cm u+| um dctc|m|n+-
do s|stcm+ c cc+z no |c|+c|on+mcnto com o scu mc|o +mb|cntc c cum|+ +s mct+s no|m+t|v+s
cst+bc|cc|d+s o| su+s +|tcs |ntc|css+d+s (|||O| | ^| .oo; |oo)
|cnt|o dcssc contcxto + +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| d+ |cg|io scm|+||d+ b|+s||c||+ c um cstudo dc c+so
|ntc|css+ntc m+s +|nd+ ouco csu|s+do |studos +ntc||o|cs |oc+v+m n+ |dcnt|c+io dc c+us+s-
-|+|zcs dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs n+ +g||cu|tu|+ c nos c|c|tos d+ ossc d+ tc||+ sob|c vu|nc|+b|||d+dc + sc-
c+s (|||^| | |||O| .oo+ |||O .oo; O|| | |O|^||^ .oos) od+v|+ csu|s+s no ||+s||
+|nd+ cstio |o|tcmcntc ||m|t+d+s d|scussio dc ||scos c |m+ctos c||m+t|cos cm vcz dc |nco|o|+|
um dcb+tc m+|s +m|o |nc|u|ndo +s vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs soc|+|s ou + |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| (O|||-
+ od+s +s t|+duocs sio dos +uto|cs
. |stcm+s soc|o+mb|cnt+|s sio |mo|t+ntcs un|d+dcs dc +n+||sc o|uc |omcm |o|m+ scu mc|o +mb|cntc d+ mcsm+ |o|m+ uc
c|c c |o|m+do o| sc|v|os ou suo|tcs dc ccoss|stcm+s (|O||| .ooe)
, |io cx|stc um+ t|+duio +o o|tugucs uc |nco|o|+ o scnt|do com|cto dcss+ dcn|io |o| |sso us+|cmos o tc|mo o||g|n+|
+o |ongo do |cscntc t|+b+||o
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
++:
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
|^||| .o++)
|
|+ o|cm um cons|dc|+vc| |ntc|cssc cm +|cndc| + +|t|| dcss+ |cccntc vc|tcntc
dc csu|s+ no +no +ss+do n+ con|c|cnc|+ |ntc|n+c|on+| |C|| +s cm |o|t+|cz+ d|scut|u-sc + |c|+-
io cnt|c sustcnt+b|||d+dc c||m+ c dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto cm |cg|ocs scm|+||d+s |o onto dc v|st+
|+t|co + |cduio dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| tcm s|do |m||c|t+mcntc |ntcg|+d+ n+
+gcnd+ o||t|c+ b|+s||c||+ v|+ |og|+m+s dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto |cg|on+| c |og|+m+s soc|+|s |cssc
contcxto tcm s|do dc |ntc|cssc +|t|cu|+| n+ |cg|io do scm|+||do os |cccntcs cs|o|os +|+ |ntcg|+|
+g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs do sc|tio n+ c+dc|+ |odut|v+ dc b|ocombust|vc|s o| mc|o do ||og|+m+
|+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
|o |cscntc +|t|go +n+||s+mos como o |||| conscguc |cduz|| vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs |oc+|s no sc|-
tio c como |sso odc||+ sc| ||g+do + um+ |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| m+|o| ^ +n+||sc sc b+sc|+
no u+d|o cst+bc|cc|do o| |+mb|n (.oo,) c |+||n c \c|bc (.oo,) c o +c| dos comoncntcs-
-c|+vcs oc:.aac o/coaac c .aa.aaae cm um u+d|o tco||co dc |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cn-
t+| |ntcg|+mos cx||c|t+mcntc n+ noss+ +n+||sc o dcb+tc sob|c + |cduio d+ ob|cz+ do u+|
um+ d|scussio sob|c + |cs|||cnc|+ no ||+s|| nio odc sc| dcs|oc+d+ d+do + c|s|stcntc m+|g|n+||-
z+io dos +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs no |o|dcstc (||) c + |o|tc cn|+sc do +tu+| Covc|no |cdc|+| cm
mc||o|+| +s cond|ocs no c+mo o| cxcm|o cv|dcnc|+do c|o |cccntc ||+s|| scm ||sc||+
^ noss+ csu|s+ c cm g|+ndc +|tc u+||t+t|v+ c |csumc os |csu|t+dos d+ csu|s+ dc tcsc dc
douto|+do do ||mc||o +uto| sob|c o |||| no cst+do d+ |+||+ |css+ |o|m+ +s ||ocs +|cnd|-
d+s t+mbcm dcvc|io cont||bu|| +|+ o dcb+tc sob|c + |ntcg|+io dc mcd|d+s dc +d+t+io com
+ocs dc m|t|g+io (^d||t) (||||| | ^| .oo; |^ |OV||| | ^| .oo,) O t|+b+||o sc b+sc|+
cm || cnt|cv|st+s scm|cst|utu|+d+s com d|vc|sos +to|cs ||g+dos +os cstudos dc c+so c c com-
|cmcnt+d+ o| d+dos dc c+mo c d+dos sccund+||os um+ |cv|sio d+ ||tc|+tu|+ |c|cv+ntc c ob-
sc|v+ocs |c|t+s cm d|vc|s+s |cun|ocs + n|vc| |oc+| |cg|on+| c n+c|on+| O cstudo dc c+so +n+||s+ +
|cg|io dc ||ccc n+ |+||+ ondc c o |oco n+ |oduio d+ m+mon+ ^ |cg|io dc ||ccc sc cncont|+
dcnt|o d+ +tu+| dc||m|t+io oc|+| d+ |cg|io scm|+||d+ do ||+s|| +ss|m como dcnt|o dos ||m|tcs
do +nt|go o||gono d+ scc+ dc +,,e (C^|V^||O | |C||| .oo, ||;||^ c |||| .oo;)
Como most|+|cmos o |||| +bo|d+ um+ sc||c dc comoncntcs |mo|t+ntcs +|+ + |cduio dc
vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs |oc+|s +ss|m como +|+ um+ t|+ns|io +|+ cst+dos |utu|os m+|s sustcnt+vc|s
|o cnt+nto +|gumcnt+mos uc um+ s|tu+io dc aaa:eaoess dccndc|+ |und+mcnt+|mcntc
dc |c|o|m+s soc|occonom|c+s c o||t|c+s m+|s +m|+s |nc|us|vc + |+c|||t+io dc +ccsso + tc||+s
+g||co|+s mcd|d+s dc |otcio d+ c++t|ng+ c |c|o|m+s n+ govc|n+n+ |nst|tu|ocs c gcstio |cs-
s+ |o|m+ o |cst+ntc dcssc t|+b+||o cst+ o|g+n|z+do d+ scgu|ntc |o|m+ + scio . cx||c+ o u+-
| |+zcmos cst+ const+t+io com b+sc n+ +n+||sc dos documcntos oc|+|s do Covc|no |cdc|+| sob|c mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ c
+d+t+io (||^|| .ooe .oo, .o+o ||^|| | C|| .oos) c d+s |c|c|cnc|+s c|t+d+s ncsscs documcntos +ss|m como um+
+n+||sc b|b||og|+c+ cxtcns|v+ d+s |cccntcs ub||c+ocs sob|c o tcm+ |+|+ m+|s |n|o|m+ocs vc| Obc|m+|c| (.o++) c Obc|m+|c|
ct +| (.o++)
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
++,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
d|o mctodo|og|co |+ scio , o cstudo dc c+so c +|cscnt+do c +n+||s+do c + scio | conc|u| o
t|+b+||o com +|gum+s obsc|v+ocs n+|s
2. Metodologia
|cs|||cnc|+ c vu|nc|+b|||d+dc sio cond|ocs |nc|cntcs + s|stcm+s soc|o+mb|cnt+|s (O||C | ^|
.ooe) |o|t+nto um+ gcstio +|+ |utu|os m+|s sustcnt+vc|s dccndc c||t|c+mcntc d+ +bo|d+gcm
dc +mb+s |o||cd+dcs |cduz|| + vu|nc|+b|||d+dc cscc|+|mcntc + dos mcnos c++zcs dc sc |o-
tcgc| dc ||scos ou c||gos c +umcnt+| + |cs|||cnc|+ dc s|stcm+s +|+ uc c|tu|b+ocs soc|occo-
nom|c+s ou +mb|cnt+|s (|nc|u|ndo + v+||+b|||d+dc +tu+| c + mud+n+ |utu|+ do c||m+) oss+m sc|
+bso|v|d+s cnu+nto m+ntcndo-sc + c++c|d+dc dc +v+n+| ou mc||o|+| +s |o||cd+dcs do
s|stcm+ cm +n+||sc ||cmcntos como cc|cnc|+ cu|d+dc cc+c|+ c |cg|t|m|d+dc sio |mo|t+ntcs
+|tcs ncss+ d|scussio (^|C|| | ^| .oo,) +ss|m como +s d|scussocs |cccntcs sob|c +d+t+io
sustcnt+vc| (||O\| .o++) ou m+-+d+t+io (|^||| | O||||| .o+o) +s u+|s vu|nc|+b|||d+-
dcs |oc+|s c cond|ocs dc |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| sio |nt||nscc+mcntc ||g+d+s
|nu+nto + |cs|||cnc|+ c o| vczcs cons|dc|+d+ como o out|o |+do d+ mocd+ d+ vu|nc|+b|||d+-
dc (|||||C| | O|O| .oos) |+ um+ otcnc|+| dcsconcxio cnt|c os do|s tc|mos |csu|s+ dc
vu|nc|+b|||d+dc ou +d+t+io odc sc| cons|dc|+d+ como +uc|+ uc |oc+ cm +to|cs ou g|uos
cnu+nto + |cs|||cnc|+ o| dcn|io cst+ ||g+d+ +n+||sc dc s|stcm+s (|||O| ct +| .oo;) |cs-
s+ |o|m+ cm vcz dc c||m|n+| +s vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs |dcnt|c+| n|vc|s +cc|t+vc|s dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c
m+ntc| + c++c|d+dc dc |csost+ u+ndo +|c+s ou s|stcm+s vu|nc|+vc|s sio +|ct+dos c o ||nc|+|
dcs+o |+||n c \c|bc (.oo,) +|nd+ s+||cnt+m uc cm mu|tos c+sos + som+ d+s +d+t+ocs |o-
c+|s + |occssos dc mud+n+s odc cont|+||+| t|+,cto||+s + um+ sustcnt+b|||d+dc soc|o+mb|cnt+|
m+|o| |o| cxcm|o um +g||cu|to| odc d|vc|s|c+| + su+ |oduio +g||co|+ c |cduz|| + su+ vu|nc-
|+b|||d+dc + dcc|ts ||d||cos c|o dcsv|o dc +gu+s suc|c|+|s ou subtc||nc+s +|+ ns dc ||||g+-
io m+s c+so css+ +gu+ sc,+ |o||cd+dc comum scus v|z|n|os odcm so||c| com + d|m|nu|io
d+ d|son|b|||d+dc dc +gu+ ||occssos dc s+||n|z+io dcv|do ||||g+io cxccss|v+ odc|io |cduz||
|o|tcmcntc + |odut|v|d+dc +g||co|+ +|ct+ndo + |ntcg||d+dc cco|og|c+ d+ |o||cd+dc c + scgu-
|+n+ +||mcnt+| +ss|m como |ontcs dc |cnd+ c c|c c um +g||cu|to| dc subs|stcnc|+ + su+ |+m|||+
odc so||c| com + |+|t+ dc +||mcntos c c|c c um g|+ndc |oduto| + |oduio |cduz|d+ odc
+|ct+| s|gn|c+t|v+mcntc + d|son|b|||d+dc dc +||mcntos cm mc|c+dos |oc+|s ou |cg|on+|s |omo-
vcndo +ss|m |occssos dc |n+io nos |cos +g||co|+s c o|t+nto to|n+| m+|s vu|nc|+vc|s +s |+-
m|||+s ob|cs uc nio os |oduzcm
,
|ss+s |ntc|dccndcnc|+s sio +|nd+ m+|s com|cx+s u+ndo
sio |nc|u|dos |+to|cs como mud+n+s |cg|on+|s c g|ob+|s (t+|s como dcsc|t|c+io ou mud+n+
, |sscs |occssos odcm sc| +|t|cu|+|mcntc |c|cv+ntcs o| cxcm|o sc o numc|o dc +g||cu|to|cs uc cx|o|+m os |ccu|sos
n+tu|+|s comuns c mu|to +|to (O|O| .oo,)
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
++
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
c||m+t|c+) ob|cz+ dcs|gu+|d+dcs soc|+|s c++c|d+dcs +d+t+t|v+s cm d||c|cntcs csc+|+s o||t|c+
cconom|c+ (o| cxcm|o c||cntc||smo ou cxc|usio dc |occssos o||t|cos) ou + g|ob+||z+io c
+ccsso +o mc|c+do (uc odc gc|+| |m+ctos os|t|vos m+s t+mbcm ncg+t|vos) (^|C|| | ^|
.oo, |^||| | |||| .ooe |O|O| .oo; |CC|^ | ^| .oo; |^||| | |^ .o++)
|cstc contcxto |+mb|n (.oo,) +|gumcnt+ uc + t|+ns|io +|+ sustcnt+b|||d+dc c cont|o|+d+ o|
t|cs comoncntcs ||nc|+|s uc sio mot|v+io |n|o|m+io c c++c|d+dc +|+ u+|uc| dcs-
|oc+mcnto |cc|s+ dc um m++ +|+ s+bc| ondc cst+mos c +|+ ondc odcmos || (|n|o|m+io)
um+ mct+ +|+ cst|mu|+| mov|mcnto (mot|v+io) c um vc|cu|o com d|sos|t|vos +|+ cont|o|+|
+ noss+ d||cio c vc|oc|d+dc (c++c|d+dcs) Como mot|v+io |n|o|m+io c c++c|d+dcs ucm
cm um s|stcm+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| c o|t+nto |c|cv+ntc +|+ cntcndc| t|+ns|ocs dc s|stcm+s dc um
cst+do +|+ out|o (m+|s ou mcnos dcsc,+vc|) |+||n c \c|bc (.oo,) |cccntcmcntc cx+nd||+m
cssc u+d|o tco||co |ntcg|+ndo cx||c|t+mcntc ucstocs sob|c +|+d|gm+s dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto
dcs|gu+|d+dcs soc|+|s c o +c| d+s |nst|tu|ocs t+nto |o|m+|s como |n|o|m+|s ncstcs |occssos
|ssc |+to |omovc +ss|m um+ +n+||sc m+|s com|ct+ d+s |ntc|+ocs soc|o+mb|cnt+|s cm |occs-
sos dc +d+t+io c ||g+ + +n+||sc cx||c|t+mcntc csu|s+ dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc
Adaptedness ou estado desejvel
Adptao
Atual estado do sistema
Trocas
Estado indesejvel
Sistema
V1 I, M, C
|lgura + Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| c |utu|os dcsc,+vc|s dcnt|o dc um u+d|o tco||co
|ontc Ooeoae .o)
^ ||gu|+ + +|cscnt+ um+ v|su+||z+io do u+d|o tco||co +dot+do + +|t|| do t|+b+||o dc |+||n
c \c|bc (.oo,) com +|guns +,ustcs +d|c|on+|s |m s|stcm+ = + o odc sc| dcn|do c|o scu
+tu+| cst+do (||n|+ |o||zont+| cm c|nz+) |o| mc|o dc +d+t+io o s|stcm+ | odc sc dcs|oc+|
+|+ cst+dos m+|s (ou mcnos) dcsc,+vc|s |os +ssum|mos uc +d+t+io (cxcm||c+do c|+
cc|+) c um |occsso c|m+ncntc c nio um |csu|t+do xo uc odc oco||c| o| +,ustcs |nc|c-
mcnt+|s ou t|+ns|o|m+do|cs (|||O| | ^| .oo;) |n|o|m+io (|) mot|v+io (/) c c++c|d+-
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
++,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
dcs (C) |+zcm +|tc |ntcg|+| do u+d|o |nucnc|+ndo cst+dos dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc (\) c |cs|||cnc|+
soc|o+mb|cnt+| (c scndo |nucnc|+dos o| csscs cm vo|t+)
|m scgu|d+ dcn|mos vu|nc|+b|||d+dc com b+sc no u+d|o concc|tu+| dc |ucssc| (.oo;) uc
+|gumcnt+ uc um+ c+|+ctc||z+io tot+|mcntc u+||c+d+ dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc ncccss|t+ d+ dc-
n|io dc sc|s |+to|cs |csum|dos n+ t+bc|+ + | |mo|t+ntc s+||cnt+| uc o| mc|o d+ dcn|io dc
vu|nc|+b|||d+dc como |ob|cm+ cx||c|t+mcntc |ntcg|+do dc +co|do com o u+d|o dc |ucssc|
(.oo;) + +n+||sc |cv+ cm cont+ tod+s +s |ntc|+ocs soc|o+mb|cnt+|s o||g|n+d+s t+nto |ntc|n+mcn-
tc (+g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| no n|vc| dc dom|c|||o cm um+ |cg|io dctc|m|n+d+) u+nto cxtc|n+mcn-
tc +o s|stcm+ cm +n+||sc (o| cxcm|o mud+n+s c||m+t|c+s ou g|ob+||z+io nos mc|c+dos dc
commod|t|cs +g||co|+s) +mbcm |nc|u|mos |+|t+ dc +ccsso dcnt|o d+ c+tcgo||+ c||go dc-
n|do +u| como c++c|d+dc dc obtc| bcnc||c|os dc co|s+s c nio somcntc como o d||c|to dc
sc bcncc|+| dc co|s+s (|||O | ||||O .oo,) ^ss|m cx||c|t+mcntc |ntcg|+mos + ucstio
d+ cxc|usio soc|+| dcnt|o do contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ |o| m dcn|ndo vu|nc|+b|||d+dc
como |ob|cm+ +tu+| c dc mcd|o |+zo |c|o|+mos + |dc|+ uc +s vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs +tu+|s soc|+|s
c c||m+t|c+s |cc|s+m sc| co|oc+d+s no |oco dc csu|s+s sob|c +d+t+io cm vcz d+ vu|nc|+b|-
||d+dc |utu|+ d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ (O||||^||| .o++)
1abela ! C+|+ctc||z+io tot+|mcntc u+||||c+d+ dc vu|nc|+b|||d+dc
d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| no scm|+||do do ||
No |atores de vulnerabllldade |atores de vulnerabllldade
1 |stcm+ vu|nc|+vc|
|+m|||+s dc +g||cu|to|cs cm |cg|ocs gcog|+c+s dc||m|t+d+s (||ccc c
||nt+d+s)
. ^t||buto dc |cocu+io |c|os dc subs|stcnc|+
! |c||go |+|t+ dc +ccsso v+||+b|||d+dc c mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
4 |c|c|cnc|+ tcmo|+| ^tu+|mcd|o |+zo
|s|c|+
|ntcg|+d+ vu|nc|+b|||d+dc dc +g||cu|to|cs dcn|d+ o| |+to|cs
|ntc|nos (cg uso dc tccno|og|+s o||t|c+ cconom|c+ |oc+|) c
cxtc|nos (cg |og|+m+s dc govc|no g|ob+||z+io do scto| +g||co|+)
o |om|n|o |ntcg|+do |+to|cs soc|occonom|cos c +mb|cnt+|s sio |c|cv+ntcs
^||c+|cmos o u+d|o tco||co dcscnvo|v|do no |ox|mo c+|tu|o ||ccc c s|tu+d+ + ;-s |o|+s dc
c+||o sudocstc dc +|v+do| |um+ +|t|tudc uc v+||+ cnt|c ;oom c s,om ||ccc ossu| so|os |c|-
tc|s c |ontcs dc +gu+s subtc||nc+s C|+ndcs |+n|c|cs |+vo|ccc|+m + mcc+n|z+io n+ +g||cu|tu|+
dcsdc o |n|c|o d+ co|on|z+io d+ |cg|io |st+s cond|ocs tcm cst|mu|+do +t|v|d+dcs +g||co|+s d|s-
t|nt+s d+ |cdom|n+ntc c||+io dc g+do no sc|tio no|dcst|no (||^|| +,e, ^|||^|| .oo,)
^ u+nt|d+dc dc c|uv+s n+ |cg|io c b+|x+ c cm to|no dc |ss + ;|, mm o| +no (|||| sd)
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
++c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
3. A agricultura familiar dentro da cadeia produtiva de
biodiesel: o caso da mamona na regio de Irec
^g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs n+ |cg|io dc ||ccc sio t|+d|c|on+|s |oduto|cs d+ m+mon+ no ||+s|| (|.
oas .cooaos |) (|^|| +,,, ^z|V||O | ||||^O .oo;)
e
Cu|t|v+d+ cm conso|c|o +o |+do
dc cu|t|vos dc subs|stcnc|+ como o |c|,io ou o m|||o c|+ sc|vc como cu|t|vo comc|c|+| (.asn .c
cm |ng|cs) c const|tu| um+ |mo|t+ntc +|tc d+ |cnd+ |+m|||+| n+ coc+ do +no cm uc out|+s
|ontcs sio csc+ss+s (tccn|co +g||co|+ + comun|c+io csso+| ,un .oo,) |cs|stcntc + dcc|ts ||-
d||cos + m+mon+ odc |cduz|| + vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c||m+t|c+ d+ +g||cu|tu|+ u+ndo out|os cu|t|vos
dc subs|stcnc|+ ,+ nio sob|cv|vcm |css+ |o|m+ + m+mon+ c ||cucntcmcntc cons|dc|+d+ como
scgu|o dc s+||+ +cs+| dc nio sc| o |oco d+ |oduio |+m|||+| n+ |cg|io dc ||ccc scndo cstc os
cu|t|vos dc subs|stcnc|+ (|||O||| ||^|| .oo, |c|cscnt+ntc dc cooc|+t|v+ comun|c+io
csso+| ,un .o+o) |o| m + |mo|tnc|+ d+ m+mon+ cm to|no d+ |cg|io dc ||ccc sc most|+
t+mbcm n+ su+ +cc|t+io como |o|m+ dc +g+mcnto o| cxcm|o cm mc|c+dos |oc+|s ou n+
t|oc+ o| out|os bcns ou |odutos (|| || .o+o |||O||| ||^|| .oo,)
|m tc|mos g|ob+|s + m+mon+ c um+ commod|ty cucn+ com mc|c+dos bcm dcn|dos (C|||-
||C| | ^|V^|O| .oo; |CO^ .oos) O scu o|co co||csondc o| somcntc o+,/ do mc|c+do
|ntc|n+c|on+| dc comc|c|o cm o|c+g|nos+s (C|O|z | ||V^ .oos) c +|cscnt+ |co c|cv+do
com+|+do com out|os o|cos vcgct+|s comc|c|+|s (O||||^||| | ^| no |c|o) O ||+s|| ,+ ||-
dc| mund|+| nos +nos +,;o c|dcu css+ co|oc+io n+s du+s dcc+d+s scgu|ntcs c|o su|g|mcnto
d+ |nd|+ c d+ C||n+ como |oduto|cs |mo|t+ntcs c o| cons|dc|+vc|s c|d+s cm |odut|v|d+-
dc c |oduio (^|O | ^| .oo;) |ssc dcc||n|o |o| ||g+do + com|cx+s |ntc|+ocs cnt|c +
cont|nu+d+ dcg|+d+io +mb|cnt+| n+ |cg|io dc ||ccc c + |+|t+ dc d|sscm|n+io dc bo+s |+t|c+s
+g||co|+s c dc tccno|og|+s +|o||+d+s n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| (|||||||^|| ||||^|^ +
CO||||C^^O ||O^| ||| .oo, ||||^ | ^| .o+o) |sso |mcd|u o dcscnvo|v|mcnto
dc c+dc|+s |odut|v+s m+|s cst|utu|+d+s +ss|m como + |cnd+ |+m|||+| dos +g||cu|to|cs com |c-
os ouco |cmunc|+t|vos (|||O||| ||^|| .oo, CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O
||O^| ||z .o+o |||||||^|| ||||||^ ||C||O||||C^ CO||||C^^O ||-
O^| ||| .o+o)
;

e ^ m+mon+ cu|t|v+d+ c um cu|t|vo c|cnc d+ |+m|||+ d+ |u|o|b|+cc+c o|cm |+|+mcntc cont|nu+do o| m+|s dc do|s ou
t|cs +nos num c|c|o dc co||c|t+ (C|O|z | ||V^ .oos) |cv|do su+ tox|c|d+dc c|+ nio cnt|+ n+ c+dc|+ +||mcnt|c|+ c c+
cst||t+mcntc +|+ usos |ndust||+|s (C|||||C| | ||O .oo;) |cg|ocs subt|o|c+|s com tcmc|+tu|+s c|cv+d+s (+,,sC) c
|cduz|d+ |cc||t+io (;,o+ooo mm) sio |cg|ocs n+tu|+|s +|+ + m+mon+ (\||||| +,|s ^z|V||O | ||||^O .oo;
C|O|z | ||V^ .oos)
; ^ c+dc|+ |odut|v+ dc m+mon+ cm +|guns c+sos +ssou o| +tc sctc |ntc|mcd|+||os +ntcs dc c|cg+| n+ |ndust||+s ||c|nou|m|c+
(CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
++)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
O otcnc|+| d+ |ndust||+||z+io d+ |oduio dc m+mon+ ,+ |o| d|scut|do nos +nos +,|o (|^||
+,|s) |o|cm somcntc com + |ctom+d+ d+ |n|c|+t|v+ dc tcnt+| |ntcg|+| +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs o-
b|cs do || dcnt|o dc um+ cst|+tcg|+ +g|ocnc|gct|c+ c|o ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so
dc ||od|csc| (||||) dc .oo, css+ |dc|+ g+n|ou nov+ |o|+
s
^cs+| do +|to custo d+ m+mon+ c|+
|o| |dcnt|c+d+ como c+||o-c|c|c +|+ + |nc|usio soc|+| d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| d+ |cg|io scm|+-
||d+ no|dcst|n+ (C|^| | |^^||^ .o+o) |sso sc ,ust|cou ||nc|+|mcntc c|+ oss|b|||d+dc
dc gc|+| cm|cgo c |cnd+ no || (|||XO| | ^| .o++) o| sc| um cu|t|vo ,+ con|cc|do c|+
+g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| (|||O||| ||^|| .oo, CO|||O| ||^ . CO||||C^^O ||O-
^| dcz .o+o) + su+ +d+t+b|||d+dc s cond|ocs c||m+t|c+s cxt|cm+s d+ |cg|io || (^z|V||O
| ||||^O .oo;) c|+ su+ us+b|||d+dc como m+tc||+-||m+ +|+ + |oduio dc b|od|csc| (tco|
dc o|co cnt|c |,|,/) (|^|||| .oo, C|O|z | ||V^ .oos) +ss|m como c|+ b+sc dc ||
,+ cx|stcntc (|^|||| .oo, C^|^C .oo,)
|nu+nto o scto| dc b|od|csc| domcst|co c|csccu |o|tcmcntc nos +nos +os + |m|+nt+io do
|||| + |ntcg|+io d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do || dcnt|o do |||| sc most|ou cxt|cm+mcntc d|||-
c|| |m scgu|d+ +n+||s+mos + +|t|c|+io d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| dc ||ccc dcnt|o do nosso u+d|o
tco||co dc |n|o|m+ocs mot|v+ocs c c++c|d+dcs c d|scut|mos como css+s comoncntcs sio
||g+d+s + vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+|
3.1. Motivao
O |c|+n+mcnto d+ m+mon+ como cu|t|vo comc|c|+| dcnt|o do |||| c|cgou +g||cu|tu|+ |+-
m|||+| com + |omcss+ dc bons |cos +ss|stcnc|+ tccn|c+ c cxtcnsio |u|+| (^||) c + d|st||bu|-
io dc scmcntcs dc u+||d+dc (|||O||| ||^|| .oo, \|||||O| | ||||||^ .o+o) |sso
num+ s|tu+io ondc + |oduio dc |c|,io ||nc|+| |oduto +g||co|+ d+ |cg|io
,
sc cncont|ou cm
dcc+dcnc|+ dcsdc os +nos ,o (|OV^| .oo;) |+|+ |nccnt|v+| + cnt|+d+ dc +g||cu|to|cs dcnt|o
do |||| v+||os |og|+m+s dc govc|no |o|+m mod|c+dos ou +) c||+ndo nov+s ||n|+s dc +tu-
+io ||g+d+s |oduio dc b|od|csc| n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| como no c+so do ||on+| ondc |o|
cst+bc|cc|d+ um+ nov+ ||n|+ cscc|c+ dc c|cd|to +|+ custc|o ou .) ||o||z+ndo +g||cu|to|cs d+
m+mon+ cm |og|+m+s govc|n+mcnt+|s como no c+so do |og|+m+ C+|+nt|+ +||+ ondc +g||-
cu|to|cs |+nt+ndo m+mon+ tc||+m ||o||d+dc cm obtc| bcnc||c|os sob|c out|os (C^|V^||O
| ^| .oo; CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
s cmc||+ntc +o ||o+|coo| d+ dcc+d+ dos +nos ;o o |||| +cs+| dc const|tu|| um+ cst|+tcg|+ cnc|gct|c+ |o| c||+do com
cx||c|tos ob,ct|vos soc|+|s |c |+to o ||+c+sso dc nio conscgu|| |ntcg|+| + +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do |o|dcstc dcnt|o do novo
modc|o +g||co|+ odc sc| |ntc||ct+do como um+ ||nc|+| mot|v+io do |||| c o scu |oco soc|+| (|^|| | ^| .oo,)
, ^ |cg|io c|+ o scgundo m+|o| |oduto| n+c|on+| nos +nos ,o c |o| con|cc|d+ t+mbcm como + c+|t+| do |c|,io (|OV^| .oo;)
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
++s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
O +o|o o||t|co +o |og|+m+ |||| |o| +|t|cu|+|mcntc |o|tc du|+ntc os ||mc||os +nos (|^||
| ^| .oo, |||XO| | ^| .o++) ^ |o||+ cont||bu|io d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do || |o| ||g+-
d+ + su+ cont||bu|io +|+ + |oduio dc combust|vc|s ||mos c |cnov+vc|s
+o
c dcss+ |o|m+ +
um |utu|o sustcnt+vc| do |+nct+ (vc| gu|+ .) |nu+nto +ssoc|+ocs dc +g||cu|to|cs most|+|+m
cons|dc|+vc|s d|sc|cnc|+s no +o|o +o |||| v+||+ndo dc oo|tun|d+dcs + c||t|c+s scvc|+s
|ntcg|+io dc c+dc|+s do +g|oncgoc|o (|||XO| | ^| .o++) +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs mcsmo
cm cnt|cv|st+s com o ||mc||o +uto| dcssc cstudo most|+v+m o scu c+||n|o c|+ m+mon+ uc
scm|c |oduz |ss+ u|t|m+ obsc|v+io dc |+to |nd|c+ uc + |oduio dc m+mon+ nio |cuc|
mu|to cu|d+do dos +g||cu|to|cs |+to uc odc tc| ostc||o|mcntc tc| d|cu|t+do + mot|v+io
dos mcsmos com oucos g+n|os dc |odut|v|d+dc
|
c
:
c


O
o
e

o
a

|lgura : ^ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| n+ c+dc|+ dc combust|vc|s |cnov+vc|s dcscn|o mu|+| n+ scd+ d+ cooc-
|+t|v+ Coo+| |o||o do C|+cu
^ |oduio d+ m+mon+ cx+nd|u |o|tcmcntc nos +nos .oo| c .oo, (+,/ c .e/ |cscct|v+-
mcntc) o|cm +b+|xo d+s |cv|socs o||g|n+|s (||^ .oo; C|||^|^| .o+o) |ssc dcscnvo|v|-
mcnto |cvou + um+ |+|d+ |n+io no |co d+ b+g+ cm um momcnto cm uc +|nd+ nio t|n|+
|cos cont|+tu+|mcntc comb|n+dos cnt|c +g||cu|to|cs c os |oduto|cs dc b|od|csc| c|o c|o
Combust|vc| oc|+| (C|^| | |^^||^ .o+o)
++
|+ cm .oo, o |co nom|n+| +go +os |oduto-
|cs c+|u +b+|xo dc v+|o|cs |c-|||| (|^C|| .o++)
+o |||c|cntc dc |o,c no |n|c|o d+ dcc+d+ +ss+d+ b|ocombust|vc|s |o|+m ||cucntcmcntc ||g+dos + um+ sc||c dc bcnc||c|os
soc|o+mb|cnt+|s como + |cduio dc g+scs dc c|c|to cstu|+ (C||) c o |o|t+|cc|mcnto do dcscnvo|v|mcnto |u|+| (|^ |OV|||
| O||||^||| .oo,)
++ O C somcntc cnt|ou cm |o|+ .oo,
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
++,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
|st+ cvo|uio |o| |o|tcmcntc |o|t+|cc|d+ o| |o|tcs |ob|cm+s |nst|tuc|on+|s O mc|c+do dc b|o-
d|csc| no || nos ||mc||os +nos cou |o|tcmcntc dom|n+do c|+ cm|cs+ ||+s|| |cod|csc| ^
(|||) Com |nvcst|mcntos cons|dc|+vc|s no || bcm como um |o|tc +o|o o||t|co do n|vc| |c-
dc|+| + +tu+io d+ cm|cs+ |o| +v+||+d+ o| uns como csscnc|+| +|+ o |o|t+|cc|mcnto d+ |cg|io
|| dcnt|o do |||| c + mob|||z+io soc|+| d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| c o| out|os como oo|tun|st+
|cv+ndo-sc cm cont+ m+-gcstio c cm +|guns c+sos |+t|c+s dub|+s (|||||||^|| O|C +
CO||||C^^O ||O^| ,un .oo, |||||||^|| O|C . CO||||C^^O ||O^|
nov .oo, CO|||O| ||| CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .oos |||O||| ||^|| .oo,
CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) |o| cxcm|o |ouvc |c|+tos dc
ucb|+ dc cont|+tos com os |oduto|cs |u|+|s com + |+|t+ dc |cco|||mcnto d+ |oduio uso dc
tccn|cos ouco ou nio-u+||c+dos c cm +|guns c+sos |nccnt|vo +os +g||cu|to|cs + dc|x+|cm
dc |+nt+| cu|t|vos dc subs|stcnc|+ +|+ |+nt+| + m+mon+ dcss+ |o|m+ +|ct+ndo d||ct+mcntc +
scgu|+n+ ou sobc|+n|+ +||mcnt+| ^|cm d|sso |ouvc cons|dc|+vc| con|usio cnt|c os d||c|cntcs
n|vc|s govc|n+mcnt+|s +s o||t|c+s |cdc|+|s |ogo comc+|+m + comct|| c cm +|guns c+sos co-
||d|| com +s d||c|cntcs cst|+tcg|+s cst+du+|s ou +tc |og|+m+|s mun|c|+|s d|cu|t+ndo + |m|c-
mcnt+io dos |og|+m+s c dc|x+ndo os +g||cu|to|cs con|usos (CO|||O| ||^ + CO||-
||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
|m con,unto csscs |+tos c+us+v+m cno|mc ||ust|+io cnt|c +g||cu|to|cs c +ss|m um+ |+|d+
|ct|+io do numc|o dc +g||cu|to|cs +|t|c|+ntcs |css+ |o|m+ |ouvc cm .ooe um dcc||n|o dc
,,/ n+ |oduio n+c|on+| cm |c|+io +no +ntc||o| |m +|guns c+sos os +g||cu|to|cs uc|m+v+m
ub||c+mcntc + m+mon+ como cx|cssio dc |+|v+ ou + cscond|+m n+ su+ |o||cd+dc como
|o|m+ dc |otcsto c dc most|+| + su+ ||ust|+io (|||O||| ||^|| .oo, CO|||O| ||^
+ CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) |m out|os c+sos +g||cu|to|cs cont|nu+v+m + vcndc|
+ +t|+vcss+do|cs comumcntc t+mbcm |oduto|cs dc m+mon+ (consu|to| ||| comun|c+io
csso+| dcz .oos) com os u+|s ,+ t|n|+m ||sto||c+mcntc |+os soc|+|s ,+ uc dcsdc scm|c
g+|+nt|+m o +ccsso +o mc|c+do c c|cd|to |n|o|m+| c uc |o|+ do mb|to do |||| sc most|+v+m
m+|s cx|vc| n+ |o|+ do +g+mcnto c o|c|cccndo |cos suc||o|cs +os |cos cont|+t+dos (||
|| .o+o CO|||O| ||^ . CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
O dcscmcn|o do |||| no || v||ou +|vo dc |o|tcs c||t|c+s cm m|d|+ o| csu|s+do|cs c +tc
dcnt|o do govc|no |cdc|+| c +mc++s u+nto su+ cx|stcnc|+ |utu|+ m+nt|vc|+m-sc |o|tcs +tc
c|o mcnos .oo;.oos (CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| v+||+s d+t+s |C-
||CO ||| CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) |o cnt+nto |ouvc um |o|tc dcsc,o o||t|co
d+ ||cs|dcnc|+ dc cont|nu+| o |og|+m+ o uc |csu|tou n+|mcntc n+ cnt|+d+ dc |o|m+ |o|+d+
d+ +|+cst+t+| |ct|ob|+s ^ c + m+|s t+|d|+ d+ su+ subs|d|+||+ |ct|ob|+s ||ocombust|vc|s (|||O)
dcnt|o do mc|c+do dc b|od|csc| (|||XO| | ^| .o++) cndo d|||g|d+ c|o +ntc||o| ||n|st|o do
||n|stc||o dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto ^g|+||o |ouvc um+ |co|g+n|z+io d+ cst|+tcg|+ d+ |nc|usio so-
c|+| no || Cont|+tos d+ |||O com os +g||cu|to|cs |o|+m b+sc+dos no +g+mcnto dc +o mcnos
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+:o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
os |cos dc mc|c+do dcscst|mu|+ndo +ss|m + vcnd+ dc +g||cu|to|cs +|+ +t|+vcss+do|cs ||o,c-
tos +|+ cst|utu|+| + o|g+n|z+io d+ c+dc|+ |odut|v+ ,unto com +s +|tcs |ntc|css+d+s ||dc|+do
c|o ||^ comc+v+m + +umcnt+| scu cscoo |cg|on+| c + tcnt+| |cduz|| +s d|cu|d+dcs n+ d|s-
scm|n+io dc m+tc||+| +g||co|+ ou do sc|v|o dc ^|| (CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O
||O^| dcz .o+o)
|m gc|+| css+s tcnt+t|v+s conscgu||+m |ccuc|+| o |ntc|cssc d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| c |cccntcs
d+dos most|+m |cos +|tos d+ m+mon+ com mcno| osc||+io +|cm dc cc|c+ dc ,,oo +g||cu|-
to|cs |+m|||+|cs +|t|c|+ntcs d+s |cg|ocs cm to|no dc ||ccc ^cs+| d|sso + |oduio domcst|c+
cou cst+vc| com um+ |odut|v|d+dc cxt|cm+mcntc b+|x+ c mu|to +b+|xo do |cv|sto (|||||-
||^|| O|C , CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) (vc| t+bc|+ .)
1abela z ||oduio c |cos d+ m+mon+ no ||+s|| c o +c| d+ |cg|io dc ||ccc
Mamona z00 z006 z007 z008 z009 z0!0
||oduio ||+s|| (|t) 1occ0. 000 c14. 1..140 10o
||oduio ||ccc |+cob|n+ c cn|o|
do |onm (`)
o c. o41 .o
||odut|v|d+dc (|g;|+) !1 o. o0. 1
^g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs no
|| +|t|c|+ndo no ||||
(+|t|cu|+|mcntc m+mon+)
1000 !0..o oc0 11c 111 000+
||cos |cccb|dos c|os |oduto|cs
(|;;o0|g mcd|+ +nu+|)b
!!11 !.1 41 04c o0 0c
a |aacs e'ooaes
o |aacs oac o.'aeo |eeooc .oo
|co:es Gce: e Gaoaaes .oo) CO`^8 .o ,) |8G| sa) Ooeoae e: a' oc e'c) aaa:aac e'cs aa:ces
3.2. Informao
|+|+ +umcnt+| + |oduio +g||co|+ + |cst+io d+ ^tc| tcm s|do |oco ||nc|+| do ||||
+.
|cn-
t|o do |og|+m+ c|+ nio c ||g+d+ obtcnio dc n+nc|+mcnto c|o ||O|^| como c + |+t|c+
comum (CO|||O| ||^ , CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) |o|t+nto o |||| +u-
mcntou otcnc|+|mcntc + d|son|b|||d+dc dcssc sc|v|o + +g||cu|to|cs |occsso uc c+ ||m|t+-
do o|cm dcv|do s |c|+t|v+mcntc b+|x+s t+x+s dc +|t|c|+io no |og|+m+
O |o|tc dcsm+t+mcnto n+ |cg|io dcv|do c||+io dc g+do c m+|s t+|dc |oduio do +|godio
|cduz|u ,+ nos +nos +,eo + vcgct+io o||g|n+| d+ c++t|ng+ u+sc |ntc||+mcntc cm v+||os |ug+|cs
+. |+ |+||+ ||nc|+| ccnt|o d+ |oduio dc m+mon+ somcntc ,|+++ ou ;/ dos cst+bc|cc|mcntos +g||co|+s |cccbc +ss|stcnc|+
tccn|c+ |sso c +|nd+ m+|s |c|cv+ntc dcv|do obsc|v+io uc ,./ dos cst+bc|cc|mcntos n+ |+||+ nio us+m ncn|um t|o dc
bo+ |+t|c+ +g||co|+ ^mbos os numc|os sio mu|to |n|c||o|cs mcd|+ b|+s||c||+ ou dc out|+s |cg|ocs (||C| .oo,)
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+:+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
dc ||ccc (||^|| +,e,) |cv+ndo d|m|nu|io do |cno| ||c+t|co |cduz|ndo +ss|m + d|son|-
b|||d+dc dc +gu+ +|+ o cu|t|vo |cstc contcxto + comun|c+io c +ss|m||+io dc bo+s |+t|c+s
+g||co|+s c um |ob|cm+ n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do || (|||||||^|| ||||^|^ + CO||-
||C^^O ||O^| ,un .oo,) |sso |nc|u| + m+mon+ n+ u+| um+ cno|mc d|s+||d+dc cnt|c
o con|cc|mcnto +g|onom|co d|son|vc| c + |+t|c+ dc cu|t|vo no c+mo c obsc|v+d+ (ccn|co
^g||co|+ . Comun|c+io |csso+| dcz .oos |C||CO ^C||CO|^ + CO||||C^^O ||O-
^| ,un .oo, ||||^ | ^| .o+o) ||ob|cm+s con|cc|dos |nc|ucm + com+ct+io c c|osio
dos so|os dcv|do +o uso |n+dcu+do c |ntcns|vo dc |m|cmcntos +g||co|+s cs+dos ou + mono-
cu|tu|+ m|sc|gcn+io dc v+||cd+dcs |oc+|s dcv|do +o uso d+ |o||+ b+g+ gu+|d+d+
+,
com |o|tcs
|m+ctos +|+ |odut|v|d+dc u+||d+dc c suscct|b|||d+dc + |+g+s c docn+s ou + +||c+io
dc tccn|c+s b+s|c+s nio |ccomcnd+d+s como o cs++mcnto |n+dcu+do |+|t+ dc +||c+io dc
|c|t|||z+ntcs ou |c|b|c|d+s uc|m+d+s +|+ ||m+| + +|c+ +g||co|+ scmc+du|+ |o|+ d+ coc+ dc
|+nt|o c |+nt|os |c|tos scm |csc|t+| + dcc||v|d+dc do tc||cno (^z|V||O | ||||^O .oo;
O||||^||| | ^| .o+o ||||^ | ^| .o+o C|^| | |^^||^ .o+o)
+|
|mbo|+ o c|c|o n+-
tu|+| d+ m+mon+ sc,+ dc do|s + t|cs +nos os so|os com+ctos + dcg|+d+io +mb|cnt+| c out|os
|+to|cs |+zcm com uc +tu+|mcntc cm ||ccc c|+ sc,+ |oduz|d+ somcntc o| um +no (|C||CO
^C||CO|^ CO||||C^^O ||O^| , dcz .oos)
^ t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc con|cc|mcnto c d|cu|t+d+ o| |ob|cm+s como b+|x+ +||+bct|z+io (|C-
||CO |||^ CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .oos) m+ u+||d+dc d+ ^tc| ou + |+|t+ dc cntcn-
d|mcnto ou dc cons|dc|+io dos costumcs |oc+|s ^|cm d|sso |ob|cm+s |og|st|cos com|cmcn-
t+m cssc u+d|o |mbo|+ tcn|+m s|do |+n+dos |og|+m+s dc u+||c+io +|+ tccn|cos o nu-
mc|o dc tccn|cos d|son|vc| c|+ |nsuc|cntc +|+ +tcndc| + cno|mc dcm+nd+ dcv|do +o ||||
|sso |cvou nio somcntc + c+|g+s dc t|+b+||o cx+gc|+d+s +|+ os tccn|cos (+tc .oo +g||cu|to|cs o|
tccn|co cm +|guns c+sos) m+s t+mbcm cont|+t+io dc tccn|cos ouco ou nio-c++c|t+dos
+|+ t|+b+||+| com + m+mon+ (C^|V^||O | ^| .oo; C|^| | |^^||^ .o+o || ||
.o+o CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) |v|dcnc|+s +ncdot|c+s |n-
d|c+m uc + ^tc| d+ ||| nos ||mc||os +nos |ocou no mon|to|+mcnto d+ |oduio +g||co|+
dcss+ |o|m+ scm o|c|ccc| +,ud+ |c+| +os +g||cu|to|cs (|C||CO ^C||CO|^ . CO||||C^^O
||O^| dcz .oos)
+,
|m +|guns c+sos o sc|v|o o|c|cc|do c|+ cm|cs+ ccssou o| com|cto
dco|s dos ||mc||os +nos ^ d|sc|sio gcog|+c+ dos +g||cu|to|cs d+ |cg|io + ncccss|d+dc dc
v|s|t+s ||cucntcs c o d|||c|| +ccsso c|+s cst|+d+s |u|ns com||c+m +tc |o,c sc|v|os dc ^tc| +|cm
+, |x|stc um +|to g|+u dc |ctc|ogcnc|d+dc d+ m+monc||+ n+ |+||+ scndo cncont|+d+s m+|s dc ,o v+||cd+dcs |oc+|s dc scmcntcs
num |cv+nt+mcnto |c+||z+do (C||OO|O | ^| +,;, ^||| ||||^ | ^| .o+o)
+| | |ntc|css+ntc const+t+| uc ,ust+mcntc + |+|t+ dc mcc+n|z+io d+ m+mon+ nos ||^ |n|c|o no sccu|o .o |cvou +o +b+ndono
d+ su+ |oduio (|om|ngo +,,,)
+, |m+ O|C num out|o cst+do do || obsc|vou d|sc|cnc|+s cons|dc|+vc|s cnt|c o mb|to |cst||to cx|g|do c|+ cm|cs+ c +
v|sio d+ O|C dc como + +ss|stcnc|+ dcvc||+ sc| |o|ncc|d+ (tccn|co O|C comun|c+io csso+| nov .oo,)
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+::
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
do cno|mc custo do sc|v|o (|C||CO ^C||CO|^ CO||||C^^O ||O^| out .oo, C|-
^| | |^^||^ .o+o CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
|cccntcs tcnt+t|v+s |oc+m n+ mc||o||+ dos sc|v|os dc |cst+io c +|t|cu|+|mcntc n+ |cdu-
io dos scus custos V|+ + c||+io dc o|os |odut|vos csc|+-sc obtc| um+ m+|o| dcns|d+dc
gcog|+c+ dos +g||cu|to|cs +|t|c|+ntcs c um+ m+|o| cst|utu|+io d+ |oduio (CO|||O|
||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| ||z .o+o CO||z | C|||^|^| .o+o) |m+ m+nc||+
dc d|sscm|n+| bo+s |+t|c+s +g||co|+s tcm s|do + |m|+nt+io dc un|d+dcs tccn|c+s dc dcmons-
t|+io (||) com |+t|c+s co||ct+s dc |c+|o do so|o +||c+io dc +dubos o|gn|cos c |c|b|-
c|d+s cs++mcnto co||cto c conso|c|os |ccomcnd+dos ^ |||O o| su+ vcz busc+ s|m||c+|
os sc|v|os dc +ss|stcnc|+ t||+ndo + cxtcnsio |u|+| dos sc|v|os dc |cst+io (|||||||^||
|||O CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) ^ ^tc| dcss+ |o|m+ dcvc so |oc+| nos conso|c|os
+g|ocnc|gct|cos dc|x+ndo dc tc| um+ +bo|d+gcm |o||st|c+ dc tod+s +s +t|v|d+dcs +g||co|+s d+
|o||cd+dc |u|+| |ssc |oco ||m|t+do |o| +|vo dc c||t|c+s dos |o||os tccn|cos |u|+|s uc t|n|+m
mcdo dc sc|cm mcnos +cc|to c|os +g||cu|to|cs (|C||C^ ^C||CO|^ | CO||||C^^O
||O^| ,un .oo,) ^ +tu+io d+s m++s dc scmcntcs uc |o|,+m g|ios dc b+|x+ u+||d+dc
dc g|ios como scmcntcs cc|t|c+d+s +|ccc cst+| c+d+ vcz m+|s sob|c cont|o|c (CO|||O|
||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
|m gc|+| +s d|cu|d+dcs |c|+t|v+s +ss|stcnc|+ tccn|c+ nio cstio cxc|us|v+mcntc |c|+c|on+dos
cu|tu|+ d+ m+mon+ cm s| m+s |cctcm +s dcc|cnc|+s cst|utu|+|s n+ |cg|io |+ cc|tos +v+nos
+utonomos dc |og|+m+s govc|n+mcnt+|s + |cduio dc +ss|mct||+s dc |n|o|m+io cnt|c os
+g||cu|to|cs |ntc|mcd|+||os c out|+s +|tcs |ntc|css+d+s tcm s|do cons|dc|+vc| n+ |cg|io dc ||ccc
|sto |nc|u| o +ccsso + |n|o|m+ocs sob|c cot+ocs d+ m+mon+ com o uso dc cc|u|+|cs
3.3. Capacidade
|+d+s +s cons|dc|+vc|s d|cu|d+dcs do |||| o ||n|stc||o dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto ^g|+||o (||^
|csons+vc| c|+ |ntcg|+io dos +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs) c out|os m|n|stc||os tcm most|+do con-
s|dc|+vc| c++c|d+dc dc |csost+ n+ |ntcg|+io dc +g||cu|to|cs +o |og|+m+ |sto |nc|u| nio so +
|nt|oduio dc |cos m|n|mos +co|d+dos mutu+mcntc +t|+vcs do C m+s t+mbcm o +|+st+-
mcnto d+ mct+ +mb|c|os+ dc ,o/ +|+ +|t|c|+io dos +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs n+ |cg|io do ||
(|||C^|C| .o+o) Como |cg|+ |c|+| css+s mud+n+s nio |o|+m |m|cmcnt+d+s cm |c|+io s
|cocu+ocs +mb|cnt+|s m+s +|+ |+c|||t+| + +dcsio dos +g||cu|to|cs do no|dcstc +o ||||
|sso com |m+cto ||m|t+do m+s vc||c+vc| (vc| t+bc|+ .) + |oduio dc m+mon+ no ||+s|| con-
t|nu+ conccnt|+d+ n+ |cg|io dc ||ccc mcsmo sctc +nos +os o |n|c|o do |og|+m+
+e
|sso |m||c+
+e |m+ cxccio c o cst+do do Cc+|+ ondc cons|dc|+vc|s subs|d|os (cnt|c |, .oo|, ,oo o| |+;+no) |o|+m d+dos +os
+g||cu|to|cs uc |+nt+v+m m+mon+ (|||C^|C| .o+o)
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
uc o |oco dc |nc|usio soc|+| d+ |oduio dc m+mon+ tcm s|do dcs|oo|c|on+|mcntc ||m|t+do
||ccc cont|+||+ndo + cst|+tcg|+ do |||| dc |nc|usio dc todo o scm|+||do |o cnt+nto um+
tcndcnc|+ dc +umcnto n+ +|t|c|+io dos +g||cu|to|cs |o|+ do o|o |odut|vo dc ||ccc odc
sc| obsc|v+d+ (C|||^|^| .o+o) |nd|c+ndo uc o C cst+ g|+du+|mcntc sc to|n+ndo m+|s
bcm succd|do
Os |m+ctos n+ gc|+io dc |cnd+ n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| +|nd+ c|m+ncccm ||m|t+dos |m cs-
tudo |cccntc cst|m+ + |cnd+ +g||co|+ +|o||+d+ d+ m+mon+ cst+ cm to|no |, ,|, o| |+;+no
(C|||^|^| .o+o) z++t+ ct +| (.o+o) cst|m+m uc o +umcnto d+ |cnd+ |+m|||+| dcv|do
|oduio dc m+mon+ cst+ n+ o|dcm dc .o/ |m tccn|co (|C||CO ^C||CO|^ . CO||||-
C^^O ||O^| dcz .oos) +|mou uc + |oduio dc m+mon+ nio sc to|n+ v|+vc| o| c+us+
do |||| no u+| + |odut|v|d+dc c|m+nccc b+|x+ como |cg|+ gc|+| um+ |cnd+ dc |, ,oo o|
|+;+no c cons|dc|+d+ um |csu|t+do bom uc |cuc| um+ |oduio dc cc|c+ dc u|nzc s+cos
o| |+ (|C||CO ^C||CO|^ . CO||||C^^O ||O^| ||z .oos |C||CO ^C||CO-
|^ | CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .oos) |o cnt+nto cm ||ccc + |oduio cst|m+d+ |o| dc
+cn+s sc|s + sctc s+cos;|+ cm .oo; |mbo|+ uc ouco uso dc |c|t|||z+ntcs |c|b|c|d+s ou tcc-
no|og|+s +v+n+d+s d|m|nu+m dcscs+s com o cu|t|vo |sso oco||c cm dct||mcnto + um+ m+|o|
|cnd+ |+m|||+| |c |+to o cscoo ||m|t+do d+ cst|+tcg|+ d+ |nc|usio soc|+| como gc|+io dc cm-
|cgo c |cnd+ tcm s|do c||t|c+do o| csu|s+do|cs uc +|gumcnt+m uc + |nc|usio dcvc |nc|u||
um+ v+||cd+dc m+|s +m|+ dc |+to|cs |nc|u|ndo cduc+io cu|tu|+ c +|t|c|+io (||||^| |
^| .o+o || || .o+o)
^ c++c|t+io cont|nu+ + sc| n+ vc|d+dc um g+|g+|o os +g||cu|to|cs |+nt+m dc |o|m+ c|c||c+
c o||+m gc|+|mcntc m+|s +|+ os |cos do uc +|+ os custos +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs |+nt+m
u+ndo o |co cst+ +|to c |sso odc |cv+| + um+ tcndcnc|+ |n+c|on+||+ |mbo|+ o C |+,+
+tu+|mcntc como um cscudo |otcto| cm |c|+io +os cont|+tos dc +nos cnt|c os +g||cu|to|cs c
os |oduto|cs dc b|od|csc| |sso to|n+ o +g||cu|to| m+|s vu|nc|+vc| d+dos os +tu+|s cs|o|os c-
|+s com+n||+s dc b|od|csc| +|+ |cduz|| os |cos d+ m+mon+ |+ vc|d+dc c|uv+s suc|cntcs
odcm comcns+| o| b+|xos |cos como most|+do o| |+ccdo ct +| (.o+o) +g||cu|to|cs
|nco||cm c|d+s dc cu|tu|+s +g||co|+s u+ndo nio |+ c|uv+ suc|cntc |ndccndcntcmcntc dc
scu |co cst+| +|to no mc|c+do m+s conscgucm |uc|+| cm +nos com bo+ u+nt|d+dc c d|st||-
bu|io dc c|uv+s |c |+to scc+s cont|nu+m + d+| |ob|cm+s t+mbcm no c+so d+ m+mon+ uc
cnu+nto |cs|stcntc + s|tu+ocs dc dcc|ts ||d||cos |oduz ouco ncss+s cond|ocs (|^C||O
| ^| .o+o |||||||^|| |||O CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o |||||||^||
O|C , CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) ^ modc|n|z+io c t+mbcm ||m|t+d+ c|o ou-
co +ccsso +o c|cd|to dcnt|o do |||| +cs+| do |+n+mcnto dc um+ ||n|+ dc c|cd|to cscc|c+
+|+ n+nc|+mcnto do custc|o com + |oduio dc m+mon+ (CO|||O| ||^ + CO||-
||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o CO|||O| ||^ . CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
^|t+s t+x+s dc |n+d|m|cnc|+ c o dcsv|o dc c|cd|tos +|+ out|os ns (+|cm d+ |+nt+io) c||+m
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+:
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
|nscgu|+n+s +|+ +s |nst|tu|ocs n+ncc||+s c cm +|guns c+sos +g||cu|to|cs cnc+|+|cm cst+s
|ontcs dc c|cd|to como o||und+s dc |undos nio |ccmbo|s+vc|s (||V|||^ | ^| .oo, e) |o|
out|o |+do os +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs +|cccm |c|ut+ntcs cm tom+| c|cd|to +|+ n+nc|+| m+mo-
n+ dcv|do +os b+|xos |cto|nos
|o| out|o |+do |csu|t+dos os|t|vos nio csc|+dos tcm su|g|do |m cxcm|o c o numc|o c|cs-
ccntc dc cooc|+t|v+s uc su|g|u ,unto +o |og|+m+ |st+s |nst|tu|ocs vcm scndo |mo|t+ntcs
+|+ dc|cndc| o |ntc|cssc dos +g||cu|to|cs cscc|+|mcntc du|+ntc os ||mc||os +nos c+ot|cos do
||||
+;
^ ||nc|+| cooc|+t|v+ dc m+mon+ n+ |cg|io dc ||ccc +go|+ cnt|ou num+ cst|+tcg|+
dc d|vc|s|c+| +s su+s +t|v|d+dcs com b+sc d+ |cnd+ d+ m+mon+ o| cxcm|o n+ |oduio dc
|odutos |+ctcos com um m+|o| v+|o| +g|cg+do do uc + |o||+ m+mon+ o uc odc bcnc-
c|+| os +g||cu|to|cs d+ cooc|+t|v+ no |utu|o |o|cm |cc|s+-sc tc| cu|d+do cm +v+||+| dcn|t|-
v+mcntc t+|s |occssos ^s cooc|+t|v+s +n+||s+d+s t+mbcm tcm dcmonst|+do dcc|cnc|+s n+
c++c|d+dc o|g+n|z+t|v+ c gcstio c +|cm d|sso most|+v+m cm +|gum+s oc+s|ocs +tc como|-
t+mcnto ||+udu|cnto Os |cccntcs cs|o|os do ||n|stc||o do |cscnvo|v|mcnto ^g|+||o (||^)
|csons+vc| c|o comoncntc d+ |nc|usio soc|+| d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| dcnt|o do |||| +ss|m
+ss+|+m + |nc|u|| cst|+tcg|+s dc c++c|t+| cooc|+t|v+s c +umcnt+| scu odc| dc b+|g+n|+ v|s-
--v|s os |oduto|cs do b|od|csc| (CO|||O| ||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o)
Com + |m|cmcnt+io do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||) cm .oo,
|nst|tuc|on+||zou-sc um |occsso dc |co|g+n|z+io d+ c+dc|+ |odut|v+ d+ m+mon+ + +|t|c|-
+io nos |c||ocs dc b|od|csc| do |||| comcou + dccndc| d+ com|+ dc m+tc||+-||m+ d+
+g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| cm todo o +|s |c+||z+do c|+ cont|+t+io d+ mcsm+ (ou d||ct+ ou v|+ coo-
c|+t|v+s) b+sc+do cm |cos g+|+nt|dos m|n|mos o |o|ncc|mcnto dc +ss|stcnc|+ tccn|c+ c sc-
mcntcs cc|t|c+d+s |sso |cz com uc |o,c cc|c+ dc so + ,o/ d+ |oduio domcst|c+ cstc,+ scn-
do comc|c|+||z+do c|o |||| c |sso tcm c|ct|v+mcntc cxc|u|do os +t|+vcss+do|cs do comc|c|o
dc m+mon+ (CO|||O| + ||^ CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) |m dos +scctos
m+|s |mo|t+ntcs c uc o |||| +|ccc tc| |ns||+do out|os |og|+m+s govc|n+mcnt+|s como
o ||og|+m+ dc ^u|s|io dc ^||mcntos (|^^) uc c||ou um mcc+n|smo dc +ccsso scmc||+ntc
dc mc|c+do +|+ |odutos +||mcnt|c|os dc +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs (CO|||O| ||^ + CO||-
||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o) c uc |ntcg|+ ucstocs sob|c scgu|+n+ c sobc|+n|+ +||mcnt+|
(C||^ | ^| .oo,) |o gc|+| +s |o|tcs |ntc|vcnocs o||t|c+s no |og|+m+ +o |ongo dos scus
||mc||os +nos |o|+m v|t+|s +|+ uc o |||| t|vcssc cont|nu|d+dc m+s nio +,udou + mud+| +
|c+||d+dc dos |ob|cm+s cst|utu|+|s do sc|tio uc +|nd+ c|s|stcm (O||||^||| | ^| .o+o)
+; |st+s cooc|+t|v+s |cccntcs tcm su+s |+|zcs cm mov|mcntos |oc+|s c o|t+nto m+|c+m um+ nov+ c|+ cm |c|+io + cs|o|os
+ntc||o|cs Cooc|+t|v+s n+ dcc+d+ dos +nos so tcm s|do c||t|c+d+s como |omovc| ob,ct|vos dc modc|n|z+io +uto||t+||os
c ccnt|+||z+dos do Covc|no |cdc|+| ^ss|m c|+s |o|+m +cus+d+s dc |omovc| um+ +g||cu|tu|+ dc g|+ndc csc+|+ c b+sc+d+ n+
cxo|t+io cm dct||mcnto d+ +g||cu|tu|+ dc subs|stcnc|+ (||V^ | ^| .oo,)
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
3.4. O nexo entre vulnerabilidade e sustentabilidade
|oucos |odutos n+ ||sto||+ so||c|+m um+ mud+n+ tio |+d|c+| n+ su+ +v+||+io c|+ csu|-
s+ suo|tc o||t|co ou o|n|io ub||c+ como os b|ocombust|vc|s (|^ |OV||| | O||||^|||
.oo,) O||g|n+|mcntc dc|cnd|dos como +n+cc|+ +|+ m|t|g+io d+s mud+n+s c||m+t|c+s |n-
dccndcnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ c |o|t+|cc|mcnto do dcscnvo|v|mcnto |u|+| (^C| .oo, |^z||| |
|^C|^||| .ooe || |^ O||| |C|^|| .ooe) csu|s+s |cccntcs |c+||z+d+s ||g+m + cx+n-
sio dos b|ocombust|vc|s + c|d+s dc b|od|vc|s|d+dc dc|cocs dc |ccu|sos ||d||cos c cont|+||+-
mcntc + csu|s+s +ntc||o|cs +umcntos cm cm|ssocs dc g+scs dc c|c|to cstu|+ (C||) dcv|do +
ucstocs |c|+c|on+d+s +o dcsm+t+mcnto |nd||cto c ||bc|+ocs dos cstoucs dc c+|bono n+tu|+|s
(|^|C|O|| | ^| .oos |^|C|||C|| | ^| .oos ||||| | |^||^|C| .oo, |||C |
^| .oo,) ^|cm d|sso |cg|st|os dc v|o|+ocs dc d||ctos t|+b+|||st+s cm |+nt+ocs ou + |o||+
cxu|sio dc cucnos +g||cu|to|cs dcv|do +o +v+no dc nov+s |+nt+ocs (|^|| | ^| .oo,
|||O||| ||^|| .oo,) co|oc+m c+d+ vcz m+|s cm duv|d+ + |o||+ sustcnt+b|||d+dc dos b|o-
combust|vc|s ||cntc +os |ob|cm+s mcnc|on+dos
|+ o|t+nto otcnc|+| +|+ |o|tcs con|tos cnt|c o uc odc sc| c|+m+do dc |cduio d+ vu|-
nc|+b|||d+dc |oc+| c +umcnto d+ |cs|||cnc|+ dc s|stcm+s soc|o+mb|cnt+|s O ||+s|| cst+ |+ mu|to
tcmo n+ v+ngu+|d+ d+ |oduio dc b|ocombust|vc|s dcv|do +o |og|+m+ dc ct+no| com c+-
n+-dc-+uc+| ||o+|coo| (|^ |OV||| | ^| .oos) |||c|cntcmcntc do ||o+|coo| o |||| |o| cx-
||c|t+mcntc dcs|gn+do +|+ |cvcn|| + conccnt|+io dc tc||+ c + monocu|tu|+ c|+ |ntcg|+io
dc +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs |oc+ndo |o|tcmcntc nos dc||v+dos d+ m+mon+ +|+ |oduio dc b|o-
d|csc| no scm|+||do no|dcst|no |+d+ + ouco cx|css|v+ |odut|v|d+dc d+ m+mon+ cm ||ccc c
+|nd+ m+|s cm out|+s |cg|ocs +ss|m como o b+|xo n|vc| tccno|og|co nio c oss|vc| c|cg+| + con-
c|usocs sob|c + sustcnt+b|||d+dc +mb|cnt+| |oc+| d+ m+mon+ (|||O||| ||^|| .oo, O|||-
|^||| | ^| no |c|o) |+ o|cm duv|d+s sob|c o |m+cto do b|od|csc| + +|t|| d+ m+mon+
cm tc|mos do scu otcnc|+| m|t|g+to||o do +ucc|mcnto g|ob+| |cccntcs cstudos most|+m tcm
um s+|do os|t|vo dc cm|ssocs dc C|| dcv|do +o scu +tu+| b+|xo |cnd|mcnto c +o +|to consumo
dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ du|+ntc + |+sc |ndust||+| +|+ + |oduio dc b|od|csc| (|OC||||^ .o+o)
O |||| to|nou o ||+s|| +tu+|mcntc cm um dos m+|o|cs |oduto|cs dc b|od|csc| do mundo
(|||.+ .o+o) |o cnt+nto d+d+ + |+|t+ dc comct|t|v|d+dc c csc+|+ cm com+|+io ||dc|+n-
+ do +g|oncgoc|o dc so,+ + m+mon+ n+ vc|d+dc nio v||+ b|od|csc| |m vcz d|sso |oduto|cs
dc b|od|csc| vcndcm + m+mon+ como o|co vcgct+| +|+ |ndust||+s u|m|c+s um+ oio |cg+|
c|m|t|d+ c|+ C Como t+| o |utu|o d+ |oduio d+ m+mon+ +|ccc sc| |o|+ do mc|c+do dc
b|od|csc| ,+ uc + m+mon+ +|ccc tc| um+ g|+ndc v+||cd+dc dc out|+s +||c+ocs (CO|||O|
||^ + CO||||C^^O ||O^| dcz .o+o C|O|C| |||XO| CO||||C^^O ||O-
^| dcz .o+o) |csum|ndo o |||| +|ccc |cduz|| dc |o|m+ |c|cv+ntc m+s ||m|t+d+ +s vu|nc|+b|-
||d+dcs |oc+|s o| mc|o dc |cos m+|s +|tos c +ccsso +ss|stcnc|+ tccn|c+ cmbo|+ os +g||cu|to|cs
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+:c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
cm ||ccc cont|nucm + cont+| com out|+s oocs dc subs|stcnc|+ c sob|ctudo os |og|+m+s dc
t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc |cnd+ como o |o|s+ |+m|||+ (|||) (C|||^|^| | ^| .o+o) |css+ |o|m+ +
+g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| odc cons|dc|+d+ como m+|s |cs|||cntc scm cont+| o|cm uc ||scos +m-
b|cnt+|s cont|nucm + cxc|cc| cons|dc|+vc|s cst|csscs s|stcm|cos uc dcvc|io +umcnt+| +|t|cu-
|+|mcntc com + mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ (|^|||CO | ^| .oo,+ .oo,b)
4. Concluses
^ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do scm|+||do no|dcst|no most|ou-sc cxt|cm+mcntc |cs|stcntc + v+||+b|||-
d+dc c||m+t|c+ no +ss+do ^|cm d|sso os +g||cu|to|cs ut|||z+m mu|t+s vczcs |+t|c+s sustcnt+-
vc|s cmbo|+ |sso oco||+ cm g|+ndc +|tc |nvo|unt+||+mcntc |mbo|+ + gcstio do uso dc so|o
sc,+ dccndcntc do co|tc-c-uc|m+ n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+ ouco uso dc |odutos u|m|cos tccno-
|og|+s ou out|os |ccu|sos |sso sc com+|+ |+vo|+vc|mcntc com g|+ndcs |o,ctos dc ||||g+io
|o,ctos dc |n||+cst|utu|+ ou c||+io dc g+do cxtcns|v+ uc ||sto||c+mcntc tcm s|do |csons+-
vc| o| g|+ndc +|tc do dcsm+t+mcnto c d+ dcg|+d+io d+ c++t|ng+ no sc|tio ^|cm d|sso cs-
s+s +t|v|d+dcs odcm c||+| t|+,cto||+s ouco cx|vc|s dc usos |nsustcnt+vc|s dc |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s
(tc||+ +gu+) +ss|m como +umcnt+| cm|ssocs dc C|| +ssoc|+dos c s|mu|t+nc+mcntc |+zc| ou-
co +|+ |o|t+|ccc| +ccsso ou mc|os dc subs|stcnc|+ dos +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs
^ t|+nsos|io do ||o io ||+nc|sco ncstc contcxto |o| c|t+d+ n+ cgund+ Comun|c+io |+c|o-
n+| do ||+s|| |||CCC (||+s|| .o+o) como um cxcm|o dc +d+t+io ncccss+||+ +|+ + |cg|io
|o cnt+nto + ^gcnc|+ |+c|on+| dc ^gu+s (^|^) dcc|+|ou |cccntcmcntc dc uc mcsmo com
+ t|+nsos|io conc|u|d+ o +b+stcc|mcnto dos ccnt|os u|b+nos com +gu+ sc||+ suscct|vc| + so-
||c| ||m|t+ocs ,+ cm .o., |cstc contcxto + |+||+ cm |cduz|| + vu|nc|+b|||d+dc dos m+|s ob|cs
c||+| t|+,cto||+s |ncx|vc|s ||cntc um |utu|o |ncc|to +|tos custos dc oo|tun|d+dc ou gc|+| subs-
t+nc|+|s cm|ssocs dc C|| (um |occsso uc |ct|o+||mcnt+ o +ucc|mcnto g|ob+| c +ss|m + nc-
ccss|d+dc dc m+|o|cs cs|o|os n+ m|t|g+io ou +d+t+io) tcm s|do +ssoc|+d+ m+-+d+t+io
(|^||| | O||||| .o+o)
^ |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| dos +g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs c ||g+d+ + cst+dos dcsc,+vc|s ou +d+tcd-
ncss ^g||cu|to|cs |+m|||+|cs do sc|tio sio cxt|cm+mcntc vu|nc|+vc|s v+||+b|||d+dc c mud+n+
c||m+t|c+ m+s +|t|cu|+|mcntc + |n|u|d+dcs soc|occonom|c+s c cconom|+ o||t|c+ O cstudo
dc c+so most|ou como csscs |+to|cs sio t|+t+dos c|+ |nsc|io dc +g||cu|to|cs num+ c+dc|+ |o-
dut|v+ dc b|ocombust|vc|s ondc sc |ctcndc |cduz|| + vu|nc|+b|||d+dc dos +g||cu|to|cs v|+ v+||os
comoncntcs |nc|u|ndo + d|vc|s|c+io d+s oocs dc subs|stcnc|+ |occssos dc +|cnd|z+gcm
|o|t+|cc|mcnto d+ o|g+n|z+io soc|+| |nuxo dc tccno|og|+s ou tccn|c+s nov+s c s|mu|t+nc+-
mcntc + tcnt+t|v+ dc |omovc| o uso sustcnt+vc| dc |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s |o cnt+nto o cstudo dc
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+:)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
c+so do |||| c |oc+do no |+to dc su+ cc+c|+ sc ||m|t+| cm t|+t+| b+||c||+s tccn|c+s ou o||t|-
c+s cm um contcxto cscc|co d+ su+ +tu+io m+s nio cm |+to|cs como +s c+us+s cst|utu|+|s
d+ ob|cz+ +o|o o||t|co +|+ + cx+nsio do +g|oncgoc|o ou + g|ob+||z+io |stcs dom|n|os
|und+mcnt+|mcntc |o|m+m +s vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs |oc+|s c um+ +d+t+io bcm succd|d+ c |m|o-
v+vc| dc oco||c| dc |o|m+ csontnc+ ou |+nc,+d+ sc t+|s dcs|gu+|d+dcs nio sio +bo|d+d+s no
|utu|o Como + mud+n+ c||m+t|c+ odc cx+cc|b+| +s vu|nc|+b|||d+dcs +tu+|s cstc c um |csu|-
t+do |cocu+ntc |css+ |o|m+ um+ +d+t+io bcm succd|d+ n+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| do || v+|
ncccss+||+mcntc cx|g|| +ocs concc|t+d+s cm n|vc|s |oc+|s |cg|on+|s c n+c|on+|s
5. Agradecimentos
Os +uto|cs gost+||+m dc +g|+dccc| |u|z ||nguc||| |os+ |cn+to c|g|o |+m|| |+|u| |du+|do |c|g+-
do ^ss+d |cn+t+ |+|son c|xc||+ dc ^nd|+dc c ^nd|c ||oss+|d |c|c||+ dc |uccn+ c|os v+||osos
comcnt+||os |stcndcmos os nossos +g|+dcc|mcntos ^nnc |u|sc dc ^mo||m |on||+c|o |c|c||+
c + \||||+m \|||s c|+ |cv|sio do t|+b+||o odos os c||os sio d+ |csons+b|||d+dc dos +uto|cs
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| +g|+dccc +o C|| c|o +ux|||o n+ncc||o
Referncias
^||^|OV^ | |^C^||^| | O acesso dos agrlcultores ramlllares aos mercados de blodlesel.
parcerlas entre grandes empresas e movlmentos soclals |n CO||||||C|^ |^ ^OC|^^O
|||||^C|O|^| || |CO|O||^ ^|||||^| | ^C|O||||||^| ^||^. |ond||n+ ,u||o .oo;
^|C|| \| Vu|nc|+b|||ty Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +e .es.s+ .ooe
^|C|| \| ^||||| |\ O||||| || ucccss|u| +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc c|+ngc +c|oss sc+|cs
Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +, ;;se .oo,
^C||C|^ |^C|O|^| || ^C|^ ^|^ Atlas 8rasll. abasteclmento urbano de agua v + c . ||+s|||+
^|^ ||C|CO||;CO||^|| .oo,
^|||^|| |C A terra e o bomen no Nordeste ; cd io |+u|o Co|tcz |d|to|+ .oo,
^z|V||O ||| ||||^O ||| (|ds) O agronegoclo da mamona no 8rasll v . C+m|n+ C|+ndc
|mb|++ ^|godio .oo;
|^||^ cc|ct+||+ d+ ^g||cu|tu|+ ||||g+io c |c|o|m+ ^g|+||+ |^C|| Lstatlstlcas da agrlcultura balana.
cotao agrlcola +|v+do| .o++ ||son|vc| cm n:://...seaoac.o/.c:a.acas .
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+:s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
|^||| | O||||| |+|+d+t+t|on Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v .o .++.+, .o+o
||^|| C^|^|^ |O ||||^|O Consc||o dc ^|tos |studos c ^v+||+io ccno|og|c+ C^|^C|
O blodlesel e a lncluso soclal, relatorlo tecnlco ||+s|||+ Cmc|+ dos |cut+dos Coo|dcn+io dc
|ub||c+ocs .oo,
||^|| CO||| |||||||||||^| O||| |||^|^ |O C|||^ C|| lano Naclonal sobre
Mudana do CllmaNMC Vc|sio +|+ Consu|t+ |ub||c+ ||+s|||+ |cc|cto n e.e, dc .+ dc
novcmb|o dc .oo; .oos
||^|| LLl n. +:.+s), de :, de Uezembro de :oo, |nst|tu| + |o||t|c+ |+c|on+| sob|c |ud+n+ do C||m+
|||C c d+ out|+s |ov|dcnc|+s ||+s|||+ ||+||o Oc|+| d+ |n|io cio + |d|io |xt|+ +o,++o .oo,
||^|| ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ Comunlcao naclonal lnlclal do 8rasll Conveno-Quadro
das Naes Unldas sobre Mudana do Cllma ||+s|||+ Coo|dcn+io-Cc|+| dc |ud+n+s C|ob+|s
dc C||m+ |C .ooe
____ Segunda Comunlcao naclonal do 8rasll Conveno-Quadro das Naes Unldas sobre
Mudana do Cllma, v. +, : ||+s|||+ Coo|dcn+io Cc|+| dc |ud+n+s C|ob+|s do C||m+ |C .o+o
||^|| ||n|stc||o do |cscnvo|v|mcnto ^g||co|+ ||^ ||od|csc| no ||+s|| |csu|t+dos soc|occonom|cos
c cxcct+t|v+ |utu|+ ||+s|||+ ||^ .oo;
||^|| ||n|stc||o do |c|o ^mb|cntc cc|ct+||+ dc |ccu|sos ||d||cos - || |||V||||^|| |||||^|
|^ |^|^||^ |||| Atlas das areas susceptlvels desertlcao do 8rasll ||+s|||+ .oo;
||O\| | ust+|n+b|c +d+t+t|on ^n oxymo|on Cllmate and Uevelopment v , .+,+ .o++
|||O| | ||| | ^c||cv|ng +dcu+tc +d+t+t|on |n +g||cu|tu|c Cllmatlc Cbange v ;o +,+.oo .oo,
||||| |^ |^||^|C| \| |s o|| +|m t|c ncxt cmc|g|ng t||c+t to t|c ^m+zon 1roplcal
Conservatlon Sclence v . ++o .oos
C^|V^||O O |C||| C^C Alternatlvas de desenvolvlmento para o Nordeste Seml-Arldo |o|t+|cz+
|+nco do |o|dcstc .oo,
C^|V^||O ||| |O||C C| |^O | N8 e slstemas produtlvos da agrlcultura ramlllar
no Seml-arldo. oportunldades e llmltes |n CO|C||O |^ OC|||^|| ||^|||||^ ||
|||^ || ||O||^O ; |o|t+|cz+ |mb|++ ^g|o|ndust||+ .oo; ^n+|s |o|t+|cz+ |mb|++
^g|o|ndust||+ .oo;
C|||||C| CO ^|V^|O| C| ^||c+io |ndust||+| do o|co |n ^z|V||O ||| ||||^O |||
(|ds) O Agronegoclo da mamona no 8rasll . cd |mb|++ ^|godio c+ . |+;||; C+m|n+
C|+ndc .oo;
C|^| ^| |^^||^ |O ||od|csc| |oduct|on ||om c+sto| o|| |n ||+z|| + d| cu|t |c+||ty Lnergy
ollcy v ,s |o,+|o,, .o+o
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
CO||^|||^ |^C|O|^| || ^|^|C||||O CO|^| Conjuntura mensal mamona. perlodo
dezembro de :o+o ||+s|||+ .o++ ||son|vc| cm n:://....coaoc.o/O'a'aC/:/a'caas/
aa.cs/o_._,_,_.,_,_oaocoaaeeooc.ooa/.
C||| | |^||| | |||| | ct +| ^ |+cc-b+scd modc| |o| undc|st+nd|ng commun|ty |cs|||cncc
to n+tu|+| d|s+stc|s Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +s ,,seoe .oos
|c |+ o||c |g+|tc |C |cvc|o|ng b|ocnc|gy cconom|c +nd soc|+| |ssucs Ovc|v|cw |n |^z||| |
|^C|^||| || (|ds) 8loenergy and Agrlculture. romlses and Cballenges n +|;.o.o |ocus
||||| c|| .ooe
|| || | 8lodlesel and soclal lncluslon. unpacklng tbe soclal lncluslon dlscourse or tbe 8razlllan
blodlesel program csc dc |cst|+do \+gcn|ngcn |n|vc|s|ty \+gcn|ngcn .o+o
|O|||CO \| !c dcvc|omcnt o| domcst|c c+sto| bc+n |oduct|on Lconomlc 8otany v ; e,-;, +,,,
||^|| ^C ||ccc um+ +|c+ +g||co|+ |nsu|+d+ no sc|tio b+|+no kevlsta 8rasllelra de Ceograa v .,
|,,-|;| +,e,
|^||| | |||| ^| ^sscss|ng t|c vu|nc|+b|||ty o| soc|+|-cnv||onmcnt+| systcms Annual kevlew or
Lnvlronment and kesources v ,+ ,e,-,,| .ooe
|^||| |C |^ ^ ^|c +d+t+t|on stud|cs ccct|vc +nd w|+t c+n cn|+ncc t|c|| |+ct|c+| |m+ct
\||cy |ntc|d|sc|||n+|y |cv|cws Cllmate Cbange v . +|++,, .o++
|^||| |C \|||| || ||n||ng |oc+| vu|nc|+b|||ty to systcm sust+|n+b|||ty |n + |cs|||cncc ||+mcwo||
two c+scs ||om |+t|n ^mc||c+ Cllmatlc Cbange v ,, ,,,,;; .oo,
||V|||^ |CC ||||z | ||||O| ^C ct +| |+mon+ n+ |+||+ |ntc|+ocs c |nucnc|+s cnt|c scus
||nc|+|s +gcntcs |n ||O |C ||^C^ ^C (|ds) 8lodlesel. lnovao 1ecnologlca CO|C||O
||^|||||O || ||^|^ O||^C||O^ O||O CO||||^ | ||O||||| e e.,-e,,
|ontcs C|+|os +gosto |||^ .oo,
|^|C|O|| | |||| | |||^| | ct +| |+nd c|c+||ng +nd t|c b|o|uc| c+|bon dcbt Sclence v ,+,
+.,,+.,s .oos
|||^| | |||O| || |+||ng |+|n m+||ng |o+ds m+||ng doub||c +nd ||v+tc +d+t+t|ons to
d|oug|t |n Cc+|+ no|t|c+st ||+z|| Cllmate kesearcb v +, ,;+os .oo+
|||XO| C |^O | |||^ | ct +| olltlcas publlcas, dlnamlca lnstltuclonal e conlto de lnteresses.
anallse do rograma Naclonal de produo e uso de blodlesel |^|||| ||o dc |+nc||o .o++
|O||| C |cs|||cncc t|c cmc|gcncc o| + c|scct|vc |o| soc|+|-cco|og|c+| systcms +n+|yscs Clobal
Lnvlronmental Cbange v +e .,,.e; .ooe
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+,o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
||||^ |C ^|||||||| |^ |O|||C^ ||| ct +| ^n+||sc d+ m+monc||+ n+ m|c|o||cg|io
dc ||ccc|^ |n ||C||^O OC|^| | ||||C|^ ;+o dc ,un|o Anals ++,+++,e |mb|++
^|godio .o+o
||||| |-| Vu|nc|+b|||ty + gcnc|+||y +||c+b|c concctu+| ||+mcwo|| |o| c||m+tc c|+ngc |csc+|c|
Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +; +,,+e; .oo;
C^||O||| CC ||n|+gcs bctwccn vu|nc|+b|||ty |cs|||cncc +nd +d+t|vc c++c|ty Clobal Lnvlronmental
Cbange v +e .,,-,o, .ooe
C^||C||O |^ ^||^|O |V| C|^|O |^ ct +| (|ds) Uso sustentavel e conservao de recursos
orestals da caatlnga ||+s|||+ || c|v|o ||o|cst+| ||+s||c||o;||n|stc||o do |c|o ^mb|cntc .o+o
CO||z C|||^|^| ^ O rojeto olos de 8lodlesel |o||t|c+s |nov+do|+s +|+ +ccsso + mc|c+do c
|ntcg|+io soc|+| d+ +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| no no|dcstc b+|+no d+ +tu+io con,unt+ do m|n|stc||o do
dcscnvo|v|mcnto +g|+||o c d+ cooc|+io tccn|c+ +|cmi ||+s|||+ Cz;||^ .o+o
CO|| C| velbas secas em novos sertes. contlnuldade e mudanas na economla do seml-arldo e
dos cerrados nordestlnos ||+s|||+ |||^ .oo+
C||^ C C||| C| |^|| || ct +| O rograma de Aqulslo de Allmentos (AA) em
perspectlva. apontamentos e questes para o debate ||o dc |+nc||o O||^;|||||;^ct|on^|d
.oo, ||son|vc| cm n:://caoe:o/a.e.c/ao'.a.ces/|esasa_^^8|O||^_e\:c_|^^_
.esac_'.ca/ . ^ccsso cm +, +go .o++
C|||^|^| ^ Slstema de monltoramento e avallao dos resultados e lmpactos do programa
naclonal de produo e uso de blodlesel no nordeste ||+s|||+ Cz;||^ .o+o
|^|| | |^O |V||||O | ct +| ||+z|||+n b|o|uc|s +nd soc|+| cxc|us|on cst+b||s|cd +nd conccnt|+tcd
ct|+no| ournal or Cleaner roductlon v +; ,;;,s, .oo,
|^z||| | |^C|^||| || Ovc|v|cw |n |^z||| | |^C|^||| || (|ds) 8loenergy and agrlculture.
promlses and cballenges n +|;.o.o |ocus ||||| c|| .ooe
|||C||^| ^O ||+z||s no|t|c+st |n ourneys 1oward rogress. Studles or Lconomlc ollcymaklng
ln Latln Amerlca wcnt|ct| Ccntu|y |und ++,. |ov+ o|| +,e,
||||O ||^|||||O || C|OC|^||^ | |^||C^ ||C| Agrlcultura - 8anco de dados
agregados ||o dc |+nc||o ||son|vc| cm n:://...saaoec.o. ^ccsso cm | +go .o++
____ Censo agropecuarlo :ooc +g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| - ||mc||os |csu|t+dos ||o dc |+nc||o ||n|stc||o do
||+nc,+mcnto O|+mcnto c Ccstio;||C| .oo,
||||O |^C|O|^| || |||O|O|OC|^ |||| Cbuvas +,c+ a :o+o ||o dc |+nc||o .o++
||son|vc| cm n:://...ooe:c.o/n:o'/cose.a.cesn.
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+,+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
||||COV||||||^| |^||| O| C|||^| C|^|C| ||CC C||m+tc C|+ngc .oo; v + le
pbyslcal sclence basls v . |m+cts +d+t+t|on +nd vu|nc|+b|||ty v , ||t|g+t|on o| c||m+tc c|+ngc
C+mb||dgc C+mb||dgc |n|vc|s|ty ||css .oo;
|||||^|O|^| C^O| O|| ^OC|^|O| ||C - |CO^ le cbemlstry or castor oll and lts
derlvatlves and tbelr appllcatlons |ov+ o|| .oos
|^|| || !c io ||+nc|sco |+s|n + ||+z|||+n sc|tio Ceograpblcal kevlew v ,s e,see+ +,|s
____ |+ttc|ns o| |+nd usc |n |o|t|c+st ||+z|| |n Annals or tbe Assoclatlon or Amerlcan Ceograpbers
v |, ,s+.e +,,,
|^||| |^ O|O| | |cs|||cncc vu|nc|+b|||ty +nd +d+t+t|on ^ c|oss-cutt|ng t|cmc o|
t|c |ntc|n+t|on+| |um+n ||mcns|ons ||og|+mmc on C|ob+| |nv||onmcnt+| C|+ngc Clobal
Lnvlronmental Cbange v +e .,;.,, .ooe
|||||C| ^ O|O| | ^d+t+t|on +nd t|c oo| dcvc|omcnt |cs|||cncc +nd t|+ns|t|on Cllmate
ollcy v s +;o+s. .oos
||||^| C^|^|CO C \|||| | 8lodlesel. |armers perspectlves rrom 8abla 8razll |c|+to||o
tccn|co ||c+|cd |o| |C |ound+t|on by t|c |nst|tutc |o| ust+|n+b|c |utu|cs |n|vc|s|ty o|
cc|no|ogy ydncy .o+o
|||C C\ \||||| | |||C^| || !c w+tc| nccds |o| ||V t|+nso|t+t|on |n t|c |n|tcd t+tcs
Lnergy ollcy v ,s ++,;++e; .oo,
||||| || |||O| | |O\|||C | ct +| |ntc|-|c|+t|ons||s bctwccn +d+t+t|on +nd m|t|g+t|on |n
|^|| | C^|z|^|| O |^||||O| | ct +| (|ds) Cllmate Cbange :oo). lmpacts, adaptatlon
and vulnerablllty Cont||but|on o| \o|||ng C|ou || to t|c |ou|t| ^sscssmcnt |co|t o| t|c
|ntc|govc|nmcnt+| |+nc| on C||m+tc C|+ngc C+mb||dgc |n|vc|s|ty ||css ;|,;;; C+mb||dgc .oo;
|^ |OV||| || O||||^||| | \||| \ ct +| ^n+|ys|s o| mcd|um-tc|m (.o.o-.o,o) g|ob+| cnc|gy
+nd ||+z|||+n ct|+no| dcm+nd |+bo|+to||o |ntc|d|sc|||n+| dc |c|o ^mb|cntc (|||^) CO|||;
|||| ||o dc |+nc||o .oos
|^ |OV||| || O||||^||| | ^|tc|n+t|v+ ustcnt+vc| Amerlcan Sclentlc ||+s|| |d|io |scc|+| v
,. es;, .oo,
|^ |OV||| || ^Vz^|^||| ^C |O||||O ||C |otcnt|+| sync|gy bctwccn +d+t+t|on +nd
m|t|g+t|on st|+tcg|cs |oduct|on o| vcgct+b|c o||s +nd b|od|csc| |n no|t|c+stc|n ||+z|| Cllmate
kesearcb v |o .,,.,, .oo,
|^|||| || Cond|t|ons |o| sust+|n+b|||ty o| |um+ncnv||onmcnt systcms |n|o|m+t|on mot|v+t|on
+nd c++c|ty Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +, +;;+so .oo,
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+,:
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
|||O |C Urougbt, governance and adaptlve capaclty ln nortb east 8razll. a case study or Ceara
|um+n |cvc|omcnt |co|t O cc Occ+s|on+| |+c| .oo;;,o |||| .oo;
|^C||O ||^ V^CO|C||O |C ^|V| C^| V|+b|||d+dc cconom|c+ d+ cu|tu|+ d+ m+mon+ no
mun|c||o dc |t+ctc C|++d+ ||+m+nt|n+|^ |n ||C||^O OC|^| | ||||C|^ ;+o dc ,un|o
.o+o Anals |mb|++ ^|godio ,,;|o| .o+o
|^|O|| || |ng|c || |v+|u+t|ng |cg|on+| vu|nc|+b|||ty to c||m+tc c|+ngc u|oscs +nd mct|ods
Wlres Cllmate Cbange v . |e.|;| .o++
|^|||CO | |O|| | ^|V| | ct +| |utu|c c|+ngc o| tcmc|+tu|c +nd |cc||t+t|on cxt|cmcs
|n out| ^mc||c+ +s dc||vcd ||om t|c |||C| |cg|on+| c||m+tc modc|||ng systcm lnternatlonal
ournal or Cllmatology v ,o ++, .oo,
|^|||CO |^ ^||||zz| |OC|^ || ct +| |utu|c c|+ngc o| c||m+tc |n out| ^mc||c+ |n t|c |+tc
twcnty-|st ccntu|y |ntc|com+||son o| sccn+||os ||om t||cc |cg|on+| c||m+tc modc|s Cllmate
Uynamlcs .oo, |O| +o+oo;;soo,s.-oo,-o;.+-e
|CC|^ | |^||||| ^ ||^||| | ct +| Weatberlng tbe storm. optlons ror rramlng adaptatlon and
development \o||d |csou|ccs |nst|tutc \+s||ngton |C .oo;
|O|O| || !c |m+ct o| c||m+tc c|+ngc on sm+|||o|dc| +nd subs|stcncc +g||cu|tu|c roceedlngs or
tbe Natlonal Academy or Sclences v +o| +,eso+,es, .oo;
|||O| || ^|C|| \| ||O\| | ^d+t+t|on to cnv||onmcnt+| c|+ngc cont||but|ons o| +
|cs|||cncc ||+mcwo|| Annual kevlew or Lnvlronment and kesources v ,. ,,,|+, .oo;
|OC||||^ |^| |ocs b|od|csc| m+|c scnsc |nc|gy |O| +o+o+e .energy .o+ooso,, .o+o
|OV^| | Uesenvolvlmento local na mlcrorreglo de lrec8abla, Munlclplo de ussara. do reljo
ovlnocaprlnocultura |+cc|o |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| dc ^|+go+s .oo;
O||||^||| | O||||||C || |^ |OV||| || ^ cx+nsio dos b|ocombust|vc|s c otcnc|+|s
|m+ctos sob|c + scgu|+n+ +||mcnt+| cv|dcnc|+s |cccntcs do ||+s|| |n |||| | ct +| (|d) Llvro
alnda sem tltulo C||^ ||o dc |+nc||o no |c|o
O||||^||| | ||||||^ |^ |OV||| || ^n+||sc dc |ob|cm+s cst|utu|+|s d+ |nc|usio d+
+g||cu|tu|+ |+m|||+| n+ c+dc|+ |odut|v+ do b|od|csc| |n |nc|usio oc|+| c |nc|g|+ Anals ,.e,,+
|oio |csso+ +o dc ,un|o |mb|++ ^|godio .o+o
O||||^||| | |^ |OV||| || |O^ || ^ +bo|d+gcm b|+s||c||+ sob|c vu|nc|+b|||d+dc cm +|c+s
u|b+n+s um+ +n+||sc c||t|c+ |n |||O|O |||||^C|O|^| || C|||^O|OC|^ | |oio |csso+
+e+, dc outub|o .o++ Anals |oio |csso+ +e+, dc outub|o .o++
O||||^||| | velbos e novos dllemas nos sertes. mudanas cllmatlcas, vulnerabllldade e adaptao
no semlarldo brasllelro csc dc |outo|+do |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| dc ||o dc |+nc||o ||o dc |+nc||o .o++
Vu|nc|+b|||d+dc c |cs|||cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| no contcxto d+ mud+n+ c||m+t|c+
o c+so do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc ||oduio c |so dc ||od|csc| (||||)
+,,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
O||||| C O||||| | ||||^ | ct +| C||m+tc +d+t+t|on ||om + ovc|ty c|scct|vc C||m+tc |o||cy
v s +,|.o+ .oos
O|^|| | \|^| C ^|C|| \| ct +| |v+|u+t|ng succcss|u| ||vc|||ood +d+t+t|on to c||m+tc
v+||+b|||ty +nd c|+ngc |n out|c|n ^|||c+ Lcology and Soclety v +, n .; .o+o
O|O| | ^ gcnc|+| ||+mcwo|| |o| +n+|yz|ng sust+|n+b|||ty o| soc|occo|og|c+| systcms Sclence v |+,
|+,|.. .oo,
|^|||| ||| 8lodlesel. uma aventura tecnologlca num pals engraado |o|t+|cz+ |d|to|+
|n|g|+c+ .oo,
||^|O || C |ormao do 8rasll contemporaneo. colnla n + Co|cio C|+ndcs |studos ||+s|||cnscs .
cd io |+u|o ||+s|||cnsc ||^ +,|,
|||.+ kenewables :o+o C|ob+| t+tus |co|t |+||s Cz;|||.+ cc|ct+||+t .o+o
|||O||| ||^|| O 8rasll dos agrocombustlvels. lmpactos das lavouras sobre a terra, o melo e a
socledade - so,+ c m+mon+ v | io |+u|o |co|tc| ||+s|| .oo,
|||O |C ||||O || ^ t|co|y o| +cccss kural Soclology v es +,,-+s+ .oo,
^C| | ||o|uc|s +|c com|ng o| +gc |n alestra no cm|n+||o |ntc|n+c|on+| ^sscss|ng t|c ||o|uc|s
Ot|ons .o ,un ||^ .oo,
^|O || |O||| | |^||O |^| ct +| ^scctos cconom|cos do +g|oncgoc|o d+ m+mon+ |n
^z|V||O ||| ||||^O ||| (|ds) O +g|oncgoc|o d+ m+mon+ no ||+s|| . cd C+m|n+
C|+ndc |mb|++ ^|godio c+ . .+|+ .oo;
C|O|z V ||V^ | ||osccts +nd ||s|s o| t|c usc o| c+sto| o|| +s + |uc| 8lomass and 8loenergy v ,.
,,+oo .oos
|^|C|||C|| ||||||C| | |O|C|O| | ct +| |sc o| | c|o|+nds |o| b|o|uc|s |nc|c+scs
g|ccn|ousc g+scs t||oug| cm|ss|ons ||om |+nd-usc c|+ngc Sclence v ,+, +.,s+.|o .oos
||V^ | |C|||| || ||V^ |||| ||| ct +| anorama do cooperatlvlsmo brasllelro. blstorla,
cenarlos e tendnclas |c|+to||o tccn|co ||||COO| s| .oo,
||V^ ||^ |nt|c o comb+tc scc+ c + conv|vcnc|+ com o scm|-+||do o||t|c+s ub||c+s c t|+ns|io
+|+d|gm+t|c+ kevlsta Lconmlca do Nordeste v ,s |ee|s, .oo;
|||C^|C|| C| Anallse da vlabllldade para lnsero da agrlcultura ramlllar do semlarldo no N8 -
o caso do Ceara csc dc |cst|+do ||og|+m+ dc ||+nc,+mcnto |nc|gct|co;CO|||;|||| ||o dc
|+nc||o .o+o
O|| | |O|^||^ || | !c cccts o| |+nd tcnu|c on vu|nc|+b|||ty to d|oug|ts |n |o|t|c+stc|n ||+z||
Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +s ,;,,s. .oos
|+|t|n Obc|m+|c| |m|||o |+ |ovc|c
+,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, +o,-+,| ,u|-dcz .o++
\||||| |O !c c+sto|-o|| |+nt |n t|c |n|tcd t+tcs Lconomlc 8otany vo| . .;,.s, +,|s
\|||||O| | ||||||^ ||o|uc|s |n ||+z|| dcb+tcs +nd |m+cts |ou|n+| o| |c+s+nt tud|cs V ,;
;|,;es .o+o
O||C O| |||||O| | C^||O||| CC ct +| !c g|ob+||z+t|on o| soc|o-cco|og|c+| systcms ^n
+gcnd+ |o| sc|cnt|c |csc+|c| Clobal Lnvlronmental Cbange v +e ,o|,+e .ooe
z^|^^ C V^||z-||| | ||^z^-||||^ | roductlve lncluslon or smallbolder rarmers
ln 8razlls blodlesel value cbaln. programme deslgn, lnstltutlonal lncentlves and stakebolder
constralnts \o|||ng |+c| ;, ||+s|||+ |ntc|n+t|on+| |o||cy Ccnt|c |o| |nc|us|vc C|owt| (||C)
|||| .o+o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
Indstrias do futuro e tecnologias emergentes:
viso de um futuro sustentvel
Maria Fatima Ludovico de Almeida
1
*, Carlos Augusto Caldas de Moraes
2
**
' |+||+ |+t|m+ |udov|co dc ^|mc|d+ c douto|+ cm |ngcn|+||+ dc ||oduio c|+ ||C-||o (.00o) |c c|+ |n|vc|s|ty o|
|+nc|cstc| (1c.) ||^ c|+ |n|vc|s|tc d^|x-|+|sc|||c ||| (1) c |c cm |ngcn|+||+ u|m|c+ c|+ |||| (1) ^tu+|mcntc
c |o|csso|+ +d,unt+ do ||og|+m+ dc |os-g|+du+io cm |ct|o|og|+ u+||d+dc c |nov+io d+ ||C-||o c consu|to|+ do Ccnt|o
dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos (CC||) c d+ |ct|ob|+s
'' C+||os ^ugusto C+|d+s dc |o|+cs c douto| cm |ngcn|+||+ dc ||oduio c|+ ||C-||o (1) mcst|c cm ^dm|n|st|+io
dc |m|cs+s c|o |+ss+c|usctts |nst|tutc o| cc|no|ogy (14) c g|+du+do cm |ngcn|+||+ C|v|| c|+ |||| (1o) c cm
^dm|n|st|+io dc |m|cs+s c|+ |||| (1o) ^tu+|mcntc c |o|csso| +d,unto d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc Cnd|do |cndcs c +sscsso|
do Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos +tu+ndo ||nc|+|mcntc nos scgu|ntcs tcm+s gcstio d+ |nov+io cst|+tcg|+ c
|osccio tccno|og|c+
Resumo
^s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs b+sc+d+s nos +v+nos
d+ b|otccno|og|+ n+notccno|og|+ tccno|og|+s dc
|n|o|m+io c comun|c+io c d+ u|m|c+ vc|dc
mo|d+|io o |utu|o dc +|guns scto|cs c ||io t|+ns-
|o|m+| mu|tos out|os |ss+s tccno|og|+s dctc|m|-
n+|io cm mu|tos c+sos o su|g|mcnto c + |ccst|u-
tu|+io dc |ndust||+s cm um ||tmo scm |cccdcn-
tcs C||+|io + ncccss|d+dc dc |cv|sio dc m+|cos |c-
gu|+to||os c dc novos modc|os dc ncgoc|os ^v+||+|
como sc|io +s |ndust||+s do |utu|o |+cc +os +v+n-
os d+s c|+m+d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs odc
+|ccc| um +|+doxo dcv|do +o +|to g|+u dc |n-
cc|tcz+ c com|cx|d+dc |nc|cntc d|sscm|n+io
dc nov+s tccno|og|+s c m+|s +|nd+ u|gcnc|+ dc
mud+n+s n+s |ox|m+s dcc+d+s cm v+||os scg-
mcntos d+ soc|cd+dc c nos mc|c+dos |cssc con-
Abstract
|oeo :e.noc'ces oasea co oc:e.noc'c,
oaoc:e.noc'c, o/coa:co aoa .cooao.a:co
:e.noc'ces aoa eeo .neos:, aa.ao.es .''
snae :ne /a:ae c/ scoe oaas:es aoa .'' :aos
/co oao, c:nes |o oao, .ases :nese :e.noc'c
es .'' ae:eooe :ne ae.e'coeo: aoa es:a.:a
o c/ oaas:es as oe.e oe/ce 'ese .naoes o
:ao .'' coc:e aeoa:es aoa e.scos c/ .aeo:
ea'a:c, /aoe.cs aoa a'sc c/ oasoessas
asaa' .cca:e ocae's |cse.:.e assessoeo:s c/
nc. :ne /a:ae oaas:es .'' /a.e eoeo :e.noc'
ces aa.ao.es oa, seeo a aaac\ .eo :ne nn
aeee c/ ao.e:ao:, aoa .co'e\:, oneeo: :c
:ne aasco c/ ooc.a:cos |o :ns .co:e\: :ns a
:.'e aos :c aes.oo :ne e.c'a:coa, :ae.:ces
c/ en: oaas:a' se.:cs oasea co aasco c/ :ne
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!!6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduo
O dcs+||o d+ +n+||sc dc mc|c+dos |utu|os +|+ nov+s tccno|og|+s cons|stc cm +ntcc|+| novos v+|o|cs
c como|t+mcntos |c|c|cnc|+s dos consum|do|cs |cc|||c+io dc |nsumos mcnsu|+io dc |uc|os
c c|d+s tod+s v+||+vc|s dc |m+cto s|gn|||c+t|vo nos modc|os dc ncgoc|os c |ndust||+s do |utu|o
^s nov+s dcscobc|t+s cst+|io |oc+d+s n+ busc+ o| so|uocs |nov+do|+s |+d|c+|s uc gc|+|io
novos ncgoc|os ou os +v+nos sc|io |nc|cmcnt+|s m+|s vo|t+dos +|+ o +c||c|o+mcnto dc
tccno|og|+s c ncgoc|os ,+ cx|stcntcs uc nov+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s su|g||io c cm uc ||tmo
c como cvo|u||io +s con||gu|+ocs cx|stcntcs cm |unio d+ d||usio dos +v+nos d+ b|otccno|og|+
d+ n+notccno|og|+ d+ u|m|c+ +mb|cnt+| c d+s tccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io |m
uc mcd|d+ +s c|+m+d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c||+|io ou |cso|vc|io d||cm+s ct|cos
|ss+s sio ucstocs +|+ os u+|s o |+nc,+mcnto b+sc+do cm cstudos |oscct|vos
+|t|cu|+|mcntc cm ccn+||os o|c|ccc um |c|c|cnc|+| concc|tu+| +dcu+do o| +bo|d+| +mb|cntcs
com|cxos c +|t+mcntc vo|+tc|s |cvc|+ndo c o|g+n|z+ndo +s |ncc|tcz+s |nc|cntcs +n+||sc dos
otcnc|+|s |m+ctos dc tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs n+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s cx|stcntcs c
|utu|+s cm |o||zontcs dc |ongo |+zo
tcxto o |cscntc +|t|go busc+ dcsc|cvc| +s t|+,cto-
||+s cvo|ut|v+s dc o|to scto|cs |ndust||+|s b+sc+d+s
n+ d||usio d+s c|+m+d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs
b|otccno|og|+ n+notccno|og|+ tccno|og|+s dc
|n|o|m+io c comun|c+io c u|m|c+ vc|dc cm
um |o||zontc dc .o +nos Cons|dc|+m-sc csscs sc-
to|cs c tccno|og|+s como dc g|+ndc |m+cto +|+
sc +|c+n+| + v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc| |css+|-
t+ndo-sc uc o cntcnd|mcnto d+s |o|+s-mot||zcs
tcndcnc|+s c |ncc|tcz+s c||t|c+s uc cond|c|on+|io
+ d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c + cvo|uio
d+s congu|+ocs |ndust||+|s dcsscs scto|cs const|-
tu| um+ ct++ |und+mcnt+| cm cstudos |oscct|-
vos dc n+tu|cz+ cx|o|+to||+
alavras-cbave. |ndust||+s do |utu|o tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs cstudos |oscct|vos modc|os dc nc-
goc|o d||usio tccno|og|c+ |nov+io ||+s||
sc.a''ea eoeeo: :e.noc'ces oc:e.noc'c,
oaoc:e.noc'c, o/coa:co aoa .cooao.a:co
:e.noc'ces aoa eeo .neos:, o a :oe nc
co c/ .o ,eas 'ese se.:cs aoa :e.noc'ces .ee
.cosaeea c/ ea: oa.: :c a.ne.e :ne .sco c/ a
sas:aoao'e /a:ae o :ns :oe ncco 'e a:.'e
eonases :ne oc:ao.e c/ aoaes:aoao aoa
ao:.a:o oc.eoeo:s c/ a.o /c.es :eoas
aoa .:.a' ao.e:ao:es o 'coa' 'e.e' .n.n .''
oaeo.e :ne aasco c/ eoeo :e.noc'ces o:c
oaas:a' c.esses aoa ocae's .co.eoo :ne
en: se'e.:ea se.:cs
keywords. /a:ae oaas:es eoeo :e.noc'ces
cse.:.e s:aaes oasoess ocae's :e.noc'c.a'
aasco ooc.a:co 8a'
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!!7
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|m dos bcnc||c|os dos cstudos |oscct|vos cm +mb|cntcs dc |o|mu|+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s
ou dc |+nc,+mcnto cm|cs+||+| c uc t+|s |c||+mcnt+s c|m|tcm +os dcc|so|cs cx+m|n+|cm
+ |ntc|+io cnt|c +s d|mcnsocs mc|c+do c tccno|og|+ |+cc oss|b|||d+dc dc mud+n+s dc
+|+d|gm+s |mu|s|on+d+s c|+ +doio dc tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs ^o t|++| u+d|os cons|stcntcs
c +o mcsmo tcmo |c+||st+s do |utu|o os cstudos |oscct|vos c|m|tcm + v|su+||z+io dos
|m+ctos c dcscont|nu|d+dcs tccno|og|c+s nos modc|os dc ncgoc|os c con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s
cx|stcntcs (C|O|C^|z^ | ^C^| 1 C|O||^||| | V^| ||| ||||||| 1.
C|\^|z .000 .00!) ^ux|||+m os gcsto|cs + com|ccndc| mc||o| o otcnc|+| comc|c|+| d+s
tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c ut|||z+| cssc cntcnd|mcnto +|+ + |o|mu|+io ob,ct|v+ c cons|stcntc
dc o||t|c+s c |og|+m+s vo|t+dos +|+ + conso||d+io dc nov+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s c
+|+ + |cv|sio +dcu+d+ dc m+|cos |cgu|+to||os +ssoc|+dos d||usio c |nco|o|+io d+s nov+s
tccno|og|+s cm |odutos |occssos c sc|v|os do |utu|o
|css+ c|scct|v+ o Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos (CC||) o| so||c|t+io do
||n|stc||o dc C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ (|C) dcscnvo|vcu + ub+io 14o1 - |ndust||+s do |utu|o
c ccno|og|+s |mc|gcntcs cu,o ob,ct|vo gc|+| |o| +n+||s+| cm c+|+tc| cx|o|+to||o os otcnc|+|s
|m+ctos dc tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs n+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s cx|stcntcs c |utu|+s
cons|dc|+ndo-sc um |o||zontc dc .0 +nos
O |cscntc +|t|go +|cscnt+ um+ s|ntcsc dos ||nc|+|s |csu|t+dos d+ ub+io 14o1 dcsc|cvcndo
+s t|+,cto||+s cvo|ut|v+s dc o|to scto|cs |ndust||+|s cons|dc|+dos dc g|+ndc |m+cto +|+ sc
+|c+n+| + v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc| cm um |o||zontc dc .0 +nos c cm n|vc| g|ob+| |css+|t+
uc o cntcnd|mcnto d+s |o|+s-mot||zcs tcndcnc|+s c |ncc|tcz+s c||t|c+s uc cond|c|on+|io +
d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c + cvo|uio d+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s dcsscs scto|cs
const|tu| um+ ct++ |und+mcnt+| cm cstudos |oscct|vos dc n+tu|cz+ cx|o|+to||+
2. Objetivos e escopo do estudo prospectivo
O ob,ct|vo gc|+| do cstudo |oscct|vo |o| +n+||s+| cm c+|+tc| cx|o|+to||o os otcnc|+|s |m+ctos
dc tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs n+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s cx|stcntcs c |utu|+s cons|dc|+ndo-sc um
|o||zontc dc .0 +nos |m tc|mos cscc|||cos o cstudo buscou 1) +n+||s+| cstudos |oscct|vos
g|ob+|s c |oc+||z+dos nos scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos bcm como |c|+to||os |ntc|n+c|on+|s c n+c|on+|s sob|c
o cst+g|o +tu+| c dcscnvo|v|mcnto |utu|o d+s c|+m+d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs n+notccno|og|+
b|otccno|og|+ tccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io c u|m|c+ vc|dc .) d|scut|| c dcsc|cvc|
+s t|+,cto||+s dos scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos cm do|s c||odos (.010-.0.0 c .0.0-.0!0) !) |dcnt|||c+|
os |m+ctos otcnc|+|s d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs n+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s +ssoc|+d+s +os
scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos cm um |o||zontc dc .0 +nos 4) +n+||s+| +s |m||c+ocs +|+ o ||+s|| d+s
t|+ns|o|m+ocs |ccon|z+d+s +|+ c+d+ um dos scto|cs no contcxto g|ob+|
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!!8
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
^ ||gu|+ 1 |c|cscnt+ o modc|o concc|tu+| do cstudo |oscct|vo uc |o| ob,cto d+ ub+io
14o1 - |ndust||+s do |utu|o c ccno|og|+s |mc|gcntcs
Situao atual
(Business as usual)
Modelos de
negcios e
conguraes
industriais:
2010-2020
Difuso de inovaes baseadas em tecnologias emergentes
Trajetrias evolutivas de setores selecionados
Modelos de
negcios e
conguraes
industriais:
2020-2030
Foras motrizes dos
cenrios globais,
tendnicas e
incertezas crticas
Condicionantes Condicionantes
|lgura ! |odc|o concc|tu+| |oosto +|+ o cstudo |oscct|vo ob,cto d+ ub+io 14o1
Con|o|mc |nd|c+do n+ ||gu|+ 1 cssc modc|o |ntcg|+ u+t|o c|cmcntos b+s|cos 1) + s|tu+io
+tu+| como ||n|+ dc b+sc (bus|ncss +s usu+|) .) d||usio d+s |nov+ocs b+sc+d+s cm tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs nos scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos com |oco nos +v+nos d+ b|otccno|og|+ d+ n+notccno|og|+
d+ u|m|c+ vc|dc c d+s tccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io (|C) !) modc|os dc ncgoc|os
c con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s no c||odo .010-.0.0 c 4) modc|os dc ncgoc|os c con||gu|+ocs
|ndust||+|s scgundo v|sio dc |utu|o +|+ .0!0 (c||odo .0.0-.0!0)
|+|tc-sc d+ +n+||sc d+ s|tu+io +tu+| como ||n|+ dc b+sc +|+ o cstudo |oscct|vo busc+ndo-
sc t|++| o +no|+m+ +tu+| dos scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos (oasoess as asaa') Com b+sc n+ +n+||sc
dos ccn+||os g|ob+|s |dcnt|||c+m-sc +s |o|+s-mot||zcs +s ||nc|+|s tcndcnc|+s (ontos dc
convc|gcnc|+) c +s |ncc|tcz+s c||t|c+s (ontos dc d|vc|gcnc|+) uc |m+ct+|io os modc|os dc
ncgoc|o c con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s dos |c|c||dos scto|cs no c||odo .010- .0.0 |+ scucnc|+
como |cv|sto no modc|o +ntcc|+m-sc +s t|+,cto||+s cvo|ut|v+s dos scto|cs nos ||mc||os dcz
+nos com dcst+uc +|+ +s mud+n+s |cv|st+s |nc|cmcnt+|s ou |+d|c+|s ^s ccn+s |utu|+s cm
.0.0 t|+duzcm-sc cm nov+s ||n|+s dc b+sc n+s u+|s sc +o|+|io +s dcsc||ocs d+s t|+,cto||+s no
c||odo .0.0-.0!0 +tc sc +|c+n+| + v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
O cscoo do cstudo com|ccndcu o|to scto|cs (con|o|mc dcsc||io no u+d|o 1) c u+t|o
g|uos dc tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs (b|otccno|og|+ n+notccno|og|+ u|m|c+ vc|dc c tccno|og|+s
dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io)
Indstrias do futuro e tecnologias emergentes: viso de um futuro sustentvel
!!9
Parc. Estrat. Braslia-DF v. 16 n. 33 p. 135-162 jul-dez 2011
Quadro ! Descrio dos setores selecionados
Setor Uescrltlvo
Complexo industrial da sade
Conjunto de indstrias que produzem bens de consumo e equipamentos especializados
para a rea de sade e um conjunto de organizaes prestadoras de servios que so as
consumidoras dos produtos manufaturados pelo primeiro grupo, caracterizando uma
clara relao de interdependncia setorial
Agroindstrias
Atividades agroindustriais compreendendo os seguintes segmentos: fornecedores de
insumos, bens de capital e tecnologia; recursos naturais (gua, solo, sol), produo
agropecuria; armazenamento de matrias-primas, insumos e produtos nais;
processamento agroindustrial; aspectos culturais; coleta e distribuio (transporte e
comrcio); capacitao de recursos humanos; e assistncia tcnica.
Sistemas orestais
Sistemas orestais referem-se a todo processo que envolve espcies orestais nas cadeias
de produo madeireira e no madeireira. As formas de utilizao do componente orestal
compreendem: plantaes orestais, sistemas agroorestais, sistemas de integrao
lavoura-pecuria-orestas e servios ambientais.
Energia
Compreende processos, produtos e servios voltados para a gerao, armazenamento,
transporte, transmisso e distribuio e consumo de energia das mais diversas fontes
renovveis e no renovveis.
Construo
A cadeia produtiva da construo formada pelas atividades que envolvem da concepo
produo de edicaes e infraestruturas.
Mobilidade
Conjunto de atividades abrangendo processos, produtos e servios voltados para
mobilidade geogrca, intra e inter escalares, com destaque para os deslocamentos intra e
inter urbanos, de pessoas e bens.
Telecomunicaes
Os servios de telecomunicaes compreendem transmisso e emisso ou recepo de
informaes multimdia por qualquer processo eletromagntico. Abrangem os seguintes
segmentos: pesquisa e desenvolvimento de tecnologias de telecomunicaes; produtos e
servios para as prestadoras de servios de telecomunicaes; servios de transmisso de
comunicao multimdia e servios de alto valor agregado.
Materiais
Compreende o desenvolvimento, a produo, a utilizao e a reutilizao de materiais nos
mais diversos setores socioeconmicos.
Na perspectiva de se analisar transversalmente os impactos potenciais das tecnologias
emergentes nas configuraes industriais associadas aos setores acima, integrou-se ao escopo
do estudo prospectivo as seguintes tecnologias emergentes: 1) nanotecnologia, 2) biotecnologia;
3) tecnologias de informao e comunicao; e 4) qumica verde.
3. Metodologia adotada
Nesta seo, apresenta-se a base conceitual e subsdios metodolgicos que fundamentaram o
desenvolvimento da metodologia adotada no desenvolvimento do referido estudo prospectivo
exploratrio.
A metodologia proposta baseou-se nos referenciais tericos: 1) abordagens dinmicas de sistemas
de inovao (GEELS, 2004; 2005; 2008; BRESHI E MALERBA, 1998; MALERBA, 2004; JOHNSON,
1998; JOHNSON E JACOBSSON, 2001; BERGEK, 2002; BERGEK E JACOBSSON, 2003; CARLSSON
Fatima Ludovico, Carlos Augusto Moraes
!40
Parc. Estrat. Braslia-DF v. 16 n. 33 p. 135-162 jul-dez 2011
E JACOBSSON, 2004; EDQUIST, 2004); 2) metodologia de avaliao tecnolgica, em particular
na sua variante construtiva (SMITS ET AL. 1995; SANMARTN E HRONSZKY, 1994; TODT, 2002;
SCHOT, 1992; SANMARTN E ORT, 1992; SCHOT E RIP, 1997; SHRADER-FRECHETTE, 1985); e
3) construo de cenrios (VAN DER HEIJDEN, 2004; 2005; SCHOEMAKER E VAN DER HEIDJEN,
1992; SCHWARTZ, 2000; 2003), com destaque para a ferramenta de anlise estrutural como
descrita no mtodo de prospectiva de Godet (1993; 2000; 2001).
Em total consonncia com o modelo representado na seo anterior, apresenta-se a seguir a
viso geral da metodologia adotada no desenvolvimento do estudo prospectivo em questo,
compreendendo trs fases: 1) conceitual; 2) analtica; e 3) conclusiva. (Figura 2).
Seleo e anlise
de estudos
prospectivos
sistmicos em
nvel global
Identicao e
anlise sistmica
de estudos
prospectivos
focalizados
Anlise
estrutural para
denio da
grade analtica e
cadeia casual
Elaborao de
material de
apoio para
Ocina de
Trabalho
Realizao da
Ocina de
Trabalho com
especialistas
convidados
Elaborao do
documento nal
do estudo
prospectivo
1 2 3 4 5 6
Fase conceitual Fase analtica Fase conclusiva
|lgura z Metodologia adotada no estudo prospectivo da Sub-ao 51.46.1
3.1. Fase conceitual
Conforme representado na Figura 2, a fase conceitual contemplou trs etapas, conforme
descrio a seguir.
Seleo e anlise de estudos prospectivos sistmicos em nvel global
O objetivo desta etapa foi apresentar uma viso panormica de estudos prospectivos globais de
longo prazo, realizados nos ltimos anos por instituies ou empresas internacionais de referncia
no campo da prospectiva estratgica, tendo em vista: 1) o mapeamento das foras-motrizes que
condicionaro a difuso das tecnologias emergentes e a evoluo das configuraes industriais
no horizonte de 20 anos; 2) a identificao das tendncias e incertezas crticas apontadas nos
cenrios mltiplos; e 3) a identificao de questes associadas a tecnologias emergentes, novos
modelos de negcios e configuraes industriais do futuro nos estudos prospectivos sistmicos
em nvel global. A seleo e anlise de estudos prospectivos globais foi objeto de contratao
pelo CGEE de Nota Tcnica especfica que foi elaborada por especialista em prospectiva e
construo de cenrios (ALMEIDA, 2010).
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!4!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
Identificao e anlise de estudos prospectivos focalizados
O ob,ct|vo dcst+ ct++ |o| +n+||s+| s|stcm|c+mcntc cstudos |oscct|vos dc |c|c|cnc|+ com |oco
nos scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos c n+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs tcndo cm v|st+ 1) + |dcnt|||c+io dc
v+||+vc|s-c|+vc c ucstocs |c|cv+ntcs uc dcv+m sc| cnc+m|n|+d+s s ct++s subscucntcs
.) dcsc||io d+ cvo|uio |utu|+ d+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s no |o||zontc dc .0 +nos c !)
m+c+mcnto d+s cont||bu|ocs c |m+ctos d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs nos novos modc|os dc
ncgoc|os c con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s do |utu|o
Anlise estrutural para definio da grade analtica e cadeia causal
Os ob,ct|vos d+ +n+||sc cst|utu|+| |o|+m 1) |dcnt|||c+| +s v+||+vc|s-c|+vc (|ntc|n+s c cxtc|n+s +o
s|stcm+) o| su+ +io d||ct+ c t+mbcm o| |ntc|mcd|o dc comb|n+ocs dc |n||ucnc|+s |nd||ct+s c .)
m+c+| +s |ntc|-|c|+ocs c + |c|cvnc|+ dcss+s v+||+vc|s +|+ cx||c+| + cvo|uio do |c|c||do s|stcm+
^ +n+||sc cst|utu|+| com|ccndc b+s|c+mcntc u+t|o ct++s 1) |dcnt|||c+io c dcsc||io d+s
v+||+vc|s-c|+vc (|ntc|n+s c cxtc|n+s +o s|stcm+) .) ,u|g+mcnto sob|c +s |c|+ocs cnt|c +s v+||+vc|s
dcnt|o d+ m+t||z dc +n+||sc cst|utu|+| !) c|+ss|||c+io d+s v+||+vc|s c|+ |c||+mcnt+ ||C|^C
|oost+ o| Codct (|||O| .010) c 4) dcscn|o do |+no mot||c|d+dc-dccndcnc|+ d+ m+t||z
dc |n||ucnc|+s |nd||ct+s c do g|+||co dc |n||ucnc|+s |nd||ct+s
^ +n+||sc cst|utu|+| +|+ dc||n|io d+ g|+dc +n+||t|c+ c c+dc|+ c+us+| d+s v+||+vc|s do cstudo
|oscct|vo |o|c|ou + |ntcg|+io dos |csu|t+dos d+s +n+||scs dos ccn+||os g|ob+|s c dos cstudos
|oscct|vos |oc+||z+dos ^ g|+dc +n+||t|c+ c + c+dc|+ c+us+| |csu|t+ntcs dcst+ ct++ const|tu||+m
|nsumos +|+ + c|+bo|+io dc documcntos tccn|cos |c|c|cntcs +os scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos
3.2. Fase analtica
|+ + |+sc +n+||t|c+ com|ccndcu + c|+bo|+io dc documcntos tccn|cos |c|c|cntcs +os scto|cs
sc|cc|on+dos c + |c+||z+io dc um+ O||c|n+ dc |+b+||o dc do|s d|+s com + +|t|c|+io dc um
g|uo sc|cto dc cscc|+||st+s conv|d+dos c|o CC||
Elaborao de material de apoio para a Oficina de Trabalho
|+|+ + |c+||z+io d+ O||c|n+ dc |+b+||o + cu|c do CC|| c|+bo|ou um C+dc|no dc
^t|v|d+dcs contcm|+ndo 1) os ob,ct|vos d+ O||c|n+ .) + |og|+m+io !) mctodo|og|+ c
d|nm|c+ |oost+ 4) o||cnt+ocs dct+||+d+s +|+ os t|+b+||os cm g|uos c ) ucstocs dc
+o|o +|+ +s +t|v|d+dcs cm g|uos
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!4z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
^ +|t|| d+ +n+||sc s|stcm|c+ dc cstudos |oscct|vos sc|cc|on+dos c dos |csu|t+dos d+ ct++
+ntc||o| |cun|u-sc o m+tc||+| dc |c|c|cnc|+ +|+ + c|+bo|+io dos documcntos tccn|cos
|oc+||z+dos n+s t|+,cto||+s dos scto|cs no |o||zontc dc .0 +nos |sscs documcntos const|tu||+m
|nsumos +|+ um+ d|scussio m+|s +m|+ cnvo|vcndo cscc|+||st+s conv|d+dos c|os CC|| n+
O||c|n+ dc |+b+||o como dcsc||to +d|+ntc no |tcm !..
Realizao da Oficina de Trabalho com especialistas convidados
^ |c+||z+io d+ |cun|io dc t|+b+||o |cun|ndo um g|uo dc o4 cscc|+||st+s conv|d+dos c|o
CC|| tcvc como ob,ct|vos 1) d|scut|| +s t|+,cto||+s dc scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos cm do|s c||odos (dc
.010 + .0.0 c dc .0.0 + .0!0) .) |dcnt|||c+| os |m+ctos otcnc|+|s d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs
n+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s +ssoc|+d+s +os scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos cm um |o||zontc dc .0
+nos !) +n+||s+| +s |m||c+ocs +|+ o ||+s|| d+s t|+ns|o|m+ocs |ccon|z+d+s +|+ c+d+ um
dos scto|cs no contcxto g|ob+| 4) |omovc| + t|oc+ dc |n|o|m+ocs c con|cc|mcnto cnt|c +s
|nst|tu|ocs cnvo|v|d+s
3.3. Fase conclusiva
||n+|mcntc + |+sc conc|us|v+ cons|st|u d+ c|+bo|+io do documcnto ||n+| do cstudo
|nco|o|+ndo +s |oos|ocs c +n+||scs gc|+d+s n+ |cun|io dc t|+b+||o
4. Resultados do estudo prospectivo
O cstudo |oscct|vo +t|ng|u scu ob,ct|vo m+|o| uc |o| +n+||s+| cm c+|+tc| cx|o|+to||o os
otcnc|+|s |m+ctos dc tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs n+s con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s cx|stcntcs c |utu|+s
dc o|to scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos cons|dc|+ndo-sc um |o||zontc dc .0 +nos O modc|o concc|tu+|
|oosto no |n|c|o do cstudo |o| v+||d+do co|ct|v+mcntc com |c|cscnt+t|v|d+dc dc m+|s dc
scsscnt+ cscc|+||st+s o||undos dos scto|cs +c+dcm|co cm|cs+||+| govc|n+mcnt+| c do CC||
Os u+t|o c|cmcntos b+s|cos do modc|o |o|+m d|scut|dos o| g|uos scto||+|s c |ntcg|+dos
t|+nsvc|s+|mcntc cm um+ scgund+ ct++ do |occsso o| cscc|+||st+s +g|u+dos cm to|no
d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs ^ss|m |o| oss|vc| t|++| +|+ os scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos 1) + s|tu+io
+tu+| como ||n|+ dc b+sc (bus|ncss +s usu+|) .) d||usio d+s |nov+ocs b+sc+d+s cm tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs nos |cscct|vos com |oco nos +v+nos d+ b|otccno|og|+ d+ n+notccno|og|+ d+
u|m|c+ vc|dc c d+s tccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io (|C) !) modc|os dc ncgoc|os
c con||gu|+ocs |ndust||+|s no c||odo .010-.0.0 c 4) modc|os dc ncgoc|os c con||gu|+ocs
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!4!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|ndust||+|s scgundo v|sio dc |utu|o +|+ .0!0 (c||odo .0.0-.0!0) Os |csu|t+dos +u|
sum+||z+dos |o|+m ||uto o|t+nto dcssc |occsso +|t|c|+t|vo cst|utu|+do +|+ cstc ||m
^|cscnt+m-sc + scgu|| + s|ntcsc dos |csu|t+dos do cstudo |oscct|vo o| scto| n+ c|scct|v+
g|ob+| c dc sustcnt+b|||d+dc (CC|| .010)
4.1. Complexo industrial da sade
Com |c|+io +o com|cxo |ndust||+| d+ s+udc |dcnt|||c+m-sc n+ +tu+| d|nm|c+ scto||+| +s scgu|ntcs
tcndcnc|+s c +scctos |c|cv+ntcs 1) |o|m+io dc o||goo||os c monoo||os dc con|cc|mcnto
+tcntcs c mc|c+dos cm |occsso dc |cc|udcsc|mcnto |cv+ndo +o c+sc+tc+mcnto d+
dccndcnc|+ +o |ongo dc tod+ + c+dc|+ dc |oduio cm contcxto g|ob+| .) dcs+||o dc g+|+nt||
o +ccsso +os |odutos c sc|v|os c + scgu|+n+ no uso |+cc s |cssocs dc custos c +os +v+nos
tccno|og|cos !) tcndcnc|+ d+ |nd|v|du+||z+io do d|+gnost|co c tc|+|+ como um dcs+||o do
onto dc v|st+ do custo +g|cg+do o| un|d+dc dc sc|v|os c |odutos som+dos +s d|||cu|d+dcs dc
csc+|+ 4) mud+n+ do |oco dc |nvcst|mcntos c d+ c+dc|+ dc |oduio +|+ mcd|c|n+ |cvcnt|v+
cm subst|tu|io mcd|c|n+ cu|+t|v+ ) uso |ntcns|vo do con|cc|mcnto c mu|t|d|sc|||n+||d+dc
|cuc|cndo mio dc ob|+ +|t+mcntc u+||||c+d+ o) cs|o|os dc || cx|g|ndo +|tos custos c c|c|os
|ongos dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto c ) +|t+ dccndcnc|+ dc |cgu|+mcnt+io
Com |c|+io d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no com|cxo d+ s+udc sio |cv|stos
|m+ctos os|t|vos dcco||cntcs dos +v+nos dc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c o|t+do|+s dc
|utu|o como dct+||+do no u+d|o .
V+|c |css+|t+| uc +s u+t|o tccno|og|+s |c|c|cnc|+d+s sio |gu+|mcntc |mo|t+ntcs c dcvc|io
ossu|| c|c|to s|nc|g|co n+ mcd|d+ cm uc os con|cc|mcntos c cscc|+||d+dcs gc|+dos sio
|ntc|c+mb|+vc|s c cont||bucm +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto mutuo Cons|dc|+ndo-sc +scctos
u|+mcntc tccno|og|cos c dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto no cnt+nto obsc|v+-sc o g|+ndc otcnc|+| d+
n+notccno|og|+ no scto| c csc|+-sc uc t+| |m+cto sc,+ |ccon|cc|do + mcd|o c |ongo |+zos
|o| out|o |+do tccno|og|+s como + u|m|c+ vc|dc c b|otccno|og|+ ,+ ossucm |o|tc |n||ucnc|+ no
scto| cscc|+|mcntc n+s +|c+s dc |oduio dc |+|m+cos c mcd|c+mcntos
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!44
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
Quadro z |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs
no com|cxo |ndust||+| d+ s+udc .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
ccno|og|+ dc cc|u|+s t|onco b|o|n|o|m+t|c+ b|o|og|+ s|ntct|c+ tc|+|+ gcn|c+ s|stcm+s
b|o|og|cos d|+gnost|cos mo|ccu|+|cs n+nob|otccno|og|+ b|o|og|+ mo|ccu|+| tccno|og|+ dc
|c|mcnt+ocs tccno|og|+ cnz|m+t|c+ cngcn|+||+ dc tcc|dos c o|gios cont|o|c b|o|og|co
b|otccno|og|+ +n|m+| (vo|t+d+ +|+ s+udc |um+n+) b|oc||s
|+notccno|og|+
|+nocnc+su|+mcnto d|ug-dc||vc|y systcms c s|stcm+s dc vc|cu|+io +|+ d|+gnost|co
t|+t+mcnto c vcto||z+io +|+ o scto| dc |+|m+cos c mcd|c+mcntos
||otcscs dc +|t+ cc|cnc|+ cc|u|+s-t|onco c cngcn|+||+ tcc|du+| dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc ||g+s
c |cvcst|mcntos +|+ |otcscs m+t||zcs .| c !| +|+ m+n|u|+io dc cc|u|+s-t|onco n+
|+b||c+io dc o|gios c tcc|dos
^||c+ocs cm d|+gnost|co c b|osscnso|cs dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc n+nocom|cxos +|+ ut|||z+io
como +gcntcs +t|vos no d|+gnost|co o| |m+gcm (|cssonnc|+ tomog|++ uo|csccnc|+) +|+
cont|+stc sc|ct|vo c |ccocc s|stcm+s dc m|c|o c n+nou|d|c+
^||c+ocs cm s+udc co|ct|v+ (cont|o|c dc |occssos c m|c|ob|o|og|+) n+nom+tc||+|s +t|vos
m|c|ob|o|og|c+mcntc +||c+dos ||g|cn|z+io cstc||||z+io c |o|+x|+ |+noc||cu|t+||+
+|+ |ntc||+ccs com s|stcm+ nc|voso n+nom+tc||+|s (n+notubos c n+no+|t|cu|+s) no
|ntc||+c|+mcnto com cc|u|+s c s|stcm+s nc|vosos
|so dc tccn|c+s n+nomct|o|og|c+s +||c+d+s n+nob|otccno|og|+ como o| cxcm|o |C
(uo|csccncc co||c|+t|on scct|oscoy) C| (c||cu|+| d|c||o|sm s|cct|oscoy) ||| (dcso|t|on
c|cct|os|+y su||+cc |on|s+t|on) bcm como +n+||sc dc ||sco s+udc c scgu|+n+ |c|c|cntcs +
|+b||c+io c uso dc n+no+|t|cu|+s n+notudos dc c+|bono c n+nom+tc||+|s cst|utu|+dos
u|m|c+ vc|dc
|so dc m+tc||+s ||m+s |cnov+vc|s c o concc|to dc cconom|+ +tom|c+ +||c+do +o com|cxo
d+ s+udc
|so dc |ccu|sos d+ b|od|vc|s|d+dc +|+ + |oduio dc |+|m+cos cosmct|cos c totc|+|cos c
nut|+ccut|cos
|so dc tccno|og|+s m|c|ob|+n+s
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io
c comun|c+io
|stcm+s dc |n|o|m+io cm s+udc |ontu+||o c|ct|on|co do +c|cntc s|stcm+s dc +o|o
dcc|sio |occss+mcnto dc s|n+|s b|o|og|cos |occss+mcnto dc |m+gcns mcd|c+s +d|on|z+io
d+ |n|o|m+io cm s+udc
c|cmcd|c|n+ c tc|css+udc
||o|n|o|m+t|c+
||ocngcn|+||+ dcscnvo|v|mcnto d+ c|cnc|+ b|omcd|c+ com o +ux|||o dc modc|os m+tcm+t|cos
c s|mu|+ocs
|ngcn|+||+ dc |c+b|||t+io com|ccndcndo s|stcm+s c|ct|on|cos c mccn|cos uc mc||o|cm +s
cond|ocs dc v|d+ dc dcc|cntcs
|ngcn|+||+ mcd|c+ d||cc|on+d+ +o cstudo |o,cto c cxccuio dc |nst|umcnt+io
(||nc|+|mcntc c|ct|on|c+) scnso|cs |otcscs ctc +|+ + +|c+ mcd|c+
|ngcn|+||+ c||n|c+ ou |os|t+|+| vo|t+d+ s +t|v|d+dcs dc cc|t|c+io c cns+|os dc
cu|+mcntos mcd|cos c s +t|v|d+dcs cm |os|t+|s |nc|u|ndo |o,ctos +dcu+io c cxccuio
dc |nst+|+ocs +sscsso||+ cm |occssos dc tom+d+ dc dcc|sio n+ +u|s|io dc cu|+mcntos
t|c|n+mcnto c o||cnt+io dc cu|cs dc m+nutcnio
||ccon|z+m-sc +|+ + dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos c tcndcnc|+s +|+ o com|cxo
|ndust||+| d+ s+udc 1) |oco n+ |cvcnio cm vcz d+ cu|+ .) custo d+ s+udc o||cnt+do c|+
cvo|uio tccno|og|c+ c ncccss|d+dc dc csc+|+ !) g|ob+||z+io d+s +ndcm|+s c c|dcm|+s 4)
d|vc|s|||c+io tccno|og|c+ dc mio du|+ cnt|c scto|cs ) o|c|t+ dc |odutos c sc|v|os +|+
mc|c+dos cmc|gcntcs o) o|c|t+ dc |odutos c sc|v|os vo|t+dos +|+ ou|+io |dos+
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!4
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
) |odutos c sc|v|os |nd|v|du+||z+dos c) m+|cos |cg+|s c |cgu|+to||os |ntc|n+c|on+|s uc
+com+n|+m + +cc|c|+io tccno|og|c+ |cssio dc custos c +scctos cu|tu|+|s |cg|on+|s
|cst+c+m-sc + scgu|| os ||nc|+|s cond|c|on+ntcs c mov|mcntos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos
do scto| s+udc n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 1) ncccss|d+dc dc m+|cos |cgu|+to||os +|+ +s nov+s
tccno|og|+s uc |m+ct+|io o scto| .) o|c|t+ dc |odutos c sc|v|os dc |omc c+|c !) +tcnio c
+com+n|+mcnto dos |dosos |c||cxo d+ mc||o||+ no |occsso dc cnvc||cc|mcnto d+ ou|+io
4) dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc mctodo|og|+s +|+ d|+gnost|co tc|+|+ c t|+t+mcnto com o concc|to o|nt-
o|c+|c ||nc|+|mcntc os vo|t+dos ou|+io |dos+ uc ||o||z+ o tcmo cm scu dom|c|||o )
cu+||z+io do +g+mcnto d+ +ss|stcnc|+ cm s+udc com tcndcnc|+ |cvcnio o) +m||+io c
|cd|st||bu|io d+ |cnd+ +umcnt+ndo + dcm+nd+ c|os |odutos c sc|v|os do com|cxo |ndust||+|
d+ s+udc c ) +dcu+io do +mb|cntc dc t|+b+||o +|+ mc||o|cs cond|ocs dc s+udc
4.2. Agroindstrias
|o uc t+ngc +o scto| +g|o|ndust||+s |dcnt|||c+m-sc +s scgu|ntcs tcndcnc|+s c +scctos
|c|cv+ntcs n+ +tu+| d|nm|c+ scto||+| 1) os|io dc dcst+uc n+ cconom|+ mund|+| .) |+to|cs
dc sc|v|os |c|+c|on+dos s +g|o|ndust||+s sio os c|cmcntos uc con|c|cm m+|o| v+|o| +g|cg+do
+ css+s +t|v|d+dcs !) v+|o||z+io dos |odutos +g||co|+s c +g|o|ndust||+s com consum|do|cs
d|sostos + +g+| o| u+||d+dc s+ud+b|||d+dc c |csons+b|||d+dc soc|o+mb|cnt+| 4) +umcnto
dc dcm+nd+ o| +||mcntos scgu|os |+vcndo |o|tcs |cst||ocs do mc|c+do |ntc|n+c|on+| c|+s
no|m+s ||toss+n|t+||+s +tu+|s ) uso |ntcns|vo do con|cc|mcnto c +umcnto d+ c++c|t+io dos
+g||cu|to|cs no m+nc,o sustcnt+vc| d+ tc||+ +|+ obtc| m+|s |odut|v|d+dc com uso c||c|cntc
dc |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s c |nsumos com |csons+b|||d+dc +mb|cnt+| c soc|+| o) +umcnto do
con|cc|mcnto gcnct|co c b|o|og|co |o|c|+ndo um+ mc||o||+ n+s v+||cd+dcs dc cu|t|vo c
+ +doio d+s c|+m+d+s bo+s |+t|c+s +g||co|+s |nc|u|ndo tccn|c+s dc ||||g+io m+|s c||c+zcs
) numc|o +|nd+ ||m|t+do dc +|scs uc |oduzcm o|g+n|smos gcnct|c+mcntc mod|||c+dos
(OC|s) |c||ctc + o|+||d+dc dc o|n|ocs c +t|tudcs cm |c|+io +os +||mcntos t|+nsgcn|cos c +os
|m+ctos +mb|cnt+|s d+s cu|tu|+s gcnct|c+mcntc mod|||c+d+s
||ccon|z+m-sc +|+ + dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos c tcndcnc|+s +|+ o scto|
+g|o|ndust||+s 1) +umcnto cont|nuo d+ dcm+nd+ o| |odutos +g|o|ndust||+|s .) c|csc|mcnto
do comc|c|o |ntc|n+c|on+| dos |odutos +g||co|+s c +g|o|ndust||+|s !) tcndcnc|+ dc +umcnto dos
|cos |c|+t|vos dos |odutos +g|o|ndust||+|s 4) com|cx|d+dc c|csccntc d+s c+dc|+s |odut|v+s
d+ +g|o|ndust||+ ) c||+io c +m||+io dc b|o||c||n+||+s o) su|g|mcnto dc novos t|os dc sc|v|os
n+s c+dc|+s |odut|v+s ) tccno|og|+s dc ont+ sustcnt+m + +g||cu|tu|+ o|gn|c+ c) uso c||c|cntc
dc |ccu|sos |nc|u|ndo novos |c|t|||z+ntcs c b|ocst|c|d+s ) |oduio dc b|ocombust|vc|s + +|t||
dc m+tc||+s-||m+s ||gnocc|u|os|c+s 10) |mo|tnc|+ d+ b|o|osccio como |c||+mcnt+ +|+
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!46
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
o mc||o|+mcnto dc |+nt+s +|+ + |cs|stcnc|+ + cst|cssc ||d||co c +|+ + |oduio dc |otc|n+s
cm |+nt+s ou +|+ |cs|stcnc|+ + docn+s |css+|t+m-sc +|nd+ os scgu|ntcs +scctos cons|dc|+dos
|m|csc|nd|vc|s +|+ + m+tc||+||z+io dcst+ v|sio dc |utu|o 1) um cs|o|o g|ob+| +|+ c++c|t+| os
+g||cu|to|cs +|+ + |cvo|uio Vc|dc do sccu|o .1 uc sc|+ o||cnt+d+ c|o con|cc|mcnto .) m+|o|
cng+,+mcnto o| +|tc dos govc|nos n+ csu|s+ +g||co|+ !) +umcnto d+ t+x+ |utu|+ dc g+n|os dc
|oduio dc||n|d+ + +|t|| dos n|vc|s ||sto||cos |cccntcs ou +c|m+ dcsscs n|vc|s c 4) nov+s so|uocs
dc v+||cd+dcs dc cu|t|vos c +||mo|+mcntos dcscnvo|v|d+s +|+ cond|ocs c||m+t|c+s cxt|cm+s
Com |c|+io d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| +g|o|ndust||+s o u+d|o ! |csumc
os ||nc|+|s +v+nos d+s u+t|o tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs uc |m+ct+|io cssc scto| no |o||zontc
dc tcmo +n+||s+do
Quadro ! |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs no scto| +g|o|ndust||+s .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
||otccno|og|+ vcgct+| +n|m+| c dc m|c|o|g+n|smos
b|o||cmcd|+io b|otccno|og|+ +|+ cont|o|c b|o|og|co
tccno|og|+ dc |c|mcnt+ocs tccno|og|+ cnz|m+t|c+ c|on+gcm
vcgct+| c +n|m+| cu|tu|+ dc tcc|dos n+nob|otccno|og|+
+||c+d+ +g||cu|tu|+ t|+t+mcnto dc |cs|duos so||dos c
||u|dos o| |occssos b|otccno|og|cos c b|oc||s
|+notccno|og|+
|stcm+s c+||c+do|cs dc |nsumos (+g|ou|m|cos)
toss+n|t+||os c mcd|c+mcntos +|+ ||bc|+io cont|o|+d+
d|+gnost|co c b|osscnso|cs tccno|og|+s os-co||c|t+s
(cmb+|+gcns +t|v+s c com scnso|cs) c +umcnto dc v|d+ dc
|+tc|c||+ c+t+||s+do|cs n+nocst|utu|+dos +|+ ut|||z+io n+
+g|o|ndust||+ n+nom+tc||+|s +|+ |cmcd|+io |occssos dc
obtcnio c ut|||z+io cm +||mcntos dc n+nocst|utu|+s dc
|ontcs |cnov+vc|s c n+no+||mcntos (n+nocmu|socs co|+ntcs
c +d|t|vos m|c|ocnc+su|+dos)
u|m|c+ vc|dc
C||+io c +m||+io dc b|o||cn+||+s |cduio dos n|vc|s
dc dcsc|d|c|o n+ +g||cu|tu|+ g|+ndc uso dc +utom+io
n+ |oduio +g|o|ndust||+| |oduio vc|t|c+| dc vcgct+|s
+u|cu|tu|+ |oduio dc m|c|o+|g+s |oduio ||m+ c
|csc|v+io +mb|cnt+| n+s +g|o|ndust||+s c dcscnvo|v|mcnto
dc b|ocst|c|d+s
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
^g||cu|tu|+ dc |cc|sio s|stcm+s dc mon|to|+mcnto (C|
s+tc||tc |+d|o ||cucnc|+ c out|os) c s|mu|+io +|+ o m+nc,o
sustcnt+vc| s|stcm+ dc s+tc||tc dc cont|o|c d+ |oduio
+||c+t|vos +|+ |cv|sio dc s+||+ cst+ocs mctco|o|og|c+s c
c||m+to|og|c+s |+nc,+mcnto +utom+t|z+do dc oc|+io dc
co||c|t+ c +|m+zcn+mcnto |obot|c+ +g|o|ndust||+| s|stcm+s
dc |oduio s|mu|+io c gc|cnc|+mcnto d+ |oduio
+g|o|ndust||+|
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!47
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|cst+c+m-sc + scgu|| os ||nc|+|s mov|mcntos c +scctos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos do scto|
+g|o|ndust||+s n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 1) c|csc|mcnto do comc|c|o g|ob+| dc |odutos +g||co|+s
c +g|o|ndust||+|s com uso |ntcns|vo d+s |cdcs comc|c|+|s c m+|o| |+|mon|z+io d+s no|m+s c
|cgu|+mcntos tccn|cos uc |+vo|ccc|io o ||v|c comc|c|o cnt|c +|scs |oduto|cs c consum|do|cs
dc |odutos +g||co|+s c +g|o|ndust||+|s .) +umcnto d+ |odut|v|d+dc +g||co|+ cm +|scs cm
dcscnvo|v|mcnto com cn|+sc nos +|scs d+ ^|||c+ |cg|io uc +t|ng||+ o u|ntu|o dos scus
n|vc|s +tu+|s dc |odut|v|d+dc !) uso c||c|cntc dos |ccu|sos com |cduio s|gn|||c+t|v+ dos n|vc|s
dc dcsc|d|c|o 4) gcstio c||c+z dos c|cd|tos dc c+|bono ) conso||d+io d+ |cgu|+mcnt+io
vo|t+d+ +|+ + scgu|+n+ +||mcnt+| c ||s|c+ o) m+nc,o sustcnt+vc| c c||c|cnc|+ d+s +|c+s ocu+d+s
) +m|o uso dc +utom+io n+ |oduio +g|o|ndust||+| c) tccno|og|+s dc ont+ sustcnt+|io
+ +g||cu|tu|+ o|gn|c+ c ) +bc|tu|+ dc novos cs+os +|+ +g||cu|tu|+ (|oduio vc|t|c+| dc
vcgct+|s +u|cu|tu|+ m|c|o+|g+s dcnt|c out|+s mod+||d+dcs)
4.3. Sistemas orestais
Com |c|c|cnc|+ +o scto| s|stcm+s ||o|cst+|s |dcnt|||c+m-sc n+ +tu+| d|nm|c+ scto||+| +s scgu|ntcs
tcndcnc|+s c +scctos |c|cv+ntcs 1) +m|o |ccon|cc|mcnto d+ cont||bu|io do comoncntc
||o|cst+| +ssoc|+d+ +d+t+io dc mud+n+s c||m+t|c+s |oduio dc cnc|g|+ |cnov+vc|s
m+nutcnio b|od|vc|s|d+dc consc|v+io dc |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s (+gu+ so|o) |csc|v+io dos
|ccu|sos ||o|cst+|s d|m|nu|io dos |occssos dc dcsc|t|||c+io .) c|csccntc cntcnd|mcnto dos
|m+ctos d+ dcsc|t|||c+io |+nt+ocs ||o|cst+|s dc +|to |cnd|mcnto !) +m||+io d+ |mo|tnc|+
d+s ||o|cst+s dc |otcio c |oduio ccoc||c|cntc (mc|c+do dc c+|bono como mcc+n|smos
dc +g+mcnto dc sc|v|os +mb|cnt+|s |oduio c consumo |csons+vc|s) 4) dcm+nd+ o|
|odutos dc b+sc ||o|cst+| tcndo-sc cm cont+ +s |n|c|+t|v+s dc const|uocs cco|og|c+s (g|ccn
bu||d|ng) ) cont||bu|io d+s |+nt+ocs ||o|cst+|s com +|to |cnd|mcnto o) bcnc||c|os d+s
||o|cst+s u|b+n+s +|+ o +umcnto do |nd|cc dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto |um+no (|||) c ) cx|gcnc|+s
c|csccntcs cm |c|+io + |occssos dc cc|t|||c+io c |+st|c+b|||d+dc dc |odutos ||o|cst+|s
u+nto d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| s|stcm+s ||o|cst+|s sio |cv|stos
|m+ctos os|t|vos dcco||cntcs dos +v+nos dc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c o|t+do|+s dc
|utu|o como most|+do no u+d|o 4
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!48
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
Quadro 4 |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs no scto| s|stcm+s ||o|cst+|s .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
||otccno|og|+ vcgct+| c dc m|c|o-o|g+n|smos
b|o||cmcd|+io b|otccno|og|+ +|+ cont|o|c b|o|og|co
c|on+gcm vcgct+| cu|tu|+ dc tcc|dos dc mc||stcm+s
dc cmb||ocs som+t|ocs n+nob|otccno|og|+ c+tu|+ c
+|m+zcn+mcnto dc c+|bono b|o|og|+ s|ntct|c+ t|+t+mcnto
dc |cs|duos so||dos c ||u|dos o| |occssos b|otccno|og|cos
b|oc||
|+notccno|og|+
+n|d+dc vcgct+| |+st|c+b|||d+dc s|stcm+s suo|tc +|+
|oduio dc mud+s obtcnio;u||c+io dc n+nom+tc||+|s
+ +|t|| d+ b|om+ss+
u|m|c+ vc|dc
||oduio dc |nsumos o|gn|cos nos s|stcm+s o|cst+|s uso
dc |ontcs cc|u|os|c+s como m+tc||+ ||m+ +|+ gc|+io dc
b|ocombust|vc|s (|| c |odutos d+ u|m|c+ n+) uso dc
|ccu|sos o|cst+|s dc |o|m+ sustcnt+vc|
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
C| s|stcm+s dc mon|to|+mcnto c s|mu|+io m+nc,o
sustcnt+vc| c o|cst+ |+nt+d+ s|stcm+ dc s+tc||tc dc cont|o|c
dc uc|m+d+s +||c+t|vos +|+ |cv|sio dc s+||+ cst+ocs
mctco|o|og|c+s c c||m+to|og|c+s s|stcm+s s|smo|og|cos
|+nc,+mcnto +utom+t|z+do dc oc|+io dc co|tc co||c|t+ c
+|m+zcn+mcnto c co|ct+ dc |n|o|m+ocs o| +c|omodc|os
Ccn+||z+m-sc +|+ + dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos tcndcnc|+s c cond|c|on+ntcs 1)
con|cc|mcnto g|ob+| m+|s +b|+ngcntc d+ |unio d+s ||o|cst+s n+ |otcio do c||m+ c n+ |oduio
dos |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s .) +o|o |nst|tuc|on+| c mc|c+do|og|co no scnt|do dc +umcnt+| + |otcio
c + gcstio d+s ||o|cst+s !) com|om|ssos +|+ +|o|und+| +|nd+ m+|s +s |cduocs do c+|bono nos
+|scs |ndust||+||z+dos gc|+ndo dcm+nd+ o| c|cd|tos dc c+|bono o| ||||+
1
4) d|son|b|||z+io
dc |nccnt|vos ||n+ncc||os +|+ +s ou|+ocs |oc+|s +|+ ||ns dc |csc|v+io c cx+nsio dc sc|v|os
do ccoss|stcm+ d+s ||o|cst+s n+tu|+|s b+s|c+s c mod|||c+d+s ) c||+io c +doio dc no|m+s c
|occd|mcntos |c|c|cntcs +os n|vc|s dc cm|ssocs o) |occssos +|+ |omovc| + +|t|c|+io dos
ovos |nd|gcn+s c d+s comun|d+dcs |oc+|s ) |occssos +|+ |omovc| + +|t|c|+io dos ovos
|nd|gcn+s c d+s comun|d+dcs |oc+|s c c) dcs|oc+mcnto n+ |oduio d+ ||o|cst+ n+tu|+| mod|||c+d+
+|+ +s ||o|cst+s |+nt+d+s mc||o|+ndo os |csu|t+dos dcss+s u|t|m+s
|cst+c+m-sc + scgu|| os ||nc|+|s cond|c|on+ntcs c mov|mcntos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos
do scto| s|stcm+s ||o|cst+|s n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 1) mot|v+io c|csccntc +|+ + |otcio d+s
||o|cst+s c |oduio c||c|cntc .) n|vc|+mcnto dc |cos +|+ +|tc|n+t|v+s +o dcs||o|cst+mcnto
+|+ |otcgc| o |+b|t+t c + b|od|vc|s|d+dc +umcnt+| +s |csc|v+s dc c+|bono gc|+| c++c|d+dc
1 |c |n|tcd |+t|ons Co||+bo|+t|vc ||og|+mmc on |cduc|ng |m|ss|ons ||om |c|o|cst+t|on +nd |o|cst |cg|+d+t|on |n |cvc|o|ng
Count||cs+ ust+|n+b|c ||csc|v+t|on +nd |+n+gcmcnt ||son|vc| cm |tt;;wwwun-|cddo|g; ^bout||||||||og|+mmc;
t+b|d;c!;|c|+u|t+sx. (^ccsso cm nov .010)
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!49
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|nst|tuc|on+| n+s |cg|ocs ||o|cst+|s |cmot+s c sc +|ox|m+| do onto dc cu|||b||o +|+ os |ccu|sos
+g||co|+s conco||cntcs !) +umcnto d+ dcm+nd+ o| |odutos ||o|cst+|s cco|og|c+mcntc co||ctos
o||undos dc |nov+ocs vc|dcs 4) c||+io ou m+nutcnio dc ||o|cst+s u|b+n+s uc |oo|c|on+|io
somb|+ +| m+|s ||mo c m+|o| u+||d+dc dc v|d+ ) c||+io dc |undos dc scgu|+n+ +mb|cnt+|
+|+ |cs+|d+| + |cst+u|+io c m+nutcnio dos s|stcm+s b|o||s|cos sub,+ccntcs +|cm dc
mcc+n|smos b+sc+dos no mc|c+do o) +umcnto do consumo dc m+dc||+s |o||+s +|+ +tcndc|
+ dcm+nd+ c|csccntc o| m+tc||+|s dc const|uio c out|os |odutos m+dc||c||os ) m+|o| c
mc||o| ut|||z+io d+ b|om+ss+ ||o|cst+| +|+ + gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ c + |oduio dc combust|vc|s
c) +umcnto d+ |oduio d+s ||o|cst+s |+nt+d+s o| mc|o dos +||mo|+mcntos gcnct|cos
uc d+|io dcst+uc + um m|x dc c+|+ctc||st|c+s vcgct+|s como to|c|nc|+ scc+ |cs|stcnc|+ +
|nsctos dcnt|c out|+s c +d+t+io +os d|vc|sos t|os c |oc+|s ||o|cst+|s c ) o| vo|t+ dc .0.
o dcs||o|cst+mcnto c|cg+|+ + u+sc zc|o
4.4. Energia
|m |c|+io +o scto| dc cnc|g|+ |dcnt|||c+m-sc n+ +tu+| d|nm|c+ scto||+| +s scgu|ntcs tcndcnc|+s
c +scctos |c|cv+ntcs 1) conscnso |ntc|n+c|on+| sob|c + gcstio c||c+z d+s cm|ssocs dc g+scs dc
c|c|to cstu|+ .) dc||n|io dc |co do c+|bono cm n|vc| g|ob+| !) o||t|c+s c||c+zcs +|+ |cduz|| os
custos d+ |oduio dc cnc|g|+s c +umcnt+| + c||c|cnc|+ dc out|+s |o|m+s dc gc|+io cnc|gct|c+
4) mcd|d+s dc |nccnt|vos c |n|o|m+ocs ,unto soc|cd+dc cm gc|+| +|+ o||cnt+| os g+n|os dc
c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc cnc|g|+ ) cduc+io cnc|gct|c+ c |+b|tos dc consumo dcnt|o do contcxto
d+ c||c|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ g|ob+| o) dcmonst|+io scgu|+ c su||c|cntc |m|+nt+io c +cc|t+io d+s
tccno|og|+s |om|sso|+s como CC
.
nuc|c+| c b|om+ss+s ) scgu|+n+ cnc|gct|c+ sob o onto dc
v|st+ dc +sscgu|+| + cont|nu|d+dc do dcscnvo|v|mcnto c c) |cg|on+||z+io dc so|uocs cnc|gct|c+s
Com |c|+io d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| dc cnc|g|+ sio |cv|stos |m+ctos
os|t|vos dcco||cntcs dos +v+nos dc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c o|t+do|+s dc |utu|o
con|o|mc +|cscnt+do no u+d|o |cst+c+m-sc +s ||nc|+|s tcndcnc|+s |cv|st+s +|+ +
dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 |oc+||z+ndo os combust|vc|s |ossc|s os |cnov+vc|s c os |odutos cnc|gct|cos
o||undos dc out|+s |ontcs dc cnc|g|+ |o uc sc |c|c|c +os combust|vc|s |ossc|s |cvc-sc uc 1) o
scto| ct|o|co cont|nu+|+ scndo dom|n+do o| c+|tc|s com +umcnto dos custos dc cx|o|+io
c |oduio (|csc|v+s |cmot+s) c busc+ dc so|uocs tccno|og|c+s +|tc|n+t|v+s .) +umcnto do uso
dc c+|vio como |ontc cnc|gct|c+ c busc+ o| nov+s so|uocs tccno|og|c+s +|tc|n+t|v+s v|s+ndo
+ su+ ut|||z+io m+|s ||m+ !) c|csc|mcnto do consumo dc g+s n+tu|+| c busc+ o| so|uocs
tccno|og|c+s +|tc|n+t|v+s +|+ +m||+io dc su+ ut|||z+io ||nc|+|mcntc no uc concc|nc su+s
t|+ns|o|m+ocs u|m|c+s c 4) cx|o|+io otcnc|+| dc uso do x|sto c |ontcs bctum|nos+s bcm
. CC C+|bon C+tu|c +nd cucst|+t|on
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!0
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
como dc |csc|v+s dc ct|o|co dc b+|x|ss|mo g|+u ^|| cm |unio d+ v|+b|||z+io dc so|uocs
tccno|og|c+s +|tc|n+t|v+s
Quadro |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| dc cnc|g|+ .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
||otccno|og|+ vcgct+| (dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc b|om+ss+ dc o||gcm vcgct+|)
b|otccno|og|+ dc m|c|o-o|g+n|smos b|o|og|+ s|ntct|c+ tccno|og|+ dc cnz|m+s
c tccno|og|+ dc |c|mcnt+ocs
|+notccno|og|+
|+nom+tc||+|s c n+no|cvcst|mcntos +t|vos +|+ d|sos|t|vos dc cnc|g|+s
|cnov+vc|s |nc|u|ndo |otovo|t+|cos cc|u|+s combust|vc| co||cos dcnt|c
out|os c+t+||s+do|cs n+nocst|utu|+dos +|+ + |ndust||+ do ct|o|co c ct+no|
n+nom+tc||+|s +|+ |oduio dc ct+no| c b|oct+no| c |c+|ovc|t+mcnto d+
b|om+ss+ novos s|stcm+s dc ||um|n+io m+|s cc|cntcs (|||s o|gn|cos c
|no|gn|cos) n+notccno|og|+ +|+ gc|+io c +|m+zcn+mcnto (n+nob+tc||+s c
c++c|to|cs)
u|m|c+ vc|dc
||occssos dc |cmcd|+io +||c+dos + m+tc||+s ||m+s |ossc|s |C| cnc|g|+
so|+| cnc|g|+ + +|t|| dc b|om+ss+ (b|ocombust|vc|s) cnc|g|+ co||c+
tccno|og|+s dc ||d|ogcn|o cnc|g|+s occn|c+s
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
|stcm+s dc dctccio dc v+z+mcntos dc |odutos u|m|cos (convc|gcnc|+
b|on+no-|C) novos +|go||tmos +|+ C||s d|g|t+|s novos +|go||tmos +|+
owc| ||nc commun|c+t|on m+|t C||d - |ntc|||gcnt mctc|s;scnso|s s|stcm+s
dc cont|o|c c +utom+io |ntc||gcntcs novos +|go||tmos c |ntc||gcnc|+ +|t|c|+|
+|+ +s +t|v|d+dcs dc s|sm|c+ s|stcm+s +|+ dctccio dc g+scs otcnc|+|mcntc
c||gosos c |cdcs scnso||+|s z|gbcc
|+|+ os combust|vc|s + +|t|| dc |ontcs |cnov+vc|s +s cst|m+t|v+s c |cv|socs |nd|c+m 1)
c|csc|mcnto modc|+do d+ gc|+io ||d|oc|ct||c+ +tc .0.0 .) g|+ndc otcnc|+| dc c|csc|mcnto
ut|||z+ndo tccno|og|+s cx|stcntcs dc |C| !) otcnc|+| dc c|csc|mcnto dc cnc|g|+ so|+| tc|m|c+
com tccno|og|+ cx|stcntc 4) g|+ndc otcnc|+| dc c|csc|mcnto d+ cnc|g|+ so|+| cm |unio dc
|nov+ocs tccno|og|c+s ) g|+ndc c|csc|mcnto no uso dc +|guns t|os dc b|om+ss+ dc o||gcm
m|c|ob|+n+ como m+tc||+-||m+ +|+ |oduio dc b|ocombust|vc|s + cxcm|o dc m|c|o+|g+s
o) c|csc|mcnto +ccntu+do no uc sc |c|c|c + ct+no| como combust|vc| o u+| odc|+ sc| +|nd+
m+|o| cm |unio dc |nov+ocs tccno|og|c+s (ct+no| ||gno-cc|u|os|co) ) cno|mc c|csc|mcnto nos
scgmcntos dc b|ouc|oscnc c d|csc| |cnov+vc| dcco||cntc d+s tccno|og|+s cx|stcntcs (b|od|csc|)
c cm dcscnvo|v|mcnto (||) c) +|ovc|t+mcnto dos |cs|duos b+sc+do cm tccno|og|+s dc
dcns|||c+io (||o||sc) c g+sc|||c+io (||) bcm como cm +||c+ocs d+ b|otccno|og|+ c ) |o|tc
c|csc|mcnto d+ cnc|g|+ co||c+ cm cond|ocs gcog|+||c+s cscc|||c+s com +mo|tcc|mcnto no
||n+| do c||odo
||n+|mcntc u+nto s dcm+|s |ontcs dc cnc|g|+ +ntcc|+m-sc 1) um otcnc|+| dc c|csc|mcnto
d+ cnc|g|+ nuc|c+| com tccno|og|+s |nov+do|+s |nc|cmcnt+|s n+ +|c+ dc scgu|+n+ .) |o|tc
c|csc|mcnto |mcd|+to c du|+dou|o do uso dc tccno|og|+s dc c||c|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ c !)
c|csc|mcnto d|sc|cto dc ||d|ogcn|o cm n|c|os cscc|||cos
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
^s tcndcnc|+s |cv|st+s +|+ + dcc+d+ +ntc||o| com |oco nos combust|vc|s |cnov+vc|s c |odutos
cnc|gct|cos o||undos dc out|+s |ontcs dc cnc|g|+ sc|io conso||d+d+s ncst+ dcc+d+ |sc|+m-sc
g|+ndcs t|+ns|o|m+ocs no c||odo .0.0-.0!0 uc sc t|+duz||io ||nc|+|mcntc no dcc||n|o
d+s cm|ssocs dc g+scs dc c|c|to cstu|+ (C||) n+ comct|t|v|d+dc d+ cnc|g|+ so|+| c no uso
c|csccntc dc cnc|g|+ ||m+ nos +|scs cm dcscnvo|v|mcnto ^|cm dcsscs mov|mcntos |cvc-
sc uc + gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ nuc|c+| cont|nu+|+ scndo c|+vc nos cs|o|os dc +tcnu+io d+s
mud+n+s c||m+t|c+s ncstc c||odo c uc |+vc|+ cst+gn+io n+ gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ ||d|oc|ct||c+
+tc .0!0 |+|t|cu|+|mcntc cm |c|+io +os combust|vc|s |ossc|s ccn+||z+-sc 1) otcnc|+| mud+n+
n+ t+x+ dc c|csc|mcnto d+ o|c|t+ dc o|co cm |unio do ++|cc|mcnto dc nov+s |csc|v+s |cmot+s
t|o |c-s+| .) otcnc|+| mud+n+ n+ t+x+ dc c|csc|mcnto do uso dc c+|vio cm |unio do
++|cc|mcnto dc tccno|og|+s +|tc|n+t|v+s dc +||c+io dc c+|vio do t|o co+| to ||u|ds (C|)
d|mct|| ctc| (|||) c g+sc|||c+io |n s|tu !) consumo c|csccntc dc g+s n+tu|+| com otcnc|+|
mud+n+ n+ t+x+ dc c|csc|mcnto cm |unio do ++|cc|mcnto dc tccno|og|+s +|tc|n+t|v+s dc
+||c+io t|o d|mct|| ctc| (|||) c C| o||s|o|c c 4) cx|o|+io do otcnc|+| dc ut|||z+io dc
x|sto c |ontcs bctum|nos+s cm |unio dc so|uocs tccno|og|c+s d|s|ut|v+s +|tc|n+t|v+s
4.5. Construo
u+nto +o scto| dc const|uio |dcnt|||c+m-sc n+ +tu+| d|nm|c+ scto||+| +s scgu|ntcs tcndcnc|+s
c +scctos |c|cv+ntcs 1) |cgu|+mcnt+io d|vc|s+ c nio gcnc|+||z+d+ com cn|ouc |oc+| .) b+|x+
u+||||c+io d+ mio dc ob|+ oc|+c|on+| !) g|+ndc gc|+do| dc cm|cgo m+s su+ m+|o||+ nio
u+||||c+d+ 4) |+to|cs dctc|m|n+ntcs |nc|ucm c||m+ cu|tu|+ d|st||bu|io dc |cnd+ d|son|b|||d+dc
dc |ccu|sos n+tu|+|s ) c|csc|mcnto d+ ncccss|d+dc dc mob|||d+dc ncccss|d+dc dc m+|o|cs
|nvcst|mcntos cm |n||+cst|utu|+ o) g|+ndc cont|ngcntc dc consum|do|cs ou|+io |o|+ no
mc|c+do c ) b+|x+ |nco|o|+io dc nov+s tccno|og|+s dcv|do cu|tu|+ scto||+| sc| |cnt+
Com |c|+io d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| dc const|uio sio |cv|stos
|m+ctos os|t|vos dcco||cntcs dos +v+nos dc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c o|t+do|+s dc
|utu|o como most|+ o u+d|o o + scgu||
Ccn+||z+m-sc os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos tcndcnc|+s c cond|c|on+ntcs +|+ o scto| dc const|uio
n+ dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 1) ||go|os+s cx|gcnc|+s sob|c + c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc cnc|g|+
|ccon|cc|d+s cm n|vc| |ntc|n+c|on+| n+s no|m+s +|+ + const|uio c|v|| +ss|m como o |nccnt|vo c
mon|to|+mcnto dc su+ |m|cmcnt+io .) novos |nccnt|vos ||sc+|s c subs|d|os +|+ |nvcst|mcntos
d||cc|on+dos +|+ + c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc cnc|g|+ com c||odos m+|s |ongos dc |cto|no
sob|c o |nvcst|mcnto !) tc|mos |o||ss|on+|s c cont|+tu+|s uc +b|+ngcm +ntcc|+d+mcntc
dcs|gnc|s |o,ct|st+s cm|c|tc||os sc|v|os ub||cos c usu+||os ||n+|s como +|tc dc| cu|cs
|ntcg|+d+s 4) +ud|to||+s c||od|c+s do govc|no sob|c + c||c|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ com m+|s |cst||ocs
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
c +c||c|o+mcntos dos mcc+n|smos dc ||sc+||z+io ) c+m+n|+s sustcnt+d+s +|+ +umcnt+|
+ consc|cnt|z+io sob|c o uso d+ cnc|g|+ n+s cd|||c+ocs c +|+ |omovc| mud+n+ dc
como|t+mcntos c |+b|tos cm |c|+io ccoc||ccnc|+ o) m+|o| mob|||d+dc cnt|c c|d+dcs dc
mcno| t+m+n|o ncccss|d+dc dc |n||+cst|utu|+ ) convc|gcnc|+ c |ntcg|+io com +umcnto dc
+utom+io vo|t+d+ +|+ |unc|on+||d+dc scgu|+n+ c cco c||c|cnc|+ c) c|csc|mcnto d+ dcm+nd+
o| |+b|t+io c |n||+cst|utu|+ |mu|s|on+d+ c|+ d|st||bu|io dc |cnd+ cm n|vc| g|ob+| )
d||usio d+ tccno|og|+ |u||d|ng |n|o|m+t|on |odc|||ng (|||) c 10) +cc|c|+io do cm|cgo c
dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc nov+s tccno|og|+s const|ut|v+s c m+tc||+|s
Quadro 6 |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| dc const|uio .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
|ovos b|om+tc||+|s t|+t+mcnto dc |cs|duos so||dos c ||u|dos
o| |occssos b|otccno|og|cos
|+notccno|og|+
C|mcntos n+nocst|utu|+dos novos n+nocomos|tos +|+
ut|||z+io cst|utu|+| v|d|os c suc|||c|cs +uto-||m+ntcs
n+nom+tc||+|s c n+no||cvcst|mcntos +|+ con|o|to tc|m|co
u|m|c+ vc|dc
|so dc m+tc||+s-||m+s vc|dcs n+ const|uio c|v||
(b|oo||mc|os)
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
|u||d|ng |n|o|m+t|on |odc|||ng (|||) tccno|og|+s dc
+utom+io s|mu|+ocs cm |o,ctos scgu|+n+ m+uctc
c|ct|on|c+ s|stcm+s |ntc||gcntcs dc ||um|n+io
|nt|c os ||nc|+|s cond|c|on+ntcs c mov|mcntos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos do scto| dc const|uio
n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 dcst+c+m-sc 1) cx|gcnc|+s m+|s ||go|os+s sob|c + c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc
cnc|g|+ |ccon|cc|d+s cm n|vc| |ntc|n+c|on+| .) conso||d+io dc |nccnt|vos ||sc+|s c subs|d|os +|+
|nvcst|mcntos d||cc|on+dos +|+ + c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc cnc|g|+ !) cx|o|+io |csons+vc| dc
n|c|os dc novos cs+os |+b|t+vc|s 4) ccoc||c|cnc|+ conso||d+d+ com +uto su||c|cnc|+ cm +|guns
n|c|os ) c|cv+do g|+u dc +utom+io n+s const|uocs o) conso||d+io do uso dc |u||d|ng |n|o|m+t|on
|odc|||ng (do |+nc,+mcnto oc|+io;m+nutcnio) ) u+||||c+io |o||ss|on+| +ccntu+d+ (nov+s
tccno|og|+s cm |occssos const|ut|vos +utom+io) c) |cscn+ m+|o| do govc|no como c|cmcnto
|cgu|+do| c |nccnt|v+do| com o||t|c+s dc d||cc|on+mcnto dc mc|c+do +|+ sustcnt+b|||d+dc )
c|cv+do g|+u dc consc|cnc|+ soc|o+mb|cnt+| d+ soc|cd+dc - cx|gcnc|+s dc mc|c+do c 10) ut|||z+io
|ntcns|v+ dc novos m+tc||+|s c nov+s tccno|og|+s c |ndust||+||z+io d+ const|uio
4.6. Mobilidade
Com |c|+io +o scto| mob|||d+dc con||gu|+-sc + s|tu+io +tu+| c|+ c|scct|v+ dos scus
||nc|+|s +to|cs c |cscct|vos |ntc|csscs + s+bc| 1) scto| |odut|vo +|t|cu|+|mcntc + |ndust||+
+utomob|||st|c+ + dc ct|o|co g+s n+tu|+| c dc||v+dos .) govc|no c !) soc|cd+dc c|v|| Com |c|+io
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|ndust||+ +utomob|||st|c+ |+ oucos 'a,es g|ob+|s c|+ |cduio dc custos dc |oduio
+umcnto d+ c||c|cnc|+ no +|ovc|t+mcnto cnc|gct|co c t+mbcm c|+ +bso|io dc novos m+tc||+|s
c novos |ccu|sos tccno|og|cos |+ n+ |ndust||+ dc ct|o|co g+s n+tu|+| c dc||v+dos obsc|v+-sc |o,c
+ |cdom|nnc|+ dc cm|cs+s n+c|on+|s uc dctcm m+|o| +|tc d+s |csc|v+s c +|tos |nvcst|mcntos
cm csu|s+ c dcscnvo|v|mcnto |oc+||z+ndo nov+s |ontcs dc cnc|g|+
u+nto +o govc|no su+ +tu+io cm |c|+io +o scto| mob|||d+dc conccnt|+-sc nos +scctos dc
|cgu|+mcnt+io |nccnt|vos ||sc+|s c |o|mu|+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s |m +|scs dcscnvo|v|dos
|+ um+ o||cnt+io dc |nccnt|vo +o t|+nso|tc co|ct|vo c nio moto||z+do ,+ cm +|scs cm
dcscnvo|v|mcnto obsc|v+-sc um+ o||cnt+io dc |nccnt|vo +o t|+nso|tc |nd|v|du+| ||n+|mcntc
+ soc|cd+dc c|v|| |o,c so||c +s conscucnc|+s do modc|o +tu+| dc mob|||d+dc |+vcndo um+
cno|mc dcm+nd+ o| t|+nso|tc ub||co c||c|cntc
Com |c|+io d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| mob|||d+dc sio |cv|stos |m+ctos
os|t|vos dcco||cntcs dos +v+nos dc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c o|t+do|+s dc |utu|o
como odc|+ sc| v|sto no u+d|o + scgu||
Quadro 7 |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| mob|||d+dc .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
||otccno|og|+ +|+ dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc novos m+tc||+|s
b|otccno|og|+ +|+ b|ocombust|vc|s c b|o|og|+ s|ntct|c+
|+notccno|og|+
|+nocomos|tos cst|utu|+|s dc +|t+ |cs|stcnc|+ tc|m|c+ c
mccn|c+ uc c|m|t+m o| cxcm|o + const|uio dc
vc|cu|os c |n||+cst|utu|+s m+|s |cvcs c cc|cntcs n+no+d|t|vos
+|+ |ub||c+ntcs c combust|vc|s m+|s cc|cntcs n+no+d|t|vos
+|+ dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc ncus m+|s |cs|stcntcs +o dcsg+stc
c n+nom+tc||+|s +|+ cc|u|+-combust|vc| c |c|o|m+do|cs dc
ct+no|
u|m|c+ vc|dc
|so dc novos m+tc||+|s c novos |ccu|sos tccno|og|cos n+
|ndust||+ +utomob|||st|c+ dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc moto|cs +|+
combust|vc|s +|tc|n+t|vos vc|dcs uso dc tccno|og|+s +|+
+umcnto d+ cc|cnc|+ dc moto|cs uso dc c+||os c|ct||cos
ou + ||d|ogcn|o m+tc||+|s +|+ + d|m|nu|io dc cso dos
vc|cu|os c conscucntc g+n|o dc cc|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ c
|cduio d+s cm|ssocs dc g+scs o|ucntcs
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
ccno|og|+s dc scgu|+n+ m+c+mcnto c|ustc||z+io v|sio
comut+c|on+| |m+gc+mcnto |occss+mcnto dc |m+gcns
(cmc|+s |n||+-|cd) c comut+io g|+c+
io |cv|stos os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos tcndcnc|+s c cond|c|on+ntcs +|+ o scto| mob|||d+dc
n+ dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 1) busc+ dc so|uocs |ntcg|+d+s cm t|+nso|tc ub||co cm dct||mcnto
do t|+nso|tc |nd|v|du+| .) |m|cmcnt+io dc nov+s tccno|og|+s dc t|+nso|tc (V| V||
|onot||||o |+g|cv ^V c+||os c|ct||cos ou + ||d|ogcn|o) !) +|ov+io dc +d|ocs +|+
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!4
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
b|ocombust|vc|s sustcnt+vc|s cm n|vc| |ntc|n+c|on+| c +doio dc s|stcm+s dc mon|to|+mcnto
c ||sc+||z+io cm |+|g+ csc+|+ 4) ||o||z+io do t|+nso|tc nio moto||z+do no s|stcm+ dc
t|+nso|tc cm dct||mcnto dos vc|cu|os ) busc+ dc novos m+tc||+|s +|+ + d|m|nu|io dc cso
dos vc|cu|os c conscucntc g+n|o dc c||c|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ c |cduio d+s cm|ssocs dc g+scs
o|ucntcs o) busc+ c|+ un|vc|s+||z+io dos +ccssos +os cu|+mcntos u|b+nos ) |nt|oduio do
concc|to dc sustcnt+b|||d+dc no |+nc,+mcnto d+s c|d+dcs c n+s o||t|c+s dc mob|||d+dc u|b+n+
c) |nvcst|mcntos cm |n||+cst|utu|+ uc +com+n|cm + dcm+nd+ c|csccntc o| t|+nso|tcs
dc +ss+gc||o c + ||ctc ) |+nc,+mcnto u|b+no |ntcg|+do ||nc|+|mcntc n+s c|d+dcs dc m+|s
|+|do c|csc|mcnto 10) os s|stcm+s dc t|+nso|tc |ntc||gcntc cst+bc|cccndo concxio cnt|c
os |o||os vc|cu|os c + |n||+cst|utu|+ 11) dcscnvo|v|mcnto c + |m|+nt+io dc vc|cu|os com
combustio |ntc|n+ c||c|cntc |cduz|ndo + |ntcns|d+dc dc cm|ssio dc c+|bonos cm +tc !0-
40` 1.) |cg|s|+do|cs c +|cc||os |ndust||+|s +g|||z+ndo + csu|s+ c + |m|+nt+io dc s|stcm+s
dc t|+nsm|ssio +|tc|n+t|vos c b|ocombust|vc|s +v+n+dos 1!) usu+||os dos vc|cu|os +ss+ndo
+ +dot+| um como|t+mcnto dc d||cio m+|s c||c|cntc |nccnt|v+do o| mc|o d+s c+m+n|+s
|n|o|m+t|v+s 14) b|ocombust|vc|s +|+ +v|+io scndo tcst+dos c ut|||z+dos 1) d|sscm|n+io
dc |cdcs |c||ov|+||+s |ntcg|+d+s c 1o) m+|o| c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc cnc|g|+ n+ n+vcg+io
+|c+n+d+ o| mc|o dc +bo|d+gcns |o||st|c+s +|+ o dcscmcn|o d+ c+dc|+ dc t|+nso|tcs
|nt|c os ||nc|+|s cond|c|on+ntcs c mov|mcntos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos do scto|
mob|||d+dc n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 dcst+c+m-sc 1) busc+ dc s|stcm+s dc t|+nsm|ssio c
combust|vc|s +|tc|n+t|vos .) +umcnto dc comct|t|v|d+dc dos combust|vc|s +|tc|n+t|vos c
uso |ntcns|vo dc b|ocombust|vc|s !) +||mo|+mcnto +o +ccsso |c||ov|+||o c + out|+s |o|m+s
dc mob|||d+dc 4) s|stcm+s |ntc||gcntcs dc t|+nso|tcs (|ntcg|+io cnt|c d|vc|sos mod+|s com
s|stcm+s dc comun|c+io c |n|o|m+io cm tcmo |c+| c m+|o| |ntcg|+io no t|+nso|tc
ub||co ) d|sscm|n+io dc nov+s tccno|og|+s dc t|+nso|tc (V| V|| |onot||||o |+g|cv
^V c+||os c|ct||cos ou + ||d|ogcn|o) o) m+|o| cs+o +|+ cdcst|cs c c|c||st+s c |cst||io dc
vc|cu|os moto||z+dos cm ccnt|os u|b+nos ) uso dc novos m+tc||+|s +|+ + d|m|nu|io dc cso
dos vc|cu|os c conscucntc g+n|o dc c||c|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ c |cduio d+s cm|ssocs dc g+scs
o|ucntcs c) un|vc|s+||z+io dos +ccssos +os cu|+mcntos u|b+nos c ) +doio |cn+ do
concc|to dc sustcnt+b|||d+dc no |+nc,+mcnto d+s c|d+dcs c n+s o||t|c+s dc mob|||d+dc u|b+n+
4.7. Telecomunicaes
|o uc t+ngc +o scto| dc tc|ccomun|c+ocs |dcnt|||c+m-sc n+ +tu+| d|nm|c+ scto||+| +s
scgu|ntcs tcndcnc|+s c +scctos |c|cv+ntcs 1) scto| |o|tcmcntc m+|c+do c|+ |cgu|+io como
+o|o +os modc|os dc ncgoc|o cx|stcntcs +|nd+ uc c+d+ +|s tcn|+ su+s cscc|||c|d+dcs .)
+|oc+io |nc||c|cntc do cscct|o dc ||cucnc|+ cst|+t|||c+do o| sc|v|os d||c|cnc|+dos !)
oc|+do|+s m|g|+ndo +|+ |cst+io dc sc|v|os dc v+|o| +g|cg+do c tc|cc|||z+ndo +t|v|d+dcs dc
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|cdc +|+ + |ndust||+ 4) nov+s con||gu|+ocs dc comct|io cnt|c cm|cs+s uc oc|+v+m cm
mc|c+dos d|st|ntos gc|+d+s c|+ convc|gcnc|+ +o +g|cg+| mu|t||os sc|v|os sob|c os mcsmos
mc|os dc t|+nsm|ssio c ) mov|mcntos dc busc+ dc c||c|cnc|+ t+nto no scgmcnto d+ |ndust||+
u+nto no scgmcnto dc oc|+io +|+ +umcnto dc comct|t|v|d+dc o| mc|o dc |usocs como
|csost+ comod|t|z+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc comun|c+ocs
Com |c|+io d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| dc tc|ccomun|c+ocs sio |cv|stos
|m+ctos os|t|vos dcco||cntcs dos +v+nos dc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs c o|t+do|+s dc
|utu|o como dct+||+do no u+d|o c
Quadro 8 |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs no scto| dc tc|ccomun|c+ocs .010-.0!0
ccno|og|+ |cscnvo|v|mcntos dc |m+cto no c||odo .010-.0!0
||otccno|og|+
||otccno|og|+ +|+ dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc novos m+tc||+|s
b|oc||s
|+notccno|og|+ |cvcst|mcntos n+nocst|utu|+dos dc b|+-ot|c+
u|m|c+ vc|dc
|cscnvo|v|mcnto dc m+tc||+s-||m+s vc|dcs +|+ +||c+ocs
dc tccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
|cscnvo|v|mcnto dc tccno|og|+s vc|dcs +|+ +||c+ocs dc
tccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
ccno|og|+s dc tc|m|n+|s
ccno|og|+s dc t|+nso|tc
^||c+ocs concxocs ot|c+s n+ u|t|m+ m|||+ tccno|og|+s
w||c|css comun|c+ocs + cu|t+ d|stnc|+ |ntc||+cc |omcm-
m+u|n+ c tccno|og|+s dc s+tc||tc
^ntcc|+m-sc os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos tcndcnc|+s c cond|c|on+ntcs +|+ o scto| dc
tc|ccomun|c+ocs n+ dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 1) conso||d+io d+ convc|gcnc|+ d+s tccno|og|+s dc
|n|o|m+io c comun|c+io .) convc|gcnc|+ cnt|c comun|c+ocs movc|s c ||x+s c comun|c+io
csso+| mu|t|sc|v|os !) |cv|sio d+s |o|m+s dc t+|||+io no contcxto g|ob+| 4) |ccst|utu|+io
dc monoo||os com + cnt|+d+ dc novos +|t|c|+ntcs c conso||d+ocs no scto| ) |cssio sob|c
+ |cgu|+io gc|+d+ c|+ |nov+io o) comct|io cm sc|v|os dc v+|o| +g|cg+do como c|oud
comut|ng cnt|c novos +|t|c|+ntcs como ^|c c Coog|c com oc|+do|+s dc tc|cv|sio c
c+|||c|s ) d|sscm|n+io do +ccsso s tc|ccomun|c+ocs ||nc|+|mcntc nos +|scs cmc|gcntcs
c) comod|t|z+io d+s tccno|og|+s dc t|+nsm|ssio c |cdc sob|c t|cs ||+|cs comun|c+ocs movc|s
|cdc || c |cdcs ot|c+s dc +|t+ c++c|d+dc c ) ot|m|z+io do uso do cscct|o
|nt|c os ||nc|+|s cond|c|on+ntcs c mov|mcntos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos do scto| dc
tc|ccomun|c+ocs n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 dcst+c+m-sc 1) dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc d|sos|t|vos com
|ntc||+ccs |ntc||gcntcs cm ||ngu+gcm m+|s n+tu|+| .) +m||+io dos mc|c+dos cmc|gcntcs !)
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
d|st||bu|io gcog|+||c+ dos |cos|to||os dc |n|o|m+io 4) conso||d+io d+ mud+n+ cu|tu|+| +|+
uso |ntcns|vo dc |cun|ocs v||tu+|s ) su|g|mcnto dc novos ncgoc|os b+sc+dos cm tccno|og|+s dc
s+tc||tc o) comun|c+io c|v+s|v+ c++c|d+dcs dc comun|c+io |cscntcs cm todos os ob,ctos
c ) d||usio d+s c|son+| +|c+ nctwo||s
4.8. Materiais
Com |c|c|cnc|+ +o scto| m+tc||+|s dcst+c+m-sc n+ s|tu+io |cscntc os scgu|ntcs dcs+||os cm
n|vc| g|ob+| 1) |oduio dc m+tc||+|s c |csons+vc| o| g|+ndc consumo dc cnc|g|+ o|t+nto
su+ cvo|uio tcm v|ncu|os mu|to |o|tcs com + ucstio d+ sustcnt+b|||d+dc .) o su||mcnto
||m|t+do dc m+tc||+|s com ||m|t+ocs gcoo||t|c+s c !) + o|u|io c dccndcnc|+ dc cnc|g|+
|nc|cntcs |+b||c+io dc m+tc||+s convcnc|on+|s Como oo|tun|d+dcs d+ ccn+ +tu+| +ont+m-
sc 1) o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc |odutos c +||c+ocs + +|t|| dc m+tc||+|s |cnov+vc|s .) +
+m||+io do |occsso dc |cc|c|+gcm !) o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc m+tc||+|s b|odcg|+d+vc|s 4) o
dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc m+tc||+|s +|+ subst|tu|| |odutos c||t|cos c ) + |oduio dc m+tc||+|s m+|s
c||c|cntcs com mcno| consumo dc cnc|g|+ c mcno| |m+cto +mb|cnt+|
Os ||nc|+|s dcscnvo|v|mcntos c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| m+tc||+|s no
c||odo .010-.0!0 sio +|cscnt+dos no u+d|o + scgu||
Quadro 9. |cscnvo|v|mcnto c d||usio d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs no scto| m+tc||+|s .010-.0!0
1ecnologla Uesenvolvlmentos de lmpacto no perlodo z0!0-z0!0
||otccno|og|+
||otccno|og|+ +|+ dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc novos m+tc||+|s
(b|odcg|+d+vc|s b|oo||mc|os b|om+tc||+|s b|otccno|og|+
vcgct+|)
|+notccno|og|+
|ntcsc c |unc|on+||z+io dc n+nom+tc||+|s n+nocomos|tos
|nc|u|ndo n+no+|t|cu|+s dc gcomct||+s d|vc|s+s como
n+notubos n+noos n+nocs|c|+s ctc n+noc+t+||s+do|cs
u|m|c+ vc|dc
|cscnvo|v|mcnto dc |odutos c +||c+ocs + +|t||
dc m+tc||+|s |cnov+vc|s +m||+io do |occsso dc
|cc|c|+gcm dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc m+tc||+|s b|odcg|+d+vc|s
dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc m+tc||+|s +|+ subst|tu|| |odutos
c||t|cos |oduio dc m+tc||+|s m+|s cc|cntcs com mcno|
consumo dc cnc|g|+ c mcno| |m+cto +mb|cnt+|
ccno|og|+s dc |n|o|m+io c comun|c+io
||b|+s ot|c+s c otoc|ct|on|c+ m+tc||+|s +|+ d|s|+ys
m+tc||+|s o|gn|cos m|c|oc|ct|on|c+ c +|m+zcn+mcnto c
consc|v+io dc cnc|g|+
||ccon|z+m-sc os scgu|ntcs mov|mcntos tcndcnc|+s c cond|c|on+ntcs +|+ o scto| m+tc||+|s n+
dcc+d+ .010-.0.0 1) o |co do c+|bono c o +umcnto no uso dc out|+s mod+||d+dcs dc +v+||+io
dctc|m|n+|io o |co |c+| dos m+tc||+|s .) +tc||os cxt|ntos ou dcs+t|v+dos o| +tcnd|mcnto +
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!7
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|cg|s|+ocs ||go|os+s !) m+|s c||c|cnc|+ no consumo dc cnc|g|+ n+ |oduio dc +o c|mcnto
+|um|n|o dcnt|c out|os m+tc||+|s 4) ||nc||os dc c|+bo|+io c |occssos dc |oduio ncccss+||os
+|+ os s|stcm+s dc c||cu|+io dc c||cu|to |cc|+do ) |nov+io dos modc|os comc|c|+|s
|ccons|dc|+ndo +s c+dc|+s dc v+|o|cs |cc|+bo|+ndo |odutos c sc|v|os |cc||+ndo |occssos c
|cv+|o||z+ndo |odutos o) co-|nov+io cnt|c |oduto|cs c consum|do|cs +|+ |cduz|| o consumo
dc m+tc||+|s ) + c+tu|+ c o +|m+zcn+mcnto dc c+|bono sc|io +c|on+dos c|+ |n||+cst|utu|+
,u||d|c+ c o| |cgu|+mcnt+ocs cscc|||c+s c) |nst+|+ocs dc dcmonst|+io dc convc|sio
c+t+||t|c+ dc d|ox|do dc c+|bono cm ||d|oc+|bonctos (combust|vc|s c |odutos u|m|cos) ) +s
+gu+s |cs|du+|s (c||ucntcs) sc|io cons|dc|+d+s |ccu|sos c nio m+|s |c,c|tos 10) +dcu+io do c||||
dos |oduto|cs +os cond|c|on+ntcs soc|occonom|cos ut|||z+ndo +s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs dc
m+tc||+|s 11) |ntcg|+io mu|to m+|o| cnt|c |oduto|cs dc m+tc||+|s c |oduto|cs dc bcns ||n+|s c
1.) conso||d+io dc novos +d|ocs dc con|o|to;cx|gcnc|+s do consum|do|
|nt|c os ||nc|+|s cond|c|on+ntcs c mov|mcntos cons|dc|+dos |c|cscnt+t|vos do scto| m+tc||+|s
n+ dcc+d+ .0.0-.0!0 dcst+c+m-sc 1) +cc|t+io c|csccntc o| +|tc d+s soc|cd+dcs cm |cst||ng||
o uso dc m+tc||+|s nio |cnov+vc|s +|+ cc|c+ dc c|nco tonc|+d+s +nu+|s o| csso+ .) |o,ctos
dc c||cu|to |cc|+do com |cc|c|+gcm c |cuso dc m+tc||+|s cons+g|+dos nos scto|cs |ndust||+|s !)
m+dc||+ cons|dc|+d+ c+d+ vcz m+|s um m+tc||+| |cc|c|+vc| 4) ||xo |nvcnt+||+do +|+ c|m|t|| + su+
ostc||o| |cc|c|+gcm u+ndo + tccno|og|+ ou +s cond|ocs do mc|c+do +ss|m o v|+b|||z+|cm )
d||ct||zcs govc|n+mcnt+|s c |cgu|+mcnt+ocs c+d+ vcz m+|s ||go|os+s +|+ cxt|ngu|| ou |cst||ng||
+s substnc|+s tox|c+s (um+ so|uio +|+ + cstoc+gcm scgu|+ do ||xo |+d|o+t|vo sc|+ +dot+d+
c co|oc+d+ cm |+t|c+) o) o|c|t+ dc um+ g|+ndc v+||cd+dc dc novos |odutos c sc|v|os
com b+sc n+ +|t+ |ongcv|d+dc b+|xos |nd|ccs dc +gu+ +cumu|+d+ b+|xo consumo dc cnc|g|+
c contcudo m+tc||+| ) mu|t+s |nst+|+ocs dc |oduio dc m+tc||+|s uc us+m |ntcns+mcntc
o CO
.
+ss+ndo + ut|||z+| tccno|og|+s c mctodos dc c+tu|+ c +|m+zcn+mcnto dc c+|bono
(CC) c) |ccon||gu|+io do o|t|o||o b+sc+do cm commod|t|cs +|+ um novo com |oco cm
sc|v|os cm conscucnc|+ d+ |cdc||n|io dos modc|os dc ncgoc|os com |oco cm ccoc||c|cnc|+
c +||mo|+mcnto do c|c|o dc v|d+ dos m+tc||+|s ) |o|ncc|mcnto dc m+tc||+|s como um gc|+do|
dc sc|v|os dc b|od|vc|s|d+dc c do ccoss|stcm+ c++z dc |oduz|| |odutos c||c|cntcs cm tc|mos
cco|og|cos c c||+| c o|c|ccc| sc|v|os cm |o| do mc|o +mb|cntc 10) cm|cs+s dc m+tc||+|s bcm
succd|d+s |cduz|ndo os |nd|ccs dc |o|ncc|mcnto dc cnc|g|+ +|+ d|m|nu|| os custos d+ cnc|g|+
os custos d+s cm|ssocs c +s mu|t+s ||sc+|s 11) |cc|c|+gcm como um+ cst|+tcg|+ c|+vc nos scto|cs
|ndust||+|s com c||m|n+io tot+| dc dcsc|d|c|os c com|omct|mcnto o| +|tc dos |+b||c+ntcs
com + |cut|||z+io c + c||c|cnc|+ dc |+b||c+io c dc uso dos m+tc||+|s c 1.) |oduio dc m+tc||+|s
com mcno| consumo dc cnc|g|+ c com |cduio dc cm|ssio dc g+scs dc c|c|to cstu|+ (C||)
scgundo + |||oso||+ |+zc| m+|s com mcnos
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!8
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
5. Consideraes nais e recomendaes
cndo cm v|st+ o os|c|on+mcnto cst|+tcg|co do ||+s|| ||cntc s t|+,cto||+s g|ob+|s dos scto|cs
sc|cc|on+dos c o dcv|do +|ovc|t+mcnto d+s oo|tun|d+dcs tccno|og|c+s c dc ncgoc|os uc
sc v|s|umb|+m no |o||zontc cstud+do +ocs vo|t+d+s cst|utu|+io c +o |o|t+|cc|mcnto d+
c++c|d+dc n+c|on+| dcvcm sc| |m|cmcnt+d+s como ||o||d+dcs cst|+tcg|c+s |+|+ o c||odo
.010-.0!0 |dcnt|||c+|+m-sc +ss|m cs+os dc dcc|sio uc ||io |cuc|c| +ocs cst|utu|+ntcs o|
+|tc dc todos os +to|cs cnvo|v|dos nos o|to scto|cs +n+||s+dos ncstc cstudo |oscct|vo
^|cscnt+m-sc + scgu|| +s |ccomcnd+ocs do cstudo
d|vu|g+| c d||und|| os |csu|t+dos do cstudo |oscct|vo |ndust||+s do |utu|o c
ccno|og|+s |mc|gcntcs dc |o|m+ + sc obtc| um+ +v+||+io m+|s +m|+ ,unto +os
o|gios govc|n+mcnt+|s +c+dcm|+ s cm|cs+s c soc|cd+dc cm gc|+| d+s s|n+||z+ocs
cst|+tcg|c+s d|scut|d+s o| scto| ncstc cstudo
oss|b|||t+| + c|ct|v+ |nco|o|+io dos |csu|t+dos cm |occssos dcc|so||os +ssoc|+dos +o
cum||mcnto d+s mct+s cst+bc|cc|d+s n+ |o||t|c+ dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto ||odut|vo (|||)
+|o|und+| + +n+||sc dc ontos c||t|cos do contcxto n+c|on+| dc modo + |dcnt|||c+|
mcc+n|smos dc gcstio tccno|og|c+ dc |nvcst|mcntos cm C| c |cgu|+mcnt+io
+dcu+dos +os mcsmos cons|dc|+ndo +s |ncc|tcz+s c ||scos |nc|cntcs +o cst+g|o dc
dcscnvo|v|mcnto d+s tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs
mon|to|+| dc |o|m+ s|stcm+t|c+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto cm n|vc| mund|+| c n+c|on+| d+s
tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs |dcnt|||c+d+s n+s t|+,cto||+s dc c+d+ scto| +|t|cu|+|mcntc
+uc|+s dc uc sc most|+m como oo|tun|d+dcs +|+ |nov+ocs no ||+s||
||n+|mcntc c+bc |css+|t+| uc o cstudo |oscct|vo cong|cgou os |csu|t+dos dc um cs|o|o
co|ct|vo cnvo|vcndo m+|s dc o0 |c|cscnt+ntcs dc |nst|tu|ocs +c+dcm|c+s dc ccnt|os dc
|| d+ |ndust||+ do govc|no c do CC|| uc +tu+m d||ct+mcntc nos c+mos d+s tccno|og|+s
cmc|gcntcs +u| +bo|d+d+s c nos scto|cs sc|cc|on+dos Conso||dou-sc dcss+ |o|m+ com
o com|omct|mcnto dc todos um m+c+mcnto |n|c|+| uc sc|v||+ dc b+sc +|+ cstudos
|oscct|vos |utu|os |oc+||z+ndo os dcs+||os c +s oo|tun|d+dcs +ssoc|+dos + um+ v|sio dc
|utu|o sustcnt+vc| como + |ccon|z+d+ ncstc cstudo
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!9
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
Referncias
^|||||^ ||| Subsldlos metodologlcos para o estudo prospectlvo lndustrlas do ruturo e
tecnologlas emergentes |ot+ tccn|c+ ||+s|||+ Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos
.011 ||mco
____ vlso panoramlca de estudos prospectlvos globals de longo prazo ub-+io 14o1
- |ndust||+s do |utu|o c ccno|og|+s |mc|gcntcs ||+s|||+ Ccnt|o dc Ccstio c |studos
|st|+tcg|cos .010 ||mco
|||C|| ^ Sbaplng and exploltlng tecbnologlcal opportunltles. tbe case or renewable
energy tecbnology ln Sweden |c+|tmcnt o| |ndust||+| |yn+m|cs C|+|mc|s |n|vc|s|ty
o| cc|no|ogy Cotcbo|g .00.
|||C|| ^ |^CO|O| |c cmc|gcncc o| + g|owt| |ndust|y + com+|+t|vc +n+|ys|s o| t|c
gc|m+n dutc| +nd swcd|s| w|nd tu|b|nc |ndust||cs |n ||C^||| C^|||| | C|+ngc
|ds 1ransrormatlon and Uevelopment |c|dc|bc|g ||ys|c+-Vc||+g 1c-..c .00!
||||| |^||||^ | ccto||+| |nnov+t|on systcms tcc|no|og|c+| |cg|mcs sc|umctc||+n
dyn+m|cs +nd s+t|+| bound+||cs |n |||| C |d Systems or lnnovatlon. tecbnologles,
lnstltutlons and organlzatlons |ondon ||ntc| 1!0-1o 1c
C|||O dc Ccstio c |studos |st|+tcg|cos kelatorlo |lnal da Sub-ao !.46.! - lndustrlas do
|uturo e 1ecnologlas Lmergentes ||+s|||+ CC|| ct .010
C^||O| | |^CO|O| |yn+m|cs o| |nnov+t|on systcms o||cy-m+||ng |n + com|cx +nd non-
dctc|m|n|st|c wo||d |n |||||^|O|^| \O|||O| O| |||C|O| || |||OV^|O|
|| |n|vc|s|ty o| |t|cc|t .004 roceedlngs |n|vc|s|ty o| |t|cc|t .004
|||| C ystcms o| |nnov+t|on c|scct|vcs +nd c|+||cngcs |n |^C|||||C | |O\||
|C |||O| || |ds 1be Oxrord bandbook or lnnovatlon Ox|o|d Ox|o|d |n|vc|s|ty
||css .004
||z|| | C||| |\ C|||| | System lnnovatlon and tbe transltlon to sustalnablllty
t|co|y cv|dcncc +nd o||cy C|c|tcn|+m |o|t|+mton |dw+|d ||g+| .004
C||| |\ ||om sccto|+| systcms o| |nnov+t|on to soc|o-tcc|n|c+| systcms |ns|g|ts +bout
dyn+m|cs +nd c|+ngc ||om soc|o|ogy +nd |nst|tut|on+| t|co|y kesearcb ollcy v !! n
o;c cc.0 .004
____ 1ecbnologlcal transltlons and system lnnovatlons + co-cvo|ut|on+|y +nd soc|o-tcc|n|c+|
+n+|ys|s C|c|tcn|+m |dw+|d ||g+| .00
|+t|m+ |udov|co C+||os ^ugusto |o|+cs
!60
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
C||| |\ C|O |\ yo|ogy o| soc|otcc|n|c+| t|+ns|t|on +t|w+ys kesearcb ollcy v !o
n ! !41c .00c
C|O|C^|z^ | C ^C^| \ Scenarlo-drlven plannlng |c+|n|ng to m+n+gc st|+tcg|c
uncc|t+|nty \csto|t Conncct|cut uo|um |oo|s 1
CO|| | A calxa de rerramentas da prospectlva estrateglca ||sbo+ Cccs .000
____ Manual de prospectlva estrateglca d+ +ntcc|+io +cio Co|ccio Ccstio |nov+io
c||c |+c|otcndcnc|+s n1 ||sbo+ |ub||c+ocs |om u|xotc 1!
____ Manuel de prospectlve strateglque tomc 1 unc |nd|sc|||nc |ntc||cctuc||c . cd |+||s
|unod .001
|O||O| ^ |unctlons ln lnnovatlon system approacbes |c+|tmcnt o| |ndust||+| |yn+m|cs
C|+|mc|s |n|vc|s|ty o| cc|no|ogy Cotcbo|g \o|||ng +c| 1c
|||O| MlCMAC. se poser les bonnes questlons et ldentlrler les varlables cles |+bo|+to||c
d|nvcst|g+t|on cn ||oscct|vc t|+tcg|c ct O|g+n|s+t|on .010 ||son|vc| cm n:://
...!e//'sc/o.oa.n:o. ^ccsso cm m+| .010
|^||||^ | ccto|+| systcms o| |nnov+t|on b+s|c conccts |n Sectoral systems or lnnovatlon
C+mb||dgc C+mb||dgc |n|vc|s|ty ||css -41 .004
^||^||| | ||O|z| | |ds Superando rronteras cstud|os cu|ocos dc c|cnc|+tccno|og|+-
soc|cd+d y cv+|u+c|on dc tccno|og|+s |+|cc|on+ ^nt||oos 14
^||^||| | O|| ^ |v+|u+c|on dc tccno|og|+s |n ^||^||| | ct +| |ds Lstudlos sobre
socledad y tecnologla |+|cc|on+ ^nt||oos 1.
C|O||^||| ||| V^| dc| ||||||| C^|| |ntcg|+t|ng sccn+||os |nto st|+tcg|c |+nn|ng
+t |oy+| |utc|; |c|| c+sc study lannlng kevlew |+y;|unc 1. 41- 4o 1.
C|O | \ Const|uct|vc tcc|no|ogy +sscsscmcnt +nd tcc|no|ogy d|n+m|cs t|c c+sc o| c|c+n
tcc|no|og|cs Sclence, 1ecbnology 8 luman values v1c n1 !o-o 1.
C|O | \ ||| ^ |c +st +nd |utu|c o| const|uct|vc tcc|no|ogy +sscssmcnt 1ecbnology
|orecastlng and Soclal Cbange v4 .1-.oc 1c
C|\^|z | A arte da prevlso |+nc,+ndo o |utu|o cm um mundo dc |ncc|tcz+s io |+u|o
|d |cst c||c| .000
____ Cenarlos +s su||cs+s |ncv|t+vc|s ||o dc |+nc||o |d C+mus .00!
|||| Clobal Scenarlos z0z .00 ||son|vc| cm n::...sne''.co. ^ccsso cm +b| .010
||^|||-|||C||| | cc|no|ogy +sscssmcnt cxc|t d|s+g|ccmcnt +nd dcmoc|+t|c
|occdu|cs kesearcb ln bllosopby 8 1ecbnology vc 1c
|ndust||+s do |utu|o c tccno|og|+s cmc|gcntcs v|sio dc um |utu|o sustcnt+vc|
!6!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1!-1o. ,u|-dcz .011
|| | |||| | ||| |||OC | cc|no|ogy +sscssmcnt +nd tcc|no|ogy o||cy |n |u|oc
ncw conccts ncw go+|s ncw |n||+st|uctu|cs ollcy Sclences v .c .c1-. 1
O| |O lnnovaclon y regulaclon. la lnrluencla de los actores soclales en el camblo
tecnologlco c| c+so dc |+ |ngcn|c||+ gcnct|c+ +g||co|+ .! | cs|s |octo|+| |n|vc|s|t+t dc
V+|cnc|+ .00.
V^| dc| ||||||| | lanejamento de cenarlos. a arte da conversao Lstrateglca |oo|m+n
C|+sgow .004
____ Scenarlos |c +|t o| st|+tcg|c convc|s+t|on .cd \cst usscx |o|n \||cy ons .00
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
A dispora cientfica brasileira: perspectivas para
sua articulao em favor da cincia brasileira

Elizabeth Balbachevsky (USP)
1
*, Eduardo do Couto e Silva (CGEE)
2
**
' |||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y c |o|csso|+ +ssoc|+d+ do |c+|t+mcnto dc C|cnc|+ |o||t|c+ d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc dc io |+u|o csu|s+do|+
scn|o| do |uc|co dc |csu|s+ cm |o||t|c+s |ub||c+s (||||s;||) c mcmb|o do Ccnt|o dc |studos ^v+n+dos d+ |||C^||
(C|^v-|||C^||)
'' |du+|do do Couto c ||v+ c cscc|+||st+ v|s|t+ntc do CC|| c mcmb|o +||||+do do |+v|| |nst|tutc |o| |+|t|c|c ^st|o|ys|cs +nd
Cosmo|ogy t+n|o|d |n|vc|s|ty
Resumo
|cstc t|+b+||o t|+zcmos d|scut|mos +|gum+s cx-
c||cnc|+s dc o|g+n|z+io d+ +|t|c|+io d+ d|+s-
o|+ c|cnt|c+ b|+s||c||+ c scu otcnc|+| +|+ |+zc|
|+cc +os dcs+os |utu|os d+ c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ no
||+s|| O t|+b+||o |cv|s+ os cs|o|os ncssc scnt|do
c +n+||s+ +s d|cu|d+dcs dc o|g+n|z+io dcstc scg-
mcnto tom+ndo como |c|c|cnc|+ t|tu|o ||ust|+-
t|vo +|gum+s cxc||cnc|+s |cccntcs oco|||d+s nos
|st+dos |n|dos d+ ^mc||c+
alavras-cbave. ||+s|| d|+so|+ c|cnt|c+
|nst|tuc|on+||z+io
Abstract
's .c as.asses /e. e\eeo.es o caoo
:ne 8a'ao s.eo:. aasca aoa :s c:eo:a' :c
aaaess /a:ae .na''eoes /c s.eo.e aoa :e.noc'
c, o 8a' |: e.e.s a::eo:s o :ns ae.:co
aoa',es a .a':es eo.cao:eea aao :nese c
aoa:co ec:s aoa /c ''as:a:co acses e
/es :c scoe c/ :ne e.eo: e\eeo.es o :ne Jo:ea
::a:es c/ ^oe.a
keywords. 8a' s.eo:. aasca
os::a:coa'a:co
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!64
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduo
|stc t|+b+||o tcm o ob,ct|vo dc t|+zc| +|+ d|scussio + ncccss|d+dc c +|gum+s d|||cu|d+dcs
cn||cnt+d+s +|+ + mob|||z+io d+ c|+m+d+ d|+so|+ dc c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ O tc|mo d|+so|+
|cmctc s cxc||cnc|+s ||sto||c+s v|v|d+s o| g|uos |um+nos uc o| d||c|cntcs mot|vos
cxc||mcnt+|+m |occssos dc d|sc|sio
O tc|mo d|+so|+ (do g|cgo scmc+| d|sc|s+ndo +s scmcntcs un||o|mcmcntc sob|c + tc||+) |o|
o||g|n+|mcntc cun|+do +|+ sc |c|c||| +os |occssos ||sto||cos dc d|sc|sio dc g|uos ctn|cos c;
ou |c||g|osos |oduz|dos o| cvcntos soc|+|s t|+um+t|cos c++zcs dc |csc|v+| um+ |dcnt|d+dc
comum mcsmo u+ndo os |+os conc|ctos uc c||+m um+ c|t|ncnc|+ |cg|on+| ,+ sc c|dc|+m
|os +nos 1o0 c 10 cssc tc|mo sc gcnc|+||zou +|+ dcs|gn+| g|uos uc cxc||mcnt+|+m
|occssos dc dcs|oc+mcnto |o|+do (dcco||cntcs dc c|scgu|ocs o||t|c+s ctn|c+s ou |c||g|os+s
ou +|nd+ como |csu|t+do dc g|+ndcs c+t+c||smos n+tu|+|s) ^ +|t|| do ||n+| dos +nos 10 o
dcb+tc sob|c +s d|+so|+s g+n|ou novo cs+o n+ mcd|d+ cm uc + cn|+sc dos cstudos sc
dcs|ocou d+ ucstio d+s mot|v+ocs sub,+ccntcs +o |occsso dc d|sc|sio +|+ o cstudo
dos mcc+n|smos dc cocsio uc sustcnt+m + |dcnt|d+dc dcsscs g|uos c + c|m+ncnc|+ d+
mcmo||+ co|ct|v+ uc os ||g+ tc||+ n+t+| |os +nos .000 + ucstio d+s d|+so|+s c scus c|c|tos
|cg|on+|s c g|ob+|s |o|+m |ctom+dos +go|+ ccnt|+dos n+ +n+||sc dos c|c|tos os|t|vos uc csscs
|occssos odcm tc| n+ mob|||z+io dc |cdcs |ntc|n+c|on+|s dc +o|o c cooc|+io +|t|cu|+d+s
+ +|t|| dc um+ |dcnt|d+dc n+c|on+| |cg|on+| ctn|c+ ou |c||g|os+ comum c++zcs dc mob|||z+|
|nvcst|mcntos c +b||| oo|tun|d+dcs dc ncgoc|o +m||+ndo cs+os +|+ cm|ccndcdo||smo
|oc+| no mc|c+do g|ob+| (CO||| .00c |^||| .010) |+|s |cccntcmcntc o tc|mo d|+so|+
tcm s|do ut|||z+do +|+ cntcndc| |occssos com|cxos dc c||cu|+io +g|cg+io c |oduio
dc comctcnc|+s c con|cc|mcnto |oduz|dos c|+ +|t|cu|+io dc g|uos c scto|cs dc um+
soc|cd+dc (ou n+c|on+||d+dc) com scus contc||ncos uc v|vcm no cxtc||o| +m||+ndo
oo|tun|d+dcs dc g+n|os |cc||ocos cm |unio dc cst|+tcg|+s comuns c o com+|t|||+mcnto
dc |ccu|sos c comctcnc|+s
^s ||mc||+s cxc||cnc|+s dc||bc|+d+s +|+ + +|t|cu|+io dc |cdcs dcss+ n+tu|cz+ o| mc|o dc
o||t|c+s d+t+m dc mc+dos dos +nos novcnt+ |+uc|+ coc+ d||c|cntcs cxc||cnc|+s busc+|+m
const|u|| |cdcs dcss+ n+tu|cz+ como um+ |csost+ +o |cnomcno usu+|mcntc dcsc||to como
|ug+ dc cc|cb|os (oaoaao) |sto c + c|d+ dc comctcnc|+s c cscc|+||z+ocs (e\e:se) uc
+|scs cm dcscnvo|v|mcnto so||cm +|+ +|scs m+|s ccnt|+|s
^ m+|o| +|tc d+s d|+so|+s bcm succd|d+s como o| cxcm|o + c||ncs+ c + |nd|+n+ (|+|+ um+
dcsc||io d+s cxc||cnc|+s d+s d|+so|+s dcsscs +|scs consu|t+| o| cxcm|o |^||| ct +|
.00o c CO||| .00c) ||v||cg|+m o |o|m+to ncgoc|+| |sto c + cooc|+io sc +|t|cu|+ v|s+ndo
+|ovc|t+| oo|tun|d+dcs +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc |o,ctos comuns com |o|tc |nsc|io no
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c|scct|v+s +|+ su+ +|t|cu|+io cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+
!6
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
mundo |odut|vo c dc ncgoc|os ||+so|+s uc sc +|t|cu|cm com b+sc cxc|us|v+mcntc ou
||o||t+||+mcntc n+ cooc|+io +|+ + |oduio dc con|cc|mcnto b+s|co sio ouco comuns
c cm gc|+| no +ss+do nio |o|+m bcm succd|d+s ^s cxc||cnc|+s m+|s con|cc|d+s ncssc scnt|do
sio + co|omb|+n+ c + c|||cn+ (|+|+ css+s du+s cxc||cnc|+s consu|t+| |cscct|v+mcntc ||||
ct +| 1 c |||C||| ct +| .010) ^ dcsc|to d|sso +|guns |+to|cs |cscntcs no momcnto v|v|do
c|o ||+s|| c cm +|t|cu|+| c|+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+ nos |cv+m + c|c| uc cssc t|o dc cst|+tcg|+
sc||+ +|t|cu|+|mcntc +dcu+d+
2. A dispora no contexto atual da cincia brasileira
Cons|dc|+ndo |n|c|+|mcntc o momcnto v|v|do c|o ||+s|| c |mo|t+ntc +ss|n+|+| + |c|cvnc|+ uc
os |occssos dc d|n+m|z+io d+ |nov+io c + ncccss|d+dc dc sc +|c+n+| um+ comct|t|v|d+dc
g|ob+| ,og+m +|+ + sustcnt+io do |mcto dc c|csc|mcnto dc noss+ cconom|+ O ||+s|| nio
odc sustcnt+| o| |ongo tcmo su+ |nsc|io n+ cconom|+ |ntc|n+c|on+| cm |+to|cs +ssoc|+dos
s v+nt+gcns com+|+t|v+s + com|cx|d+dc d+ cconom|+ b|+s||c||+ s|m|csmcntc |nv|+b|||z+ um+
|nsc|io v+nt+,os+ no mc|c+do |ntc|n+c|on+| b+sc+d+ cm |+to|cs dc custo com+|+t|v+mcntc
m+|s b+|xos (s+|+||os b+|xos |cg|s|+io m+|s ||oux+ |mondo mcnos custos ctc) |cssc u+d|o
+ c|cnc|+ c + |oduio dc con|cc|mcnto dc ont+ tcm um +c| cst|+tcg|co c|+s +t|+cm
|nvcst|mcntos dc +|t+ u+||d+dc odcm +b||| ,+nc|+s dc oo|tun|d+dc +|+ os ncgoc|os b|+s||c||os
c odcm cont||bu|| +|+ c||+| um+ d|nm|c+ os|t|v+ +|+ o +|s |+s +|+ |sso nio b+st+ +cn+s
um d|n+m|smo |nov+do| nos ncgoc|os c |cc|so um+ b+sc c|cnt|||c+ so||d+ c |c|cv+ntc cm
csc+|+ g|ob+| uc sustcntc css+s d|nm|c+s c +t|+|+ |nvcst|mcntos dc +|t+ u+||d+dc |o|t+nto o
dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc um+ c|cnc|+ |obust+ dc ont+ c +|t|cu|+d+ com +s |cdcs |ntc|n+c|on+|s dc
con|cc|mcnto c ccnt|+| +|+ + sustcnt+io dc |ongo |+zo do dcscnvo|v|mcnto do +|s
|o| out|o |+do odc-sc d|zc| uc + c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+ +ssou o ||m|+| d+ u+nt|d+dc |+ |o,c
no ||+s|| um+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ so||d+ comctcntc c |odut|v+ uc tcm sustcnt+do um+
|cscn+ c|csccntc do +|s n+ c|cnc|+ mund|+| ^ dcsc|to dcssc u+d|o cm gc|+| os|t|vo +|guns
|csu|t+dos +|nd+ |cvc|+m ontos vu|nc|+vc|s dc noss+ +t|v|d+dc dc csu|s+ |ss+s ||+g|||d+dcs
cstio usu+|mcntc +ssoc|+d+s + do|s +scctos d|st|ntos o b+|xo |m+cto dc noss+ |oduio
mcd|do o| d||c|cntcs |nd|c+do|cs
1
c + dcb|||d+dc dos c+n+|s uc ||g+m + +c+dcm|+ + out|os
1 O |m+cto d+ |oduio c|cnt|||c+ c usu+|mcntc mcd|do c|o numc|o dc c|t+ocs uc um +|t|go |nduz n+ |oduio
c|cnt|||c+ ostc||o| su+ ub||c+io |s+ndo css+ mct||c+ cons|dc|+ndo +s ub||c+ocs |ndcx+d+s c|+ \cb o| c|cncc os
+|t|gos ub||c+dos o| b|+s||c||os cnt|c 1o c .010 |cccbc|+m cm mcd|+ c|t+ocs +tc ,u||o dc .011 Com css+ mcd|+
c cons|dc|+ndo +cn+s os 0 +|scs uc m+|s cont||bu||+m +|+ + |oduio mund|+| dc t|+b+||os c|cnt|||cos no c||odo
cons|dc|+do o ||+s|| c+| d+ 1 os|io (cm numc|o dc +|t|gos ub||c+dos) +|+ + !. os|io Cons|dc|+ndo + mcd|+ dc
c|t+ocs o| +|t|go Cons|dc|+ndo o un|vc|so tot+| dc .! +|scs o ||+s|| c+|||+ +|+ + 10c os|io (n:://...s.oac.co/
.cao:,aon)
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!66
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
+to|cs d+ soc|cd+dc | ,ust+mcntc +u| uc + co|+bo|+io cnt|c os c|cnt|st+s uc |+zcm su+s
c+||c||+s no ||+s|| com nossos c|cnt|st+s |+d|c+dos |o|+ d+u| com um+ v|vcnc|+ m+|s |ong+ no
cxtc||o| (csu|s+do|cs b|+s||c||os uc +m+du|ccc|+m |o||ss|on+|mcntc cm out|os +mb|cntcs
cu|tu|+|s com um+ v|vcnc|+ |o|ong+d+ |o|+ do +|s) odc t|+zc| ||utos +|t+mcntc v+nt+,osos
Os |o||ss|on+|s uc +m+du|ccc|+m no cxtc||o| dcscnvo|vc|+m um c|||| uc odc
cn||uccc| + cxc||cnc|+ dc noss+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ cscc|+|mcntc cm +|c+ csscnc|+|s
+|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do +|s + s+bc| o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc o||t|c+s gcstio dc |cdcs
com|cx+s c |omoio do con|cc|mcnto ,unto + out|os +to|cs (||z||OV .00ob) |+d+s
s cscc|||c|d+dcs do +mb|cntc +c+dcm|co uc m+|c+ +s t|+ns|o|m+ocs |cccntcs v|v|d+s c|+
c|cnc|+ nos +|scs cu|ocus c os |st+dos |n|dos
.
mu|tos dcsscs |o||ss|on+|s tcm um+ +m|+
cxc||cnc|+ n+ |omoio dos |csu|t+dos dc csu|s+ c cooc|+io com o odc| ub||co +|+
+ |oduio dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s (cscc|+|mcntc no dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc o||t|c+s dc c|cnc|+ c
|nov+io) c dcscnvo|vc|+m comctcnc|+s cscc|||c+s +|+ + gcstio dc |o,ctos com|cxos uc
c |+|+ cm nosso +|s c o| ||m tcm cxc||cnc|+ n+ +|t|cu|+io |ntc|csscs soc|+|s |ctc|ogcnc+s
+|+ ucm os |csu|t+dos d+ csu|s+ sio |c|cv+ntcs c +|+ cn||cnt+| s|tu+ocs dc ncgoc|+io
uc cnvo|vcm mu|t||os |ntc|csscs c usu+||os
^ss|m um dos |csu|t+dos csc|+dos m+|s |c|cv+ntcs d+ |ntc|+io cnt|c + d|+so|+ c + comun|d+dc
c|cnt|||c+ n+c|on+| c o dc +cc|c|+| |occssos uc |cv+m |ntc|n+c|on+||z+io d+ csu|s+
b|+s||c||+ +m||+ndo +s oo|tun|d+dcs dc +|t|cu|+io d+s |cdcs n+c|on+|s com +s g|+ndcs
|cdcs uc |oduzcm con|cc|mcnto dc ont+ cm csc+|+ g|ob+| ^ ||tc|+tu|+ |ntc|n+c|on+| tcm
|oduz|do mu|t||os |csu|t+dos uc +ont+m +|+ o |+to dc uc + |ntcns|d+dc dc +|t|cu|+io
d+s |cdcs |oc+|s dc |oduio do con|cc|mcnto com +s |cdcs mund|+|s c dcc|s|v+ +|+ +cc|c|+|
o |occsso dc |ntc|n+c|on+||z+io d+ |oduio |oc+| +m||+ndo s|mu|t+nc+mcntc scu |m+cto
+|+ + |oduio c|cnt|||c+ mund|+| c +|+dox+|mcntc |c|o|+ndo + |c|cvnc|+ do con|cc|mcnto
do onto dc v|st+ d+s ncccss|d+dcs d+ soc|cd+dc n+c|on+| ^ cx||c+io +|+ csscs |csu|t+dos
cst+ no |+to dc uc + |ntcg|+io dc |cdcs g|ob+|s +|t|cu|+d+s cm mu|t||os n|vc|s mu|t|||c+
cxoncnc|+|mcntc o numc|o dc ontos c||t|cos dc tcstc dc modc|os +m||+ndo + vc|oc|d+dc
dc |oduio dc con|cc|mcnto c mu|t|||c+ndo +s +|tc|n+t|v+s dc tcstc +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto
dc +||c+ocs +|cm dc c||+| c+n+|s cst+vc|s uc c|m|tcm sond+| +|tc|n+t|v+s dc comctcnc|+s
c tccno|og|+s |oduz|d+s |||+ do +mb|cntc domcst|co (O\| .004 ||^C^\^ .010
|^||| .00 |||| O^|^|^ .00) |o|t+nto c |+zo+vc| csc|+| uc + conso||d+io
dc |cdcs dcss+ n+tu|cz+ +m||+||+ + vc|oc|d+dc dc |ntc|n+c|on+||z+io d+ |oduio b|+s||c||+
|c|o|+||+ scu |m+cto sob|c + c|cnc|+ mund|+| +|cm dc +m||+| +s oo|tun|d+dcs dc +ccsso
|ontcs dc |ccu|sos |ntc|n+c|on+|s
. |+|+ um+ |cv|sio d+s t|+ns|o|m+ocs |cccntcs d+ c|cnc|+ c su+ |nst|tuc|on+||d+dc ncsscs +|scs vc| cnt|c out|os \|||| c
|OC||| (.00) |^||| (.00) |||| c V^| |||| (.00c) c |O|^CCO|| (.00c c .010)
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c|scct|v+s +|+ su+ +|t|cu|+io cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+
!67
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
^ o|g+n|z+io dc |cdcs dcss+ n+tu|cz+ cv|dcntcmcntc nio subst|tu| os cs|o|os dc
|ntc|n+c|on+||z+io cm|ccnd|dos c|+s +gcnc|+s n+c|on+|s dc ||n+nc|+mcnto d+ c|cnc|+ c
|nov+io ||+ tc||+ + ||n+||d+dc dc |c|o|+| c +m||+| os c|c|tos d+ cooc|+io com co|cg+s uc
v|vc|+m cxc||cnc|+s |o||ss|on+|s d|vc|s+s uc c|m+ncccm |o|+ do +|c+ncc do csu|s+do|
uc v+| +o cxtc||o| num cst+g|o ou |ntc|cmb|o dc cu|t+ du|+io |sscs |ntc|cmb|os c cst+g|os
sio um+ c+ ccnt|+| dc u+|uc| o||t|c+ dc |ntc|n+c|on+||z+io bcm succd|d+ |+s su+
+|t|cu|+io com um+ +io cst|+tcg|c+ vo|t+d+ +|+ +m||+| + |ntc||+cc d+ comun|d+dc |oc+| com
+s |cdcs |ntc|n+c|on+|s c |und+mcnt+| +|+ sc +|c+n+| os |csu|t+dos csc|+dos (c ncccss+||os)
do cs|o|o dc csu|s+ |c+||z+do no ||+s|| |cssc scnt|do + o|g+n|z+io d+ d|+so|+ b|+s||c||+
|c|cscnt+||+ um cs|o|o com|cmcnt+| c++z dc +m||||c+| os |csu|t+dos d+s +ocs uc ,+ vcm
scndo cm|ccnd|do t+nto c|+s +gcnc|+s como c|+ |o||+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ n+c|on+|
3. Caractersticas da dispora cientca brasileira nos EUA
Os |st+dos |n|dos +b||g+m + m+|o||+ dos cm|g|+ntcs b|+s||c||os c ossucm um+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+
+tu+ntc uc vcm +m+du|cccndo sc,+ c|+s |n|c|+t|v+s dc o|g+n|z+io uc +|tcm dos scus |o||os
mcmb|os ou do govc|no b|+s||c||o ou +|nd+ c|+s +t|v|d+dcs ontu+|s dc c|cnt|st+s dc |cnomc
^o tcnt+|mos cntcndc| + |c|cvnc|+ dcstc g|uo c n+tu|+| |nd+g+| u+ntos sio os mcmb|os d+
d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ |n|c||zmcntc nio |+ |csost+s |cc|s+s somcntc cst|m+t|v+s Os
d+dos dc .00 do |c+|t+mcnto dc ^ss|stcnc|+ Consu|+| do ||n|stc||o d+s |c|+ocs |xtc||o|cs
(|||) cst|m+ uc |+ cnt|c .1 c ! m|||ocs dc b|+s||c||os no cxtc||o| dos u+|s +|ox|m+d+mcntc
40` sc cncont|+m nos ||^ ^ C+cs cst|m+ uc + |oo|io dc |n+d|m|cntcs |sto c +
o|ccnt+gcm dc bo|s|st+s uc |o|+m +o cxtc||o| com|ct+| su+ |o|m+io c nio |cto|n+|+m c
dc +cn+s cc|c+ dc .` dc tod+s +s bo|s+s conccd|d+s +|+ o cxtc||o|
!
|ss+ |oo|io c b+|x+
c nos |+||+ suo| um+ d|+so|+ b+st+ntc |cduz|d+ ^|nd+ +ss|m c |cc|so cons|dc|+| uc ncm
todos os cm|g|+dos s+||+m do +|s ncssc momcnto d+ v|d+ |o||ss|on+| c ncm cont+|+m com
o ||n+nc|+mcnto do govc|no b|+s||c||o |u|tos s+||+m cm d|st|ntos momcntos d+ c+||c||+
cscc|+|mcntc cm con,untu|+s +dvc|s+s |oduio c|cnt|||c+ cm momcntos dc csc+sscz g|+vc
dc |ccu|sos +|+ csu|s+ |cc|+mcnto dos c+n+|s dc |cc|ut+mcnto dc novos +c+dcm|cos no
scto| ub||co ctc uc |o|+m b+st+ntc ||cucntcs n+ dcc+d+ dc 1c0 c 10
|studos |c+||z+dos com d+dos obt|dos no +no .000 sob|c +s d|+so|+s d+s |||||n+s |nd|+ C||n+
c |cx|co |nd|c+m uc +|+ csscs +|scs o numc|o dc cm|g|+ntcs dc +|t+ u+||||c+io |nc|u|ndo
c|cnt|st+s c out|os |o||ss|on+|s |c|cscnt+v+ cc|c+ dc 1 m|||io dc csso+s +|+ c+d+ um dcsscs
+|scs (||z||OV .00ob) |t|||z+ndo como +|mct|o +s ou|+ocs co||csondcntcs no
! |n|o|m+io |cst+d+ |cv|st+ |oc+ (0c;0;.011) n:://e.s:aec.a'coc.co/|e.s:a/|c.a/.|/|.+7..!..n:o'
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!68
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
+no .000 +|+ c+d+ um dcsscs +|scs c oss|vc| cst|m+| uc os cm|g|+ntcs dc +|t+ u+||||c+io
const|tu+m cm mcd|+ + 0c` d+ ou|+io do +|s dc o||gcm ^ssum|ndo uc css+s cst|m+t|v+s
sc,+m v+||d+s +|+ o c+so b|+s||c||o |n|c||mos uc |+ cc|c+ dc 1o m|| csso+s dc +|t+ u+||||c+io
|o|+ do +|s ^cn+s + t|tu|o dc com+|+io os numc|os m+|s |cccntcs d+ |ea ^eo:oa ae
|o.es:aaces , Ceo:/.cs oe' |\:ec sugc|cm uc cssc +|s ossu| um+ d|+so|+ dc m||
mcmb|os (|Cc|| .00c) |o|t+nto cmbo|+ nio tcn|+mos d+dos |cc|sos d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+
b|+s||c||+ c oss|vc| t|+b+||+| com o|dcns dc g|+ndcz+ ^|nd+ uc css+s cst|m+t|v+s |u,+m +o
||go| cst+t|st|co ,+ uc cst+mos com+|+ndo +most|+s com|ct+mcntc d||c|cntcs c su,c|t+s +
cond|ocs d|ss|m||+|cs |io nos su||ccndc||+ sc os numc|os d+ d|+so|+ dc +|t+ u+||||c+io
b|+s||c||+ g||+ssc cm to|no dc m|| csso+s |css+ m+nc||+ c |mo|t+ntc |occdc| + um
m+c+mcnto d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ dc |o|m+ + gc|+| subs|d|os +|+ um+ d|scussio m+|s
+|o|und+d+ d+ ucstio +ss|m como +|+ o dc||nc+mcnto dc cst|+tcg|+s v|s+ndo +umcnt+| o
|m+cto dcss+ ||ucz+ dc |ccu|sos |um+nos +|+ nosso +|s
|o| out|o |+do g|+ndcs numc|os +bso|utos nio sio b+sc +|+ sc |n|c||| +s c|+nccs dc succsso
dc um+ +|t|cu|+io dcss+ n+tu|cz+ |+ cxcm|os dc |cdcs dc cucno o|tc uc +|c+n+|+m
g|+ndc |m+cto |oc+| |ssc c o c+so o| cxcm|o d+ |cdc C|||c C|ob+| uc com um ouco
m+|s dc 100 mcmb|os d+ d|+so|+ |o| c++z dc |oduz|| |m+ctos s|gn|||c+t|vos no +mb|cntc dc
csu|s+ c dc ncgoc|os d+uc|c +|s (|O||^C| .00)
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ ossu| c+|+ctc||st|c+s |c|d+d+s d+ |o|m+io b|+s||c||+ c sc
su,c|t+ s |n||ucnc|+s cu|tu|+|s do +|s uc + +co||c |+d|c|on+|mcntc os b|+s||c||os nos ||^
sc o|g+n|z+m +|+ +|t|c|+| dc +t|v|d+dcs cu|tu|+|s cso|t|v+s c |cst|v+s m+s nio o |+zcm
com + mcsmo v|go| +|+ +s +t|v|d+dcs c|cnt|||c+s |stc como|t+mcnto nio c dc sc cst|+n|+|
Cons|dc|+ndo o |o||o c|||| d+ |m|g|+io b|+s||c||+ |o ||n+| d+ dcc+d+ dc 1c0 c |n|c|o d+
dc 10 o numc|o dc b|+s||c||os uc cm|g|ou +|+ os ||^ c|csccu c com c|c o numc|o dc
csu|s+do|cs |o|+ do +|s (C|||^|^| .00.) |stc g|uo d+ d|+so|+ nio v|vcu +s mcsm+s
s|tu+ocs dos cx||+dos du|+ntc o c||odo d+ d|t+du|+ n+ dcc+d+ dc 1o0 c 10 |m+ +|tc
|c|cv+ntc dcssc g|uo |nc|us|vc cnt|c +uc|cs m+|s u+||||c+dos s+|u do +|s cm |unio d+ |+|t+
dc c|scct|v+s |o||ss|on+|s c||+d+s c|+ c||sc cconom|c+ uc sc cstcndcu o| tod+ + dcc+d+ c
|n|c|o dos +nos 10 |o|t+nto css+ gc|+io s+|u do +|s tcndo como |c|c|cnc|+ um +mb|cntc
domcst|co bcm d|st|nto d+uc|c v|v|do |o,c o| nosso +|s
|o novo +mb|cntc cm uc csscs |o||ss|on+|s sc |nsc|||+m + comct|io mc||toc|+c|+ c o
|+nc,+mcnto dc |ongo |+zo sio +|tcs csscnc|+|s +|+ dcsb|+v+| +s ||ontc||+s do con|cc|mcnto
c|cnt|||co o uc c|m|tc + c||+io dc ccnt|os dc |c|c|cnc|+ dc +d|io mund|+| +ssoc|+dos +
mcc+n|smos uc oss|b|||t+m m+|o|cs oo|tun|d+dcs dc mob|||d+dc +os csu|s+do|cs |sscs
|+to|cs |o|+m +t|+cntcs +|+ + noss+ d|+so|+ c su+ v|vcnc|+ c||ou cs+o +|+ uc csscs v+|o|cs
sc |nco|o|+sscm cm su+ |o|m+io
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c|scct|v+s +|+ su+ +|t|cu|+io cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+
!69
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
|st+s obsc|v+ocs nio const|tucm c||t|c+s o||t|c+ b|+s||c||+ d+uc|+s dcc+d+s m+s +cn+s +
const+t+io do obv|o num c||odo |ccon|cc|d+mcntc c+|+ctc||z+do c|+ dcs+|t|cu|+io d+s
o||t|c+s c |nst|umcntos dc +o|o c|cnc|+ no ||+s|| (C|||^|^| 14 C|\^|z|^| 1o
c |^||^C||V| c |O|||O .011) + +|cc|+ dos c|cnt|st+ uc m|g|ou tcvc + oo|tun|d+dc dc
+cumu|+| v|vcnc|+s |c|cv+ntcs uc odcm sc| |mo|t+ntcs +|+ cont||bu|| +|+ o momcnto +tu+|
uc v|vcmos no ||+s|| Con|o|mc +ss|n+|+m (|^|||| |O|||^| c C|^ .00) + +|t|cu|+io dc
um+ |cdc dc cont+tos com csscs |o||ss|on+|s odc||+ t|+zc| |csu|t+dos cxt|cm+mcntc os|t|vos
+|+ o novo momcnto uc v|vc + c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+ m+|c+do o| d|nm|c+s uc sustcnt+m scu
c|csc|mcnto c |ntc|n+c|on+||z+io |cmb|os d+ d|+so|+ b|+s||c||+ odc||+m oc|+| como
ontos dc cont+to +,ud+ndo + const|u|| c +|o|und+| +s |c|+ocs dc co|+bo|+io com +|cc||os
c |cdcs no cxtc||o| +m||+| o vo|umc c + v+||cd+dc dos |ccu|sos d|son|vc|s +|+ csu|s+ no
+|s c ||n+|mcntc odcm cont||bu|| +|+ d|vc|s|||c+| (cm +|gum+s +|c+s) |oc+| (cm out|+s +|c+s)
ou d|n+m|z+| + +gcnd+ dc csu|s+ d+ c|cnc|+ no ||+s||
|cst+|tc c|gunt+mos cx|stc |ntc|cssc dcst+ d|+so|+ cm uc|c| co|+bo|+| com o ||+s|| c +tc
|cto|n+| sc ncccss+||o |o| Os +|gumcntos +ntc||o|cs odcm sugc||| uc +|tc dos b|+s||c||os
|+d|c+dos |o|+ do +|s nio tcn|+ |ntc|cssc cm +|t|c|+| dc |n|c|+t|v+s dcss+ n+tu|cz+ |io
obst+ntc +c|cd|t+mos cm um+ tcndcnc|+ |cvc|s+ n+ u+| + d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ tcndc + sc
+|ox|m+| do ||+s|| ^ mot|v+io nio c |oduz|d+ +cn+s c|+ con||+n+ gc|+d+ c|+ scns+io dc
cst+b|||d+dc c +o c|csc|mcnto cconom|co do +|s n+ u|t|m+ dcc+d+ m+s t+mbcm cst+ +ssoc|+d+
+ um+ c|ccio dc uc o +|cnd|z+do no cxtc||o| odc sc| dc g|+ndc v+||+ +|+ co|+bo|+| com
o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do ||+s|| |+|+ mu|tos + oo|tun|d+dc dc co|+bo|+| c c|ccb|d+ como um+
|o|m+ dc |csg+tc d+ |o||+ b|+s|||d+dc +|cm dc d+| um scnt|do dc |utu|o +|+ css+ |dcnt|d+dc
4. Organizao da dispora brasileira nos EUA
|os u|t|mos +nos |dcnt|||c+mos |n|c|+t|v+s t+nto |nd|v|du+|s como govc|n+mcnt+|s busc+ndo
o|g+n|z+| + d|+so|+ |o|cm +tc o |cscntc nio |ouvc um+ conso||d+io dos cs|o|os uc
|cv+sscm + |csu|t+dos t+ng|vc|s c du|+dou|os n+ +|c+ c|cnt|||c+ V+|c |css+|t+| os +v+nos
s|gn|||c+t|vos do govc|no b|+s||c||o n+ o|g+n|z+io d+ d|+so|+ como um todo nio sc ||m|t+ndo
+o scgmcnto c|cnt|||co |m .00c o| |ntc|mcd|o do ||n|stc||o d+s |c|+ocs |xtc||o|cs
|o|+m |nst|tu|d+s +s Con|c|cnc|+s +nu+|s 8as'ecs oc /aoac |cgu|+mcnt+d+s c|o |cc|cto
.14;.010 c uc cst+bc|cccm ||nc||os c d||ct||zcs d+ o||t|c+ govc|n+mcnt+| +|+ css+s
comun|d+dcs |m .004 o ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io |n|c|ou d|scussocs uc
cu|m|n+|+m com o |+n+mcnto cm .00 dc um s|stcm+ |ntcg|+do dc |n|o|m+ocs com b+scs
dc d+dos c dc con|cc|mcnto +|+ cscc|+||st+s cm|cs+s g|uos dc csu|s+ c |nst|tu|ocs dc
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!70
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io
4
|ostc||o|mcntc |o|+m |nco|o|+dos s|stcm+s dc con|cc|mcnto
dc |n|o|m+ocs cst|+tcg|c+s dc |cdcs dc |c|+c|on+mcnto c dc comun|d+dcs dc |+t|c+ c cm
.010 um+ +|c+ cscc|||c+ +|+ + d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ |o| c||+d+ +mbcm cm .010 + 4 Con|c|cnc|+
|+c|on+| dc C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ c |nov+io mcnc|onou + |mo|tnc|+ d+ d|+so|+ dc +|t+
u+||||c+io |+|+ + m+|o| +|tc dcss+s cxc||cnc|+s + |c|c|cnc|+ |ntc|n+c|on+| c o modc|o d+s
d|+so|+s d+ C||n+ c d+ |nd|+ (CC|| .010) |nt|ct+nto +|guns +uto|cs +|||m+m uc +s cxc||cnc|+s
dcsscs do|s +|scs sio mu|to ccu||+|cs c dc d|||c|| |c|oduio (||V^|| .00o)
|os ||^ cncont|+mos t+mbcm o|g+n|z+ocs dc |cdcs soc|+|s dc |o||ss|on+|s d+ d|+so|+ n+s
+|c+s dc ncgoc|os uc sc b+sc|+m n+ cxc||cnc|+s s|m||+| d+s d|+so|+s dc out|os +|scs |cmb|os
d+s d|+so|+s dc ncgoc|o d+ |scoc|+ C|||c Co|c|+ do u| |s|+c| +|w+n C||n+ |nd|+ c ^|||c+ do
u| cont||bucm com scus +|scs dc o||gcm o| |ntc|mcd|o dc |nvcst|mcntos d||ctos dos |o||os
mcmb|os ou como |ntc|mcd|+do|cs dc cont|+tos com cm|cs+s dc scus +|scs dc o||gcm cm
|unio d+ os|io dc ||dc|+n+ uc ocu+m cm|cs+s c out|+s o|g+n|z+ocs no|tc-+mc||c+n+s
|o c+so d+ d|+so|+ dc ncgoc|os b|+s||c||+ +s +|t|cu|+ocs uc scgucm cssc modc|o tcm otcnc|+|
+|+ sc|cm bcm succd|d+s (||^|^ .010) |ss+ +bo|d+gcm c+|+ctc||z+ um modc|o ncgoc|+| |sto
c sio |cdcs uc busc+m cont||bu|| +|+ o c|csc|mcnto do +|s dc o||gcm c uc sc cst+bc|cccm cm
|unio d+ c|ccio dc oo|tun|d+dcs c d||ct+mcntc vo|t+d+s +o |cto|no cconom|co
^|t|cu|+ocs dcss+ n+tu|cz+ tcm um+ cont||bu|io ||m|t+d+ +|+ + c|cnc|+ no ||+s|| |sso o|uc
+|guns dos |csu|t+dos csc|+dos m+|s |c|cv+ntcs dc +|t|cu|+ocs dcss+ n+tu|cz+ c o +umcnto do
numc|o dc csu|s+do|cs |+d|c+dos +|s com cxc||cnc|+ |ong+ c d||c|cnc|+d+ no cxtc||o| c +
|ntcns|||c+io d+ |ntc|+io d+s |cdcs dc csu|s+ n+c|on+|s com +s |cdcs g|ob+|s dc |oduio dc
con|cc|mcnto Ob,ct|vos |nt+ng|vc|s dcss+ n+tu|cz+ d|||c||mcntc +t|+cm |ccu|sos cscc|+|mcntc
o +o|o ||v+do |o| cssc mot|vo o|g+n|z+| + d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ +|+ co|+bo|+| com os dcs+||os
do ||+s|| nio c t||v|+|
|studos o||g|n+dos no |og|+m+ |now|cdgc |o| |cvc|omcnt do |+nco |und|+| sugc|cm
uc |cdcs dc d|+so|+ |n|c|+d+s o| c|cnt|st+s sio v|b|+ntcs m+s d|||cc|s dc m+ntc| ^sscvc|+m
uc c um c||o comum +c|cd|t+| sc| cstc o c+m|n|o m+|s v|+vc| +|+ o|g+n|z+io d+ d|+so|+
(||z||OV .00o+) cgundo csscs t|+b+||os u+ndo o |oco c|cnt|||co |cdom|n+ os |csu|t+dos
dc cu|to |+zo sio |nt+ng|vc|s o uc c||+ b+||c||+s +|+ + obtcnio dc +o|o do scto| ||v+do m+s
t+mbcm +|+ + |o|mu|+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s +dcu+d+s ^cs+| dc cstcs cstudos ,+ sc|cm
con|cc|dos |sso nio |mcd|u um cs|o|o |n|c|+do cm .00 +|+ o|g+n|z+| + d|+so|+ b|+s||c||+
o| mc|o dc um+ |cdc soc|+| (com +,ud+ d+ |ntc|nct) uc m+ntcvc scu |o|cgo +tc .010 +os +
ut|||z+io dc du+s |c||+mcnt+s d||c|cntcs (|O CO|O | ||V^ c || O|z^ .00c) |cstc c||odo
co||obo|ou-sc out|+ c|ccio do cscc|+||st+ do |+nco |und|+| + c+t+||sc dcstc |occsso
4 |o|t+| dc |nov+io - n:://...c:a'oc.a.aco.:c.o/
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c|scct|v+s +|+ su+ +|t|cu|+io cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+
!7!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
dccndc dc |nd|v|duos bcm succd|dos cm busc+ novos dcs+||os |css+ cxc||cnc|+ vc||||c+mos
uc o |nd|v|duo c+t+||s+do| |cc|s+ tc| v|v|do |o|+ do +|s o| um tcmo su||c|cntcmcntc |ongo
+|+ com|ccndc| +s ncccss|d+dcs c cxcct+t|v+s d+ d|+so|+ + su+ b+g+gcm cu|tu|+| c +s
|d|oss|nc|+s|+s do +|s uc + +co||c ^ m+|o| d|||cu|d+dc cxc||mcnt+d+ o| css+ |cdc d+ d|+so|+
c|cnt|||c+ |o| + ||m|t+io nos mcc+n|smos |nst|tuc|on+|s dc ||n+nc|+mcnto
^ ||o|| odc-sc suo| uc o |ntc|cssc do +|s uc +co||c + d|+so|+ cm +o|+| css+s |n|c|+t|v+s
sc,+ cucno + mcnos uc cx|st+ um |cto|no cconom|co bcm dc||n|do o uc cm um+ |cdc
c|cnt|||c+ so +contccc cm |ongo |+zo

^|c|t+dos c|os cscc|+||st+s do |+nco |und|+| sob|c


css+s d|||cu|d+dcs os o|g+n|z+do|cs sc cs|o|+|+m +|+ dc||n|| um+ |cdc d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ c
tccno|og|c+ m+s |+|t+|+m |o,ctos cscc|||cos +|vcz o cu|voco m+|o| n+uc|c momcnto tcn|+
s|do +ssum|| uc s|m|csmcntc cnunc|+| c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ ,unt+s sc||+ cond|io su||c|cntc
+|+ +t|+|| |ntc|cssc dc +mb+s +s comun|d+dcs c cx|o|+| s|nc|g|+s |nt|ct+nto +cs+| dc um
+mb|cntc m+|s |o|c|o +o succsso (V+|c do |||c|o n+ C+|||o|n|+) os mcsmos dcs+||os uc |o,c
cn||cnt+mos no ||+s|| +o tcnt+|mos +|ox|m+| comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ do scto| |odut|vo |o|+m
v|vcnc|+dos o| cst+ |cdc nos ||^ cm um cs+o +most|+| mcno| ^ |+|t+ dc ||n+nc|+mcnto
nio |o| + un|c+ d|||cu|d+dc m+s t+mbcm + |+|t+ dc um mcc+n|smo c||c+z +|+ vcncc| b+||c||+s
dc comun|c+io uc n+tu|+|mcntc ++|cccm +o +|ox|m+| g|uos com cu|tu|+s c ob,ct|vos
d|vc|sos |o uc t+ngc d|son|b|||d+dc d+s |ontcs dc ||n+nc|+mcnto no ||+s|| cscc|+|mcntc
no scto| ||v+do cst+s nio su|gcm dc s|m|cs |ntc|+ocs csontnc+s cnt|c csu|s+do|cs c
csso+s dc ncgoc|o c ncccss+||o um |oduto ou tccno|og|+ comc|c|+vc| uc ,ust|||uc o |+no
dc |nvcst|mcnto c +o|o |nst|tuc|on+| (||v+do ou ub||co) + css+ |cdc
|nt|ct+nto odcmos +ss|n+|+| + +bc|tu|+ +|+ css+ cxc||cnc|+ o| +|tc do govc|no b|+s||c||o ^
|cdc +|t|c|ou dc um+ mcs+ dc dcb+tcs n+ ||mc||+ con|c|cnc|+ ||+s||c||os no |undo cm .00c
^|nd+ +ss|m mcc+n|smos dc +o|o cont|nu+do |o|+m d|||cc|s dc m+tc||+||z+| |m .010 o |||
|ntcns|||cou os scus cs|o|os c o|g+n|zou |cun|ocs com +o|o dos consu|+dos dc io ||+nc|sco
c \+s||ngton |ocu|+ndo cst+bc|ccc| cont+to com c|cnt|st+s b|+s||c||os uc t|+b+||+v+m c
cstud+v+m no cxtc||o| |m+ d+s |n|c|+t|v+s os|t|v+s do govc|no b|+s||c||o c bcm |cccb|d+ c|+
d|+so|+ |o| + |c+||z+io dc |omcn+gcns + mcmb|os ||ust|cs d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ como
+uc|+ |c|t+ +o ||o| ^|do d+ |os+ um dos |und+do|cs do |nst|tuto |+c|on+| dc |csu|s+s |s+c|+|s
(||||) c |o,c |o|csso| cmc||to d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc dc t+n|o|d |csmo +ss|m +c|cd|t+mos uc
+ocs cxc|us|v+mcntc govc|n+mcnt+|s tcn|+m d|||cu|d+dc dc +v+n+| ncss+ +|c+ | ncccss+||o uc
c|cmcntos c+t+||s+do|cs d+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ t|+b+||cm m+|s |ox|mos do govc|no +|+ d+|
cm|cst+| c|cd|b|||d+dc c|+ntc cst+ comun|d+dc +|+ sustcnt+| + |ntc||ocuio odcndo +ss|m
+|t|cu|+| +s comctcnc|+s d+ comun|d+dc cm s|nton|+ com os scus +nsc|os c ||m|t+ocs
^|guns t|+b+||os ub||c+dos c o dcb+tc co||cntc cm +|guns +|scs |nd|c+m uc css+ c|ccio odc cst+| mud+ndo cnt|c
+|scs com um+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ m+|s m+du|+ |+|+ cssc dcb+tc vc| |^|||| ct +| .00
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!7z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
5. Diculdades para a colaborao da dispora brasileira
com o Brasil
Cons|dc|+ndo o| cxcm|o + t|+,cto||+ t||c+ dc um mcmb|o d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+
nos |st+dos |n|dos odc-sc d|zc| uc + m+|o||+ dos csu|s+do|cs uc s+cm o| um c||odo
cu|to (+tc sc|s +nos) +|nd+ cns+m cm vo|t+| +o +|s +|+ ocu+| um+ os|io dc |o|csso| cm
+|gum+ un|vc|s|d+dc b|+s||c||+ cm +|t|cu|+| no scto| ub||co |o|m+|mcntc cssc g|uo ocu+
os|ocs dc douto|+ndos ou os-douto|+ndos n+ |nst|tu|io uc os +co||c |css+s os|ocs
csscs csu|s+do|cs v|vcnc|+m oo|tun|d+dcs +|+ dcscnvo|vc| comctcnc|+s dc ||dc|+n+
dc cu|cs dc csu|s+ m+s dc |o|m+ ||m|t+d+ |o| ocu+|cm os|ocs tcmo|+||+s su+
+|t|c|+io n+s dcc|socs cnvo|vcndo o |+nc,+mcnto dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s dc c|cnc|+ c |nov+io
c no dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc +|cc||+s com o scto| |odut|vo c |cst||t+ O ||og|+m+ C|cnc|+ scm
||ontc||+s c um+ |n|c|+t|v+ |cccntc do govc|no b|+s||c||o uc dcvc|+ +t|+|| c|cnt|st+s b|+s||c||os
||nc|+|mcntc os ,ovcns + co|+bo|+|cm com o +|s
o

|co|s dc sctc +nos |o|+ + s|tu+io mud+ ^ +sccnsio |o||ss|on+| +||+d+ s oo|tun|d+dcs dc
mob|||d+dc c||+d+s c|o s|stcm+ |o|tcmcntc mc||toc|+t|co c|m|tcm uc mcmb|os d+ d|+so|+
d|vc|s|||ucm su+ v|vcnc|+ d||ct+ +m||+ndo o |cuc dc comctcnc|+s |nt+ng|vc|s uc csscs
|o||ss|on+|s +cumu|+m | bcm vc|d+dc uc css+ s|tu+io t+mbcm to|n+ o |cto|no mcnos
|ov+vc| ^ dcsc|to d|sso |o||ss|on+|s com cssc c|||| tcm otcnc|+| dc cont||bu|io c|cv+do
+|+ noss+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ ^ d|||cu|d+dc m+|o| c uc dcm+nd+s d|+so|+ |cc|s+m sc|
bcm dc||n|d+s O m+c+mcnto d+s su+s comctcnc|+s c + c||+io dc c+n+|s s|gn|||c+t|vos +|+ su+
|ntc|+io com + comun|d+dc |oc+| +|nd+ sio dcs+||os +|+ todos os +to|cs cnvo|v|dos no |occsso
O d|+|ogo + sc| cst+bc|cc|do dcvc sc| scns|vc| + +scctos |nt+ng|vc|s como + |omogcnc|z+io
dc con|cc|mcnto c + c|ccio comum dc oss|b|||d+dcs c dcs+||os |o| ||m +s o||t|c+s uc
dc||ncm os mcc+n|smos c + |n||+cst|utu|+ uc |o|c|+m cst+ |ntc|+io dcvc||+m sc| dcscn|+d+s
com +|t|c|+io dc mcmb|os com otcnc|+| c+t+||s+do| no sc|o d+ d|+so|+
^dcm+|s como bcm +ss|n+|+ |^||| (.010) cm su+ +n+||sc com|ccns|v+ d+ |mo|tnc|+ d+
d|+so|+ |nd|+n+ +|+ + const|uio d+s |nst|tu|ocs o||t|c+s c soc|+|s contcmo|nc+s n+uc|c
+|s o |m+cto |c|+t|vo d+ d|+so|+ dccndc t+mbcm do +mb|cntc |nst|tuc|on+| domcst|co ^|nd+
uc + c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+ +|cscntc v+||os dos ucs|tos cons|dc|+dos csscnc|+|s +|+ o succsso dcssc
t|o dc |n|c|+t|v+ um con,unto dc |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ bcm cst+bc|cc|d+s |n||+cst|utu|+ dc
csu|s+ |ccu|sos +|+ ||n+nc|+mcnto dc |o,ctos |nc|us|vc +|+ |cdcs dc csu|s+ m+|s com|cx+s
c d|nm|c+s c |cc|so |nvcst|g+| cm uc mcd|d+ + |nst|tuc|on+||d+dc dcssc +mb|cntc +|cscnt+ um
g|+u dc o|os|d+dc ncccss+||o +|+ |omcnt+| cssc t|o dc co|+bo|+io |sto c u+| o otcnc|+| dc
o ....eo.aseo/co:easc.o
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c|scct|v+s +|+ su+ +|t|cu|+io cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+
!7!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
+bso|io dcss+s comctcnc|+s no mb|to d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ do +|s |m
uc mcd|d+ |+ cs+o +|+ +comod+| c d+| dcns|d+dc |nst|tuc|on+| +|+ d||c|cntcs +|tc|n+t|v+s dc
cooc|+io uc vio dcsdc o +o|o +|+ ++ +|t|cu|+io dc |cdcs dc csu|s+ t|+nsn+c|on+|s +tc +
|nco|o|+io dc |o||ss|on+|s m+du|os d|sostos + cn||cnt+| novos dcs+||os no |ntc||o| d+ c+||c||+
+c+dcm|c+ no |ntc||o| d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ no +|s
6. Concluso
|stc t|+b+||o buscou cont||bu|| +|+ o dcb+tc sob|c + c|ct|v|d+dc c + |c|cvnc|+ dc |n|c|+t|v+s dc
mob|||z+io d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ +|+ cont||bu|| +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto d+ c|cnc|+
b|+s||c||+ Como +|||m+mos +ntc||o|mcntc um dos |csu|t+dos csc|+dos dcss+s |n|c|+t|v+s c
+m||+| +s oo|tun|d+dcs dc +|t|cu|+io d+s |cdcs n+c|on+|s com +s g|+ndcs |cdcs uc |oduzcm
con|cc|mcnto dc ont+ cm csc+|+ g|ob+| |ss+ +|t|cu|+io c |und+mcnt+| +|+ +cc|c|+| o
|occsso dc |ntc|n+c|on+||z+io d+ |oduio |oc+| +m||+ndo s|mu|t+nc+mcntc scu |m+cto
+|+ + |oduio c|cnt|||c+ mund|+| |+|+dox+|mcntc c|+ cont||bu|||+ t+mbcm +|+ |c|o|+| +
|c|cvnc|+ do con|cc|mcnto |oduz|do c|+ c|cnc|+ do onto dc v|st+ d+s ncccss|d+dcs d+
soc|cd+dc n+c|on+| |sso o|uc + |ntcg|+io d+ |oduio n+c|on+| com +s |cdcs g|ob+|s uc
sc +|t|cu|+m cm mu|t||os n|vc|s mu|t|||c+ cxoncnc|+|mcntc o numc|o dc ontos c||t|cos dc
tcstc dc modc|os c||+ +|tc|n+t|v+s dc +ccsso s comctcnc|+s c +o con|cc|mcnto |oduz|do |o|+
do cs+o domcst|co +|cm dc +m||+| + vc|oc|d+dc d+ c +||c+io do con|cc|mcnto |oduz|do
n+ mcsm+ mcd|d+ cm uc mu|t|||c+m os ontos dc tcstc dc um+ tccno|og|+
Como +ss|n+|+mos no |n|c|o do t|+b+||o + |ug+ dc cc|cb|os nio c o uc nos |cmctc d|scussio
sob|c + d|+so|+ ^tc o|uc cstudos |c+||z+dos no mb|to d+ OC|| |nd|c+m uc + t+x+ dc
cm|g|+io dc |nd|v|duos dc +|t+ u+||||c+io c mcno| cm +|scs com ou|+ocs m+|o|cs como
+ C||n+ c + |nd|+ (|||O| .00) |o c+so do ||+s|| + c|ccnt+gcm dc |o||ss|on+|s +|t+mcntc
u+||||c+dos n+ d|+so|+ co||csondc + ouco m+|s d+ mct+dc d+uc|+ dos out|os +|scs dos
|||cs (|||O| .010) |css+ m+nc||+ + ucstio d+s +|tc|n+t|v+s +|+ + o|g+n|z+io d+ d|+so|+
b|+s||c||+ |csondc ||o||t+||+mcntc ncccss|d+dc c|csccntc dc |nco|o|+| |o||ss|on+|s +|t+mcntc
u+||||c+dos +|+ +tcndc| os dcs+||os c|cnt|||cos c tccno|og|cos gc|+dos c|+ cxcct+t|v+ dc
c|csc|mcnto do ||+s|| |+|scs ou|osos c|tcnccntcs +o g|uo dos |||cs como + C||n+ c + |nd|+
,+ ossucm modc|os c||c+zcs dc o|g+n|z+io d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ c dc ncgoc|os |cst+|tc +s
o||t|c+s ub||c+s no +|s nio dcvcm ||o||z+| +ocs b+sc+d+s somcntc no numc|o dc mcmb|os
d+ noss+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ |+ um +c| dc |c|cvnc|+ +|+ um g|uo |c|+t|v+mcntc cucno
cu,os v+|o|cs |nco|o|+dos cm su+ |o|m+io c|m|t||io uc cont||bu+m dcc|s|v+mcntc +|+
+ d|vc|s|||c+io d|n+m|z+io c ||o||z+io d+ +gcnd+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ um dos ||+|cs do
dcscnvo|v|mcnto cconom|co |utu|o do +|s
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!74
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
7. Agradecimentos
^g|+dcccmos |c|n+nd+ ^nton|+ d+ |onscc+ ob|+| c ||v|+ |+||+ Vc||o c|+s sugcstocs c
comcnt+||os uc +,ud+|+m + cn||uccc| cstc t|+b+||o
Referncias
|^||^C||V| | |O|||O ^^ c|cncc +nd |nnov+t|on o||c|cs |n ||+z|| + ||+mcwo|| |o| t|c +n+|ys|s
o| c|+ngc +nd cont|nu|ty |n ||^-|C|| |o|nt Con|c|cncc \|+tcvc| |+cncd to |o|t|-out|
|n|vc|s|d+dc dc io |+u|o io |+u|o ||+s|| 1o + 1 |cb .011 1rabalbo apresentado|n|vc|s|d+dc
dc io |+u|o io |+u|o ||+s|| 1o + 1 |cb .011
|O|^CCO|| ^ c+|c| |cg|mcs +nd |ndust||+| dyn+m|cs |n c|cncc Mlnerva v 4o n ! .c-!1 .00c
____ |cw |o|ms o| com|cmcnt+||ty |n c|cncc Mlnerva v 4c n 4 !!c .010
|||C||| || |O|^|||||^ || ^^V|||^ ^ C|||c c| c+|t+||smo mond|+| |ntcg|+do y |+
d|+so|+ kevlsta Lnroques v c n 1. c-10. .010
C|||O || C|^O | |||O ||^|C|CO - CC|| Consolldao das recomendaes
da 4 Conrerncla Naclonal de Clncla e 1ecnologla e lnovao para o Uesenvolvlmento
Sustentavel, Conrernclas naclonal, reglonals e estaduals e |orum Munlclpal de C,18l ||+s|||+
|C;CC|| .010
CO||| | Clobal dlasporas. an lntroductlon |ond|cs c | o|| |out|cdgc .00c
____ |+dc +nd bus|ncss d|+so|+s c||ncsc +nd ||b+ncsc |n Clobal dlasporas +n |nt|oduct|on |ondon;
|cw o|| |out|cdgc cd (vc|sio ||nd|c os|ocs .!04 + .o) .00c
||V^|| C |c dyn+m|cs o| d|+so|+ nctwo||s |cssons o| cxc||cncc |n ||z||OV (cd) Ulaspora
networks and tbe lnternatlonal mlgratlon or skllls. bow countrles can draw or tbelr talent
abroad \+s||ngton |C \o||d |+n| |nst|tutc |cvc|omcnt tud|cs .00o
|O CO|O | ||V^ | || O|z^ C| ^ ||mc||+ |cdc d+ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ - b|+s||c||os
com +|t+ u+||||c+io cont||bu|ndo +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto cconom|co c|cnt|||co c tccno|og|co
do ||+s|| |n cxto dc +o|o | Con|c|cnc|+ sob|c +s Comun|d+dcs ||+s||c||+s no |xtc||o| ||o dc
|+nc||o ||n|stc||o d+s |c|+ocs |xtc||o|cs 11-.1 .00c
|||O| |-C ||||VOC|| C \|||^||| |ntc|n+t|on+| m|g|+nts |n dcvc|ocd cmc|g|ng +nd
dcvc|o|ng count||cs +n cxtcndcd |o|||c OLCU Soclal, Lmployment and Mlgratlon Worklng
apers 114 ||son|vc| cm n:://...ce.ac/e's/.coaes . ^ccsso cm .010
^ d|+so|+ c|cnt|||c+ b|+s||c||+ c|scct|v+s +|+ su+ +|t|cu|+io cm |+vo| d+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+
!7
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
|||O| | |||^||| C Count|ng |mm|g|+nts +nd cx+t||+tcs |n occd count||cs + ncw c|scct|vc
OLCU Soclal, Lmployment and Mlgratlon Worklng apers . ||son|vc| cm n:://a\ac
c/.77/.+.... . ^ccsso cm .00
C|||^|^| | ^ d|+so|+ um cstudo cx|o|+to||o sob|c o dcs|oc+mcnto gcog|+||co dc csu|s+do|cs
b|+s||c||os n+ dcc+d+ dc 0 UAUOS kevlsta de Clnclas Soclals ||o dc |+nc||o v 4 n 4 0-
0 .00.
____ |||C um+ nov+ m|ssio |n C|\^|z|^| (cd) Clncla e tecnologla no 8rasll. polltlca
lndustrlal, mercado de trabalbo e lnstltules de apolo ||o dc |+nc||o |CV .-.c 1o
|||| || V^| |||| | |c-t||n||ng ncw |now|cdgc |oduct|on + ||tc|+tu|c |cv|cw +nd |csc+|c|
+gcnd+ kesearcb ollcy v ! n 4 1o-1c .00c
|^||| | New rorms or governance ln researcb Organlzatlon. dlsclpllnary approacbes, lnterrace and
lntegratlon |o|d|cc|t ||ngc| .00
|^||| | Ulaspora development and democracy. tbe domestlc lmpacto r lnternatlonal mlgratlon
rrom lndla |||nccton |||nccton |n|vc|s|ty ||css .010
||^C^\^ | |oo||ng |csou|ccs |o| cxcc||cncc +nd |c|cv+ncc +n cvo|ut|on o| un|vc|s|t|cs +s mu|t|-sc+|+|
nctwo|| o|g+n|z+t|on Mlnerva v 4c n 1 1o-1c .010
||z||OV |ow t+|cnt +b|o+d c+n |c| |c|o|ms +nd ||v+tc sccto| dcvc|omcnt |n |omc count||cs |n
||-|| \o||s|o |cw o|| Octobc| .00o 1rabalbo apresentado |cw o|| Octobc| .00o
||z||OV ^||| |ntc|n+t|on+| m|g|+t|on o| t+|cnt d|+so|+ nctwo||s +nd dcvc|omcnt ovc|v|cw
o| m+|n |ssucs |n ||z||OV (cd) Ulaspora networks and tbe lnternatlonal mlgratlon or
skllls. bow countrles can draw or tbelr talent abroad \+s||ngton |C \o||d |+n| |nst|tutc
|cvc|omcnt tud|cs .00o
|||| || O^|^|^ | lnnovatlon, unlversltles and competltlveness or reglons |c|s|n|| ||| .00
|Cc|| Llbro blanco de la prospectlva |C ||n|stc||o dc C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nnov+c|on ||oduct|v+
|cub||c+ ^|gcnt|n+ .00c
|||| |-| C|^||| | ||||^| | C|^|||^|| C|^|| | ||O| | |O||||C|O ^ |O|^||
^ |||C|^ C |^|V^|z-||||||||O | |^||^|O | C||||||| | u|n|ng b|+|n
d|+|n |nto b|+|n g+|n t|c Co|omb|+n cxc||cncc o| t|c ||+so|+ Ot|on Sclence 1ecbnology 8
Soclety v . n . .c-!1 1
|^|||| |^ |O||^| || C|^ || C|ob+||z+t|on o| |c+|t| |csc+|c| |+|ncss|ng t|c sc|cnt|||c
d|+so|+ Academlc Medlclne v c4 n 4 .-!4 .00
|||z+bct| |+|b+c|cvs|y |du+|do do Couto c ||v+
!76
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1o!-1o ,u|-dcz .011
|^||| ^ ^CC^|\^| ^ ||V^|| | ||z||OV |c |nd|+n d|+so|+ + un|uc c+sc |n
||z||OV (cd) Ulaspora networks and tbe lnternatlonal mlgratlon or skllls. bow countrles
can draw or tbelr talent abroad \+s||ngton |C \o||d |+n| |nst|tutc |cvc|omcnt tud|cs
1-c .00o
|O||^C| | |||cto|+ |xccut|v+ d+ C|||c C|ob+| Comunlcao oral prlvada .00
C|\^|z|^| Notas sobre a translo necessarla da pos-graduao brasllelra cxto ||c+|+do
como subs|d|o com|ssio |csons+vc| c|+ c|+bo|+io do ||+no |+c|on+| dc |os-g|+du+io
(|||C) |c|+t|vo +o c||odo .011-.0.0 .010
|C||| | ||C|| |^ |^^| ^ c|cnt|||c d|+so|+s Sclence v !1. 1o |un .00o 1o0.-1o0!
|O|1011.o;sc|cncc11.o!.]
O\| | cc|cts to s||c|d o| s|+|c ncw d||cmm+s |o| m|||t+|y || o||cy |n t|c d|g|t+| c|+ kesearcb
ollcy v !! n . .-.o .004
||^|^ |ng+g|ng d|+so|+s +s dcvc|omcnt +|tnc|s omc good |+ct|ccs \O|||O| || ||
||^||\O|| o| t|c |o|dov+n ||+so|+ Cong|css 4 C||s|n+u 1! Octobc| .010 resentatlon
at tbe C||s|n+u 1! Octobc| .010
\|||| | |OC||| C 1be cbanglng governance or sclence |o|d|cc|t ||ngc| .00
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
Caractersticas e impactos do Fundo Setorial de
Infraestrutura
1*
Luciano Martins Costa Pvoa
2
**
' ^g|+dco + ^nton|o +|v|o |+ng||c| |dg+| +|v+do|| |c |ccc+ ||+nc|sco Cu|||c|mc |mmc||c| ||+nc|sco dc ous+ |+mos
|osc C|cc||do |+||cto |czc||+ c |du+|do d+ |ott+ c ^|buuc|uc c|+s cnt|cv|st+s c comcnt+||os O +uto| +g|+dccc t+mbcm
+s v+||os+s |n|o|m+ocs |cst+d+s c o +ccsso +os convcn|os c |c|+to||os tccn|cos dos |o,ctos do C-|n||+ d+ ||C |o|ncc|dos
o| Cust+vo ^b|+ntcs Condc|x+ c ^nton|o Cu|||c|mc |c|c||+ d+ |und+io dc ^m+|o |csu|s+ (|un+c) d+ ||C |o|
||m +g|+dco +o +o|o ||n+ncc||o do C|| o| mc|o d+ bo|s+ dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto ccno|og|co c |ndust||+| ^s o|n|ocs c
cvcntu+|s c||os |cm+ncsccntcs sio dc m|n|+ |ntc||+ |csons+b|||d+dc
'' |outo| cm |conom|+ c|o Ccdc|+|-|||C ||o|csso| ^d,unto do |c+|t+mcnto dc |conom|+ d+ |n|
Resumo
O |cscntc +|t|go +n+||s+ os cd|t+|s c s++ |o,ctos
+o|+dos c|os |undos dc |n||+cst|utu|+ (C-|n||+)
do ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io
(|C|) cnt|c .oo+ c .oos su+s c+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m-
+ctos ^|cm d+ b+sc dc d+dos |o|+m |c+||z+d+s cn-
t|cv|st+s com mcmb|os do Com|tc Ccsto| c coo|dc-
n+do|cs dc |o,ctos ^ c|ccio gc|+| dos cnt|cv|s-
t+dos c + dc uc o C-|n||+ oss|b|||tou +o +|s um
+v+no |ncd|to d+ su+ c++c|d+dc dc csu|s+ Os
|ccu|sos do C-|n||+ tcm s|do +||c+dos cm |o,ctos
||g+dos + +|c+s c|cnt|c+s cons|dc|+d+s cst|+tcg|c+s ^
cont||bu|io ||mo|d|+| do C-|n||+ |o| + dc c|m|t||
s |nst|tu|ocs +o|+d+s + cnt|+d+ cm um novo +|+-
d|gm+ dc conduio dc csu|s+s |ntcns|vo cm +ccsso
c |occss+mcnto dc |n|o|m+io
Abstract
's ae aoa',es ao'. aoocao.eoeo:s aoa
ce.:s sac:ea o, :ne |o/as:a.:ae |aoas C|o
/a) oe:.eeo .oo aoa .oo :ne .naa.:es:.s aoa
:ne oa.:s |o aaa:co :c :ne aa:aoase .e .coaa.:
ea o:e.e.s .:n oeooes c/ :ne Cco:e Ges:c aoa
ce.: .ccaoa:cs 'e eoea' e.e:co c/ esco
aeo:s s :na: :ne C|o/a eoao'ea 8a' :c ao aoe.
eaeo:ea aa.ao.e c/ :s esea.n .aa.:, 'e C|o/a
esca.es na.e oeeo o.es:ea o ce.:s e'a:ea :c s:a
:e. s.eo:. e'as 'e oao .co:oa:co c/ :ne C
|o/a .as :c a''c. :ne os::a:cos sac:ea :c e
/co a oe. aaao /c .coaa.:o esea.n oasea
co a..ess aoa o:eos.e o/coa:co c.esso
|uc|+no |ovo+
!78
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduo
O ob,ct|vo dcstc +|t|go c +|cscnt+| um+ +n+||sc dos |o,ctos +o|+dos c|os |undos dc
|n||+cst|utu|+ (C-|n||+) c scus |m+ctos |c um+ |o|m+ gc|+| c d|scut|d+ + |c|cvnc|+ do C-
|n||+ +|+ o |o|t+|cc|mcnto do |stcm+ |+c|on+| dc |nov+io
|ssc t|+b+||o c ||uto d+ csu|s+ |nt|tu|+d+ |ctodo|og|+ dc +v+||+io dos |csu|t+dos dc con,untos
dc |o,ctos +o|+dos o| |undos dc c|cnc|+ tccno|og|+ c |nov+io (C|) dcco||cntc d+ +|cc||+
|C-||nc;|||C;|c+ ^ +n+||sc busc+ |csondc| + +|gum+s c|gunt+s c|uc|+|s os |ccu|sos do
C-|n||+ cstio scndo +||c+dos cm |o,ctos ||g+dos + +|c+s c|cnt|||c+s cons|dc|+d+s cst|+tcg|c+s
O c|||| dos |o,ctos tcm sc +|tc|+do +o |ongo dos +nos O C-|n||+ cst+ cont||bu|ndo m+|s +|+
conso||d+| + |n||+cst|utu|+ |nst|tuc|on+| dc csu|s+ cx|stcntc ou +|+ cx+nd|-|+ O C-|n||+
tcm ob,ct|vos c d||ct||zcs c|+|+s c cons|stcntcs +o |ongo do tcmo
|+|+ |csondc| + css+s c|gunt+s |o|+m ut|||z+d+s +s b+scs dc d+dos c|+bo|+d+s c|o |c+
|c|c|cntcs + 1!4!! |o,ctos +o|+dos c|os |undos cto||+|s +tc sctcmb|o dc .00c +|cm dc
|ontcs b|b||og|+||c+s c cnt|cv|st+s com coo|dcn+do|cs dc |o,ctos do C-|n||+ dc un|vc|s|d+dcs
c |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+
^|cm dcss+ |nt|oduio o +|t|go cst+ o|g+n|z+do cm m+|s sc|s scocs ^ scgund+ scio +|cscnt+
um b|cvc ||sto||co d+ c||+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ no ||+s|| ^s cont||bu|ocs do |||C
+|+ css+ |n||+cst|utu|+ cstio dcsc||t+s n+ tc|cc||+ scio ^ c||+io do C-|n||+ c scus ob,ct|vos
+|cscnt+dos n+ u+|t+ scio cnu+nto + +n+||sc dos |o,ctos c |c|t+ n+ u|nt+ scio Os |m+ctos
do C-|n||+ c||t|c+s c sugcstocs cstio |cscntcs n+ sct+ scio ^ u|t|m+ scio t|+s +s conc|usocs
2. A criao da infraestrutura de pesquisa cientca e
tecnolgica nacional
^ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ c|cnt|||c+ c tccno|og|c+ no ||+s|| comcou + sc| c||+d+ cm mc+dos
do sccu|o 1 com + c|cg+d+ d+ |+m|||+ |c+| |+uc|c c||odo |o|+m c||+dos o |+|d|m |otn|co
do ||o dc |+nc||o (1c0c) o |uscu |+c|on+| (1c1c) c o Obsc|v+to||o |+c|on+| (1c.)
alavras-cbave |undo dc |n||+cst|utu|+ ||n|stc-
||o d+ C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io csu|s+ |c-
cu|sos +|c+s cst|+tcg|c+s
keywords |o/as:a.:ae |aoas /os:, c/ :.eo.e
aoa e.noc'c, esea.n esca.es s:a:e. aeas
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!79
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
uz|g+n c ^|buuc|uc (.00c) dcst+c+m o c+|+tc| t+|d|o c ||m|t+do cm um contcxto ||sto||co
|ob|cm+t|co dcv|do csc|+v|dio no u+| |ouvc + c||+io d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no c csu|s+
no ||+s|| Os +uto|cs |cmb|+m uc cm 1c.. o ||+s|| ,+ ossu|+ um+ ou|+io dc 4 m|||ocs dc
|+b|t+ntcs c +|nd+ nio t|n|+ um+ un|vc|s|d+dc +cn+s +|gum+s |+cu|d+dcs |so|+d+s cnu+nto
nos ||^ cm 1o ,+ cont+v+ com novc |+|+ +n+||s+| + |o|m+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc cns|no c
csu|s+ no +|s os +uto|cs sugc|cm um+ c||od|z+io o| |ntc|mcd|o dc ond+s dc c||+io
|nst|tuc|on+| dcsc||t+s no u+d|o 1
Quadro + Ond+s dc c||+io dc |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no c csu|s+ no ||+s||
Ondas erlodo Algumas das lnstltules crladas
|||mc||+ ond+ 1c0c-1c10 |+|d|m |otn|co ^c+dcm|+ ||||t+|
cgund+ ond+ 1c0-100
|uscu ^|uco|og|co c |tnog|+co do |+|+ |sco|+ dc ||n+s dc Ou|o ||cto |nst|tuto
^g|onom|co dc C+m|n+s |sco|+ |o||tccn|c+ dc io |+u|o |nst|tutos V+c|nogcn|co c
|+ctc||o|og|co |ut+nti |nst|tuto dc |+ngu|n|os
c|cc||+ ond+ 1.0-1!4 |n|vc|s|d+dc do ||o dc |+nc||o |||C || ||
u+|t+ ond+ 14-1o4 Ccnt|o ||+s||c||o dc |csu|s+s ||s|c+s |^ C^ |m+ |n|
u|nt+ ond+ 1o4-1c Ccnc C|| |mb|++ |nc Cctcm |n|c+m
|ontc ^aa:aac ae :aao e ^'oaaeae ...)
O sccu|o 1 |o| m+|c+do o| du+s ond+s dc c||+io dc |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no c csu|s+ ^
||mc||+ |o| mot|v+d+ c|+ |cscn+ d+ co|tc o|tugucs+ cm um+ tcnt+t|v+ dc cu|+| + nov+
scdc do |mc||o com um+ cst|utu|+ m|n|m+ dc |nst|tu|ocs uc c|m|t|sscm o dcscnvo|v|mcnto
do con|cc|mcnto tccn|co dc ucstocs ||g+d+s |+b||c+io dc o|vo|+ c +d+t+io dc |+nt+s
o||cnt+|s como c|+ +b+c+tc c+nc|+ c|+vo ctc (C|\^|z|^| .001) cgu|u-sc um c||odo
dc u+sc o0 +nos +tc o su|g|mcnto d+ scgund+ ond+ com + c||+io dc |nst|tu|ocs como + |sco|+
dc ||n+s dc Ou|o ||cto (1c) c o |nst|tuto ^g|onom|co dc C+m|n+s (1cc) | |ntc|css+ntc
not+| uc css+s du+s ond+s do sccu|o 1 cst|vc|+m cst|c|t+mcntc |c|+c|on+d+s + |+to|cs
cconom|cos |csmo scm conscgu|| mu|to cx|to |n|c|+|mcntc + co|tc o|tugucs+ tcvc + c|+|+
|ntcnio dc |omovc| um+ |ndust||+||z+io do +|s
1
|+ no ||n+| do sccu|o 1 v+||+s |nst|tu|ocs
|o|+m c||+d+s +|+ +ux|||+| o dcscnvo|v|mcnto +g||co|+ nio so cm tc|mos dc |oduio m+s
t+mbcm dc t|+nso|tc gc|+ndo + ncccss|d+dc d+ |o|m+io dc cngcn|c||os +|+ + const|uio
d+s cst|+d+s dc |c||o c cstudos do so|o
|cssc contcxto +s ||mc||+s |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no c csu|s+ no ||+s|| |o|+m c||+d+s cm gc|+|
+|+ |cso|vc| |ob|cm+s |+t|cos |osscm c|cs + +c||m+t+io dc nov+s cscc|cs dc |+nt+s +|+
1 Vc| o cxcm|o do ^|v+|+ |cg|o dc 1c0 uc odc sc| +n+||s+do como + ||mc||+ o||t|c+ |ndust||+| do ||+s|| |c|c o govc|no
tcnt+ cst|mu|+| o su|g|mcnto dc um+ |ndust||+ n+c|on+| us+ndo + |scnio dc |mostos com|+s do govc|no c conccssio dc
||v||cg|os dc cxc|us|v|d+dc + |nvcnto|cs
|uc|+no |ovo+
!80
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
um+ oss|vc| cxo|t+io + tcnt+t|v+ dc |m|+nt+io dc um+ s|dc|u|g|c+ ou o comb+tc + |+g+s
n+s |+vou|+s dc c+|c
^ tc|cc||+ ond+ m+|cou o su|g|mcnto d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs cntcnd|d+s nio +cn+s como o
con,unto dc |+cu|d+dcs m+s como um+ |ntcg|+io cnt|c c|+s O ||nc|+| m+|co dcss+ |+sc |o| +
c||+io d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc dc io |+u|o
^ c||+io dc novos |nst|tutos dc cns|no csu|s+ como o |nst|tuto ccno|og|co d+ ^c|on+ut|c+
(|^) (10) c o |nst|tuto |+c|on+| dc |+tcm+t|c+ |u|+ c ^||c+d+ (|m+) (1.) bcm como
|nst|tu|ocs dc +o|o csu|s+ como o Consc||o |+c|on+| dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto C|cnt|||co c
ccno|og|co (C|| 11) c + Coo|dcn+io dc ^c||c|o+mcnto dc |csso+| dc |ns|no uc||o|
(C+cs 11) m+|cou + u+|t+ ond+ ^ mot|v+io dcss+ ond+ |o| o contcxto |ntc|n+c|on+| do
os-guc||+ u+ndo o con|cc|mcnto tccno|og|co +ssou + cst+| cst|c|t+mcntc v|ncu|+do +o
+v+no do con|cc|mcnto c|cnt|||co |css+ |+sc t+mbcm su|g||+m o |nst|tuto dc |nc|g|+ |uc|c+|
(1o.) o Ccnt|o dc |csu|s+ c |cscnvo|v|mcnto |coo|do ^mc||co ||gucz |c||o (Ccncs-
|ct|ob|+s 1o!) c o |nst|tuto ^|bc|to Co|mb|+ dc |os-C|+du+io (Coc-|||| 1o4)
^ u|nt+ ond+ |o| |csu|t+do d+s o||t|c+s do c||odo m|||t+| ondc o dom|n|o do con|cc|mcnto
tccno|og|co c|+ v|sto como um+ ucstio cst|+tcg|+ |ssc c||odo |o| m+|c+do c|o su|g|mcnto
d+ |m|cs+ ||+s||c||+ dc |csu|s+ ^g|occu+||+ (|mb|++ 1!) c d+ |n|c+m (1oo) uc dcsdc
+ su+ const|tu|io |oo|c|onou um+ m+|o| ||g+io cnt|c +s +t|v|d+dcs dc cns|no c dc csu|s+
^tc o |n|c|o d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 c|+m |so|+dos os c+sos dc cst|c|t+mcnto cnt|c +s +t|v|d+dcs dc
cns|no c csu|s+ n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs b|+s||c||+s |ssc ccn+||o comcou + mud+| com + |c| d+
|c|o|m+ |n|vc|s|t+||+ dc 1oc |mbo|+ tcn|+ s|do c|+bo|+d+ com o |oos|to dc |c|o|mu|+| todo
o s|stcm+ dc cduc+io suc||o| +dot+ndo o modc|o no|tc-+mc||c+no + |c|c||d+ |c| tcvc m+|o|
|m+cto sob|c + const|tu|io dc dc+|t+mcntos +c+dcm|cos dc |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ c sob|c
+ os-g|+du+io (C|\^|z|^| .001) |cssc c||odo + cst|+tcg|+ do govc|no c|+ c|cv+| o
n|vc| dc |nst|uio dos doccntcs c + |o|m+io dc csso+| com os-g|+du+io |c +co|do com
c|w+|tzm+n (.001) o numc|o dc |og|+m+s dc douto|+do +ssou dc cm 10 +|+ m+|s dc
c00 cm 1c |nt|ct+nto cssc c|csc|mcnto oco||cu cm g|+ndc +|tc n+s +|c+s d+s c|cnc|+s soc|+|s
^ os-g|+du+io cont|nuou su+ cx+nsio n+ dcc+d+ scgu|ntc |nt|c 1c c .00! o numc|o dc
douto|cs t|tu|+dos sub|u dc coc +|+ c04 |c|cscnt+ndo um +umcnto dc !.` (||C .004)
^o ||n+| d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 ,+ cst+v+m c||+d+s +s |nst|tu|ocs uc |o|m+m + b+sc d+ |n||+cst|utu|+
dc cns|no c csu|s+ do +|s cm duv|d+ + c||+io dc cu|sos dc os-g|+du+io n+s dcc+d+s
scgu|ntcs |o| o ||nc|+| |nduto| d+ +m||+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ no +|s
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!8!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
Contudo + |nst+b|||d+dc cconom|c+ n+ dcc+d+ dc 1c0 c + o||t|c+ dc cont|ngcnc|+mcnto d+
dcc+d+ dc 10 |o|+m |csons+vc|s c|+ |+|t+ dc |nvcst|mcntos n+ modc|n|z+io c +m||+io
dcss+ |n||+cst|utu|+ ob|c + s|tu+io do s|stcm+ dc cns|no suc||o| cm 1c c|w+|tzm+n
(.001) dcst+c+ uc sio csc+ss+s +s |nst+|+ocs ||s|c+s m+tc||+|s dc csu|s+ |+bo|+to||os c
m+tc||+| dc cns|no ^o ||n+| dos +nos 10 +s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tutos dc csu|s+s ub||cos
c|+m ||cucntcmcntc dcsc||tos como suc+tc+dos |csmo |cccntcmcntc o ||+no |+c|on+| dc
|os-C|+du+io (.00-.010) dcst+c+ uc c |mc|+t|vo |cst+u|+| + |n||+cst|utu|+ +|+ + csu|s+
n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs o| c|c m+nt|d+s (||C .004)
3. O FNDCT e a infraestrutura de pesquisa cientca e
tecnolgica
^s o||t|c+s dc ||n+nc|+mcnto d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc cns|no c csu|s+ no ||+s|| comc+|+m com
+ c||+io do |undo |+c|on+| dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto C|cnt|||co c ccno|og|co (|||C) cm 1o
|u|+ntc + |+sc dc cx+nsio dc |ccu|sos cnt|c 10 c 1c o |||C |o| |und+mcnt+| +|+ +,ud+|
+ cst|utu|+| v+||+s |nst|tu|ocs t+|s como |und+io Ccnt|o dc |csu|s+ dc ||n+s Cc|+|s (Cctcc
1.) Ccnt|o dc |csu|s+ dc |nc|g|+ ||ct||c+ (Ccc| 14) c Ccnt|o |csu|s+ c |cscnvo|v|mcnto
dc c|ccomun|c+ocs (C|| 1c) Con|o|mc dcst+c+m |ongo c |c|cnusson (.00 1) |+|+s
sio +s |nst|tu|ocs c||+d+s no c||odo uc nio cont+|+m com |ccu|sos do |||C ^|nd+ dc
+co|do com os +uto|cs o |undo +o|+v+ |o,ctos +|+ ob|+s c|v|s c +u|s|io dc cu|+mcntos
cnt|c out|os |ccu|sos ncccss+||os +|+ conso||d+| g|uos dc csu|s+s |cssc c||odo + cst|+tcg|+
dc ||n+nc|+mcnto +dot+d+ c|+s +gcnc|+s dc c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ c|+ + dc |dcnt|||c+| c +o|+|
d||ct+mcntc os g|uos dc csu|s+ com m+|o| otcnc|+| (C|\^|z|^| .001)
^ ||n+||d+dc dcsc||t+ no |cc|cto-|c| 1 uc c||ou o |||C cst+bc|cccu uc o |undo dcvc||+
d+| +o|o ||n+ncc||o +|+ + |m|+nt+io do ||+no |+s|co dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto C|cnt|||co c
ccno|og|co (|||C 1!;4) O | |||C cm scu c+|tu|o ||| t|+tou cscc|||c+mcntc d+
conso||d+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ c|cnt|||c+ c tccno|og|c+ |os |+nos uc sc scgu||+m
o || |||C (1;) c o ||| |||C (1c0;c) nio |ouvc + mcsm+ +tcnio dcst+c+d+ +|+
|nvcst|mcntos cm |n||+cst|utu|+ O || |||C o| cxcm|o |cv|+ +||c+io dc +cn+s 1`
dc |ccu|sos cm |n||+cst|utu|+
.
|m todos csscs t|cs |+nos + |o|m+io dc |ccu|sos |um+nos
tcvc dcst+uc m+s +cn+s no | |||C |ouvc m+|o| +tcnio d+d+ ucstio d+ |n||+cst|utu|+
Os dcm+|s |+nos u+ndo mcnc|on+d+ + |n||+cst|utu|+ t|+t+v+ +cn+s do su||mcnto c
. |st+v+ |cv|st+ + +||c+io dc C|; .! b|||ocs + |cos dc 1 +|+ o c||odo dc 1- |cstc tot+| C|; 440 m|||ocs sc||+m
dcst|n+dos + out|os scto|cs dc |n||+cst|utu|+ ^|cm d|sso no documcnto o||c|+| ||c+ c|+|o uc nio sc t|+t+v+ dc |n||+cst|utu|+
dc cns|no c csu|s+ m+s s|m dc um+ |n||+cst|utu|+ tccno|og|c+ dc +o|o +t|v|d+dc |ndust||+| (^|||-||||O .00! 1)
|uc|+no |ovo+
!8z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
m+nutcnio d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ ||s|c+ c m+tc||+| ncccss+||+ csu|s+ (||| |||C) c nio d+
modc|n|z+io c +m||+io
|nt|c 1 c 1c |o|+m |+n+dos t|cs |+nos n+c|on+|s dc os-g|+du+io (|||C) ^ |c|tu|+
dcsscs |+nos dc|x+ c|+|o uc + mc||o||+ d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ c|cnt|||c+ do +|s +o |ongo
dcssc c||odo |o| dcco||cntc d+ |m|+nt+io c +m||+io dc |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io
|csmo +ss|m o ||| |||C (1co-1c) t|+t+v+ +cn+s dc c|ctu+| + +tu+||z+io d+s b|b||otcc+s c
d+s |n|o|m+ocs c|cnt|||c+s c dc |+bo|+to||os (||C .004)
|cco||cntc d+ c|+bo|+io d+s ^ocs ||og|+m+d+s const+ntcs no ||| |||C |o|+m d|+gnost|c+d+s
c+|cnc|+s |c|c|cntcs |n||+cst|utu|+ ||s|c+ t+|s como m+nutcnio dc cu|+mcntos c
|nst|umcnt+io c|cnt|||c+ (||X|||^ | |^|||| 11) |+|+ so|uc|on+| csscs |ob|cm+s |o|
|o|mu|+do o ||+no dc ^o|o +o |cscnvo|v|mcnto C|cnt|||co c ccno|og|co (|^|C 1c)
|c +co|do com V+||c |on+cc||| c +||cs-||||o (.00.) + |n||+cst|utu|+ d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c
|nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ cncont|+v+-sc cm um+ s|tu+io |cc+||+ ^s ||mc||+s +t|v|d+dcs do
|^|C |c|cscnt+|+m um cs|o|o +|+ tcnt+| |ccuc|+| css+ |n||+cst|utu|+
|nt|ct+nto o |^|C cm su+s t|cs ct++s (1c 11 c 1c) |c|cscntou +cn+s um+ mc||o||+
ontu+| d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ ondc |o|+m ||o||z+d+s +cn+s +|gum+s +|c+s como u|m|c+
||otccno|og|+ c Ccoc|cnc|+s (||X|||^ | |^|||| 11) ^o |ongo d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 vc||||cou-
sc um+ |cduio dos |ccu|sos do |||C +com+n|+d+ do +umcnto n+tu|+| do numc|o dc
csu|s+do|cs c dc cu|sos dc os-g|+du+io |ss+ comb|n+io |cvou +o +g|+v+mcnto d+
|n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+
uz|g+n c ^|buuc|uc (.00c) |cmb|+m uc cnt|c 1. c 1c4 no contcxto dc |+nos n+c|on+|s
dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto v+||os |+nos b+s|cos dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto c|cnt|||co c tccno|og|co (|||C)
|o|+m |+n+dos o|cm +cn+s +|c|+|mcntc |m|cmcnt+dos c dco|s +b+ndon+dos + +|t|| d+
dcc+d+ dc 1c0 com o +g|+v+mcnto d+ c||sc m+c|occonom|c+
|ss+ s|tu+io dc |cst||io dos |ccu|sos comcou + mud+| no ||n+| d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 com +
dcst|n+io dc um c|ccntu+| dos |oy+|t|cs d+ |oduio dc ct|o|co +|+ o ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+
c ccno|og|+ uc ostc||o|mcntc |cvou c||+io do |undo cto||+| dc |ct|o|co c C+s |+tu|+|
cm 1c uc |mu|s|onou + c||+io dc out|os |undos (|O|CO | ||||||O| .00)
|+ +|cscnt+io do documcnto uc sc|v|u dc b+sc +|+ cst|mu|+| + c||+io dos |undos cto||+|s
|o| +|cscnt+do o g|+||co + scgu|| (C|+||co 1) +|+ dcmonst|+| + |cduio dos |nvcst|mcntos cm
|n||+cst|utu|+ no ||+s|| cnt|c 1c0 c 1 (|^C||CO .00) Como dcst+c+do no documcnto ^
|cduio dos |ccu|sos +|+ o +o|o |n||+cst|utu|+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ sc |c||ctc n+ c||t|c+
s|tu+io o| uc +ss+m d|vc|s+s d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc cxcc|cnc|+ no +|s (|^C||CO .00)
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!8!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
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500,0
600,0
Craco + |omcnto c g+stos com |n||+cst|utu|+ dc C |C (|||C |^|C ||oncx |omcnto do
C||) 1c0-
|ontc |\:aac ae |a.ne.c ...7)
4. O CT-Infra
4.1. Origem e objetivos
O |undo dc |n||+cst|utu|+ t+mbcm dcnom|n+do C-|n||+ |o| c||+do cm .001 (|c| 101 dc 14
dc |cvc|c||o dc .001 c |cgu|+d+ c|o |cc|cto n !c0 dc .o dc +b||| dc .001) com o ob,ct|vo dc
+o|+| |o,ctos c +ocs uc v|scm + |m|+nt+io c |ccuc|+io dc |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+
n+s |nst|tu|ocs ub||c+s dc cns|no suc||o| c dc csu|s+ Con|o|mc dc||n|do n+s d||ct||zcs
b+s|c+s do C-|n||+ + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc || c comost+ c|o con,unto dc cond|ocs m+tc||+|s
dc +o|o c |nst+|+ocs ||s|c+s +|+ |m|cmcnt+io dc +t|v|d+dcs dc csu|s+ c dcscnvo|v|mcnto
^|cm dc sc| um +nsc|o d+ comun|d+dc +c+dcm|c+
!
+ |ccuc|+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+
c|+ um+ ncccss|d+dc +|+ |c+||z+| +|cc||+s com o scto| |odut|vo
4
^s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tu|ocs
! |ouvc um+ |c+io d+ comun|d+dc +c+dcm|c+ com |c|+io +os scto|cs uc nio cst+v+m scndo contcm|+dos c|os |undos +
sc|cm c||+dos |cst+ |o|m+ |o| |oosto um |undo gc|+| o |undo dos |undos uc o||g|nou o |undo dc |n||+cst|utu|+ (CO^
.004) cgundo um dos cnt|cv|st+dos o| Cost+ (.004) o C-|n||+ |o| cns+do o||g|n+|mcntc +|+ du|+| do|s +nos c dco|s
vo|t+||+ +|+ + conccio dc |undo dos |undos +|+ +tcndc| tod+s +s +|c+s do con|cc|mcnto
4 |c +co|do com o |c|+to dc um csu|s+do| um dos ||mc||os |o,ctos do C-|ct|o tcvc |ob|cm+s +|+ cst+bc|ccc| um+
|c|+io com + |||| o|uc + cm|cs+ nio dcsc,+v+ com+|t|||+| o scu cu|+mcnto com + un|vc|s|d+dc dcv|do s su+s
|cc+||+s |nst+|+ocs c|ct||c+s
|uc|+no |ovo+
!84
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
dc csu|s+ cst+v+m com su+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc|+s+d+ ou c|+ |ncx|stcntc +|+ + |c+||z+io dc
cc|t+s csu|s+s no ||n+| d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 ^ntcs d+ c||+io do C-|n||+ |ccu|sos do C-|ct|o
(|; .0 m|||ocs) |o|+m dcst|n+dos +|+ +o|+| + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ n+ +|c+ dc ct|o|co c
g+s n+tu|+| dc un|vc|s|d+dcs d+s |cg|ocs |o|tc |o|dcstc c Ccnt|o-Ocstc

Os |ccu|sos +|+ o C-|n||+ const|tucm-sc dc .0` dos |ccu|sos dc c+d+ |undo cto||+| |c +co|do
com + |cg|s|+io no m|n|mo !0` dos |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ dcvcm sc| +||c+dos cm |nst|tu|ocs
ub||c+s dc cns|no suc||o| c dc csu|s+ scd|+d+s n+s |cg|ocs |o|tc |o|dcstc c Ccnt|o-Ocstc
|os cd|t+|s m+|s |cccntcs |+ |ntc||ct+io dc uc nio c ncccss+||o uc sc,+m dcst|n+dos !0`
dos |ccu|sos cm c+d+ c|+m+d+ ub||c+ c s|m do tot+| dos |ccu|sos +|ov+dos +|+ o +no
^ |c| 101 t+mbcm cst+bc|cccu + c||+io dc um Com|tc Ccsto|
o
|cs|d|do c|o |c|cscnt+ntc
do ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ |nt|c +s v+||+s +t||bu|ocs dcssc Com|tc dcst+c+m-sc +
c|+bo|+io d+s d||ct||zcs gc|+|s do |undo o |+no +nu+| dc |nvcst|mcntos o cst+bc|cc|mcnto
dos c||tc||os dc +|cscnt+io dc |oost+s dc |o,ctos c dos c||tc||os dc ,u|g+mcnto
|m+ d+s c+|+ctc||st|c+s |ntc|css+ntcs do C-|n||+ c uc os |o,ctos dcvcm sc| submct|dos c|+
+dm|n|st|+io suc||o| d+s |nst|tu|ocs |sso |+z com uc os |o,ctos cstc,+m cm consonnc|+ com
os ob,ct|vos c cst|+tcg|+s d+s |nst|tu|ocs como um todo c nio +cn+s dc um dc+|t+mcnto ou
|nst|tuto dcnt|o dc um+ un|vc|s|d+dc o| cxcm|o +| |occd|mcnto gc|ou um c|c|to os|t|vo
n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs ^|gum+s un|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s uc nio |+v|+m +|t|c|+do |n|c|+|mcntc d+
c|+bo|+io dos |o,ctos c ncm +|cscnt+do |oost+s +|+ + |c|to||+ comc+|+m + sc mob|||z+|
+os obsc|v+|cm os ||mc||os |o,ctos +|ov+dos +|+ out|+s un|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s c + |c+|+|
um |+nc,+mcnto cst|+tcg|co dc |o|m+ + +|cscnt+| |o,ctos c |oost+s nos |ox|mos cd|t+|s do
C-|n||+ Ou sc,+ v+||+s un|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s vo|t+|+m + |+nc,+| +os um c||odo dc ||bc|n+io
4.2. Caractersticas e evoluo dos recursos comprometidos pelos editais
|m .001 |o| |+n+do o ||mc||o cd|t+| c|o C-|n||+ ^tc ,un|o dc .010 ,+ |+v|+m s|do |+n+dos 1o
cd|t+|s uc com|omctc|+m um v+|o| tot+| dc |; 11400000 (um b|||io sctcccntos c u+to|zc
m|||ocs c u|n|cntos m|| |c+|s) O C|+||co . +|cscnt+ + cvo|uio dos v+|o|cs com|omct|dos
c|o C-|n||+ cnt|c .001 c .00 Os do|s cd|t+|s |+n+dos cm .001 d|son|b|||z+|+m um tot+| dc
|; 1c1 m|||ocs Contudo cm .00. c .00! |ouvc cx|css|vo cont|ngcnc|+mcnto dc |ccu|sos
uc +t|ng||+m todos os |undos cto||+|s
|c|+s |cg|+s do |d|t+| C-|ct|o 04;.000 sc||+ cxc|u|do o ||st||to |cdc|+| c |nc|u|do o |s|||to +nto
o O Com|tc Ccsto| ossu| + scgu|ntc comos|io um |c|cscnt+ntc do ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ do|s |c|cscnt+ntcs
do ||n|stc||o d+ |duc+io um |c|cscnt+ntc do Consc||o |+c|on+| dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto C|cnt|||co c ccno|og|co (C||)
um |c|cscnt+ntc d+ ||n+nc|+do|+ dc |studos c ||o,ctos (||nc) um |c|cscnt+ntc d+ Coo|dcn+io dc ^c||c|o+mcnto dc
|csso+| dc ||vc| uc||o| (C+cs) do|s |c|cscnt+ntcs d+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!8
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011

2001
0
50.000
100.000
150.000
200.000
250.000
300.000
350.000
400.000
450.000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Craco : V+|o|cs com|omct|dos c|os cd|t+|s (|; m||) cnt|c .001 c .00
|ontc |'aocaac ca a a: acs aaacs ac s:e aa |oe .cosa':a eo oac ae ...)
^ o||t|c+ dc cont|ngcnc|+mcnto c +s d|v|d+s |c|+c|on+d+s +os cd|t+|s +ntc||o|cs ||zc|+m com uc
+cn+s cm .00c |osscm |+n+dos cd|t+|s cu,os v+|o|cs suc|+sscm os dc .001 +t|ng|ndo um |co
dc |; 4.0 m|||ocs cm .00c c !0 m|||ocs cm .00 |c um+ mcd|+ dc |; 1. m|||ocs cnt|c
.001 c .00 +ssou-sc +|+ um+ mcd|+ +c|m+ dc |; 400 m|||ocs cm .00c c .00
|o |n|c|o |ouvc um+ dcscon||+n+ o| +|tc d+ comun|d+dc +c+dcm|c+ dc uc o ||nc|+|
bcnc||c|o do novo s|stcm+ dc ||n+nc|+mcnto t|+z|do c|+ o||t|c+ dos |undos cto||+|s uc c|+ +
cst+b|||d+dc dos |ccu|sos cst+v+ com|omct|do Contudo os u|t|mos c|nco cd|t+|s com v+|o|cs
dc |; 10 m|||ocs ou m+|s c o |+to dc sc|cm scm|c |+n+dos no ||n+| dc c+d+ +no (o uc
c|m|tc +s |nst|tu|ocs |+nc,+|cm mc||o| + c|+bo|+io dos |o,ctos) t|ouxc|+m m+|s con||+n+
o| +|tc d+ comun|d+dc +c+dcm|c+
| oss|vc| c|+ss|||c+| + cvo|uio dos cd|t+|s do C-|n||+ cm du+s |+scs ^ ||mc||+ c c+|+ctc||z+d+
c|+ |cscn+ dc v+||os cd|t+|s dc cucnos v+|o|cs c com ob,ct|vos m+|s cscc|||cos ^|guns
cxcm|os sio +s C|+m+d+s |ub||c+s 0.;.001 (|; !1 m|||ocs) com o ob,ct|vo dc +o|+| |o,ctos
+|+ o uso |+c|on+| dc cnc|g|+ c dc |ontcs +|tc|n+t|v+s dc cnc|g|+ n+s |nst|tu|ocs c + C|+m+d+
|ub||c+ 01;.00! (|; 4 m|||ocs) +|+ +o|+| + |m|+nt+io dc o|os dc cduc+io d|stnc|+
|m+ scgund+ |+sc |n|c|+d+ cm .004 |o| c+|+ctc||z+d+ c|o |+n+mcnto +nu+| dc g|+ndcs
cd|t+|s com v+|o|cs scm|c +c|m+ dc |; 100 m|||ocs |sscs cd|t+|s |o|+m c|+bo|+dos com
ob,ct|vos +m|os como + |m|+nt+io modc|n|z+io c |ccuc|+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ ||s|c+ d+s
un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no suc||o| c csu|s+
|uc|+no |ovo+
!86
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
|os do|s ||mc||os +nos +s +ocs cst|mu|+d+s c|os cd|t+|s |o|+m b+s|c+mcntc do t|o s|stcm|c+s
|os +nos scgu|ntcs |o|+m cst|mu|+d+s ||mo|d|+|mcntc +s +ocs |nst|tuc|on+|s
^tc .00 + dcm+nd+ dc |ccu|sos o| +|tc d+s |nst|tu|ocs suc|ou cm mcd|+ cm t|cs vczcs
o vo|umc com|omct|do c|+s c|+m+d+s ub||c+s ^cn+s + +|t|| dc .00c com o +umcnto
subst+nc|+| dos |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ +ssou-sc + tc| um+ d|son|b|||d+dc dc |ccu|sos m+|s
|ox|m+ d+ dcm+nd+


5. CT-Infra: anlise dos projetos
5.1. Caractersticas gerais
|stc +|t|go tcm como b+sc dc d+dos um con,unto dc 1!4!! |o,ctos +o|+dos c|os |undos
cto||+|s cnt|c .001 c .00c Contudo +s |n|o|m+ocs |c|c|cntcs +o +no dc .00c nio cstio
com|ct+s ^ss|m t|+t+|cmos os d+dos como scndo um+ +most|+ |cssc tot+| c11 (o0`)
|c|c|cm-sc + |o,ctos do C-|n||+ c co||csondcm + um mont+ntc dc |; c4o m|||ocs (cm
v+|o|cs co||cntcs) |c|cscnt+ndo 1cc` do v+|o| tot+| dos |undos cto||+|s no c||odo
Os |o,ctos +|ov+dos t|vc|+m um v+|o| mcd|o dc +|ox|m+d+mcntc |; 1 m|||io (vc| t+bc|+ 1)
Os |o,ctos cnvo|vc|+m um+ mcd|+ dc . mcmb|os c 1. douto|cs
1abela + |st+t|st|c+s dcsc||t|v+s dos |o,ctos do C-|n||+ +most|+ (.001-.00c)
Caracterlstlcas Medla Uesvlo padro Mln Max
V+|o| cont|+t+do (|;) 104!1o4 14. 0 !000000
tdc dc mcmb|os . .4 1 cc
tdc dc douto|cs 1. 1co 0 c
||o,ctos scm cm|cs+ (`) (|;) 1044o0 1o.o 0 !000000
||o,ctos com cm|cs+ !o (4`) (|;) 101.1.c 11cc4o c.40 c.c
|ontc |'aocaac ca .co oase ocs aaacs caoaacs e'c |||^ ...)
^cn+s !o |o,ctos n+ b+sc dc d+dos +ont+m + +|t|c|+io dc +|gum+ cm|cs+ scndo uc
o v+|o| mcd|o dos |o,ctos com c scm cm|cs+ nio d||c|cm cst+t|st|c+mcntc |nt|ct+nto csscs
|o,ctos dcvcm sc| +n+||s+dos com c+utc|+ o|s nio |c||ctcm ncccss+||+mcntc + |ntc|+io cnt|c
n:://.../oec.o/oeosa/e.s:a/ea.ac/oc.a.ac_eo_aa:a__aa7_co/aa/ (^ccsso cm .c ,un .010) |c
+co|do com + ub||c+io c|t+d+ + dcm+nd+ cst|m+d+ +|+ + c|+m+d+ dc .00c suc|+ os |ccu|sos d|son|vc|s cm +cn+s um
tc|o
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!87
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
un|vc|s|d+dcs |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ c cm|cs+s c s|m +o |+to dc uc v+||os |nst|tutos dc csu|s+
tc|cm + dcnom|n+io dc cm|cs+s +|s |o|+m os c+sos d+ |mb|++ |m|cs+ dc |csu|s+
^g|occu+||+ dc ||n+s Cc|+|s (|+m|g) c |m|cs+ dc |csu|s+ ^g|occu+||+ c |xtcnsio |u|+|
dc +nt+ C+t+||n+ (|+g||) ^|guns |o,ctos cstio ||g+dos mc||o||+ d+s |nst+|+ocs c|ct||c+s c
c||c|cnc|+ do consumo dc cnc|g|+ uc cont+|+m com + +|cc||+ dc cm|cs+s dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+
O m+|o| |o,cto
c
cnvo|vcndo cm|cs+s c o dc |o|t+|cc|mcnto do |stcm+ |c|n+mbuc+no dc
|nov+io cm |m|cs+s dc |+sc ccno|og|c+ +t|+vcs dos |+|ucs ccno|og|cos uc cnvo|vcu
+|ox|m+d+mcntc |; c m|||ocs com |n|c|o cm .00c c tc|m|no |cv|sto +|+ .011 Como
o |oco do C-|n||+ nio c + |omoio d||ct+ dc |ntc|+ocs cnt|c un|vc|s|d+dcs |nst|tutos dc
csu|s+ c cm|cs+s tcm-sc cssc cucno numc|o dc |o,ctos com cm|cs+s
u+ndo c+|+ctc||z+dos o| t|o dc dcm+nd+ not+-sc uc +cs+| dc + m+|o| +|tc dos |o,ctos
(`) sc|cm cont|+t+dos +t|+vcs dc C|+m+d+s |ub||c+s c|+m+ + +tcnio o |+to dc uc ..c`
do v+|o| dos |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ n+ +most|+ +n+||s+d+ tc|cm s|do cont|+t+dos +t|+vcs dc
|ncomcnd+s (vc| t+bc|+ .) |ssc tcm s|do um |nst|umcnto dc o||t|c+ |cdc|+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
|mo|t+ntc +|+ +o|+| |o,ctos dc g|+ndc o|tc c com g|+ndc |m+cto n+ comun|d+dc
+c+dcm|c+ c n+ soc|cd+dc |o|s cxcm|os sio c|+|os O ||mc||o c o |o,cto do |nst|tuto |+c|on+|
dc |csu|s+s |s+c|+|s (|nc) o dc m+|o| v+|o| do C-|n||+ (|; ! m|||ocs) cu ob,ct|vo |o| o
dc +m||+| c |ntcg|+| + c++c|d+dc n+c|on+| dc |cv|sio dc tcmo c||m+ c u+||d+dc do +| c
cnvo|vcu 1o mcmb|os scndo sctc dc|cs douto|cs O scgundo cxcm|o |c|c|c-sc + do|s |o,ctos
dc +o|o c |o|t+|cc|mcnto do |o|t+| dc |c||od|cos C+cs cnvo|vcndo |; o m|||ocs
1abela : ||o,ctos do C-|n||+ o| t|o dc dcm+nd+ +most|+ (.001-.00c)
1lpo de Uemanda rojetos (+) dos projetos valor total (ks mll) (+) valor total
C|+m+d+ ub||c+ o41 0 o1!0111 .
|ncomcnd+ 1.1 14 1!01c ..c
|vcntos 4! ! 1c!41 0.
C+|t+ conv|tc o 0 !c0c44 4
ot+| c11 1000 c4o00c 1000
|ontc |'aocaac ca .co oase ocs aaacs caoaacs e'c |ea ...)
5.2. Distribuio regional
^ +bc|+ ! c|m|tc +v+||+| + d|st||bu|io |cg|on+| dos |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ |+ +most|+ +v+||+d+
!1` dos |o,ctos cont|+t+dos sio |c|c|cntcs + |nst|tu|ocs d+s |cg|ocs |o|tc |o|dcstc c
c |ssc |o,cto |c|c|c-sc dcm+nd+ Conv|tc |st+dos - |C;||nc;^io |+nsvc|s+| - ||o,ctos cst|utu|+ntcs c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+
1.;.00
|uc|+no |ovo+
!88
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
Ccnt|o-Ocstc |sscs |o,ctos co||csondcm + !4` do v+|o| tot+| do C-|n||+ |css+ |o|m+
vc||||c+-sc uc dc +co|do com o cx|g|do c|+ |c| dc c||+io do |undo o m|n|mo dc !0` dos
|ccu|sos tcm s|do dcst|n+do + css+s |cg|ocs
O ||o dc |+nc||o dcst+c+-sc como o |st+do com o m+|o| numc|o dc |o,ctos cont|+t+dos (14
ou sc,+ 1` do tot+|) |c|cscnt+ndo .14` do v+|o| tot+| do C-|n||+ |sso sc dcvc +o |+to dc
v+||+s |nst|tu|ocs +|cm dc un|vc|s|d+dcs cst+|cm scd|+d+s |+ t+|s como o Ccnt|o ||+s||c||o dc
|csu|s+s ||s|c+s (C|||) o |nst|tuto |+c|on+| dc |+tcm+t|c+ |u|+ c ^||c+d+ (|m+) c o |nst|tuto
||||t+| dc |ngcn|+||+ (|||) |+s sc tom+|mos o numc|o dc g|uos dc csu|s+s |cg|st|+dos no
C|| cm .00c como |oxy do t+m+n|o d+ cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ cm c+d+ |st+do c oss|vc|
vc||||c+| um+ d|sto|io d+ +|oc+io |cg|on+| dos |ccu|sos |nu+nto o ||o dc |+nc||o ossu|
1.!` dos g|uos dc csu|s+ c |cccbcu .14` dos |ccu|sos os |st+dos d+s |cg|ocs u| c Ccnt|o-
Ocstc ,untos conccnt|+m |+t|c+mcntc !0` dos g|uos dc csu|s+ c t|vc|+m +|ov+dos um
mont+ntc dc |ccu|sos |n|c||o| +o |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o
|c|n+mbuco t+mbcm sc dcst+c+ o|s +cs+| dc sc| o o|t+vo |st+do cm tc|mos dc numc|o dc
g|uos dc csu|s+s |cg|st|+dos no C|| cm .00c ++|ccc como o u+|to |st+do cm v+|o|
tot+| dos |o,ctos do C-|n||+ (|; 4o4 m|||ocs)
1abela , ||o,ctos do C-|n||+ o| |st+dos +most|+ (.001-.00c)
U| rojetos (+)
valor contratado (ks
mll)
(+)
AM . !! .!c1 .c
A .o !. .c0!. !!
AC 0 4o 0
kO 0 .1 0
1O o 0 41c 0
kk 4 0 414 0
A . 0. 1!0 0.
Norte .. co
L !c 4 4o4.
8A ! 4o ..0 !
CL .. . .01c1 .4
8 1c .. 1!c1 1c
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!89
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
U| rojetos (+)
valor contratado (ks
mll)
(+)
kN 1c .. 1oco .0
MA 1. 1 c10 10
AL 10 1. c4o 10
SL c 10 4o1 0
l 0 41c 0
Nordeste 10 .10 14!1! 1c.
k 14 10 1c1!1 .14
S 140 1! 10o!o .0.
MC co 10o c1o01 o
LS 0 11!oo 1!
Sudeste !c 4 4444 .o
kS 0 o. 44. !
k !! 41 41 4
SC .. . .11c .
Sul 10 1. 100 1.
U| 40 4 401.0 4
MS 11 14 0! 0c
CO 10 1. 10c4 1!
M1 11 c.o 10
Centro-
Oeste
o0 4 oo!c c
1otal c11 1000 c4o00o 1000
|ontc |'aocaac ca .co oase ocs aaacs caoaacs e'c |ea ...)
5.3. Distribuio por rea cientca
|+ +bc|+ 4 os |o,ctos +o|+dos c|o C-|n||+ cstio c|+ss|||c+dos o| +|c+ c|cnt|||c+
|cdom|n+ntc |+|+ ||ns dc com+|+io t+mbcm cstio |cscntcs n+ t+bc|+ o c|ccntu+| dc
douto|cs c|tcnccntcs +os g|uos dc csu|s+ cm c+d+ +|c+ c|cnt|||c+
|m+ +|cc|+ cons|dc|+vc| dc |o,ctos do C-|n||+ (!4`) nio |o| c|+ss|||c+d+ cm ncn|um+
d+s +|c+s do con|cc|mcnto +|s |o,ctos cstio |c|+c|on+dos const|uio ou |ccuc|+io d+
|n||+cst|utu|+ ||s|c+ d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ (|nc|u|ndo t+mbcm b|b||otcc+s
d|g|t+|s |cdc dc |n|o|m+t|c+ c |cdc c|ct||c+ o| cxcm|o) + |o,ctos mu|t|d|sc|||n+|cs c
mu|t|usu+||os Como sio |o,ctos uc cnvo|vcm cst|utu|+s ||s|c+s cstcs ossucm um v+|o|
|uc|+no |ovo+
!90
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
mcd|o suc||o| +os dcm+|s c|cg+ndo + sc| t|cs vczcs o v+|o| mcd|o dos |o,ctos ||g+dos s
c|cnc|+s cx+t+s c d+ tc||+

^|guns cxcm|os sio o |o,cto do |nc (|; ! m|||ocs) o |o,cto do


|+bo|+to||o |+c|on+| |mb+|c+do (|; 1.o m|||ocs) os |o,ctos |c|+c|on+dos cst|utu|+io c
+o |o|t+|cc|mcnto do |o|t+| dc |c||od|cos d+ C+cs (do|s |o,ctos dc |; ! m|||ocs c+d+) c um
|o,cto dc modc|n|z+io do n+v|o |+|o|c||o (|; .4 m|||ocs)
1abela ||o,ctos do C-|n||+ o| +|c+ c|cnt|||c+ +most|+ (.001-.00c) c c|ccntu+|
dc douto|cs ||g+dos + g|uos no d||cto||o do C|| cm .00c dc c+d+ +|c+
Crande area rojetos (+) valor medlo
(+) doutores em
Crupos
|ngcn|+||+s 11 14. o4.o 110
C|cnc|+s |x+t+s c d+
c||+
100 1.! 1!o. 141
C|cnc|+s ^g|+||+s c4 104 oo..c 14!
C|cnc|+s ||o|og|c+s 01!c4 1!
C|cnc|+s d+ +udc 0 o. c!c.0 1o.
C|cnc|+s |um+n+s 4 o0 o.c0 1o1
C|cnc|+s oc|+|s
^||c+d+s
.1 .o 1!.c
||ngu|st|c+ |ct|+s c
^|tcs
1. 1 1!01!o !
|io |n|o|m+do] !0! !4 1.o.! -
ot+| c11 100 104!1o4 100
|ontc |'aocaac ca .co oase ocs aaacs caoaacs e'c |ea ...)
Oos `ac o/coaac, ea'oeo:e e/eese a ce:cs oa':as.'oaes ao'cs .coc oe'nca ac ss:eoa ae
oo'c:e.as oe'nca aa o/aes:a:aa /s.a)
Os |o,ctos |c|+c|on+dos +|c+ dc |ngcn|+||+s |o|+m os uc t|vc|+m m+|o| +|t|c|+io c|ccntu+|
nos |o,ctos do C-|n||+ com 14.` |nt|ct+nto mu|tos dcsscs |o,ctos cstio |c|+c|on+dos nio
const|uio dc |+bo|+to||os c com|+ dc cu|+mcntos +|+ csu|s+ n+ +|c+ dc |ngcn|+||+
m+s s|m |+c|on+||z+io do uso dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ c mc||o||+ d+s |nst+|+ocs c|ct||c+s dc
un|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s dc v+||+s +|c+s dc csu|s+ ^ c|+m+d+ 0.;.001 (vc| u+d|o .) |nccnt|vou
+ c|+bo|+io dc t+|s |o,ctos ^ |mo|tnc|+ dc |o,ctos dcss+ n+tu|cz+ c o |m+cto |nd||cto uc
tcm sob|c + csu|s+ c|cnt|||c+ |u|tos |+bo|+to||os dccndcm dc um |o|ncc|mcnto cont|nuo c
dc u+||d+dc dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ |c|+tos dc csu|s+do|cs +ont+m uc v+||+s csu|s+s |o|+m
c|d|d+s o| |+||+s no |o|ncc|mcnto dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ |+|+ sc tc| um+ |dc|+ + +|c+ d+ cngcn|+||+
c|ct||c+ tcvc 0 |o,ctos cnvo|vcndo |; o0 m|||ocs |cssc v+|o| tot+| +|ox|m+d+mcntc ` |o|
+|+ |o,ctos ||g+dos |+c|on+||z+io do uso d+ cnc|g|+ c +dcu+io dc |nst+|+ocs |+bo|+to||+|s
O v+|o| mcd|o dos |o,ctos cu,+ +|c+ nio |o| |n|o|m+d+ so nio c cst+t|st|c+mcntc suc||o| +o d+s +|c+s dc c|cnc|+s soc|+|s
+||c+d+s c ||ngu|st|c+ |ct|+s c +|tcs
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!9!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
Out|o |+to dc dcst+uc c o b+|xo numc|o dc |o,ctos ||g+dos s c|cnc|+s d+ s+udc +cn+s o.`
|nt|ct+nto css+ c + scgund+ +|c+ cm tc|mos dc |oduio c|cnt|||c+ no ||+s|| c + uc ossu| o
m+|o| c|ccntu+| dc douto|cs v|ncu|+dos +os g|uos do C|| (1o.`)
5.4. Projetos do CT-Infra por instituies
|+|+ +n+||s+| + d|st||bu|io dos |o,ctos c dos |ccu|sos +|ov+dos c|o C-|n||+ o| |nst|tu|ocs
|o|+m cncont|+d+s +|gum+s d|||cu|d+dcs dcco||cntcs do |+to dc v+||os |o,ctos n+ b+sc dc
d+dos cnv|+d+ +o |c+ c|o ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ c d+ ccno|og|+ nio cont|n|+m o nomc d+
|nst|tu|io m+s s|m dc +|gum dc+|t+mcnto + c|+ v|ncu|+do |ssc |ob|cm+ |o| m+|s comum
+|+ os |o,ctos dc un|vc|s|d+dcs |o| cxcm|o +|guns |o,ctos ++|cc|+m +cn+s com o
nomc dc+|t+mcnto dc u|m|c+ ou |+cu|d+dc dc cngcn|+||+ scm tc| como s+bc| dc u+|
un|vc|s|d+dc |m tot+| dc 11o |nst|tu|ocs |o| |dcnt|||c+do |st+s |nst|tu|ocs sio |csons+vc|s o|
o0o |o,ctos Contudo out|+ ccu||+||d+dc d+s |n|o|m+ocs c uc cx|stcm |o,ctos +|ov+dos
o| cxcm|o +|+ + |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| dc ||n+s Cc|+|s (|||C) c +|+ + |und+io dc
|cscnvo|v|mcnto d+ |csu|s+ (|undc) uc +o|+ + +t|v|d+dcs dc csu|s+ d+ |||C ^ss|m +
|||C |o| cont+d+ como um+ |nst|tu|io ,+ + |undc como out|+
^ t+bc|+ +|cscnt+ os d+dos sob|c o numc|o dc |o,ctos c o v+|o| cont|+t+do +|+ +s .0
||nc|+|s |nst|tu|ocs +|t|c|+ntcs do C-|n||+ n+ +most|+ no c||odo .001 + .00c |ss+s .0
|nst|tu|ocs t|vc|+m |o,ctos +|ov+dos uc co||csondcm + 44` do v+|o| tot+| do C-|n||+
cm noss+ +most|+ | |ntc|css+ntc obsc|v+| uc dcss+s |nst|tu|ocs +cn+s t|cs |n|vc|s|d+dc
|cdc|+| d+ |+|+|b+ (|||^) |n|vc|s|d+dc |st+du+| dc |ond||n+ (|||) c |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+|
do |s|||to +nto (||cs) nio cstio cnt|c +s .0 ||nc|+|s |nst|tu|ocs b|+s||c||+s cm tc|mos dc
ub||c+io c c|t+io Ou sc,+ +s ||nc|+|s un|vc|s|d+dcs cstio conscgu|ndo c+t+| + m+|o| +|tc
dos |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ |sso sc dcvc +o |+to dc os cd|t+|s do C-|n||+ v|ncu|+|cm o t+m+n|o
dos |o,ctos (c o numc|o dc sub|o,ctos) + sc|cm +|cscnt+dos +o numc|o dc douto|cs d+
|nst|tu|io |o| cxcm|o + C|+m+d+ |ub||c+ 01; .00 ||m|t+v+ o v+|o| dos |o,ctos + |; 1.
m|||io +|+ |nst|tu|ocs com mcnos dc ccm csu|s+do|cs douto|cs c +|+ +uc|+s com m+|s
dc ccm csu|s+do|cs - douto|cs c|+ |mosto um ||m|tc m+x|mo dc |; 1. m|| vczcs o numc|o
dc csu|s+do|cs douto|cs d+ |nst|tu|io
|uc|+no |ovo+
!9z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
1abela , ||o,ctos do C-|n||+ o| |nst|tu|ocs +most|+ (.001-.00c)
oslo no ranklng
Sclmago
lnstltulo rojetos valor contratado
(ks mll) valor medlo
1 || !o !!!! !
. |n|c+m 1 !!!1 1
4 |||| 14 .oc! 1
o |||C 14 .. 14
11 |||| 1 .4.o 14o
. |||^ 1c .4.o0 1!4c
1. ||| . .0o44 c.o
|||C 14 .0! 14o
- ^||| 1o 1o14 104
14 ||C 1. 1o4 1!
1 ||| 1o01o ..cc
c ||C 11 1o1o 14.0
! |ncs c 14o 14!
.! ||| 10 1!. 1!.
|n||cs 1.4. .1
1 |||| 10 140. 140
1! ||V 11 1.04 10c
- ||oc|uz 11o! .!.
. ||| c 11o!o 14
- |un+c;||C c 10!00 1.c
- Out|+s !!o .o c0.
- ub-tot+| o0o o!cco 10
- |io |dcnt|c+dos .0 1.1.0 !
ot+| c11 c4o00o 104!
|ontc |'aocaac ca .co oase ocs aaacs caoaacs e'c |ea ...)
Oos O aoo ae os::aces a.aa`o.as oecaoe.aoas ac :.oac 'e.a eo .co:a as ao'.aces e .:aces
eo:e ...! e ... |aa oaces ae:a'nes scoe a oe:cac'ca .e :.oac ...) ^ csac ac aoo oa :aoe'a
.co e'aac a . os::aces aoa'saaas oc 8as'
|x|stc um+ |cdom|nnc|+ d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs sob|c +s dcm+|s |nst|tu|ocs uc t|vc|+m |o,ctos
+o|+dos c|o C-|n||+ (|nst|tutos dc csu|s+ c o|g+n|z+ocs soc|+|s) |os o0o |o,ctos
|dcnt|||c+dos 4!. (1`) |o|+m dc un|vc|s|d+dcs co||csondcndo + um v+|o| dc |; 044o.
m|||ocs (`) |ss+ |cdom|nnc|+ c no|m+| ,+ uc +s un|vc|s|d+dcs sio cm um numc|o b+st+ntc
suc||o| +o d+s dcm+|s |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ c +c+b+m o| sc| |csons+vc|s c|+ m+|o| +|tc
d+ csu|s+ c|cnt|||c+ |c+||z+d+ no ||+s|| ^|cm d|sso + ^||| (O|g+n|z+io oc|+|) c + |und+io
Osw+|do C|uz (|nst|tutos dc |csu|s+) cstio cnt|c +s .0 ||nc|+|s cm tc|mos dc v+|o| cont|+t+do
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!9!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
6. Impactos do CT-Infra
|cnsu|+| os |m+ctos d+ +||c+io dos |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ sob|c + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc cns|no c
csu|s+ do +|s |cuc| ||mc||+mcntc um |cv+nt+mcnto d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ +ntcs c dco|s d+
+||c+io dos |ccu|sos
10
Contudo + +v+||+io dos |m+ctos dc um+ m+nc||+ ||go|os+ c d|||cu|t+d+
o| do|s |+to|cs |nd|son|b|||d+dc dc d+dos c +|tc|+io n+ d|nm|c+ d+ cst|utu|+ c dos mctodos dc
csu|s+ |sscs |+to|cs sc|io d|scut|dos + +|t|| d+ mcnsu|+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ dos ||^
6.1. A infraestrutura de pesquisa dos EUA: o que mensurado e
surgimento de um novo indicador
|+do uc +s csu|s+s +c+dcm|c+s |cuc|cm cm gc|+| um+ cst|utu|+ dc |+bo|+to||os c s+|+s dc
comut+do|cs + cont+gcm dc cu|+mcntos c dc mct|os u+d|+dos dc |+bo|+to||os c|+m os
||nc|+|s |nd|c+do|cs dc |n||+cst|utu|+ dc || +c+dcm|c+ +tc |cccntcmcntc Contudo con|o|mc
dcst+c+do c|+ |+t|on+| c|cncc |ound+t|on (.010 c+ 1o) +v+nos tccno|og|cos oco|||dos
n+s u|t|m+s dcc+d+s t+|s como +s nov+s tccno|og|+s d+ |n|o|m+io +|tc|+|+m t+nto os mctodos
dc |nvcst|g+io c|cnt|||c+ como + |n||+cst|utu|+ ncccss+||+ +|+ sc |c+||z+| + csu|s+ |ss+ nov+
|n||+cst|utu|+ c|+m+d+ dc |n||+cst|utu|+ c|bc|nct|c+ com|ccndc o| cxcm|o |o|m+s dc
t|+ns|c||| c +|m+zcn+| d+dos cm |+|g+ csc+|+ c |ntcg|+io dc cu|+mcntos +|+ |c+||z+io dc
|occssos comut+c|on+|s com|cxos ^ |n||+cst|utu|+ c|bc|nct|c+ odc sc| mcd|d+ +t|+vcs d+
vc|oc|d+dc d+s |cdcs |ntc|n+s d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ (|nc|u|ndo un|vc|s|d+dcs) |m .00!
!!` d+s |nst|tu|ocs ossu|+m |cdcs com vc|oc|d+dcs cnt|c 1 c . gb |ss+ vc|oc|d+dc +ssou +
cst+| d|son|vc| cm 0` d+s |nst|tu|ocs cm .00c
^ |+t|on+| c|cncc |ound+t|on +|cm dc mcnsu|+| + |n||+cst|utu|+ c|bc|nct|c+ t+mbcm +dot+ o
c||tc||o dc mcsu|+| o cs+o dc csu|s+ cgundo || (.010 c+ 4c)
|esea.n sa.e nee s ae/oea as :ne sa.e asea /c scoscea |:| a.:.:es a: a.aaeo.
os::a:cos :na: s seaa:e', oaae:ea aoa a..cao:ea /c |esea.n sa.e s oeasaea o oe:
assoao'e saae /ee: `as/) :ne sao c/ a'' aeas co a'' /'ccs c/ a oa'ao assoea :c c
a.a'ao'e :c oe assoea :c ao c..aao: /c a se./. ase sa.n as esea.n c os:a.:co `as/
s oeasaea /co :ne osae /a.es c/ .a''s /a':acse sa.e :na: s a: 'eas: a:a'', asea /c
esea.n s ca:ea :c e/'e.: :ne cc:co c/ :oe aoa ase ae.c:ea :c esea.n
10 O Com|tc Ccsto| do C-|n||+ |+v|+ dcs|gn+do |ogo cm su+ ||mc||+ |cun|io um+ cu|c c|c||+d+ c|o |o| |||to C|uz +|+
vc||||c+| + convcn|cnc|+ dc sc c|+bo|+| um d|+gnost|co d+ s|tu+io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc C d+s |nst|tu|ocs ^t+s dc |cun|ocs
ostc||o|cs mcnc|on+m + ncccss|d+dc d+ c|+bo|+io dc t+| cstudo com + co|+bo|+io do CC|| m+s cm cnt|cv|st+ |||to C|uz
d|z nio tc| con|cc|mcnto sc t+| cstudo |o| c|ct|v+mcntc c|+bo|+do +os su+ s+|d+ do Com|tc Ccsto| ^t+s ostc||o|cs t+mbcm
nio |nd|c+m + conduio do cstudo
|uc|+no |ovo+
!94
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
^s |nst|tu|ocs +c+dcm|c+s dos ||^ ossu|+m 1. m|||ocs dc |+s| (+|ox|m+d+mcntc 1c
m|||ocs dc mct|os u+d|+dos) +|+ + csu|s+ Comb|n+ndo com os d+dos dc douto|cs
cm|cg+dos n+ +c+dcm|+ cm .00o (..c m||) tc||+mos um v+|o| dc o mct|os u+d|+dos dc
+|c+ dc csu|s+ o| douto| |cssc cs+o .!` c|tcncc s c|cnc|+s b|o|og|c+s c b|omcd|c+s c
1` c|tcnccm s cngcn|+||+s ^ |+s| c|csccu + um+ t+x+ dc !` +o +no cnt|c .00 c .00
+os +|c+n+| um |co dc c|csc|mcnto dc 11` +o +no cnt|c .000 c .00! |m+ com+|+io
cmbo|+ com |cst||ocs odc sc| |c|t+ com + || uc ossu|+ .!c m|| mct|os u+d|+dos dc
+|c+ dc |+bo|+to||os cm .00 c o. douto|cs ou sc,+ um+ +|c+ dc |+bo|+to||os dc 4.. mct|os
u+d|+dos o| csu|s+do|
11

^|nd+ com |c|+io s |nst|tu|ocs +c+dcm|c+s dos ||^ +s nov+s const|uocs |n|c|+d+s cm
.00o;.00 |c|cscnt+|+m um +c|csc|mo dc c m|||ocs dc |+s| numc|o uc cm .00.;.00!
|+v|+ s|do dc 1o. m|||ocs dc |+s| |nt|c .00o c .00 +|ox|m+d+mcntc um tc|o d+s nov+s
const|uocs |o|+m ||n+nc|+d+s o| govc|nos |oc+|s c cst+du+|s ^ m+|o| +|tc dos |undos +|+
nov+s cd|||c+ocs (0`) |o| const|tu|d+ o| |ccu|sos d+s |o||+s |nst|tu|ocs +c+dcm|c+s (|;
c b|||ocs cm .00) scndo o |cst+ntc |ovcn|cntc do govc|no |cdc|+| Ou sc,+ cm .00 |o|+m
|nvcst|dos +|ox|m+d+mcntc |; c! b|||ocs cm nov+s const|uocs dc +|c+s dc csu|s+ n+s
|nst|tu|ocs +c+dcm|c+s dos ||^ (|| .010)
|m .00c o govc|no |cdc|+| dos |st+dos |n|dos |nvcst|u |; !1. b|||ocs n+ || +c+dcm|c+
|cssc tot+| |; 1 b|||io (o1`) |o| cm cu|+mcntos dc csu|s+ t+|s como comut+do|cs
tc|csco|os ctc (|| .010)
6.2. A infraestrutura de pesquisa do Brasil: a falta de uma medida
^ ||nc|+| ||m|t+io d+ +n+||sc |cscntc ncstc +|t|go c dcco||cntc d+ |+|t+ dc |n|o|m+ocs
m|n|m+mcntc s|stcm+t|z+d+s sob|c + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tu|ocs
dc csu|s+ V+||+s |nst|tu|ocs nio ossucm d+dos sob|c + u+nt|d+dc dc |+bo|+to||os ncm
sob|c + +|c+ tot+| dcst|n+d+ csu|s+ +|+ um c||odo uc c|m|t+ +v+||+| o |m+cto do C-
|n||+ sob|c o +umcnto dcss+s v+||+vc|s ^|cm d|sso mcsmo +|+ un|vc|s|d+dcs uc ossucm csscs
d+dos +|+ c||odos |cccntcs sc||+ ncccss+||o sc+|+| o uc |o| const|u|do com |ccu|sos do C-
11 |nu+nto + |+s| |cv+ cm cont+ o tcmo uc c+d+ |+bo|+to||o c ut|||z+do c|ct|v+mcntc +|+ + csu|s+ os d+dos d+ ||
+cn+s nos |n|o|m+m + +|c+ dos |+bo|+to||os scm sc| oss|vc| sc+|+| o tcmo uc c ut|||z+do +|+ csu|s+ d+uc|c uc c
ut|||z+do +|+ +t|v|d+dcs dc cns|no (vc| ^nu+||o |st+t|st|co d+ || |tt;;s|stcm+s!usb|;+nu+||o; (+ccsso cm .c ,un.010)
|o| oss|vc| c+|cu|+| t+mbcm + +|c+ dc |+bo|+to||os d+ |||C cm .001 ou sc,+ +ntcs do C-|n||+ tc| |n||ucnc|+ |cssc +no
+ +|c+ dc |+bo|+to||os d+ |||C c|+ dc 4!! m. uc d|v|d|d+ o| um tot+| dc 1!c douto|cs |oo|c|on+v+ um+ +|c+ dc
!. m. dc +|c+ dc csu|s+ o| douto|cs n:://...a/oo/c'ao/e'a:ccs_aoaas/e'a:cc_aoaa'_.../oaoecsn:o
(+ccsso cm . ,un.010) |n|c||zmcntc os d+dos +|+ +nos |cccntcs nio dcsmcmb|+m + +|c+ const|u|d+ dc |+bo|+to||os d+
dcst|n+d+ +o cns|no ^ |n| ossu|+ cm .000 um+ +|c+ |+bo|+to||+| dc !c m. o| douto| |tt;;wwws|unbb|;|+dos;unb_
d+dos;.000;.000+s (+ccsso cm . ,un.010) |o|cm os d+dos nio +|cscnt+m cons|stcnc|+ +|+ um+ com+|+io tcmo|+|
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!9
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
|n||+ do uc |o| |c+||z+do com |ccu|sos |o||os Os +nu+||os cst+t|st|cos dc v+||+s |nst|tu|ocs
sio |cccntcs c + m+|o||+ contcm +cn+s |n|o|m+ocs sob|c o tot+| d+ +|c+ const|u|d+ mcsmo
uc o| |nst|tutos c dc+|t+mcntos scm d|sc||m|n+| u+| sc||+ + +|c+ tot+| dos |+bo|+to||os
|csmo uc |ouvcssc |n|o|m+ocs sob|c o numc|o dc cu|+mcntos c + mct|+gcm dos cs+os
us+dos +|+ csu|s+ (como |+bo|+to||os cmbo|+ mu|t+s csu|s+s sc,+m conduz|d+s n+
|o||+ s+|+ do csu|s+do|) +ntcs do C-|n||+ c +tu+|mcntc sc||+ ncccss+||o +c|csccnt+| d+dos
+ |csc|to d+ cvo|uio dc +|gum |nd|c+do| dc |n||+cst|utu|+ c|bc|nct|c+ como + c++c|d+dc dc
t|+ns|c|cnc|+ d+ |cdc dc |ntc|nct d+ un|vc|s|d+dc ou |nst|tuto dc csu|s+ c ontos dc concxio
|+|+ +v+||+ocs ostc||o|cs sugc|c-sc uc sc,+ |nc|u|do n+s C|+m+d+s |ub||c+s como |cu|s|to
+|+ + +|cscnt+io dc |o,ctos o| +|tc d+s |nst|tu|ocs + +|cscnt+io dc d+dos sob|c o
numc|o dc |+bo|+to||os dc csu|s+ (com sc+|+io cm c|ccntu+| dc tcmo uc c ut|||z+do
+|+ cns|no c do tcmo +|+ csu|s+) com |cscct|v+ +|c+ const|u|d+
6.3. Impactos do CT-Infra: percepo dos entrevistados e anlise geral
dos objetivos dos projetos
^ntcs do C-|n||+ os |ccu|sos +|+ + const|uio cx+nsio c conso||d+io dc um |+bo|+to||o
dc csu|s+s c|+m csc+ssos c o||undos do |o||o o|+mcnto dc c+d+ |nst|tu|io Const|u||
c cu|+| um novo |+bo|+to||o ou mcsmo modc|n|z+| os ,+ cx|stcntcs c|+m cxt|cm+mcntc
d|||cc|s o|s os csu|s+do|cs nio t|n|+m +ccsso + um vo|umc dc |ccu|sos su||c|cntcs ^
||nc|+| |ontc dc |ccu|sos +|+ + csu|s+ +tc cntio c|+ o| mc|o dos cd|t+|s do C|| uc sio
d||cc|on+dos cscc|||c+mcntc +os csu|s+do|cs c nio tcm + c+|+ctc||st|c+ dc +o|+| |o,ctos dc
g|+ndc o|tc ncm ob|+s c|v|s
O C-|n||+ |c|cscntou um +o|tc dc |ccu|sos scm |cccdcntcs ||nc|+|mcntc +|+ +s
un|vc|s|d+dcs ^s cnt|cv|st+s |c+||z+d+s bcm como convc|s+s com v+||os csu|s+do|cs
bcnc||c|+dos com |o,ctos c um+ +n+||sc gc|+| dos ob,ct|vos dcsc||tos
1.
cm c+d+ um dos c11
|o,ctos |cscntcs n+ b+sc dc d+dos b+||z+|+m +s +v+||+ocs +|cscnt+d+s + scgu||
Impactos do CT-Infra sobre a produo cientfica
|m+ +v+||+io do |m+cto sob|c + |oduio c|cnt|||c+ dcvc||+ sc| c++z dc |so|+| o c|c|to do
C-|n||+ o|s cnt|c .001 c .00c +s un|vc|s|d+dcs cont|+t+|+m v+||os |o|csso|cs douto|cs
o uc ,+ tc||+ um |m+cto s|gn|||c+t|vo sob|c + |oduio c|cnt|||c+ ^|cm d|sso + un|d+dc dc
1. |os c11 |o,ctos . ossucm ob,ct|vos dct+||+dos ^|cm d+ +n+||sc dos ob,ct|vos vc||||cou-sc uc dcssc tot+| !o! |nc|u|+m
+ +|+v|+ |+bo|+to||o .0 cu|+mcnto 1o1 os-g|+du+io o |m|+nt+io c1 const|uio c o modc|n|z+io
|uc|+no |ovo+
!96
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
+n+||sc nio odc||+ sc| + un|vc|s|d+dc m+s s|m g|uos dc csu|s+ d||ct+mcntc bcnc||c|+dos
o| |o,ctos do C-|n||+ |c+||z+ndo o dcv|do cont|o|c
1!
|sso dcvc sc| |c|to o|uc os |o,ctos
+|cscnt+dos c|+s un|vc|s|d+dcs sio d|v|d|dos cm sub|o,ctos c c+d+ um cst+ gc|+|mcntc
||g+do + +|gum+ un|d+dc +c+dcm|c+ C+d+ un|vc|s|d+dc csco||c com b+sc cm su+s ||o||d+dcs
c scu |+nc,+mcnto cst|+tcg|co u+|s |o,ctos ||io conco||c| +o cd|t+| ^ss|m cx|stcm un|d+dcs
+c+dcm|c+s uc somcntc +ss+|+m + +|t|c|+| do C-|n||+ nos u|t|mos cd|t+|s c out|+s uc
+|nd+ nio udc|+m +|t|c|+|
O mcsmo +contccc +|+ +|gum+s un|vc|s|d+dcs como + ||cs uc comcou + tc| |o,ctos
+|ov+dos somcntc + +|t|| dc .00! c + cont+| com os |ccu|sos + +|t|| dc .004 Ou sc,+ um+
mc||o| +v+||+io dcvc||+ sc| |c|t+ c+so + c+so tcndo como m+|co d|v|so| d+ +n+||sc o c||odo
cm uc o |o,cto do C-|n||+ |o| conc|u|do |o| cxcm|o sc um |o,cto dc const|uio dc um
|cd|o +|+ +b||g+| um |+bo|+to||o dc b|o||s|c+ |o| +|ov+do cm .004 so |o| conc|u|do cm .00o
os |m+ctos do C-|n||+ ncssc c+so dcvc||+m com+|+| o c||odo +ntcs c +os .00o
|csmo com +s |css+|v+s dcst+c+d+s +c|m+ c |n+dcu+do |c+||z+| um+ +n+||sc uc cons|dc|c
+cn+s o mont+ntc dc |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ +|ov+dos +|+ um+ dctc|m|n+d+ un|vc|s|d+dc ou
|nst|tu|io dc csu|s+ c com+|+| com + cvo|uio dc su+ |oduio c|cnt|||c+
14

|cv|do d|||cu|d+dc dc sc |c+||z+| um+ +v+||+io dct+||+d+ do |m+cto do C-|n||+ sob|c +


|oduio c|cnt|||c+ o |cscntc +|t|go |cv+ cm cons|dc|+io +|+ c|c|to dc conc|usocs +
c|ccio gc|+| d+s cnt|cv|st+s |c+||z+d+s com coo|dcn+do|cs dc |o,ctos
odos os cnt|cv|st+dos dcst+c+|+m o c|c|to os|t|vo do C-|n||+ |o| cxcm|o um cu|+mcnto
dc |cssonnc|+ m+gnct|c+ nuc|c+| |nst+|+do cm dczcmb|o dc .00c no |nst|tuto dc u|m|c+ d+
||C ,+ |+v|+ oss|b|||t+do +tc +gosto dc .00 + ub||c+io dc 1o comun|c+ocs cm cong|cssos
um +|t|go +cc|to +|+ ub||c+io c t|cs d|ssc|t+ocs dc mcst|+do com b+sc cm d+dos gc|+dos
o| mc|o do cu|+mcnto (||C .00)
|mbo|+ tcn|+ s|do +ont+do um +umcnto d+ |oduio c|cnt|||c+ o| todos os cnt|cv|st+dos
o c|c|to uc mc|cccu m+|o| dcst+uc |o| o sob|c + u+||d+dc d+s csu|s+s |o| cxcm|o +
csu|s+ uc sc |+z com um m|c|osco|o c++z dc |+zc| +m||+ocs dc +tc 00 m|| vczcs c m+|s
|cc|s+ do uc + |c+||z+d+ com um m|c|osco|o uc +m||+ 0 m|| vczcs
1! |cv+ndo cm cont+ uc v+||os g|uos |o|+m bcnc||c|+dos o| |ccu|sos dc out|os |undos cto||+|s |so|+| o c|c|to do C-|n||+
sc||+ +|nd+ m+|s d|||c||
14 Out|o |+to| uc +g|+vou cssc t|o dc +n+||sc |o| o cont|ngcnc|+mcnto dc |ccu|sos uc oco||cu nos ||mc||os +nos dos |undos
cto||+|s
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!97
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
^|guns |+bo|+to||os c cu|+mcntos oss|b|||t+|+m + +bc|tu|+ dc nov+s ||n|+s dc csu|s+
uc scm c|cs sc||+m |nv|+vc|s |oss|b|||t+|+m t+mbcm um +com+n|+mcnto m+|s |ox|mo do
cst+do d+ +|tc cm v+||os |+mos dc csu|s+ |c +co|do com um dos cnt|cv|st+dos o C-|n||+
oss|b|||tou + mont+gcm c + cst|utu|+io dc um |+bo|+to||o dc u|m|c+ uc cst+ no mcsmo
n|vc| dc mu|tos dos mc||o|cs |+bo|+to||os |ntc|n+c|on+|s |sso c|m|tc +tu+|mcntc uc +|unos
oss+m |+zc| um douto|+do gc|+ndo tcscs c +|t|gos dc u+||d+dc scm |cc|s+| s+|| do +|s
^|guns |+bo|+to||os ,+ cx|st|+m m+s c|+m ut|||z+dos +cn+s +|c|+|mcntc +|+ csu|s+s
dcvcndo ccdc| tcmo +|+ +u|+s |+t|c+s ^|guns |o,ctos ut|||z+|+m |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ +|+
const|u|| ou +m||+| |+bo|+to||os dc |o|m+ oss|b|||t+| o uso cont|nuo +|+ csu|s+s
Impactos difusos do CT-Infra
Como os |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ |o|+m ut|||z+dos +|+ um+ v+||cd+dc dc +ocs c |o,ctos t+|s como
+dcu+io c mc||o||+ do uso d+ cnc|g|+ n+s |nst|tu|ocs +umcnto do +cc|vo d+s b|b||otcc+s
|m|+nt+io c +tu+||z+io dos s|stcm+s dc csu|s+s d+s b|b||otcc+s b|b||otcc+s d|g|t+|s c
|m|+nt+io c mc||o||+ d+ |cdc dc |n|o|m+t|c+ os |m+ctos do C-|n||+ sio o|t+nto d||usos
^|cm dc |+vo|ccc| d||ct+mcntc + csu|s+ v+||os cu|+mcntos t+mbcm cont||bu||+m +|+
|+c|||t+| cooc|+io cnt|c + un|vc|s|d+dc c o scto| |odut|vo |o| cxcm|o +n+||scs m+|s |cc|s+s
dc |otc|n+s |o|+m c|m|t|d+s com + +u|s|io dc um cscct|omct|o dc |cssonnc|+ nuc|c+| no
|c+|t+mcnto dc ||ou|m|c+ c ||o|og|+ |o|ccu|+| d+ |||| Com |sso |o| oss|vc| + |c+||z+io
dc tcstcs dc u+||d+dc como os so||c|t+dos o| |oduto|cs dc v|n|os cu|ocus +|+ vc||||c+| sc
|ouvc ou nio +du|tc|+io do |oduto u+ndo d+ |mo|t+io +|+ o ||+s||
1

Out|o bcnc||c|o c cm |c|+io |cduio dc custos d+ csu|s+ ||nc|+|mcntc com |mo|t+io
|m dos |o,ctos d+ |ncs |o| +|+ + const|uio dc um b|otc||o +|+ + |oduio c m+nutcnio
dc |+tos \|st+| c c+mundongos su|os uc sio ut|||z+dos cm |numc|+s csu|s+s
|u|tos |o,ctos mc||o|+|+m + u+||d+dc do +ccsso |n|o|m+io c |occss+mcnto dos d+dos
com + +tu+||z+io d+s |cdcs dc t|+nsm|ssio dc d+dos o uc +umcntou + +g|||d+dc c + u+||d+dc
d+ conduio d+ csu|s+
^ mc||o||+ d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs tcm |m+ctos d||c|cnc|+dos dccndcndo
do o|tc d+ un|vc|s|d+dc c d+ |cg|io ondc sc cncont|+ |m ||mc||o |ug+| mc||o|cs |+bo|+to||os
cont||bucm +|+ m+ntc| bons csu|s+do|cs c +t|+|| novos douto|cs +|+ |cg|ocs como |o|tc c
Ccnt|o-Ocstc cons|dc|+d+s mcnos +t|+t|v+s c|+ d|stnc|+ dos g|+ndcs ccnt|os dc csu|s+ c c|+s
||m|t+d+s cond|ocs dc csu|s+ +tc ouco tcmo |m scgundo |ug+| o cso dos |ccu|sos do C-
1 Vc| o c||od|co |ot|c|+s d+ |||| +no c n 4 outub|o dc .00 11
|uc|+no |ovo+
!98
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
|n||+ tcndc + sc| m+|o| cm un|vc|s|d+dcs dc mcd|o c cucno o|tc cm tc|mos dc o|+mcnto ^
+bc|+ o +|cscnt+ +|gum+s |nst|tu|ocs sc|cc|on+d+s d|v|d|d+s cm t|cs g|uos dc +co|do com o
t+m+n|o do scu o|+mcnto cm .00c c |cscct|vos v+|o|cs +|ov+dos +|+ |o,ctos n+ c|+m+d+
ub||c+ ||o|n||+ 01;.00c |+|+ +s un|vc|s|d+dcs dc g|+ndc o|tc com o|+mcntos +c|m+ dc |; 1
b|||io os |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ |c|cscnt+|+m cm mcd|+ +cn+s 0` do scu o|+mcnto |+ +|+
un|vc|s|d+dcs dc mcno| o|tc com o|+mcntos cnt|c |; .00-400 m|| os |ccu|sos do C-|n||+
t|vc|+m um cso t|cs vczcs m+|o| |c|cscnt+ndo cm mcd|+ 1c.` do scu o|+mcnto
1abela c - ||o,ctos +|ov+dos (c|+m+d+ ub||c+ ||o|n||+ 01;.00c) c v+|o|cs o|
|nst|tu|ocs sc|cc|on+d+s com |cscct|vos o|+mcntos +|+ .00c
lnstltulo Oramento em z008 (a) C1-lnrra z008
(b) (+) (b}a)
Crupo !
|| .o0!0o11c00 044000 0.
|||| (')1!o!4co0 10o44c00 0o1
|||C 10c!1.1014 4cocoo00 0cc
|cd|+ 1c0o0ooc! 0cc0!!! 0
Crupo z
||oc|uz c010c00 .40o0000 0o
|n| (')o.o.!100 co4o.00 11!
||C o0!o.cc 10!.!100 14
|||^ o4oc100 o01c00 0!
|||| o!ooo1c00 0o4.o00 14.
|||| o.0c0!. .o4!000 1.
||| 4c.!c!0 c411c.00 14!
|cd|+ o..04 c1110oo1 1.!
Crupo !
||C !cc.c!100 1oc!.400 .!o
||^| !.411100 4!o100 1!!
||||| !.o!!.10c 44oc00 14o
||| !44404o00 41o1o400 1.1
||| .o.4c!000 0.!ccc00 .4
||| .10.o..00 !c.4o100 1c1
|cd|+ !0c44oo01 44!! 1c.
|ontc :e aas os::aces .cosa':as eo aonc ae ...) Oos ') c caoeo:c e/eese ac aoc ae ...
|csmo +|+ um+ un|vc|s|d+dc dc g|+ndc o|tc como + |||C o C-|n||+ |c|cscntou cm
.00c um +o|tc cons|dc|+vc| dc |ccu|sos |c|cscnt+ndo u+sc 1` do scu o|+mcnto |m .000
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
!99
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
+no |mcd|+t+mcntc +ntc||o| +o ||mc||o cd|t+| do C-|n||+ + |||C tcvc +cn+s 01.` dos scus
|ccu|sos o|+mcnt+||os dcst|n+dos |n||+cst|utu|+
1o

Out|o +sccto |c|+c|on+do +o t+m+n|o d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c uc +s dc mcno| o|tc udc|+m


mc||o|+| su+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ dc |o|m+ + tc| m+|o| c|+ncc dc conco||c| c c+t+|
|ccu|sos dc csu|s+s dc m+|o| cnvc|g+du|+ +|cm dc odc| sc |nsc||| dc |o|m+ +t|v+ cm |cdcs
dc csu|s+s n+c|on+|s c |ntc|n+c|on+|s
|cdcs dc csu|s+s cstio su|g|ndo dcnt|o d+s |o||+s |nst|tu|ocs como ||utos dc |o,ctos
uc so |o|+m v|+vc|s + +|t|| do C-|n||+ como c o c+so do |o,cto |uc|co dc |csu|s+ cm
|nov+io c|+cut|c+ d+ ||||
1
|ssc |o,cto ,+ |cccbcu |ccu|sos dc u+t|o c|+m+d+s ub||c+s
c oss|b|||tou o +g|u+mcnto dc csu|s+do|cs dc d||c|cntcs +|c+s |c +co|do com um dos
cnt|cv|st+dos +ntcs do C-|n||+ os g|uos dc csu|s+ tcnd|+m + sc |cc|+| cm su+s |cscct|v+s
+|c+s scndo |+|+s +s |ntc|+ocs ||o,ctos c |+bo|+to||os mu|t|usu+||os oss|b|||t+|+m o su|g|mcnto
dc nov+s |ntc|+ocs c csu|s+s
|c +co|do com v+||os cnt|cv|st+dos os |o,ctos do C-|n||+ t+mbcm cont||bu||+m +|+ +
c||+io c conso||d+io dc |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io
|o| ||m dcvc-sc dcst+c+| o |m+cto o|g+n|z+c|on+| mcnc|on+do +ntc||o|mcntc O |+to dc o C-
|n||+ |+n+| cd|t+|s com |cgu|+||d+dc todos os +nos c scm|c no ||n+| dc c+d+ +no |nccnt|vou +s
un|vc|s|d+dcs + |+zc| |+nc,+mcntos cst|+tcg|cos m+|s +b|+ngcntcs c m+|s ous+dos |o| cxcm|o
cm um+ un|vc|s|d+dc uc +|t|c|ou dc todos os cd|t+|s dc +co|do com um dos cnt|cv|st+dos o
d||cto| dc um+ d+s un|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s |cvc|ou |cccntcmcntc uc + su+ un|d+dc cst+v+ scndo
scm|c dc|x+d+ dc |+do o| nio |cccbc| os |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ uc c|+m +|ov+dos +|+ +
su+ un|vc|s|d+dc |o|cm o d||cto| nio s+b|+ uc os |ccu|sos c|+m +|ov+dos +|+ sub|o,ctos
c|+bo|+dos dc +ntcmio o| out|+s un|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s ou o| o|gios suc||o|cs ^go|+ o
|c|c||do d||cto| cst+ mob|||z+ndo os csu|s+do|cs d+ su+ un|d+dc +c+dcm|c+ +|+ c|+bo|+|
cst|+tcg|+s c |o,ctos dc csu|s+ +|+ conco||c| no |ox|mo cd|t+|
Impactos dos primeiros editais do CT-Infra: estudos da Finep e do CGEE
^ ||nc c o Ccnt|o dc Ccstio dc |studos |st|+tcg|cos (CC||) ,+ |c+||z+|+m +v+||+ocs dos
||mc||os cd|t+|s |+n+dos c|o C-|n||+ O CC|| uc +tuou m+|s cst|c|t+mcntc com o Com|tc
Ccsto| do |undo nos t|cs ||mc||os +nos c|+bo|ou um+ sc||c dc not+s tccn|c+s ||g+d+s +o |o,cto
mctodo|og|+ dc +com+n|+mcnto c +v+||+io do C-|n||+ Contudo c|o |+to dc +|nd+ nio
tc| s|do com|ct+do ncn|um |o,cto n+ coc+ css+s not+s t|vc|+m um c+|+tc| csscnc|+|mcntc
1o V+|o| c+|cu|+do + +|t|| dos d+dos d|son|vc|s cm n:://...a/oo/c'ao/c.aoeo:c_s....n:o (^ccsso cm 1o ,un .010)
1 Vc| n:://.../oec.o/oeosa/e.s:a/:e.ea_ea.ac/oc.a.ac_eo_aa:a!_.a+a/ (^ccsso cm . ,un .010)
|uc|+no |ovo+
z00
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
dcsc||t|vo d+s |nst|tu|ocs c dos |o,ctos +o|+dos +n+||s+ndo-os o| numc|o dc douto|cs c o|
|cg|io +|s cstudos no cnt+nto cont||bu||+m +|+ subs|d|+| +s d|scussocs do Com|tc Ccsto|
sob|c + |o|m+ como sc||+m c|+bo|+dos os cd|t+|s ostc||o|cs
|m cstudo m+|s +|o|und+do sob|c os |m+ctos do C-|n||+ |o| conduz|do c|+ ||nc c os ||nc|+|s
|csu|t+dos cstio |cscntcs cm C|uz c |mson (.00c) |cssc cstudo |o|+m cnv|+dos ucst|on+||os
+|+ +s 1 |nst|tu|ocs uc t|vc|+m os m+|o|cs v+|o|cs dc |o,ctos +|ov+dos +tc .00o obtcndo
|csost+s dc 4. |nst|tu|ocs Os ucst|on+||os |ocu|+|+m +v+||+| o |m+cto do C-|n||+ sob|c
o |nc|cmcnto d+ |oduio c|cnt|||c+ +bc|tu|+ c conso||d+io dc ||n|+s dc csu|s+ +bc|tu|+ c
+m||+io dc cu|sos dc os-g|+du+io cnt|c out|os |+to|cs |c +co|do com os |csu|t+dos c` d+s
|nst|tu|ocs |nd|c+|+m |nc|cmcntos cm todos os |nd|c+do|cs com dcst+uc +|+ + conso||d+io dc
||n|+s dc csu|s+ c d+ os-g|+du+io +ont+dos o| 0` d+s |nst|tu|ocs
Principais dificuldades e crticas
C|uz c |mson (.00c) +|cscnt+m +|gum+s d+s d|||cu|d+dcs cn||cnt+d+s c|+s |nst|tu|ocs
du|+ntc + conduio dos |o,ctos c dcst+c+m uc + m+|o| +|tc dos |o,ctos cn||cnt+ +t|+sos
|m dos c+sos m+|s cxt|cmos t+|vcz sc,+ o d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| do |+|+n|io (|||^) uc
ossu|+ no |n|c|o dc .010 ob|+s +|ov+d+s |+ m+|s dc c|nco +nos uc cst+v+m +|+||s+d+s o|
|+|t+ dc |o,ctos c ||c|t+io
1c
|nt|c +s d|||cu|d+dcs cstio
varlao camblal. mu|tos |o,ctos uc dccnd|+m d+ com|+ dc cu|+mcntos
|mo|t+dos +|nd+ nio |+v|+m s|do ||n+||z+dos dcv|do s v+||+ocs c+mb|+|s cnt|c +
c|+bo|+io do |o,cto c + ||bc|+io dos |ccu|sos
keadequao do projeto. d|||cu|d+dcs com + |c+dcu+io dc |o,ctos +|ov+dos com
co|tcs dc |ccu|sos
Llcltaes +t|+sos dcv|do + d|||cu|d+dcs com ||c|t+ocs (||||| | O||||| .00o
C||z | |||O| .00c) |c +co|do com |ut|c| c O|dcncs (.00o) + cscc|||c+io dos
cu|+mcntos mud+ cnt|c + d+t+ d+ c|+bo|+io do |o,cto c o momcnto d+ ||bc|+io
do |ccu|so +|+ + su+ com|+ Os +uto|cs dcst+c+m + |+|t+ dc |c+|o d+s cu|cs +|+
||d+| com +s |cst||ocs d+ |c| n cooo
Necessldades lmedlatas. dc +co|do com |ut|c| c O|dcncs (.00o 14) cm um+ +v+||+io
dos |csu|t+dos do cd|t+| 0.;.001 do C-|n||+ +|+ |+c|on+||z+io do uso dc cnc|g|+
c|ct||c+ c ut|||z+io dc |ontcs +|tc|n+t|v+s o suc+tc+mcnto dc +|gum+s |nst|tu|ocs |+z
1c |tt;;wwwu|m+b|;not|c|+s;not|c|+s|cod=40. (+ccsso cm .! ,un.010)
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
z0!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
com uc |ccu|sos +|oc+dos +|+ mc||o|+ d+ c||c|cnc|+ cnc|gct|c+ sc,+m us+dos +|+ gc|+|
cond|ocs m|n|m+s dc uso
Contlngenclamentos. d|||cu|d+dcs |n|c|+|s dcv|do +o cont|ngcnc|+mcnto dc |ccu|sos
|nt|c +s ||nc|+|s c||t|c+s +ont+d+s c|os cnt|cv|st+dos cstio o cont|ngcnc|+mcnto dc |ccu|sos n+
|+sc |n|c|+| c o co|tc dc v+|o|cs dc |o,ctos c|+ com|ssio dc +v+||+io dc mc||to uc |+t|c+mcntc
|nv|+b|||z+m + conduio do |o,cto |o cstudo +|cscnt+do o| C|uz c |mson c` d+s
|nst|tu|ocs |cc|s+|+m ut|||z+| |ccu|sos |o||os ou dc out|os |ontcs +|+ com|ct+| os |o,ctos
C+bc |css+|t+| uc os cnt|cv|st+dos |o|+m unn|mcs cm c|og|+| + +tu+io d+ ||nc u+nto +o
|o|ncc|mcnto dc |n|o|m+ocs d|son|b|||z+io dc d+dos c |c|+c|on+mcnto gc|+| com +s |nst|tu|ocs
Principais mudanas ocorridas
1 errll dos projetos. + |n|c+m o| cxcm|o |cc|ou um c|c|o cm .00c c+|+ctc||z+do
o| |o,ctos dc cucno c mcd|o o|tc |+s du+s u|t|m+s c|+m+d+s |n|c|ou |o,ctos
m+|o|cs como o d+ ||b||otcc+ dc Ob|+s |+|+s c Co|cocs |scc|+|s (|; c! m|||ocs)
um+ d+s m+|o|cs d+ ^mc||c+ |+t|n+ ^ |||C t+mbcm tcvc um |o,cto dc +dcu+io
d+ cst|utu|+ ||s|c+ dos |+bo|+to||os dc csu|s+ c os-g|+du+io do |c+|t+mcnto dc
u|m|c+ uc cnvo|vcu |; 1 m|||ocs ^o |ongo dos +nos +s |nst|tu|ocs +ss+|+m +
|cc|s+| t+mbcm dc |ccu|sos +|+ + m+nutcnio dos cu|+mcntos com|+dos nos
||mc||os |o,ctos o uc comcou + sc| contcm|+do no cd|t+| 01;.004
. Questo reglonal. dc +co|do com um dos cnt|cv|st+dos nos ||mc||os +nos do C-
|n||+ su|g||+m c||t|c+s dc uc o +tcnd|mcnto do m|n|mo dc !0` dos |ccu|sos +|+ +s
|cg|ocs |o|tc |o|dcstc c Ccnt|o-Ocstc o| |c| cst+||+ |cv+ndo + +|ov+io dc |o,ctos
dc u+||d+dc |n|c||o| cm dct||mcnto dc |o,ctos suc||o|cs +|cscnt+dos c|+s dcm+|s
|cg|ocs Contudo +|ccc tc| oco|||do o c|c|to csc|+do c|os |cg|s|+do|cs dc um+
cvo|uio d+ c++c|d+dc dc csu|s+ d+s |cg|ocs |+vo|cc|d+s c|+ |c| Como cx|stcm
|ob|cm+s cm sc +v+||+| css+ cvo|uio cm tc|mos dc ub||c+ocs como os dcst+c+dos
+ntc||o|mcntc um |nd|c+do| c + +|ov+io dc o |o,ctos n+ c|+m+d+ dc .00 dcss+s
t|cs |cg|ocs dc um tot+| dc 1c |c|cscnt+ndo 40` dos |ccu|sos d+ c|+m+d+
1

! Apolo a novos campl. |os u|t|mos do|s +nos (.00c c .00) |o|+m |+n+d+s c|+m+d+s
ub||c+s d||cc|on+d+s cx||c|t+mcntc + nov+s un|vc|s|d+dcs (c||+d+s + +|t|| dc .00.)
c c+m| |o|+ d+s scdcs d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs |cdc|+|s +|cm dc g|uos cmc|gcntcs cm
un|vc|s|d+dcs cst+du+|s c mun|c|+|s |ss+s c|+m+d+s s|n+||z+m uc com o +umcnto
1 n:://.../oec.o/oeosa/e.s:a/ea.ac/oc.a.ac_eo_aa:a__aa7_co/aa/ (^ccsso cm .1 ,un.010)
|uc|+no |ovo+
z0z
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
dos |ccu|sos |cocuou-sc nov+mcntc cm nio dc|x+-|os sc|cm c+tu|+dos c|os
ccnt|os ,+ cst|utu|+dos c|m|t|ndo + c||+io c o |o|t+|cc|mcnto dc um+ |n||+cst|utu|+
dc csu|s+ no |ntc||o|
7. Concluses
^ c|ccio gc|+| dos cnt|cv|st+dos c + dc uc o C-|n||+ oss|b|||tou +o +|s um +v+no |ncd|to
com |c|+io su+ c++c|d+dc dc csu|s+ |m mu|t+s +|c+s ,+ c oss|vc| |+zc| csu|s+s uc
+v+n+m o cst+do d+s +|tcs Os |+bo|+to||os c cu|+mcntos uc |o|c|+|+m cssc +v+no
contudo dcvcm sc| c||od|c+mcntc modc|n|z+dos (cm +|guns c+sos nio c |cc|so com|+| um
novo m+s s|m |c+||z+| um ug|+dc) +|+ cont|nu+| no n|vc| dc csu|s+ +|c+n+do
Os |ccu|sos do C-|n||+ tcm s|do +||c+dos cm |o,ctos ||g+dos + +|c+s c|cnt|||c+s cons|dc|+d+s
cst|+tcg|c+s m+s +|nd+ dc um+ m+nc||+ t|m|d+ |m+ d+s c+us+s |o| + ncccss|d+dc dc |c+||z+|
um+ mc||o||+ +m|+ d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ b+s|c+ dc csu|s+ nos ||mc||os +nos como + |c|o|m+ c
+m||+io dc |nst+|+ocs ||s|c+s c c|ct||c+s c |m|+nt+io dc s|stcm+s dc t|+nsm|ssio dc d+dos
O C-|n||+ c|m|t|u um+ dcmoc|+t|z+io do +ccsso + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ cm tc|mos
|cg|on+|s |csu|s+do|cs uc dccnd|+m dc v|+gcns c +gcnd+mcntos dc ut|||z+io d+ cst|utu|+
|+bo|+to||+| c dc cu|+mcntos cx|stcntcs +cn+s n+ || ou |||| +go|+ conscgucm |c+||z+|
csu|s+s cm scus |o||os |+bo|+to||os |ss+ dcmoc|+t|z+io t+mbcm vc|o com o |o|t+| dc
|c||od|cos d+ C+cs
^s c|+m+d+s ub||c+s tcm s|do cons|stcntcs cm scus ob,ct|vos +o |ongo dos +nos c scns|vc|
s mud+n+s s|n+||z+d+s c|+s dcm+nd+s Os cd|t+|s vo|t+dos +|+ novos c+m| |+n+dos cm
.00c c os vo|t+dos +|+ g|uos cmc|gcntcs dc un|vc|s|d+dcs cst+du+|s c mun|c|+|s t+mbcm
dcmonst|+m um+ |cocu+io cm |o|t+|ccc| + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ |o|+ dos g|+ndcs
ccnt|os Os cd|t+|s t+mbcm tcm t|do + c++c|d+dc dc c|m|t|| o +o|o + |o,ctos dc t+m+n|os
v+||+dos |m um+ mcsm+ c|+m+d+ ub||c+ |o|+m +|ov+dos |o,ctos dc |; !00 m|| c +c|m+
dc |; 4 m|||ocs o uc c|m|tc o +tcnd|mcnto dc dcm+nd+s |c|+c|on+d+s + |c+||d+dcs c |+scs
d|st|nt+s cm uc sc cncont|+m +s |nst|tu|ocs do +|s
^ ||nc|+| conc|usio dcssc +|t|go c uc + +|t|| d+ c|ccio dos cnt|cv|st+dos c do c||||
dos |o,ctos dcscnvo|v|dos c|+s un|vc|s|d+dcs c |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ cnt|c .001 c .00c +
cont||bu|io ||mo|d|+| do C-|n||+ |o| + dc c|m|t|| uc css+s |nst|tu|ocs cnt|+sscm cm um
novo +|+d|gm+ dc conduio dc csu|s+s |ntcns|vo cm +ccsso c |occss+mcnto dc |n|o|m+io
Ou sc,+ + |o|m+ dc sc |+zc| csu|s+ tcm mud+do com o su|g|mcnto dc nov+s tccno|og|+s
como o| cxcm|o o dc gc|+io c +n+||sc dc |m+gcns uc ut|||z+m + tccno|og|+ !| ^ss|m no
C+|+ctc||st|c+s c |m+ctos do |undo cto||+| dc |n||+cst|utu|+
z0!
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
||tmo |cnto uc + |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ n+c|on+| cst+v+ cvo|u|ndo +ntcs do C-|n||+ o
+|s co|||+ um sc||o ||sco dc c|dc| o bondc |o,c os ||mc||os |+bo|+to||os dc +|gum+s +|c+s
c|cnt|||c+s no ||+s|| ,+ cstio scndo const|u|dos com os cu|+mcntos m+|s +v+n+dos cx|stcntcs
Referncias
CO^ || (.004) Os camlnbos e descamlnbos na rormulao das polltlcas de clncla, tecnologla e
lnovao no 8rasll um+ +n+||sc c|+ v|+ d+s cont|ovc|s|+s csc dc |outo|+do cm oc|o|og|+ |n| !00|
C||z C^ |||O| || (.00c) O|to +nos dc +o|o |n||+-cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+ kevlsta lnovao
em auta n ! +gosto-sctcmb|o - |||||
|UNUO UL lN|kALS1kU1UkA (.001) |||ct||zcs |+s|c+s ||son|vc| cm n:://.../oec.o ^ccsso
cm m+|o .010
|UNUO UL lN|kALS1kU1UkA ^t+s ub||c+d+s d+s |cun|ocs do Com|tc Ccsto| ^ccssos cm +b||| dc
.010 ||son|vc| cm n:://...o.:c.o/oae\n/.co:eo:/.e./!.7..7n:o'
MlNlS1LklO UA LUUCAAO ||C (.004) ||+no |+c|on+| dc |os-C|+du+io |||C (.00-.010)
NA1lONAL SClLNCL 8OAkU (.010) c|cncc +nd |ng|ncc||ng |nd|c+to|s .010 ^|||ngton V^ |+t|on+|
c|cncc |ound+t|on (|| 10-01)
||||| | O||||| | (.00o) |csu|t+dos do wo||s|o C-|n||+ cd|t+| 0.;.001-kaclonallzao do
uso de energla eletrlca e utlllzao de rontes alternatlvas ||son|vc| cm n:://...nao:aeco/
.:o/a/aeseo:a.ac/|esa':aacs_C|`||^_.a/ ^ccsso cm . m+|o .010
^|||-||||O (.00!) |o||t|c+ dc c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ no || |||C (1o) kevlsta 8rasllelra de lnovao
v . n 1 ,+n-,un 1-.11
C|\^|z|^| (.001) Um espao para a clncla + |o|m+io d+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|||c+ no ||+s||
||+s|||+ ||n|stc||o dc C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+
C||^CO (.010) kanklng lberoamerlcano Slk :o+o ||son|vc| cm n:://...s.oac.co/a//
aoo_oecaoe.aoc_...a/ ^ccsso cm .. ,un .010
|z|C^| \ ^|||||||| || (.00c) A lnterao entre unlversldades e empresas em perspectlva
blstorlca no 8rasll cxto +|+ ||scussio n !. C|||||^|
||X|||^ | | C |^|||| | (11) |^|C um+ +|tc|n+t|v+ dc gcstio ||n+ncc||+ +|+ C kevlsta de
Admlnlstrao io |+u|o v .o n 4 11!-11c
|uc|+no |ovo+
z04
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! 1-.04 ,u|-dcz .011
||C (.00) |c|+to||o ccn|co ||n+| Convcn|o n 0100o100 ^m||+io c |ccuc|+io d+ |n||+-
|st|utu|+ dc |csu|s+ d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| dc Co|+s
V^||| |C |O|^C|||| || ^|||-||||O (.00.) Os |undos cto||+|s c + o||t|c+ n+c|on+| dc
c|cnc|+ tccno|og|+ c |nov+io xxll Slmposlo de Cesto da lnovao 1ecnologlca +|v+do| o +
c dc novcmb|o ||son|vc| cm n:://...eao.aoo/ec/ac.aoeo:cs/...a/ ^ccsso
cm m+|o .010
V|O| | |^C||O | | (o|gs) (.00!) |nd|c+do|cs dc c|cnc|+ tccno|og|+ c |nov+io no ||+s||
C+m|n+s |d|to|+ |n|c+m
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
A promoo da excelncia gerencial nos institutos
e centros de P&D brasileiros: para alm dos
modismos gerenciais
Marconi Edson Esmeraldo Albuquerque

*, Maria Beatriz Machado Bonacelli

**
' |outo| cm |o||t|c+ C|cnt|c+ c ccno|og|c+ c|+ |n|c+m ^n+||st+ cm C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ do Consc||o |+c|on+| dc
|cscnvo|v|mcnto C|cnt|co c ccno|og|co (C||) ||+s|||+ || mcdson,cnb|
'' |outo|+ cm C|cnc|+s |conom|c+s c|+ |n|vc|s|tc dcs c|cnccs oc|+|cs dc ou|ousc | ||+n+ ||o|csso|+ ||v|c-doccntc do
|c+|t+mcnto dc |o||t|c+ C|cnt|c+ c ccno|og|c+ (||C;|C;|n|c+m) C+m|n+s | b|+,|gcun|c+mb|
Resumo
O +|t|go +n+||s+ o ||o,cto |xcc|cnc|+ n+ |csu|s+
ccno|og|c+ (|||) vo|t+do mc||o||+ do dcscm-
cn|o dc |nst|tutos c Ccnt|os dc |csu|s+s (|C|s)
cnco|+,+ndo-os + |cvc|cm c + +c||c|o+|cm su+s
|ot|n+s |+ vc|d+dc o ||| |omovcu um+ +gcnd+
m|c|o-|nst|tuc|on+| nos |C|s |oc+d+ n+ ot|m|z+io
dc |+t|c+s c + c++c|d+dc |nov+t|v+ dos |C|s odc
sc| ||m|t+d+ um+ vcz uc |mc|sos cm c|c|os dc mc-
||o||+ cont|nu+ odcm nio c|ccbc| mud+n+s
no +mb|cntc ncm uc |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs |c-
v+|cccntcs odcm nio +tcndc| m+|s + novos |o-
b|cm+s ^c|cd|t+-sc uc sio +s o||t|c+s ub||c+s c
+ mud+n+ n+ ostu|+ dos |C|s uc dcvcm convc|-
g|| +|+ dcn|| os +c|s dcst+s o|g+n|z+ocs c su+
cont||bu|io +o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do +|s
alavras-cbave. Ccstio d+ |csu|s+ |cscnvo|v|-
mcnto c |nov+io |odc|os gc|cnc|+|s |cst |+ct|-
ccs |o||t|c+s ub||c+s
Abstract
'e ae as.asses :ne |ce:c |\.e'`o.a oa |esa
sa e.oc'c.a |||) aoea a: oc.o :ne oao
aeoeo: c/ |esea.n aoa e.noc'c, Oaoa:cos
|Os) 'e oasoess ocae' ccsea o ||| eo.ca
aes |Os :c e.e. aoa eoe :ne caoa:coa'
ca:oes |c.e.e :ne ooc.a:.eoess c/ |Os .ao oe
'o:ea so.e ooesea o .,.'es c/ .co:oacas o
c.eoeo: |Os oa, oc: e.e.e .naoes o :ne eo
.cooeo: oc :na: :ne e.a'o ca:oes aoa .aa
o':es oa, oc 'coe oee: :ne oe. co'eos |||
coc:ea a o.cos::a:coa' aeoaa o |Os /c
.asea co c:oo s:a:e, 'as ao'. c'.es aoa
:ne .naoe o :ne a:::aae c/ |Os oas: .co.ee :c
aeoe :ne c'es c/ :nese caoa:cos aoa :ne .co:
oa:co :c :ne 8a'ao ae.e'coeo: c.ess
keywords. /aoaeoeo: c/ |esea.n : |e.e'c
oeo: aoa |ooc.a:co /aoaeoeo: /cae's 8es:
a.:.es |ao'. |c'.es
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:oc
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
1. Introduo
|m mu|tos +|scs |nst|tutos c ccnt|os dc csu|s+ c dcscnvo|v|mcnto (|C|s) vcm +ss+ndo o|
t|+ns|o|m+ocs c |cdcn|ndo +c|s c |unocs |nt|c +s tcndcnc|+s cstio um+ m+|o| cob|+n+
dc scus m+ntcncdo|cs c|+ gc|+io dc |ccc|t+s c cm gc|+| + cmu|+io dc modc|os gc|cnc|+|s
busc+ndo m+|o|
c|ct|v|d+dc cm su+s +t|v|d+dcs |sto t+mbcm sc vc||c+ no c+so b|+s||c||o |os u|t|mos u|nzc
+nos v+||os |C|s tcm busc+do |cvc| su+s t|+,cto||+s v|s+ndo d|vc|s|c+| su+s +t|v|d+dcs c ocu+|
novos cs+os |m+ +io |nst|tuc|on+| cnvo|vcndo v+||os |C|s b|+s||c||os |o| o ||o,cto |xcc|cn-
c|+ n+ |csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ (|||) c+|t+nc+do c|+ ^ssoc|+io ||+s||c||+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc
|csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ (^||||) dcsdc +,,s c +o|+do com |ccu|sos ub||cos |o| mc|o do |||
+ ^|||| |ocu|+ +o|+| |C|s + |cmodc|+|cm su+ gcstio com b+sc no |odc|o dc |xcc|cnc|+ Cc-
|cnc|+| (||C) do ||cm|o |+c|on+| d+ u+||d+dc (||) como mc|o dc +||mo|+mcnto dc su+s
+t|v|d+dcs ||Cs +,ud+m no dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc |+t|c+s dc mc||o||+ do dcscmcn|o d+s o|-
g+n|z+ocs d|sscm|n+io dc oes: a.:.es
+
c t|+nsm|ssio dc con|cc|mcntos cm dcscmcn|o
gc|cnc|+| |+nc,+mcnto c +v+||+io (|^|| .oo,)
O |cscntc t|+b+||o +b|c + c+|x+-|ct+ do || c d|scutc o +|c+ncc do ||| v|+ +doio c +||c+-
io dc ||Cs +| ob,ct|vo sc dcsdob|+ cm out|os t|cs +) cx+m|n+| como sc dcu + d||usio c +b-
so|io do ||| nos |C|s .) +n+||s+| + +dcu+io do ||C;|| nos |C|s ,) +n+||s+| |csu|t+dos
||m|t+ocs c d|cu|d+dcs n+ |nt|oduio d+s mctodo|og|+s |oost+s no ||| o| |C|s no +|s
^s |ccxocs |c|t+s +u| odcm sc| utc|s n+ c||+io dc nov+s t|+,cto||+s nos |C|s +|+ +|cm dos
c+m|n|os oss|b|||t+dos c|+ +doio dc mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
.
^|cm dc |cv|sio ||tc|+||+ c +n+||sc
documcnt+| o t|+b+||o b+sc|+-sc cm ,e cnt|cv|st+s |c+||z+d+s com +to|cs-c|+vc nos |occssos
dc const|uio d||usio +doio c +o|o do |||
O +|t|go cst+ cst|utu|+do cm t|cs scocs +|cm dcst+ uc o |nt|oduz + ||mc||+ +|cscnt+ um+
|ccxio c||t|c+ +cc|c+ dos ||Cs + scgund+ |+z-sc um+ +n+||sc d+ conccio d||usio c |csu|t+dos
do |||;^b|t| c n+ tc|cc||+ c u|t|m+ scio sio +|cscnt+d+s +s ||nc|+|s conc|usocs do t|+b+||o
+ 8es: a.:.es sio mctodos c tccn|c+s uc +c|cd|t+-sc gc|cm |csu|t+dos suc||o|cs uc|cs obt|dos o| out|os mc|os c uc sio
ut|||z+dos como |c|c|cnc|+ no cs|o|o dc obtc-|+s
. |od|smos gc|cnc|+|s sio dcn|dos como nov+s |dc|+s dcscnvo|v|d+s dc modo v+go c cm +|c+s |ndcn|d+s |cv|+mcntc cu,os
usu+||os sio |n|c|+|mcntc cntus|+st+s d+s mcsm+s cmbo|+ c|cs oss+m |+|d+mcntc c|dc| o |ntc|cssc sc t+|s |dc|+s nio sc
most|+|cm tio |om|sso|+s u+nto v|su+||z+d+s |n|c|+|mcntc (|^|| ct +| .oo+)
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
:o)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
2. Abrindo a caixa-preta dos modelos de excelncia gerencial:
a efetividade da gesto pela qualidade total e a difuso e
absoro de best practices em questo
|m dos c|cmcntos m+|s |cccntcs d+ cvo|uio d+ gcstio d+ u+||d+dc sio os ||Cs como um
mc|o dc |dcnt|c+| c d||und|| oes: a.:.es gc|cnc|+|s +|s modc|os tcm s|do |c|oduz|dos mundo
+|o|+ d||und|ndo |dc|+s c d||ct||zcs d+ Ccstio c|+ u+||d+dc ot+| (|) nos d||c|cntcs scto|cs
cconom|cos |usc+-sc +u| |+zc| +|gum+s |ccxocs com + |ntcnio dc +b||| + c+|x+-|ct+ d+ |
c conscucntcmcntc dos ||Cs um+ vcz uc c|cs contcm|+m cm su+ cst|utu|+ mu|tos c|cmcn-
tos d+uc|+ +bo|d+gcm (|^||| .oo. |^|| .oo, |||^||^ .oo,) ^b||| + c+|x+-|ct+ s|gn|c+
dcsvc|+| o uc cst+ ocu|to ou o uc c ouco cons|dc|+do cv|dcnc|+ndo cont|ovc|s|+s uc odcm
+,ud+| + cx||c+| +|guns dcsdob|+mcntos d+ +||c+io do || cm |C|s no ||+s|| |o|t+nto o con-
cc|to dc cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+|
,
|o| dcsconst|u|do ^ss|m os b|n+||os +dcu+do .s |n+dcu+do un|-
vc|s+| .s nio un|vc|s+| c nio |csc||t|vo .s |csc||t|vo |o|+m t|+t+dos ^ ||tc|+tu|+ sc|cc|on+d+ t|+z
v+||+s c||t|c+s | c +o modc|o dc +v+||+io + c|+ +ssoc|+do ^s d|scussocs sio gu|+d+s c|+s sc-
gu|ntcs +|m+ocs + | cnvo|vc mu|tos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s c nio +sscgu|+ g+n|os dc dcscm-
cn|o c + un|vc|s+||d+dc c t|+ns|c|cnc|+ d||ct+ dc bcst |+ct|ccs sio um+ |+|+c|+
C|o|n (+,,+) +|m+ uc +s duv|d+s u+nto cc+c|+ d+ | su|gcm um+ vcz uc + |m|+n-
t+io dc |og|+m+s dc | nio g+|+ntc +|t+ |odut|v|d+dc no |ongo |+zo c uc |+ v+||os
m|tos cm to|no d+ un|vc|s+||d+dc d+ su+ +||c+io cnt|c os u+|s +) o dc uc su+ |m|+nt+io
c um |occsso ncut|o .) uc c|+ mc||o|+ o |oco no c||cntc ,) uc c|+ c|cv+ os n|vc|s g|ob+|s dc
dcscmcn|o |) uc c|+ |nst|tuc|on+||z+ |nov+io c +uto-|cnov+io n+s o|g+n|z+ocs O +uto|
conc|u| uc + | nio c tio un|vc|s+|mcntc +||c+vc| |cC+bc c \||||nson (+,,;) +ont+m
+|+ cv|dcnc|+s cm|||c+s most|+ndo |csu|t+dos +mb|guos u+nto +o succsso d+ | |nu+n-
to +|guns su|vcys +ccn+m +|+ +|t+s t+x+s dc |+||+s n+ |m|+nt+io d+uc|+ +bo|d+gcm out|+s
most|+m +|gum g|+u dc succsso |+ |+|||ngton (+,,;) |cvc|+ uc |+t|c+s dc gcstio cons+g|+-
d+s nio sio tio c|ct|v+s como + |cto||c+ dc scus dc|cnso|cs o |+z c|c| Os |csu|t+dos do cstudo
|ntc|n+t|on+| u+||ty tudy cnvo|vcndo ,s| cm|cs+s no C+n+d+ |u|o+ |+io c ||^ no u+|
sc buscou const|u|| um b+nco dc |+t|c+s |ntc|n+c|on+|s dc gcstio |cvc|+m uc + |dc|+ dc um
con,unto dc oes: a.:.es un|vc|s+|mcntc utc|s |ovou-sc sc| dcb|| |||c+| c scm |und+mcnto
|+ycs ct +| (.oos) tcm |c|+t+do cxcct+t|v+s cx+gc|+d+s (c dco|s ||ust|+d+s) dc gc|cntcs dc
|oduio n+ +doio dc +bo|d+gcns como + | ||cs |c|+t+m uc cstudos subscucntcs mos-
t|+|+m mu|tos ||+c+ssos dcss+s +bo|d+gcns uc |n|c|+|mcntc |o|+m bcm succd|d+s m+s cst+g-
, Con|o|mc ||| (.oo+) cxcc|cnc|+ c um+ s|tu+io cxccc|on+| d+ gcstio c dos |csu|t+dos obt|dos c|+s o|g+n|z+ocs
+|c+n+d+ c|+ |+t|c+ cont|nu+d+ dc v+|o|cs o|g+n|z+c|on+|s |ccon|cc|dos |ntc|n+c|on+|mcntc
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:os
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
n+|+m ou mcsmo |cg|cd||+m ^cn+s um tc|o d+s cm|cs+s uc |m|+nt+|+m | +|c+n+-
|+m os ob,ct|vos csc|+dos c uc v+||+s |n|c|+t|v+s +|+ v|ncu|+| + | com o succsso n+ncc||o
d+s cm|cs+s |+v|+m |oduz|do |csu|t+dos +mb|guos c con|t+ntcs ^s csu|s+s cm|||c+s +tc
|o,c +|cscnt+m |csu|t+dos nio conc|us|vos uc con|mcm + v|ncu|+io d||ct+ cnt|c u+||d+dc
c dcscmcn|o (||C|^||||| .oo;)
V+||os +uto|cs (|^| ct +| .oos |^||||CO| +,,;) +|m+m uc um |+to|-c|+vc d+ dcb|||d+-
dc dcss+s |+t|c+s c + vo|ub|||d+dc d+ +|t+ d||cio n+ +doio |nconscucntc dc mod|smos gc|cn-
c|+|s ^s d||c|cn+s nos c|s dc scus cxccut|vos c||cntcs comct|do|cs c |odutos cx|gcm uc d|-
|c|cntcs |+t|c+s sc,+m |m|+nt+d+s +|+ +m||+| o dcscmcn|o o|g+n|z+c|on+| |n|c||zmcntc nio
cx|stc um+ |csost+ un|c+ +|+ tod+s +s o|g+n|z+ocs (|^||||CO| +,,; |^| ct +| .oos)
^|cm d|sso |+ |ob|cm+s n+ |dcnt|c+io dc oes: a.:.es ^ mcnos uc um |csu|t+do suc||o|
sc,+ obt|do c|+|+mcntc + o|g+n|z+io cst+|+ |+zcndo +|go sub-ot|mo uc nio c o mc||o| (||-
|| .oo+) Out|o com||c+do| c + conot+io +m|+ c |m|cc|s+ do s|gn|c+do dc mc||o| |m+
vcz uc + |dcnt|c+io dc bcst |+ct|ccs dccndc d+ +n+||sc dc mcd|d+s dc dcscmcn|o odc
|+vc| d|st|nt+s v|socs sob|c o uc |c|cscnt+ um |csu|t+do bcm-succd|do |||c|cntcs +to|cs |m-
||c+m c|scct|v+s d|vc|s+s ^ss|m o uc c mc||o| +|+ um +to| ou g|uo odc sc| o oosto
+|+ out|o ^ sub,ct|v|d+dc n+ |dcnt|c+io dc oes: a.:.es t+mbcm |cc|s+ sc| cons|dc|+d+
|m mu|t+s s|tu+ocs oes: a.:.es odcm nio sc| dcduz|d+s o| mc|o dc mcd|d+s ob,ct|v+s
m+s o| mc|o dc ,u|g+mcnto sub,ct|vo (|||| .oo+) |ssc +uto| conc|u| uc +s o|g+n|z+ocs
nio odcm o| cm |+t|c+ modc|os dc gcstio +|+ dctc|m|n+| oes: a.:.es |+|tc do dcs+o
dc |dcnt|c+| |+t|c+s dc gcstio cm uc |+ |ntcnio dc +bso|vc-|+s c uc c|+s nio sio +m|+-
mcntc v|s|vc|s O uc sc costum+ vc| d|vu|g+do sio +cn+s |cg|st|os dcss+s |+t|c+s
zu|+ns|| (+,,e) c |o|||tt (.oo.) +|m+m uc o succsso d+ t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc |+t|c+s o|g+n|z+-
c|on+|s dccndc dc c++c|d+dcs dc +bso|io c dc +|cnd|z+gcm dc ucm +s |cccbc c uc um
dos m+|o|cs obst+cu|os su+ c|ct|v+io c com|ccndc| c |c|oduz|| + comoncntc t+c|t+ dos
con|cc|mcntos cnvo|v|dos n+s |+t|c+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s cm out|os contcxtos cgundo |cwc||
(.oo,) c |+|+c|os+ c s|m||st+ + suos|io dc uc oes: a.:.es odcm sc| |dcnt|c+d+s cm um
|ug+| c o con|cc|mcnto sob|c c|+s sc| t|+ns|c||do d||ct+mcntc +|+ out|o dc modo + t|+ns|o|-
m+| + |+t|c+ +|| |+ ||m|t+ocs ncss+ |dc|+ o|s sc cons|dc|+ + c|scct|v+ dc uc o con|cc|-
mcnto c soc|+|mcntc const|u|do c cn|+|z+do n+ |+t|c+ +| c|scct|v+ sugc|c uc + n+tu|cz+
s|tu+d+ do con|cc|mcnto to|n+ |moss|vc| t|+ns|c||| oes: a.:.es dc modo d||cto ^o |nvcs
d|sso o con|cc|mcnto tcm dc sc| gc|+do cm scu |o||o contcxto us+ndo cc|t+mcntc |dc|+s
obt|d+s dc out|os |ug+|cs m+s cx|g|ndo ncccss+||+mcntc + |cconst|tu|io d+ |+t|c+ +o |nvcs dc
s|m|csmcntc cnvo|vc| + t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc con|cc|mcnto dc um |ug+| +|+ out|o
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
:o,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
^ v|sio sub,+ccntc dc uc oes: a.:.es sio |+c||mcntc t|+ns|c||vc|s cons|dc|+ o con|cc|mcnto
como oss|vc| dc sc| ossu|do (||\||| .oo,) |ss+ v|sio c dom|n+ntc n+ ||tc|+tu|+ dc gcstio c
+ssumc uc o con|cc|mcnto odc sc| to|n+do cx||c|to c t|+ns|c||do dc um+ csso+ (ou g|uo
o|g+n|z+io soc|cd+dc) +|+ out|+ |m+ v|sio +|tc|n+t|v+ |ccon|ccc o con|cc|mcnto como dc-
cndcntc do contcxto (|O| |^|||CO +,,| |O| |^|||CO |^C|O|O .oo, ||\|||
.oo,) |cssc modo o con|cc|mcnto c |nco|o|+do n+ |+t|c+ c +ss|m |nt||nscc+mcntc soc|+|
|ogo + t|+ns|c|cnc|+ d||ct+ dc con|cc|mcnto nio c oss|vc| o|uc o con|cc|mcnto c soc|+|-
mcntc const|u|do c |nc|cntcmcntc d|||c|| dc sc| t|+ns|c||do (z||^||| +,,e) |ogo t|+ns|c|||
oes: a.:.es cm uc os |nd|v|duos cnvo|v|dos ossucm con|cc|mcntos v+||+dos c cstio cng+-
,+dos cm d||c|cntcs +t|v|d+dcs nio sc|+ +|go t||v|+| c d||ct+mcntc c|ct|vo Cons|dc|+d+s +s d||c-
|cn+s dc contcxto |ntc||ct+ocs ou cntcnd|mcntos +|tc|n+t|vos sio |ncv|t+vc|s mcsmo u+n-
do +s csso+s tcm o mcsmo con|cc|mcnto cx||c|to (||\||| .oo,)
O mc|o +ccsso ou ossc dc con|cc|mcnto cx||c|to c +cn+s o onto dc +|t|d+ (||\||| .oo,)
|sso nio b+st+ +|+ mud+| + |+t|c+ o|uc c|+ so odc sc| +|tc|+d+ u+ndo +s b+||c||+s soc|o-
cu|tu|+|s dc d||c|cntcs comun|d+dcs cnvo|v|d+s |o|cm dc||ub+d+s |m vcz d|sso +s csso+s |cc|-
s+m sc comun|c+| +ss|m||+| +bo|d+gcns cogn|t|v+s c dcscnvo|vc| com|ccnsocs com+|t|||+d+s
^ |+t|c+ dc uc |+|+ + +uto|+ cm uc o con|cc|mcnto c |nco|o|+do c cu|tu|+|mcntc mcd|+d+
c |csu|t+ dc um+ tc|+ dc con|cc|mcntos gc|+dos o| mc|o dc |ntc|+ocs soc|+|s cond|ocs m+-
tc||+|s dc t|+b+||o c |ntc||ct+ocs ncgoc|+d+s (z||^||| +,,e) ^ t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc oes: a.
:.es sc|+ o|s ||m|t+d+ c|+s |dc|+s |c-cx|stcntcs sob|c + |+t|c+ no|m+| no out|o contcxto
|+|t|cu|+|mcntc + t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc con|cc|mcnto sc|+ ||m|t+d+ c|+ c++c|d+dc dc +bso|io d+
o|g+n|z+io |cc||cntc (CO||| ||V|||^| +,,o z||^||| +,,e) |c + c++c|d+dc dc c|+
|ccon|ccc| v+|o| +ss|m||+| c +||c+| o con|cc|mcnto | css+ c++c|d+dc dccndc +m|+mcntc do
con|cc|mcnto c |+t|c+ +cumu|+dos ^ss|m mcsmo + m+|s s|m|cs |+t|c+ gc|cnc|+| odc v+||+|
cnt|c cu|tu|+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s dcv|do + d||c|cntcs cxcct+t|v+s c no|m+s dc modo uc + t|+ns|c-
|cnc|+ dc con|cc|mcntos cm to|no dc oes: a.:.es odc sc| |n+dcu+d+ c |ncc+z
||og|+m+s dc cxcc|cnc|+ cm gcstio |c|oduzcm csscs |ob|cm+s um+ vcz uc cst+bc|cccm no
cntcndc| dc scus +|u|tctos um modc|o dc gcstio gcnc||co un|vc|s+| c +||c+vc| + u+|uc| t|o
dc o|g+n|z+io (|| .oo,) nio scndo cx|vc| s cscc|c|d+dcs c |d|oss|nc|+s|+s d+s mcsm+s
(|^||| .oo.) ^o ||C;|| |+|t+ cons|stcnc|+ ou |und+mcnt+io cm |+zio dc sustcnt+|cm
o cu|voco concc|tu+| c mctodo|og|co no t|+to d+s o|g+n|z+ocs como scndo |omogcnc+s
dcscons|dc|+ndo-sc +s d|st|nt+s cscc|c|d+dcs c contcxtos Out|+ |+|+c|+ dcsscs |og|+m+s c +
+|m+io dc uc nio sio |csc||t|vos o|s nio |ccomcnd+m tccn|c+s dc gcstio cscc|c+s +|+
o +tcnd|mcnto dc scus |cu|s|tos |sso nio sc sustcnt+ o|s cm su+ |o||+ cst|utu|+ |+ mu|tos
|ccc|tos d+ u+||d+dc com |o|tc odc| no|m+t|vo sob|c scus +||c+ntcs cm |+|+| n+s |+t|c+s
c mod|smos dc gcstio cncobc|tos nos |cu|s|tos dc cxcc|cnc|+
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:+o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
3. A promoo da excelncia gerencial nos institutos e centros
de P&D brasileiros
^ busc+ dc modc|os dc gcstio +|+ |C|s tcm s|do const+ntc n+s u|t|m+s dcc+d+s Con|o|mc
v+||os cstudos (^|^Oz +,,e O|z^ ||O +,,s ^|||| .ooo ^|||||||| .oo, cnt|c
out|os) mu|tos dos +scctos uc +,ud+m + cx||c+| +s d|cu|d+dcs n+ cxccuio dc su+s m|ssocs
dcco||cm dc su+s |+t|c+s oc|+c|on+|s ^ss|m + ^b|t| |nco|o|ou css+ tcm+t|c+ cm d|vc|sos
momcntos dc su+ t|+,cto||+ uc g+n|ou cn|+sc + +|t|| dc +,,, com + |oos|io do ||og|+-
m+ dc |cv|t+||z+io dos |nst|tutos dc |csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ (|cv|tc) +o|+do com |ccu|sos d+s
+gcnc|+s |cdc|+|s dc |omcnto C
O |cv|tc |o| um m+|co |nst|tuc|on+| |mo|t+ntc n+ t|+,cto||+ d+ ^b|t| c tcvc como |cssuosto
b+s|co + ncccss|d+dc dc |co||cnt+| + +tu+io dos |nst|tutos +|+ dcm+nd+s do scto| |odut|vo
dc |cst+io dc sc|v|os tccn|cos cscc|+||z+dos c dc +t|v|d+dcs dc || como o dcscnvo|v|-
mcnto dc |o,ctos cooc|+t|vos com cm|cs+s |o mb|to dcssc ||og|+m+ v+||os |o,ctos |o-
|+m dcscnvo|v|dos v|s+ndo |o|t+|ccc| os |nst|tutos |m+ dcss+s |n|c|+t|v+s |o| o ||o,cto |xcc|cn-
c|+ n+ |csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ uc buscou +,ud+-|os + mcd|| c + mc||o|+| scu dcscmcn|o u+
||nc|+| d||ct||z c|+ cont||bu|| com + mc||o||+ do dcscmcn|o dos |nst|tutos o| mc|o do cs-
t|mu|o +doio do ||C;|| c uso dc |nd|c+do|cs dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs
^ cmc|gcnc|+ dc um+ |oost+ uc ||v||cg|+v+ + +v+||+io c mc||o||+ do dcscmcn|o dc |C|s
tcvc como dctc|m|n+ntcs +|gum+s v+||+vc|s dc contcxto t+|s como |cduio g|+d+t|v+ dos |c-
cu|sos ub||cos +|+ +t|v|d+dcs dc csu|s+ c |cssio dos m+ntcncdo|cs +|+ os |nst|tutos ob-
tc|cm |ccu|sos dc |ccc|t+ |o||+ |+ v|sio dc |+|+n (.oo,) nunc+ |o| tio |mo|t+ntc uc |C|s
sc vo|t+sscm +|+ o mc|c+do como no |n|c|o do sccu|o .+ c cstcs |nst|tutos nunc+ cn||cnt+|+m
|cssio tio |o|tc ncstc scnt|do | ncssc contcxto uc su|gc o |||;^b|t|
Com o +o|o do C|| cm con,unto com +e |C|s c +o|o tccn|co (|cmunc|+do) dc consu|to|cs
d+ || + ^b|t| |n|c|ou cm +,,s +s +t|v|d+dcs do |||
|
uc sc +ut+m no t|c|n+mcnto dc cs-
cc|+||st+s +|+ +v+||+io dc s|stcm+s dc gcstio dos |C|s scgundo o ||C;|| n+ gc|+io dc
|nd|c+do|cs dc dcscmcn|o c n+ d|sscm|n+io dc bcst |+ct|ccs dc gcstio dc |C|s |cssc tot+|
+. |nst|tutos +|t|c|+|+m c|ct|v+mcntc d+s +t|v|d+dcs dcscnvo|v|d+s (c+||y-+dotc|s) n+uc|c
+no submctcndo scus s|stcm+s dc gcstio +v+||+io
| ||o,cto |xcc|cnc|+ n+ |csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ (|||) ||og|+m+ |xcc|cnc|+ n+ Ccstio dc |nst|tu|ocs ccno|og|c+s (||C|cc) c
||og|+m+ dc |xcc|cnc|+ n+ Ccstio (||C) sc |c|c|cm mcsm+ +io d+ ^|||| dc |omoio d+ +v+||+io d+ gcstio dos |C|s
+m||+do cm .ooe +|+ out|os +to|cs como un|d+dcs dc dcs|gn +ssoc|+ocs scto||+|s scc|ct+||+s cst+du+|s dc C c |und+ocs
dc +o|o csu|s+
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
:++
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
3.1. Concepo e formulao do PEPT: controvrsias e seduo de
modismos
^ csco||+ do ||C;|| +|+ |nst|umcnt+||z+| o ||| c um+ ucstio cont|ovc|s+ o|s +|cm dc
tc| |+v|do |c|utnc|+ cm su+ +cc|t+io o| +|tc dc csso+s d+ |o||+ ^b|t| bcm como d|||-
gcntcs c tccn|cos dc |C|s |ouvc out|+s |oost+s mctodo|og|c+s n+ const|uio do ||| uc
odc||+m tc| s|do cons|dc|+d+s c uc c|+m +ss|vc|s dc |nucnc|+| su+ t|+,cto||+ +|s |o|+s sc
|nc||n+|+m c|o c+m|n|o d+ busc+ d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |C|s uc sc to|nou + |dc|+ dom|-
n+ntc n+ t|+,cto||+ do |||
,

+| csco||+ sc +o|+ no d|scu|so d+ || u+nto un|vc|s+||d+dc c ncut|+||d+dc no|m+t|v+ dc


su+ mctodo|og|+ Ou sc,+ o dc uc o ||C;|| c +dcu+do + |C|s o|s c +||c+vc| + todo t|o
dc o|g+n|z+io c dc uc nio |moc tccn|c+s dc gcstio cscc|c+s +|+ css+s o|g+n|z+ocs +tcn-
dc|cm scus |cu|s|tos ^|cm d|sso out|o +sccto uc cv|dcnc|+ ||+g|||d+dcs no dc||nc+mcnto do
||| |o| + |+|t+ dc c|+|cz+ u+nto + |csu|t+dos c conscucnc|+s do uso do || nos |C|s uc
|ccu|sos sc||+m dcm+nd+dos uc cont|ngcntc c c|s dc csso+s sc||+m cnvo|v|dos ctc
^dot+do o || c dcn|do o cscoo do ||| os |C|s +|t|c|+ntcs vcm sc c++c|t+ndo n+-
uc|+ mctodo|og|+ v+||os dc|cs sc submctcndo uc|c |occsso dc +v+||+io |m |nst|umcnto
|mo|t+ntc n+ mctodo|og|+ do || c + gcstio b+sc+d+ cm |nd|c+do|cs uc dcvcm |ct|+t+| o
dcscmcn|o dos |occssos c |+t|c+s dc gcstio d+s o|g+n|z+ocs |sso dcm+ndou d+ ^b|t| c
dos |C|s + const|uio c + +||mcnt+io dc um b+nco dc |nd|c+do|cs dc dcscmcn|o |o|m+ndo
sc||cs ||sto||c+s +|+ +,ud+| os d|||gcntcs dos |nst|tutos + tc|cm um+ v|sio +m|+ c com+|+d+
dos |nd|c+do|cs uc ||cs oss|b|||tc cst+bc|ccc| c|os cnt|c scus |csu|t+dos c o |occsso dc |+nc-
,+mcnto cst|+tcg|co c + tom+d+ dc dcc|socs (C|||||C| ^|||||||| .oo.) |sscs |nd|-
c+do|cs vcm scndo d|scut|dos +nu+|mcntc no ||| c cstio o|g+n|z+dos con|o|mc + |c||+mcnt+
dc gcstio |C |ccxo dc t|+ns|o|m+ocs c |nsc|ocs no +|cnd|z+do d+ |o||+ || |c|odu-
z|ndo o +|cnd|z+do d+ || + ^b|t| scgu|u css+ oio dc cst|mu|+| + const|uio dc |C nos
|C|s c |nco|o|ou no ||| t|c|n+mcnto +|+ os |nst|tutos ncss+ mctodo|og|+
3.2. Difuso do PEPT nos ICPs brasileiros
|csdc o |n|c|o do ||| os |C|s +|t|c|+ntcs tcm s|do c++c|t+dos no ||C;|| comosto
b+nc+s dc +v+||+io dc out|os |C|s |cd|g|do |c|+to||os dc gcstio (|Cs) +|+ subm|ssio +o |o-
ccsso dc +v+||+io do ||| c mcd|do |nd|c+do|cs dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs O u+d|o + most|+ os
|nd|c+do|cs dc +t|v|d+dcs do |||
, |m+ +n+||sc dct+||+d+ d+ t|+,cto||+ do ||| odc sc| cncont|+d+ cm ^|buuc|uc (.o++)
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:+:
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
Quadro + |nd|c+do|cs dc +t|v|d+dcs do ||| con|o|mc c|c|os dc +v+||+io
kesultados \ Clclos !999 z000 z00! z00z z00! z004 z00 z006 z007 z009 z0!0
|o dc +dcsocs 1o .o !0 !4 41 o1 o1 4 !c !1 4
|o dc |C|s uc +dc|||+m
+o |||
1o .o !0 !4 40 o1 o1 4 !c .1 !4
|o dc |Cs +|cscnt+dos 1. 1 1o 1! 1! 1c 1 1 1 1!
|o dc |C|s uc
+|cscnt+|+m |Cs
1. 1 1o 1! 1! 1c 1 1 1 11
|o dc cx+m|n+do|cs . !. !! 4 4! 4 !! !c 0 -
|o dc csso+s t|c|n+d+s !0 1 ! 1! - !. !o! - - .0 .
|o dc cvcntos dc
d|vu|g+io;c++c|t+io
04 0 0o 0o - - 1 0 0 1! 1!
|ontc |:://o'aes:ase'/c/ao:/ss:eoa/oa.aacesn ^.essc eo ././..
`c:as |o ...! aoa /aoaaac ae acc esasa aaea ac |||
. |o ... c ||| /c aes.co:oaaac e essaa eo ao/... ^sso cs aocs eo aes:aae ... e ...) se
e/eeo e:coaaa ac ce:c sco a aeocooaac ||G e .co a aaesac ae ca:as os::aces a'o ae |C|s
.coc se.e:aas es:aaaas e assc.aces
O C|+co + +|cscnt+ + cvo|uio dos numc|os dc +dcsocs c dc +v+||+ocs no |||
0
12
16
26
30
34
41
40
21
34
61
61
54
38
31
45
15 16
13
13
18
15 15
17
5
13
11
1999
Ciclos de Avaliao
N

m
e
r
o

d
e

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
i

e
s
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
N de adeses ao PEPT
N de ICPs que aderiram ao PEPT
N de instituies que apresentaram RG
N de ICPs que apresentaram RG
2010
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
39
42
51
54
60
63
66
45
48
Craco + |vo|uio do ||| numc|o dc |nst|tu|ocs +dcs+s c +v+||+d+s +,,, .o+o
|ontc |'aocaac ca a a: ae aaacs co:acs oc eoaeec n:://...ao:co
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++


|nt|c +,,, c .oo, |ouvc |og|css|v+ +dcsio dc |C|s +o ||| ^o |ongo dc ++ c|c|os dc +v+||+io
(no u+| +o| |C|s +|t|c|+|+m) |ouvc um+ +dcsio mcd|+ dc ,s |C|s o| c|c|o |o|cm nos u|t|mos
+nos tcm |+v|do d|m|nu|io no |ntc|cssc c|o ||| c|ccb|d+ c|+ ucd+ n+s +dcsocs dc |C|s
cnt|c .ooe c .oo, ^|cm d|sso + cvo|uio no numc|o dc |nst|tutos +v+||+dos com tcndcnc|+
constnc|+ tcm cv|dcnc|+do ouc+ +t|+t|v|d+dc dos |C|s o| +uc|c |occsso dc +v+||+io |m
mcd|+ +| |nst|tutos |o|+m +v+||+dos o| +no no c||odo +,,, .o+o +b+|xo d+ mcd|+ +nu+| dc
,s |nst|tutos +dcsos |sscs d+dos sugc|cm t+mbcm uc |ouvc m+|o| conccnt|+io dc cs|o|os
n+ busc+ dc nov+s +dcsocs cm dct||mcnto d+ |ntc|n+||z+io do ||C;|| nos |C|s uc odc||+
|cct|| cm numc|o m+|o| dc |c|+to||os +v+||+dos no ||| ^ cu|v+ |c+| d+ cvo|uio dc +dcsocs dc
|C|s +o ||| c most|+d+ no C|+co . (sc||c cm +zu| c|+|o c t||ngu|o como m+|c+do|)
0
12
16
26
30
34
42
41
42
48
47
21
34
61
61
54
38
31
45
15 16
13
13
18
15 15
17
5
13
11
1999
Ciclos de Avaliao
N

m
e
r
o

d
e

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
i

e
s
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
39
42
51
54
60
63
66
45
48
N de adeses ao PEPT
N de ICPs que aderiram ao PEPT
N de instituies que apresentaram RG
N de ICPs que apresentaram RG
Grco |vo|uio |c+| dc +dcsocs dc |C|s +o ||| +,,, .o+o
|ontc |'aocaac ca a a: ae aaacs co:acs oc eoaeec n:://...ao:co
|ot+ ||esaoese ae as aoaaaes aa |ooaa ae aaeao oc ecac ...+ ... c /eao ae.ac a ceo:aac
saec aa |ooaa:eae
^ |mb|++ dcm+ndou dc su+s un|d+dcs cm .oo| + c|+bo|+io dc um |C cst|utu|+do scgundo
o || c |oos uc c|+s +dc||sscm +o ||| (+|gum+s ,+ o t|n|+m |c|to cm .oo,) |usc+v+ com
css+ +dcsio cm m+ss+ +|cnd|z+do n+ c|+bo|+io do |C d+do uc c um |nd|c+do| |mo|t+n-
tc no |stcm+ |mb|++ |ssc cst|mu|o |nd||cto d+ |mb|++-cdc cx||c+ o s+|to n+s +dcsocs no
c||odo .oo|-.ooe Contudo cssc s+|to nio sc |cctc s|gn|c+t|v+mcntc no numc|o dc |Cs +v+-
||+dos ^ss|m + d|nm|c+ |c+| dc +dcsocs dc |C|s +o ||| c css+ uc cv|dcnc|+ o +t+m+| dc |s
|C|s ^ +sccnsio no numc|o dc +dcsocs c +v+||+ocs cm .o+o |c|+t|v+ + .oo, sc |c|c|c +o cs|o|-
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
o dc |ctom+d+ do ||| (+go|+ ||C) |nco|o|+ndo out|+s |nst|tu|ocs do |stcm+ dc |nov+io
como scc|ct+||+s cst+du+|s dc C c +ssoc|+ocs scto||+|s
3.3. Motivao dos ICPs e diculdades na internalizao do PEPT
^ oss|b|||d+dc dc |ntc|+io cnt|c os |nst|tutos |o| um +sccto do ||| uc gc|ou nos mcsmos
g|+ndc cxcct+t|v+ |st|c|t+| v|ncu|os com out|os |nst|tutos c|+ um mc|o dc sc c||+| |cdcs dc
convc|s+io dc d|scussio c so|uio dc |ob|cm+s Out|o +sccto |mo|t+ntc c|+ + ||dc|+n+
do |omoto| do ||| ou sc,+ um+ +ssoc|+io uc |ntcg|+ |C|s dc todo o ||+s|| c com t|ns|to
o||t|co |mo|t+ntc no mc|o dc C |m+ +|ox|m+io cnt|c os |C|s c dcsscs com + ^|||| o-
dc||+ s|gn|c+| um+ m+|o| convc|gcnc|+ c +g|ut|n+io dc dcm+nd+s o||t|c+s n+ cs|c|+ d+ C
^ntcs dc +,,s u+ndo o ||| |n|c|ou v+||os |nst|tutos ,+ sc |cocu+v+m com + mc||o||+ d+
u+||d+dc m+n||cst+d+ n+ |nt|oduio dc s|stcm+s dc cont|o|c c g+|+nt|+ d+ u+||d+dc c busc+
dc +c|cd|t+io dc scus |+bo|+to||os
e
|+s +|+ + g|+ndc m+|o||+ dos |C|s + |cocu+io cm
+v+||+| scus s|stcm+s dc gcstio dc sc d|so| dc |nd|c+do|cs dc dcscmcn|o +|+ + su+ +t|v|d+dc
c +t+c+d+ com su+ +dcsio +o ||| |mbo|+ + mctodo|og|+ do || nio |ossc nov+ +|+ +|guns
|nst|tutos + nov|d+dc ncstc |occsso |o| + dcn|io dc |nd|c+do|cs +|+ os |C|s c + c||+io dc
cs+os dc d|scussio dos |ob|cm+s | ncst+ dcn|io css+s |nst|tu|ocs +|t|c|+|+m +t|v+mcn-
tc cm su+ const|uio ,unt+mcntc com + ^b|t|
^|cm d|sso + c|ccio d+ +doio dc no|m+s tccn|c+s d+ u+||d+dc nos |occssos n+||st|cos
dos |C|s c +c|cd|t+io dc scus |+bo|+to||os dc cns+|os c um cst|mu|o |o|tc odcndo |unc|on+|
como |mo|t+ntcs c|cdcnc|+|s +|+ + |c+||z+io dc sc|v|os o| css+s o|g+n|z+ocs ^ |csc|to
dcssc +sccto c ncccss+||+ um+ |ccxio sob|c o uc ++|cnt+ sc| um+ g|+ndc dcb|||d+dc dc
||Cs cm sc +|m+|cm n+s o|g+n|z+ocs dc csu|s+ + dc gc|+| v+|o| n+s |c|+ocs dc |o|ncc|-
mcnto vs consumo dc |odutos dc |C|s Ou sc,+ scus c||cntcs v+|o||z+m + |m|+nt+io dc s|stc-
m+s dc g+|+nt|+ d+ u+||d+dc nos |nst|tutos o|s |sso d+ v|s|b|||d+dc n+ c+dc|+ dc |o|ncc|mcnto
c consumo dos |odutos dos |nst|tutos (|unc|on+ como mocd+ |o|tc dc +|ox|m+io) m+s
nio ,u|g+m |mo|t+ntc ou nio c|ccbcm + cxcc|cnc|+ cm gcstio ^ +doio dc modc|os como
o || nio tcm cssc +c|o nio scndo c|cct|vc| ncss+s |c|+ocs dos |C|s com scus mc|c+dos
ob|c + +doio do ||C;|| sc| um +sccto dc cont|nu|d+dc d+ t|+,cto||+ d+ u+||d+dc nos
|nst|tutos + ||ngu+gcm d+ u+||d+dc cmb+|c+d+ cm um modc|o dc cxcc|cnc|+ c|+ +|go novo +|+
os |nst|tutos ^ cu|tu|+ d+ u+||d+dc nos |nst|tutos sc||+ um |+c|||t+do| ncssc |occsso dc busc+
e Com + n+||d+dc dc g+|+nt|| + u+||d+dc dc scus cns+|os c sc|v|os c +|t|c|+| d+s |cdcs dc sc|v|os tccno|og|cos +|+ +
|ndust||+ mu|tos |C|s |+n+m mio d+ dcn|io c uso dc |occd|mcntos c +d|ocs con|o|mc no|m+s tccn|c+s cm +|t|cu|+|
d+ ^|| ||| |O;||C +;o., cu,o +tcnd|mcnto +os scus |cu|s|tos gc|+|s +,ud+-os + |ntc|n+||z+|cm comctcnc|+s cm scus
|+bo|+to||os dc cns+|os c c+||b|+io
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
:+,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
d+ cxcc|cnc|+ Ou sc,+ + +dcsio +o ||| c conscucntcmcntc +o ||C;|| |ntcns|c+||+ o uc
,+ cx|st|+ nos |nst|tutos
;

|o d|scu|so dos |nst|tutos ||v+dos c|ccbc-sc um+ |ccxio const+ntc com + |c|+io custo vs
bcnc||c|o no dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc |o,ctos ^|guns dc|cs uc ,+ |+v|+m +|c+n+do n|vc|s dcsc,+-
vc|s;+cc|t+vc|s dc m+tu||d+dc gc|cnc|+| nio c|ccbc|+m uc os bcnc||c|os |omct|dos no |||
,ust|c+v+m os cs|o|os |nc|cntcs su+ |m|+nt+io c sc +|+st+|+m do mcsmo ^|guns dc|cs
contudo cmbo|+ nio cst|vcsscm m+|s |cscntcs nos c|c|os dc +t|v|d+dcs d+uc|c |o,cto |n-
co|o|+|+m v+||os |cu|s|tos do || |+v|+ +ss|m c|+|cz+ dcss+s |nst|tu|ocs dc uc o |||
dcm+nd+||+ cs|o|os |ntc|nos cm tc|mos dc custos cu,os bcnc||c|os nio sc||+m c|ccb|dos c
o|t+nto +gos c|os scus c||cntcs
|c|ccbc-sc t+mbcm uso |+c|on+| c|+ |mb|++ d+s oss|b|||d+dcs dc +|cnd|z+do c|o |||
|+cc +o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc su+ t|+,cto||+ o|g+n|z+c|on+| c m+tu||d+dc gc|cnc|+| u+ ||nc|+|
|cocu+io +o cx|g|| dc su+s un|d+dcs um |C nos mo|dcs d+ mctodo|og|+ do || c +o cst|-
mu|+| + +|t|c|+io dc|+s no ||| c|+ uc c|+s |ntc|n+||z+sscm c++c|d+dcs n+ c|+bo|+io dc
|Cs c ||+nos dc |c||o||+ Cc|cnc|+|
Os ||nc|+|s obst+cu|os dos |C|s +o busc+|cm |ntc|n+||z+| o ||| sio +o|o d+ d||cio cnvo|v|-
mcnto d+s csso+s c|cmcntos dc cu|tu|+ c ||g|dcz o|g+n|z+c|on+| c +ss|m||+io do modc|o |o-
osto no ||| |sscs c|cmcntos |n|b||+m + d||usio c +bso|io d+s mctodo|og|+s |csc||t+s no
||| dcnt|o dos |nst|tutos
O +o|o dos d|||gcntcs dos |C|s c um dos ||nc|+|s |+to|cs c||t|cos nos |occssos dc mud+n+
cm |C|s o|s c|c odc osc||+| con|o|mc + mud+n+ dc d||cio suscct|vc| + csco||+s mc|+mcn-
tc o||t|c+s Os scgu|ntcs +scctos sio |cvc|+do|cs dcss+ ||+g|||d+dc nos |C|s +) o cnvo|v|mcnto
d+ d||cio c dc cc|to modo + cx|stcnc|+ dc +|gum cn|o|ccmcnt c + |nst|tuc|on+||z+io dcss+s
|n|c|+t|v+s sio |und+mcnt+|s .) um |ob|cm+ c|on|co cm v+||os |C|s c o vo|unt+||smo no t|+to
dc ucstocs gc|cnc|+|s |c mu|t+s dcc|socs sio +ut+d+s no cntcnd|mcnto c vont+dc +bso|ut+
do d|||gcntc c dc uns oucos uc o cc|c+m ,) + oss|b|||d+dc dc +|gum cx|to n+ +doio do |||
+ss+ |ncv|t+vc|mcntc c|+ com|ccnsio c +bso|io dcsscs contcudos c|+ d||cio do |nst|tu-
to |) c|cnt|st+s (mu|tos dc|cs cm ostos dc d||cio) sio |c||+t+||os + dcm+nd+s gc|cnc|+|s c nio
cnxc|g+m v+|o| n+s mcsm+s ,) +|t+ |ot+t|v|d+dc dos d|||gcntcs
; |cm todos os |C|s t|n|+m cu|tu|+ |o|tc cm cont|o|c c gcstio d+ u+||d+dc c cm out|os css+ +ss+gcm d+ gcstio d+ u+||d+dc
+|+ + u+||d+dc n+ gcstio nio +contcccu ou tcvc ouc+ |o|+ ^ dcsc||io dc C+|c|+ c +||cs-||||o (.oo, ess-es,) +o
cstud+|cm + t|+,cto||+ |nst|tuc|on+| do |^| c ||ust|+t|v+ O |t+| |o| +v+||+do cm u+sc todos os c|c|os do |o,cto tcndo scm|c
+|c+n+do ontu+io +c|m+ d+ mcd|+ gc|+| Contudo scus +v+nos n+ d||cio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ dc su+ gcstio dc +co|do com
o || tcm s|do cucnos c um+ d+s |+zocs odc sc| + nio |nco|o|+io c|ct|v+ dos v+|o|cs c |cu|s|tos dcssc modc|o dc
|c|c|cnc|+ O modc|o do |t+| tcm s|do dc |+to + |O ,oo+ c +;o., ^ conc|usio dcsscs +uto|cs cv|dcnc|+ + d|cu|d+dc cm sc
|c|+c|on+| + |nucnc|+ do ||| nos |csu|t+dos d+uc|c ccnt|o |c cmbo|+ o |^| tcn|+ +|t|c|+do dc u+sc todos os c|c|os dc
+v+||+io do ||| su+ cvo|uio nio sc cx||c+ o| cssc oss|vc| ||n| c+us+|
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:+c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
^ ||go| os d|||gcntcs m+x|mos dos |C|s sc cnvo|vc|+m ouco no ||| c t|vc|+m b+|xo com|o-
m|sso n+uc|c cs|o|o ^ mcd|+ gc|cnc|+ c uc |o| scns|b|||z+d+ ou sc,+ um+ c||tc gc|cnc|+| |o|m+-
d+ +|+ +bso|vc| +s mctodo|og|+s do ||| c conduz|| + |ntc|n+||z+io d+s mcsm+s nos |nst|tutos
Out|o +sccto |und+mcnt+| cm |og|+m+s dc mud+n+ o|g+n|z+c|on+| sio +s csso+s |m |c|+-
io cxc||cnc|+ dos |C|s com +s mctodo|og|+s |oost+s no |||;^b|t| cssc |o| um g|+ndc cn-
t|+vc um+ vcz uc + mob|||z+io d+s csso+s |o| b+|x+ cm mu|tos |nst|tutos uc |cso|vc|+m +do-
t+| o ||C;|| sc |cst||ng|ndo mu|t+s vczcs + um nuc|co du|o uc conduz|u css+s +t|v|d+dcs
V+||os +scctos |cst||t|vos |c|c|cm-sc t+nto cu|tu|+ dc csu|s+ nos |C|s u+nto + c+|+ctc||s-
t|c+s dc scus modc|os ,u||d|co-|nst|tuc|on+|s uc +||+dos +o m+|co |cg+| c + ucstocs |c|+t|v+s
|C dc||m|t+m os +t||butos dos modc|os dc gcstio c con|o|m+ + +gcnd+ dc t|+b+||o ncss+s
o|g+n|z+ocs |ccu||+||d+dcs dos modc|os ,u||d|co-|nst|tuc|on+|s dos |nst|tutos ub||cos |mocm
|cst||ocs su+ cx|b|||d+dc c +utonom|+ |u|t+s dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs tcm dc ||d+| com mu|t+s
cont|ngcnc|+s u+nto dcn|io c cxccuio dc su+ +gcnd+ gc|cnc|+| |c|+s o gcsto| tcm ouc+
m+|gcm dc m+nob|+ +|+ |nucnc|+| mud+n+s dc |umo c c+ mu|to |cso s ucstocs ccn-
t|+|s ^|cm d|sso sob|c +s o|g+n|z+ocs ub||c+s cx|stc um+ +gcnd+ o||t|c+ c um m+|co |cg+|
dctc|m|n+ndo ou |cst||ng|ndo o +|c+ncc d+ +gcnd+ gc|cnc|+| ^ss|m |nst|tutos ub||cos su,c|-
tos s tu|bu|cnc|+s do +mb|cntc o||t|co c do m+|co |cg+| uc os |cgu|+m gc|+|mcntc tcm m+|s
d|cu|d+dcs dc obtcnio c gcstio dc |ccu|sos bcm como c|cmcntos cu|tu|+|s uc d|cu|t+m;
||m|t+m + +bso|io dc |ntc|vcnocs gc|cnc|+|s
^|cm d|sso + comun|d+dc dc csu|s+ cm |C|s tcm d|cu|d+dc dc com|ccndc| + |mo|tnc|+
dc |occssos gc|cnc|+|s n+s +t|v|d+dcs dc || o uc cm +|tc cx||c+||+ + d|cu|d+dc cm sc
conscgu|| cnvo|vc| csu|s+do|cs c tccn|cos cm |occssos dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto gc|cnc|+| |ssc
+sccto odc sc| com|ccnd|do como um+ ucstio dc d|cu|d+dc do co|o d||ct|vo dos |C|s
|ntcns|c+| cst|mu|os s su+s comun|d+dcs dc csu|s+ v|s--v|s uc|cs |cscntcs no |omcnto
C o uc odc gc|+| um+ v|sio dcs|ntcg|+d+ dc um+ gc|cnc|+| c out|+ dc csu|s+ como
d|cu|t+| + const|uio dc c++c|d+dcs o|g+n|z+c|on+|s nos |nst|tutos |+ um+ mu|t|-|nst|tuc|o-
n+||d+dc cm mu|tos |C|s dc um |+do + c|cnc|+ mc|ton|+n+ cm uc + comun|d+dc |ntc|n+ dc
csu|s+do|cs |csondc + cst|mu|os |o|tcs o| cxcm|o n+ c+t+io dc |ccu|sos d||ct+mcntc
nos o|gios dc |omcnto mu|t+s vczcs nio sc +||n|+ndo com dcm+nd+s d+ |nst|tu|io d+ u+|
|+z +|tc |c out|o |+ + |nst|tuc|on+||d+dc dc d||c|to nos |nst|tutos (+ ||c|+|u|+ o|g+n|z+c|on+|
dcs|gn+d+ com su+s d||cto||+s +sscsso||+s ctc uc odc d|so| dc |nst|umcntos t+|s como |+-
no cst|+tcg|co |+no d||cto| |og|+m+s dc +io |+t|c+s dc gcstio ctc +|+ +,ud+| no cum||-
mcnto dc scus m+nd+tos c + |oduz|| |csu|t+dos cc+zcs) uc tcm d|cu|d+dcs cm cst+bc|ccc|
cst|mu|os |o|tcs (vg o||t|c+s c |+t|c+s dc gcstio dc csso+s como mcc+n|smos dc +t|+io c
|ctcnio dc t+|cntos) +|+ +s ||dc|+n+s tccn|c+s |csondc|cm dcm+nd+s d+ +gcnd+ gc|cnc|+|
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
:+)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
Os mundos d+ c|cnc|+ c d+ gcstio t|+zcm cons|go cu|tu|+s ct|os ||ngu+gcns c |c+||d+dcs d|s-
t|nt+s c mu|t+s vczcs nio convc|s+m ou d|+|og+m
s
^ss|m |ntc|+ocs ncm scm|c sio |+cc|s o
uc d|cu|t+ uc os |nst|tutos +tucm cm un|d+dc c c|ct|vcm um+ +gcnd+ dc mud+n+ o|g+n|-
z+c|on+| ^ |og|c+ dos |C|s +ut+d+ csscnc|+|mcntc n+ |oduio c|cnt|c+ |c|cscnt+ + mo|tc
+|+ os mcsmos um+ vcz uc sob css+ |+c|on+||d+dc c|cs tcndcm + sc vo|t+| +|+ dcnt|o c +|+
+s comun|d+dcs |c|+c|on+d+s s su+s d|sc|||n+s nio c|ccbcndo c mcsmo |gno|+ndo +scctos
uc os |cvcm + um+ m+|o| |nsc|io soc|occonom|c+ od+v|+ |+ t+mbcm + oss|b|||d+dc dc
uc +s dcm+nd+s |nst|tuc|on+|s d+ comun|d+dc dc csu|s+ cm um |nst|tuto nio sc,+m dcv|d+-
mcntc |csond|d+s o uc |+vo|ccc uc c|+ busuc c+m|n|os m+|s cu|tos +|+ v|+b|||z+| o +tcn-
d|mcnto dc scus |ntc|csscs
Out|o cnt|+vc +doio do ||C;|| c|os |C|s |o| + +ss|m||+io d+uc|c modc|o ^|cm dc
nio tc|cm s|do |c|t+s +dcu+ocs s d|st|nt+s |c+||d+dcs c;ou +d+t+ocs dc ||ngu+gcm um +s-
ccto uc cont||bu|u +|+ |sso |o| o |occsso dc c++c|t+io no ||| con|c||do cxc|us|v+mcntc
o| consu|to|cs d+ || +costum+dos + |c+||d+dcs cm|cs+||+|s |ss+ |o|m+ dc t|+t+| os ucst|o-
n+mcntos dos |C|s +|t|c|+ntcs +cc|c+ d+ +dcu+io mctodo|og|c+ |o| um+ g|+ndc ||+g|||d+dc
o|s nio +sscgu|+ uc + t|+nsos|io dos s|gn|c+dos do ||C;|| +|+ |C|s sc c|ct|vcm ^
||ngu+gcm do ||C;|| c cm|cs+||+| nio scndo t||v|+| c o|t+nto d|||c|| dc com|ccndc| o
uc c|c |cu|s|t+ Vc|tc-|o +|+ o +mb|cntc dc |C|s c um +sccto c||t|co d+do o |mcnso ||+to
cnt|c +s |c+||d+dcs dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs
3.4. Aspectos positivos, fragilidades e evidncias das limitaes do PEPT
|io sc odc +|m+| uc o ||C;|| cstc,+ conso||d+do cm ncn|um dos |nst|tutos, |m d|-
vc|sos |C|s uc sc cnvo|vc|+m mu|to nos ||mc||os +nos do |||;^b|t| c conscgu||+m +||c+|
|ot|n+s dc +v+||+io |nst|tuc|on+| b+sc+d+s no || c |nt|oduz|| nov+s |+t|c+s dc gcstio tcm
|+v|do dcscont|nu|d+dc c mcsmo +b+ndono n+ +||c+io dc v+||+s |+t|c+s |m +|guns |C|s ||-
s |sso dc||v+ dc |ob|cm+s dc govc|n+n+ nos |C|s |c d+ m+nc||+ c|+ u+| + +uto||d+dc c o odc| sio cxc|c|dos n+ gcstio
dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs |cct|ndo n+ c++c|d+dc dos |nst|tutos |o|mu|+|cm c |m|+nt+|cm cst|+tcg|+s uc |cvcm mc||o||+ dc
dcscmcn|o o|g+n|z+c|on+| c o cum||mcnto do m+nd+to |nst|tuc|on+| |o c+so b|+s||c||o o modc|o dc |omcnto csu|s+
ub||c+ |o|tcmcntc vo|t+do +|+ un|vc|s|d+dcs nio c|ccbc cscc|c|d+dcs d+s o|g+n|z+ocs dc csu|s+ c ||+g|||z+ +ss|m su+
govc|n+n+ |ntc|n+ |m bo+ +|tc dos |C|s ub||cos uc dccndcm dc |ccu|sos o|+mcnt+||os dos cst+dos ou d+ |n|io t+|s
|ccu|sos sio |nsuc|cntcs c + +gcnd+ dc csu|s+ vcm dc cst|mu|os dos o|gios dc |omcnto uc cont|o|+m-n+ c +t||bucm um
cso c |mo|tnc|+ |cnomcn+|s +o csu|s+do| |nd|v|du+| ^ss|m cm bo+ +|tc dos |C|s nio c + d||cio ucm cont|o|+ su+s
+gcnd+s dc csu|s+ scndo d|||c|| +|+ css+s csso+s |mo| su+ +uto||d+dc c cob|+| |csu|t+dos no cxc|c|c|o dc scus m+nd+tos
, |sso odc sc| cv|dcnc|+do c|+s c++c|d+dcs dc mc||o||+ cont|nu+ c mcd|io dc dcscmcn|o nio cn|+|z+d+s nos |C|s ^ |C
cst+ d||und|d+ (m+s ncm scm|c s|stcm+t|z+d+) n+ m+|o||+ dos |C|s |nvcst|g+dos m+s nio o| |o|+ do ||| c s|m dcv|do
+doio dc no|m+s |O (,ooo c +;o.,) c +c|cd|t+io dc |+bo|+to||os |ntio um+ |c|+io c+us+| d||ct+ dc uc o ||| cstc,+
mod|c+ndo;|nucnc|+ndo + |C nos |C|s nio c mu|to |+c|| dc sc| cst+bc|cc|d+ |o| su+ vcz + mcd|io dc dcscmcn|o nio
cst+ cn|+|z+d+ cm mu|tos dos |C|s cmbo|+ |+,+ +|gum+ |cocu+io cm sc mcd|| |nd|c+do|cs |os |nst|tutos cm uc cst+
|+t|c+ |o| cn|+|z+d+ +s |nucnc|+s |o|tcs v|c|+m dc out|+s |n|c|+t|v+s uc nio o |||;^||||
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:+s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
v+dos bcm como n+ |mb|++-cdc v+||+s |+t|c+s uc c|cs |nt|oduzcm cm scus modc|os dc
gcstio cstio +||n|+d+s com o || m+s su|g||+m o| mc|o dc cs|o|os |nd||ctos ^|cm d|sso
nio sc odc +|m+| uc + +doio d+s mctodo|og|+s do |||;^b|t| c o un|co ou ||nc|+| |+to|
cx|+n+to||o dc +|gum+ mud+n+ nos |C|s ,+ uc o +mb|cntc dc C| tcm so|||do mu|t+s t|+ns-
|o|m+ocs n+ u|t|m+ dcc+d+ cm uc nov+s v+||+vc|s |o|+m |nt|oduz|d+s;|ntcns|c+d+s |nu|ndo
b+st+ntc cm como os |C|s +tu+m
ucst|on+dos sc su+s |+t|c+s mud+|+m cm |unio d+ +dcsio +o ||| +s |csost+s v+||+|+m
dcsdc nio mud+|+m n+d+ mud+|+m mu|to ouco mud+|+m no |n|c|o dcssc cs|o|o m+s cs-
tio scndo dcscont|nu+d+s;+b+ndon+d+s +tc + mcnio + +|gum+s |cocu+ocs |nt|oduz|d+s;
|o|t+|cc|d+s + +|t|| d+ +dcsio do |nst|tuto com o ||| t+|s como +|tc|+ocs n+ cst|utu|+ o|g+-
n|z+c|on+| |nt|oduio;+||mo|+mcnto dc |nd|c+do|cs dc dcscmcn|o |nt|oduio;|ntcns|c+-
io dc um+ v|sio dc mc|c+do nos |C|s c |c|o|o n+ cu|tu|+ d+ u+||d+dc |mbo|+ nio sc duv|dc
dc uc tcn|+ |+v|do bcnc||c|os cm v+||os |C|s cm v||tudc dc su+ +dcsio +o ||| nio c obv|o
|cc|s+| su+ |c+| cont||bu|io ou sc,+ c d|||c|| |so|+| os |+tos c cx||m|| u+| + comoncntc dc
+|t|c|+io ou + c++c|d+dc cx|+n+to||+ do ||| nos |csu|t+dos dos |C|s c n+ dcn|io dc
su+s t|+,cto||+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s
O ||nc|+| onto |o|tc do ||| nio cst+ n+ +v+||+io uc |omovcu m+s n+ c||+io dc um |o-
|um dc d|scussio dc ucstocs dc gcstio c o|g+n|z+io dc |C|s uc |unc|onou como um vcto|
dc |ntcg|+io cnt|c c|cs cnvo|vcndo g|+ndc d|vc|s|d+dc dcss+s |nst|tu|ocs n+ t|oc+ dc |n|o|m+-
ocs c cxc||cnc|+s (|c+|n|ng-by-|ntc|+ct|ng) c d||usio dc |+t|c+s dc gcstio C||+v+ +ss|m um
cs+o +|+ os |C|s sc cncont|+|cm |dcnt|c+|cm scus +|cs u+|s sio scus |ob|cm+s cnm
dcscob||| c+n+|s dc busc+ dc so|uocs +|+ scus |ob|cm+s |ss+ |cdc dc |C|s c|m|t|u uc mu|-
tos dc|cs s+|sscm do |so|+mcnto
od+v|+ um+ dcb|||d+dc d+uc|+ |n|c|+t|v+ cst+ n+ dcm+s|+d+ cn|+sc +t||bu|d+ +o |occsso dc
+v+||+io dos |C|s sob|cv+|o||z+ndo-+ cm dct||mcnto dc um t|+t+mcnto m+|s cu|d+doso +cc|c+
do dcscn|o |unc|on+mcnto c +v+||+io d+ c|ct|v|d+dc dcss+ comun|d+dc c dos cvcntos uc +
|+vo|cccm bcm como
dc d|scussio m+|s c||tc||os+ sob|c os |nd|c+do|cs dc dcscmcn|o dc |C|s |u|tos dos |nd|c+do-
|cs |oduz|dos no mb|to do ||| sio |und+mcnt+|s +v+||+io dc dcscmcn|o dc |occssos-
-c|+vc dc |C|s |o cnt+nto |cc|s+m cst+| v|ncu|+dos + o||t|c+s;cst|+tcg|+s do cont|+||o nio
tcm c|c|to nos |occssos dc |+nc,+mcnto c tom+d+ dc dcc|sio sc,+ no mb|to d+ o||cy ou no
n|vc| o|g+n|z+c|on+| ^|cm d|sso um o||+| com+|+t|vo dcsscs |nd|c+do|cs odc |cvc|+| +scctos
|mo|t+ntcs do scto| ^ const|uio dc |nst|umcntos uc cv|dcnc|cm + |c+| cont||bu|io dcssc
scto| soc|cd+dc b|+s||c||+ dcvc||+ sc| um+ |cocu+io dos o||cy m+|c|s o|s n+ +tu+||d+dc
|ncx|stcm s|stcm+s dc +v+||+io dcss+ n+tu|cz+
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
:+,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
|m +sccto |c|cv+ntc c + |nt|oduio do ||C;|| como |c|c|cnc|+ +|+ modc|+| os s|stcm+s
gc|cnc|+|s dos |C|s ||Cs odcm sc congu|+| como |cu||st|c+s dc busc+ o| |ot|n+s c mc|os
dc so|uocs +|+ |ob|cm+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s (|ob|cm-so|v|ng |out|ncs) +ntcs nio c|ccb|d+s
+ntcs nio ||o||z+d+s u+ +||c+io cm |C|s odc cont||bu|| +|+ + |nt|oduio dc +|gum+s
|ot|n+s uc cvo|ucm mcd|+ntc cs|o|os dc +|cnd|z+gcm uc odcm +,ud+-|os + cst|utu|+|
|occssos dc busc+ o| mc||o||+s cm su+s |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s ^ss|m o ||C;|| odc |nduz||
+|cnd|z+gcm nos |C|s uc |cv+m c||+io c +o +c||c|o+mcnto dc |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs o|-
g+n|z+c|on+|s |u|to m+|s +c||c|o+mcnto d+u||o uc ,+ cx|stc do uc + c||+io dc +|go novo
|ss+ c + ||nc|+| ||m|t+io |ntc|n+ d+uc|c modc|o cm |nduz|| |occssos |nov+t|vos nos |C|s
um+ vcz uc + c++c|d+dc dc |nov+io dc |C|s dccndc |o|tcmcntc uc c|cs const|u+m nov+s
|c|cscnt+ocs do +mb|cntc cm uc +tu+m +|cm dc dcscnvo|vc| c++c|d+dcs uc ||cs oss|b|-
||tcm cx|o|+| nov+s oo|tun|d+dcs
O |c|+to dc |+t|c+s gc|cnc|+|s |nduz|do c|+ +||c+io do || odc susc|t+| |ccxocs |ntc|n+s
sob|c +u||o uc |+zcm gc|+ndo ucst|on+mcntos n+ tcnt+t|v+ dc mc||o|+-|+s ou mcsmo mo-
d|c+-|+s o| +|go uc sc com|ccnd+ mc||o| O |C tcm +c| |mo|t+ntc o|s t|+z mu|to d+
mcmo||+ o|g+n|z+c|on+| c conscucntcmcntc c|cmcntos dc su+s |ot|n+s O cxc|c|c|o dc |+zc-|o
oss|b|||t+ uc sc cx||c|tc c documcntc como +s co|s+s sio |c|t+s ||c |unc|on+ como um mcc+-
n|smo dc |ctcnio dc |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s uc cv|dcnc|+m c++c|d+dcs o|g+n|z+-
c|on+|s c |+b|||d+dcs tccn|co-c|cnt|c+s nos |C|s
|m +sccto ncg+t|vo n+ c|+bo|+io do |C c mcsmo um ||sco d+ +||c+io do || nos |C|s sio
dc os mc|os sc|cm |c|c||dos +o |nvcs dos ns |c dc uc com o || os |C|s sc dcsv||tucm dc
scu ob,ct|vo uc c o cum||mcnto dc su+ m|ssio scu +c| c |nsc|io n+ soc|cd+dc O |C c um
mc|o +|+ uc o |nst|tuto |ntc|n+||zc mc||o||+s c nio um m cm s| mcsmo V+||os |nst|tutos tcm sc
cns|mcsm+do cm |oduz|| |Cs c;ou c|scgu|do (ou sc dcs|umb|+do com) + +|t|c|+io;obtcn-
io dc |cm|+ocs cm u+||d+dc gc|cnc|+| o|usc+ndo-os c t+|vcz os dcsv|+ndo dc scus ob,ct|vos
||mo|d|+|s |css+ |o|m+ o ob,ct|vo nio +ss+ + sc| + mc||o||+ d+ |nst|tu|io c s|m g+n|+| (c ostcn-
t+|) t|o|cus mcd+||+s cnm obtc| |ccon|cc|mcnto c v|s|b|||d+dc o| su+s conu|st+s gc|cnc|+|s
^ +doio do ||C;|| n+ |nst|umcnt+||z+io do ||| c um dos ontos m+|s cont|ovc|sos |m
|+zio do |oco c d+s cont|+d|ocs cm to|no d+uc|+ mctodo|og|+ cxc|t+| os |C|s + +dot+|cm um
modc|o suost+mcntc +||c+vc| + todos scm uc |ouvcssc +d+t+ocs ou +,ustcs |gno|+ndo +
d|vc|s|d+dc c +s ccu||+||d+dcs dcss+s |nst|tu|ocs n+ const|uio d+uc|+ |oost+ |o| um dos
||nc|+|s cu|vocos n+ conccio do ||| |m gc|+| um |C| c um+ o|g+n|z+io d||c|cntc com
|og|c+ dc |oduio c |unc|on+mcnto d||c|cntcs c o| |sso nio odc sc| o||+do c|o v|cs dc um+
cm|cs+ ^ss|m o ob,cto cm uc sc +||cou o ||C;|| c su+ |c+||d+dc c|+ mu|to d|st+ntc d+-
uc|c cm uc cssc modc|o |o| conccb|do c sc||+ c++z dc t|+zc| +|gum+ mc||o||+ |m v||tudc d+
cst|utu|+ d|sost+ nos |nst|tutos ub||cos m+s t+mbcm dc c|cmcntos cu|tu|+|s c dc conto|no
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
::o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
|+ v+||os |cu|s|tos n+uc|+ mctodo|og|+ uc c|cs ,+m+|s vio conscgu|| +tcndc| c out|os uc nio
tcm +||c+io n+uc|c +mb|cntc
^n+||s+ndo-sc os |csu|t+dos dos ,, |C|s uc +dc|||+m +o ||| cnt|c +,,s-.oo; com b+sc n+
ontu+io mcd|+ obt|d+ n+ +||c+io do || tcm-sc uc sc|s |C|s (t|cs |cdc|+|s do|s c+t|vos c
um ccnt|o ||v+do) t|vc|+m ontu+io mcd|+ +c|m+ dc ,oo ontos nos u|t|mos t|cs c|c|os on-
tu+dos |c|+ mct||c+ cm|cg+d+ no ||| csscs sc||+m os mc||o|cs |nst|tutos |+s cm uc mc-
d|d+ o ||| mudou su+ |c+||d+dc u+| + |c|+io dcssc |csu|t+do com o cum||mcnto do scu
+c| d+ su+ m|ssio |cd|| + |o|+ dcss+ |c|+io (sc cx|stcntc) nio c t||v|+| cgu|+mcntc c|cs
tcm bo+s |+t|c+s dc gcstio m+s c|cs sio os |C|s uc m+|s cont||bucm +|+ + soc|cd+dc +|+ +
cconom|+ n+c|on+| c +|+ o |og|csso tccno|og|co cm su+s +|c+s |nm cstcs sio os c+scs n+-
c|on+|s dc |nst|tutos dc || uc sc d|st|ngucm dos dcm+|s
||og|+m+s dc modc|n|z+io b+sc+dos cm modc|os como o || c;ou bcnc|m+|||ng cm |c-
||c+io dc bcst |+ct|ccs ou u+|uc| out|+ +bo|d+gcm vo|t+d+ +|+ + ot|m|z+io dc |ot|n+s
|+t|c+s ctc nio conscgu||io |cso|vc| v+||os dos |ob|cm+s dos |nst|tutos ||og|+m+s scmc||+n-
tcs + cstc +||c+dos cm um con,unto dc |C|s v+||os dos u+|s ouco dcm+nd+dos c|+ soc|c-
d+dc uc tcm |ob|cm+s dc |cg|t|m|d+dc cu,o +c| do onto dc v|st+ d+ su+ cont||bu|io +o
dcscnvo|v|mcnto cconom|co soc|+| |ndust||+| ctc c cm gc|+| ||m|t+do cont||bu||io +|+ + mc-
||o||+ dc +|gum+s |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s |o cnt+nto + csscnc|+ cont|nu+|+ + mcsm+
|ssc c v+||os out|os +scctos do ||sto||co o|g+n|z+c|on+| dos |C|s b|+s||c||os sc |mocm sob|c
o |cscntc |ctcndo cxc||cnc|+s cm su+s |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s uc c|du|+m como o modo co|-
|cto dc cns+| os |ob|cm+s c dc |+zc| +s co|s+s |omovcndo +ss|m cst+b|||d+dc no como|-
t+mcnto dos |nd|v|duos c |nc|c|+ o|g+n|z+c|on+| uc |cst||ngcm + c++c|d+dc dos |nst|tutos dc
|dcnt|c+|cm oo|tun|d+dcs no +mb|cntc cxtc|no |u|tos |C|s b|+s||c||os sc cst+b|||z+|+m cm
su+s +t|v|d+dcs c |ot|n+s usu+|s c||+ndo-sc com |sso tod+ so|tc dc d|cu|d+dcs cm dcscnvo|vc|
c +||c+| modos +|tc|n+t|vos dc |+nc,+mcnto c +io
^ mc||o||+ gc|cnc|+| dos |C|s ncm scm|c cncont|+ um mc|o dc cu|tu|+ +dcu+do uc |mu|-
s|onc + t|+ns|o|m+io dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs |un|c|+| um gcsto| com |c||+mcnt+s uc |oc+m +
cst|+tcg|+ dc ot|m|z+io dc |+t|c+s odc v|| + |ntc|n+||z+| +|gum+s |ot|n+s dc +|cnd|z+gcm c
mc||o|+| + gcstio do |C| m+s |sso nio +|tc|+ o c|| |nst|tuc|on+| nio c|m|tc s+|tos s|gn|c+t|-
vos o|uc nio sc +b+ndon+ o modo dom|n+ntc dc sc cnxc|g+| os |ob|cm+s c +|cndc| sob|c
c|cs Ou sc,+ do onto dc v|st+ d+s cst|+tcg|+s d+ m|ssio d+ +io o |nst|tuto nio mud+ o|s o
modc|o gc|cnc|+| cm su+ csscnc|+ c|m+nccc o mcsmo cmbo|+ uc m+|s v|stoso com + +do-
io dc mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
|ud+n+ o|g+n|z+c|on+| cnvo|vc novos cxc||mcntos com +|gum+ dosc dc ||scos c |ncc|tcz+s
^ |o|+ dc um+ |nst|tu|io cst+ n+ |csc|v+io c |csc|to o| su+ cxcc|cnc|+ c|cnt|c+ tccno|o-
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
::+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
g|c+ c;ou dc |cst+io dc sc|v|os |cct|d+s cm su+s |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s dc gcstio do cont|+||o +
|nst|tu|io c+||+ dc||v+ com mu|t+s m|ssocs (|nd|v|du+|s g|u+|s c |nst|tuc|on+|s) + sc |ncum-
b|| ^s |ot|n+s |csc|v+m + |nst|tu|io c n+tu|+|mcntc odcm sc| ucst|on+d+s |cv|st+s c scm-
|c uc ncccss+||o su|+nt+d+s
^ cn|+sc cx+gc|+d+ cm +t|v|d+dcs b+sc+d+s cm |C | c ||Cs odc c||+| c|c|to dc |nc|c|+
nos |C|s cm to|no do +c||c|o+mcnto dc su+s |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs ,+ cons+g|+d+s d||cc|o-
n+ndo-os +|+ + cst+b|||d+dc nio os +,ud+ndo + movc|cm-sc +|+ |o|+ d+ zon+ dc con|o|to
cm to|no dc con|cc|mcntos c |+t|c+s no|m+|s +|+ um cs|o|o ous+do c dcs++do| dc |cno-
v+io c mud+n+ dc t|+,cto||+ + +|t|| d+ c||+io dc nov+s |ot|n+s |+t|c+s c ||n|+s dc +tu+io
cg dcscnvo|vc| nov+s |ot+s dc csu|s+ const|u|| cst|+tcg|+s +|+ |oscct+| c +tcndc| nov+s
dcm+nd+s soc|+|s c |nt|oduz|| +|cnd|z+gcm cm nov+s d|sc|||n+s ^ mud+n+ odc cnvo|vc| +
ncccss|d+dc dc sc busc+| modos c||+t|vos c +bo|d+gcns dc +|cnd|z+gcm uc oss|b|||tcm o dc-
scnvo|v|mcnto dc nov+s c d|st|nt|v+s |+t|c+s uc t|+g+m m+|o|cs bcnc||c|os +|+ os |C|s
Os s|stcm+s |ntc|nos dc sc|cio dos |C|s (d||ct||zcs no|m+s comun|d+dcs |og|+m+s mct+s
ctc) dcvcm cst+| o||cnt+dos + sc concct+|cm s mud+n+s n+s cond|ocs +mb|cnt+|s sob cn+
dc scus |ccu|sos |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs sc to|n+|cm |||c|cv+ntcs c;ou obso|ctos c +m||+|cm su+
c++c|d+dc dc c|ccio d+ |c+||d+dc cm uc cstio |nsc||dos (scnsc) com o |ntu|to dc cx|o-
|+|cm oo|tun|d+dcs dc |cnov+io dc su+s |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs o|g+n|z+c|on+|s (sc|zc) ^ v|+-
b|||d+dc dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs no |ongo |+zo dccndc |o|tcmcntc uc c|+s sc |+nccm +o dcs+o
c|m+ncntc dc |ntc|n+||z+|;|o|t+|ccc| t+|s c++c|d+dcs
Como d|to +ntc||o|mcntc o m+|co ,u||d|co c |cg+| c + |nucnc|+ o||t|c+ |c|cscnt+m |o|tcs
obst+cu|os |nt|oduio dc mud+n+s nos |C|s ^|cm d|sso + |nc|c|+ c + ||g|dcz o|g+n|z+c|on+|
|c|+t|v+s + c|cmcntos como|t+mcnt+|s c cu|tu|+|s ncss+s o|g+n|z+ocs sio |+to|cs |ntc|nos |cs-
t||t|vos +utonom|+ c mud+n+ nos |C|s ^ ||gu|+ + ||ust|+ o cs+o dc +utonom|+ dos |C|s
dc||m|t+do o| csscs |+to|cs c dcst+c+ + const|uio dc c++c|d+dcs dc +bso|io como c|cmcn-
to |und+mcnt+| n+ +m||+io d+ mcsm+
+o

+o |m+ |dc|+ |mo|t+ntc c ut|| n+ const|uio dc modc|os dc gcstio dc |C|s uc |nco|o|cm +s |cocu+ocs cxost+s
+c|m+ c uc v+|o||zcm +scctos como cx|b|||d+dc c +utonom|+ c +uc|+ cx|css+ no concc|to dc c++c|d+dcs dc
+bso|io ou|+||z+do o| Co|cn c |cv|nt|+| (+,,o) como + c++c|d+dc dc um+ o|g+n|z+io v+|o||z+| +ss|m||+| c +||c+|
con|cc|mcntos c |ccsc||to o| z+||+ c Cco|gc (.oo.) como um con,unto dc |ot|n+s c |occssos o|g+n|z+c|on+|s o| mc|o
dos u+|s o|g+n|z+ocs +du||cm +ss|m||+m t|+ns|o|m+m c cx|ot+m con|cc|mcntos +|+ |oduz|| c++c|d+dcs d|nm|c+s
|ss+s c++c|d+dcs +tu+||+m mc||o|+ndo + |+b|||d+dc dos |C|s cx|o|+|cm oo|tun|d+dcs c obtc|cm |csu|t+dos sustcnt+vc|s
|cv+ndo-os + mc||o|+| su+ |cg|t|m|d+dc cum||| + m|ssio |nst|tuc|on+| c scu +c| n+ const|uio dc s|stcm+s dc |nov+io
|obustos |o contcxto cm uc os |C|s +tu+m css+s c++c|d+dcs odc||+m sc sob|css+|| como um +sccto-c|+vc n+ c||+io;
+m||+io dc cs+os dc +tu+io un|cos c d|st|nt|vos
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
:::
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
Estrutura
Jurdica
Inuncia
Poltica
Capacidade de
Absoro
Autonomia
para introduzir
mudanas
|lgura + |c||m|t+io do cs+o dc +tu+io gc|cnc|+| dos |C|s
|ontc ^aa:aac ae :a''es|'nc e 8coa.e'' ...)
^ss|m o g|+u dc +utonom|+ dos |C|s odc v+||+| cm |unio dcss+s c||cunstnc|+s ^s |cst||ocs
|cg+|s c o||t|c+s sc +|tc|+m con|o|mc os d||c|cntcs modos dc o|g+n|z+io ,u||d|co-|nst|tuc|on+|
cm uc os |C|s oc|+m (cg o|g+n|z+ocs d+ +dm|n|st|+io d||ct+ +ut+|u|+s |nst|tutos ||v+-
dos ctc) cu,+ com|ccnsio odc +,ud+-|os + cx|o|+| +s oss|b|||d+dcs d|+ntc dos ||m|tcs |mos-
tos o| t+|s |cst||ocs ^ |nc|c|+ dos |C|s cm csbo+| |c+ocs + tcndcnc|+s mud+n+s c cst|mu|os
no +mb|cntc cxtc|no t+mbcm sc congu|+ como |n|b|do| do g|+u dc +utonom|+ dc um |C|
+g|ndo como um+ |o|+ cont|+||+ mud+n+ (^|||-||||O |O|^C|||| .o+o) |omovcndo
cst+b|||d+dc c mcsmo dcsmot|v+io +|+ mud+n+s
|io obst+ntc csscs |+to|cs |cst||t|vos mud+n+ nos |C|s cntcndc-sc uc os modc|os dc gcstio
ncss+s o|g+n|z+ocs bcm como +s dc||bc|+ocs |ntc|n+s dc su+s ||dc|+n+s cm to|n+-|os d|n-
m|cos |o-+t|vos c |obustos sio |mo|t+ntcs c odcm +,ud+-|os n+ dcn|io dc |occssos dc
cvo|uio o|g+n|z+c|on+| c const|uio dc comctcnc|+s d|st|nt|v+s cm +tcnio + t|+ns|o|m+ocs
no contcxto cxtc|no ^ +m||+io c |cnov+io d+s c++c|d+dcs |ntc|n+s dos |C|s sio +ss|m
c|uc|+|s +|+ c|cs |csondc|cm (ou sc +ntcc|+|cm) + mud+n+s contcxtu+|s c mcsmo +b||| no-
v+s oocs cst|+tcg|c+s + sc|cm cx|o|+d+s
Out|+ ||m|t+io do ||| c + ouc+ |o|und|d+dc com uc c t|+t+d+ + d||usio dc |+t|c+s dc
gcstio dos |C|s |c+||z+d+ o| mc|o dc scm|n+||os dc d|sscm|n+io c c||+io dc b+ncos dc d+dos
|st+s |n|c|+t|v+s sio mcc+n|smos dc busc+ c |ctcnio dc |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s gc|cnc|+|s uc v|s+m
m+ntc-|+s ou |c||c+-|+s dc um |C| +|+ out|os |csc|v+ndo o con|cc|mcnto c + +cumu|+io
dc |+t|c+s sc|cc|on+d+s o| g|uo dc cscc|+||st+s n+ gcstio dc |C|s |mbo|+ sc,+ um+ cst|+-
tcg|+ |mo|t+ntc dc d||usio c |ctcnio dc con|cc|mcnto |+ |cst||ocs |c||c+io dc |+t|c+s
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
::,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
c mu|t+s o|g+n|z+ocs sc cng+n+m +o tcnt+| busc+| |c|c|cnc|+|s + sc|cm scgu|dos como sc um
+d|io dc |+t|c+s dc gcstio udcssc sc| |+c||mcntc t|+nsosto dc um contcxto c |c||c+do cm
out|o |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s tcm um+ comoncntc t+c|t+ c su+ +bso|io c t|+ns|c|cnc|+ d||ct+ o-
dcm sc| t+|c|+s com|cx+s +|||sc+d+s c ouco c|ct|v+s ^ d|vc|s|d+dc dc |C|s to|n+ cxc|c|c|os dc
bcnc|m+|||ng um+ |+t|c+ m+|s d|||c|| o|s nio |+ um con,unto un|co dc |+t|c+s +|+ os |C|s
C+d+ |nst|tuto tcm scus |o||os ontos |o|tcs ||+ucz+s c otcnc|+|s C+d+ um dc|cs +tu+ cm
um +mb|cntc cconom|co d||c|cntc c tcm +c|s cscc|cos no |stcm+ dc |nov+io
^ss|m o +ccsso s |n|o|m+ocs d|vu|g+d+s nos scm|n+||os c no b+nco dc |+t|c+s dc gcstio c
+cn+s um onto dc +|t|d+ +|+ |nst|tutos uc sc v+||+m d+uc|cs c+n+|s dc busc+ +|+ |nt|o-
duz|| c ||nc|+|mcntc +c||c|o+| v+||+ocs nio scndo suc|cntc +|+ mud+| +s |ot|n+s c |+t|-
c+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s dos |C|s d+do uc mu|t+s b+||c||+s cu|tu|+|s n+uc|+s o|g+n|z+ocs |n|bcm
su+ t|+ns|c|cnc|+ u|+ c s|m|cs |io sc odc |csc|nd|| dc +t|v|d+dcs com|cmcnt+|cs |c|+t|v+s
+ comun|c+io +bo|d+gcns cogn|t|v+s c dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc com|ccnsocs com+|t|||+d+s +
+|t|| dc |ntc|+ocs soc|+|s Ou sc,+ o succsso n+ |cconst|tu|io dc |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s cm|ccn-
d|d+s cm out|os |C|s c |o|tcmcntc cond|c|on+do c|+s c++c|d+dcs dc +bso|io +cumu|+d+s no
|C| +dot+ntc ^ss|m + cc+c|+ n+ t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc con|cc|mcnto nos |C|s |m||c+ + ncccss|d+dc
dc const|uio dcss+s c++c|d+dcs nos mcsmos +|+ uc c|cs com|ccnd+m cnxc|gucm v+|o|
|c|t+m sob|c c cn|+|zcm csscs |occssos n+ su+ |+t|c+
|o| m out|+ |cocu+io do ||| c su+ ouc+ +dc|cnc|+ + o||t|c+s dc C| ou sc,+ sob|c o
+mb|cntc cxtc|no (vg |n|o|m+| o||cy m+|c|s c +,ud+| n+ dcn|io;mon|to|+mcnto dc o||t|c+s
ub||c+s) |cm o |C| C|| ou ||||| us+m conc|ct+mcntc os |nd|c+do|cs d+ ^|||| +|+
ns dc gc|+| o||t|c+s ub||c+s vo|t+d+s +os |C|s ou m+|s gc|+|s dc C| Conc|u|-sc d|sso uc +
b+sc dc |nd|c+do|cs sc |cst+ mu|to m+|s mcd|io dc |csu|t+dos dc |occssos o|g+n|z+c|on+|s
nos |C|s do uc conduio dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s c|os |o||os +to|cs cnvo|v|dos no s|stcm+
dc C| no +|s
|c out|o |+do |+|t+ um+ v|sio cst|+tcg|c+ n+uc|c mov|mcnto cm to|no do ||| dc v|ncu|+|
+ d|scussio dc mc||o||+ gc|cnc|+| dos |C|s + um+ |ob|cm+t|c+ dc |C cm uc c|cs dcvc||+m
cst+| |nsc||dos como +to|cs |und+mcnt+|s no |occsso dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto Ou sc,+ o |||
dcvc||+ cst+| cont|do cm +|go m+|o| uc +ont+ssc n+ d||cio d+ cst|+tcg|+ dos |C|s como c|c-
mcntos |mo|t+ntcs +o dcscnvo|v|mcnto n+c|on+| |+ +|tc dos o||cy m+|c|s uc |cg|t|m+|+m
+uc|+ |n|c|+t|v+ (|C| C|| c ||nc) nio |ouvc mu|t+ cn|+sc;|o+t|v|d+dc no |occsso o||t|-
co cm to|no do ||| ncm +|ox|m+io dos mcsmos ^b|t| +|+ busc+| d|scut|| cst|+tcg|+s c
|+nos dc t|+ns|o|m+io dos |C|s com ouco |ntc|cssc dos +to|cs o||t|cos cm cont||bu|| m+|s
|nc|s|v+mcntc +|+ + const|uio |cv|sio;|c|o|mu|+io do ||| como um |og|+m+ dc +o|o
+o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dos |C|s
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
::
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
O |C| nio dcu o dcv|do +o|o + css+ |n|c|+t|v+ ncm |ccon|cccu + |mo|tnc|+ dc tc| um +-
c| m+|s |o|tc cm c||+| um+ +io m+|s |obust+ dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto dos |nst|tutos ,+ uc t+nto +
^b|t| u+nto +s un|d+dcs dc csu|s+ do |C| +|t|c|+ntcs do ||| cob|+v+m um+ os|io
m+|s cn|+t|c+ do |C| u+nto +o t|o dc +o|o uc dcvc||+ sc| d+do +o ||| c um cnvo|v|mcn-
to |ocm|ncntc |+ vc|d+dc o |C| c|dcu um+ bo+ oo|tun|d+dc dc +m||+| su+ govc|n+n-
+ sob|c os |C|s us+ndo o motc d+ c++c|d+dc dc mob|||z+io dc |C|s uc o ||| gc|ou dc
sc cnvo|vc| m+|s d||ct+mcntc c |nduz|| |ccxocs c d||cc|on+mcntos n+uc|+ |n|c|+t|v+ +|+ +|go
m+|s cons|stcntc |und+mcnt+do c u|gcntc uc sio + |c|o|mu|+io dc su+s m|ssocs c + c||+io;
|cv|sio dc |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs o|g+n|z+c|on+|s nos |C|s uc oss|b|||tcm + csscs +to|cs +m||+|
su+ c++c|d+dc dc |csost+ |+cc s t|+ns|o|m+ocs no +mb|cntc tccn|co-c|cnt|co c |nst|tuc|o-
n+| cm uc cstio |nsc||dos
^ const|uio dc modc|os dc gcstio nos |C|s |cc|s+ sc| contcm|+d+ n+ |o||t|c+ C|cnt|c+ c
ccno|og|c+ c um+ m+|o| c|ccio dc oo|tun|d+dcs c +m||+io dc oss|b|||d+dcs dc +io
ncss+s o|g+n|z+ocs dccndcm d|sso ^ cbu||io d+s const|uocs cm to|no do ||| odc||+ v||
+ sc| n+ |c+||d+dc um t|un|o +|+ o |C| |nco|o|+| cm su+ |+t|c+ c|cmcntos do +|cnd|z+-
do dos |C|s no ||| |nt|oduz|ndo um+ d|nm|c+ m+|s |nduto|+ dc mud+n+s nos modc|os dc
gcstio d+uc|+s o|g+n|z+ocs
4. Concluses
O ||| |nucnc|ou ouco o |occsso dc t|+ns|o|m+io o|g+n|z+c|on+| dos |C|s uc o +dot+-
|+m mu|to cm |unio dc |+zocs |ntc|n+s s o|g+n|z+ocs t+|s como + |+|t+ dc ||dc|+n+ uc
+ost+ssc n+ |dc|+ dcscont|nu|d+dc c d|cu|d+dcs dc d|sscm|n+io +|+ o |cst+ntc do |C| cu|tu-
|+ +||+|g+d+ cm mu|tos |nst|tutos mu|t+s vczcs |mc|mc+vc| + cssc t|o dc mud+n+ c mcsmo
dc ||dc|+n+s ++t|c+s;+vcss+s + nov+s cxc||mcnt+ocs ^mb|cntcs dc || tcm mu|t+s con-
d|c|on+ntcs +bso|io dc |ot|n+s gc|cnc|+|s uc sio |m+ct+dos t+mbcm c|o com|omct|-
mcnto c consc|cnt|z+io dc d|||gcntcs csu|s+do|cs c dcm+|s |oss|on+|s +tu+ndo cm um |C|
+ss|m como o con,unto dc no|m+s |cg|+s v+|o|cs costumcs c |+b|tos uc dc||m|t+m + cu|tu|+
dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs |csscs +mb|cntcs |nov+ocs o|g+n|z+c|on+|s tcm d|cu|d+dc dc |osc|+|
O modc|o uc |nst|umcnt+||zou o ||| o ||C;|| +co||c + |dc|+ |mo|t+ntc dc mc||o||+
cont|nu+ uc tcm +|gum+ +dc|cnc|+ com o uc vcm d|zcndo cvo|uc|on|st+s d+ cconom|+ |o-
dc|os uc |nco|o|+m + |og|c+ d+ mc||o||+ cont|nu+ odcm |nduz|| nos scus +||c+ntcs +d|ocs
dc como|t+mcnto c +io (|ot|n+s |cu||st|c+s ctc) vo|t+dos |cso|uio dc |ob|cm+s o|g+n|-
z+c|on+|s c su+s +t|v|d+dcs odcm |omovc| um modo dc +|cnd|z+gcm o|g+n|z+c|on+| b+sc+-
do n+ |oso+ dc sc |+zc| mc||o| +s co|s+s ,+ cx|stcntcs |csu|t+ndo cm mud+n+s |nc|cmcnt+|s
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
::,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
mcd|+ntc |cn+mcntos cm v+||+ocs cx|stcntcs ^ cons|dc|+io do || n+ const|tu|io dos
modc|os dc gcstio dos |C|s t|+z c|cmcntos novos c mot|v+do|cs odcndo cont||bu|| +|+ +
|dcnt|c+io |cv|sio c +c||c|o+mcnto dc |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s o|g+n|z+c|on+|s nos mcsmos |+
|+t|c+ |o|nccc um |otc||o uc c|m|tc o |+nc,+mcnto d+ mc||o||+ d+ gcstio dos |C|s |n-
t|ct+nto um+ d+s m+|o|cs d|cu|d+dcs dos |C|s uc +dc|||+m +o ||| c dcc|d||+m +ost+| no
||C;|| cst+ ,ust+mcntc cm |+zc| d|sso +|go |cscntc cm scu cot|d|+no
|o| out|o |+do o ||C;|| nio c+t+ cscc|c|d+dcs dos |C|s nio c+t+ ucstocs |mo|t+n-
tcs |c|+t|v+s +o s|stcm+ dc C como su+ o||t|c+ +s |+t|c+s dc |omcnto c o +|c+bouo |cg+| c
|cgu|+mcnt+| |und+mcnt+|s n+ dcn|io dc cs+os dc +tu+io c modc|os gc|cnc|+|s nos |C|s
bcm como do dcscmcn|o dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs |ogo modc|os como o || nio sio suc|cn-
tcs +|+ o |occsso dc t|+ns|o|m+io dos |C|s |m +|tc c|c mc||o|+ + c+|+ctc||z+io dc ondc
cstio os |ob|cm+s m+s os |ob|cm+s dos |C|s sio m+|s com|cxos do uc +cn+s |m|+nt+| +s
|ot|n+s |cv|st+s no ||C;|| ^ d|scussio dc mc||o||+ gc|cnc|+| |cc|s+ cst+| v|ncu|+d+ + um+
|ob|cm+t|c+ dc |C
|csmo uc |ot|n+s dc mc||o||+ cont|nu+ c mcd|io c gcstio b+sc+d+ cm |nd|c+do|cs nio tc-
n|+m s|do cn|+|z+dos nos mcsmos bcm como |+,+ dcscont|nu|d+dc cm mu|t+s d+s |+t|c+s
uc |+v|+m s|do |nt|oduz|d+s cm g|+ndc +|tc dos |C|s sc c|ccbcm g+n|os |cs|du+|s O nio
cn|+|z+mcnto dcsscs c|cmcntos c c||t|co o|s os como|t+mcntos;|ot|n+s uc |omovcm +
mc||o||+ cont|nu+ tcm dc sc| +|cnd|dos c |c|o|+dos +|+ uc um+ c++c|d+dc dc mc||o||+
cont|nu+ sc c|ct|vc |csu|t+do dc um |occsso cumu|+t|vo c ||c|+|u|z+do |cssc modo subsc-
ucntc |nt|oduio dc novos +d|ocs dc como|t+mcnto dcvcm v|| +ocs dc +|t|cu|+io c
|o|t+|cc|mcnto do como|t+mcnto |cct|d+s o suc|cntc +|+ c|c sc| cn|+|z+do |sso nio sc vc-
||c+ no c+so do ||| m+s s|m |o|tc |nc|c|+ dc v+||os |C|s cm |nt|oduz|| +|cnd|z+gcm b+sc+d+
n+ mc||o||+ cont|nu+ cm scus |occssos o|g+n|z+c|on+|s
^ss|m cons|dc|+-sc uc dcv|do mu|t|||c|d+dc dc novos cvcntos no +mb|cntc d+ C| b|+s|-
|c||+ n+ u|t|m+ dcc+d+ c d|||c|| com|ccndc| c |so|+| + |c+| c cxc|us|v+ cont||bu|io do ||| +|+
os |C|s |cssc modo cst+bc|ccc| um+ |o|tc co||c|+io cnt|c |csu|t+dos dc dcscmcn|o obt|dos
c|os |C|s c + +doio d+s mctodo|og|+s |oost+s no ||| c+|ccc||+ dc |cg|t|m|d+dc
|nt|ct+nto mcsmo com tod+s +s c||t|c+s c ||m|t+ocs |mut+d+s +o ||| nio c cx+gc|o +|-
m+| uc c|c |o| + m+|s |mo|t+ntc |n|c|+t|v+ o|g+n|z+d+ dc +o|o modc|n|z+io gc|cnc|+| nos
|C|s n+ u|t|m+ dcc+d+ O ||nc|+| +sccto uc congu|+ + su+ |mo|tnc|+ cst+ n+ c++c|d+dc
uc tcvc dc mob|||z+| um cont|ngcntc cx|css|vo c d|vc|s|c+do dc |nst|tutos +ss|m como c|+
const|tu|io dc um |o|um dc d|scussio dc |ob|cm+s dc gcstio c o|g+n|z+io dc |C|s cnvo|-
vcndo g|+ndc d|vc|s|d+dc dcss+s |nst|tu|ocs n+ t|oc+ dc |n|o|m+ocs c cxc||cnc|+s c d||usio
dc |+t|c+s dc gcstio
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
::c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
Conc|u|-sc t+mbcm uc mctodo|og|+s como o ||C;|| +|cscnt+m um+ ||m|t+io |nt||n-
scc+ su+ |oost+ |c scu v|cs |o|tcmcntc vo|t+do +|+ o +c||c|o+mcnto cont|nuo O |oco
dcm+s|+do ncss+ cst|+tcg|+ odc ||m|t+| + c++c|d+dc dc |nov+io dos |C|s um+ vcz uc c+n-
do |csos ncsscs c|c|os dc mc||o||+ cont|nu+ os |C|s odcm nio c|ccbc| + ncccss|d+dc dc
cns+| |o|+ d+ c+|x+ sob|c scus |ob|cm+s c dc sc movc|cm +|+ |o|+ do s|stcm+ |cv+|cccntc c
const|u||cm novos modc|os |c|cscnt+t|vos do +mb|cntc cm uc +tu+m c conscucntcmcntc
nio cm|ccndc|cm cs|o|os dc c||+io dc nov+s |ot|n+s c c++c|d+dcs o|g+n|z+c|on+|s
Os modc|os dc gcstio dos |C|s dcvc(||+)m sc| const|u|dos;+c||c|o+dos dc modo + +m||+| su+
+utonom|+ tcndo como ucstocs dc |undo o |o|t+|cc|mcnto d+ m|ssio |nst|tuc|on+| c +s const|u-
ocs tco||co-concc|tu+|s cm to|no d+s c++c|d+dcs d|nm|c+s c dc +bso|io ^|cm d|sso c++c|-
d+dcs |cg|+s dc dcc|sio c cst|utu|+s dc govc|n+n+ sio gc|+d+s cm um |occsso dc +|cnd|z+-
gcm c +d+t+io c co-cvo|ucm com o +mb|cntc cm uc cstio |nsc||d+s ^ const|uio dc c++c|-
d+dcs dc +bso|io odc sc| um+ cst|+tcg|+ |und+mcnt+| +|+ os |C|s +m||+|cm su+ +utonom|+
o|s oss|b|||t+m + v+|o||z+io dc c|cmcntos como cx|b|||d+dc c +utonom|+ |und+mcnt+|s
bo+ gcstio dc o|g+n|z+ocs dc || |mbo|+ |+,+ mu|tos c|cmcntos |cst||t|vos + mud+n+s nos
|C|s cntcndc-sc uc sio scus modc|os dc gcstio c +|t|cu|+|mcntc o cmcn|o dc su+s ||dc|+n-
+s cm to|n+-|os d|nm|cos |o-+t|vos c |obustos uc odcm cont||bu|| +|+ uc css+s o|g+n|-
z+ocs dcn+m |occssos dc cvo|uio o|g+n|z+c|on+| c const|uio dc comctcnc|+s d|st|nt|v+s
^ +m||+io c |cnov+io d+s c++c|d+dcs dos |C|s sio c|uc|+|s +|+ c|cs |csondc|cm ou sc +n-
tcc|+|cm + mud+n+s contcxtu+|s c mcsmo +b||| c cx|o|+| novos c+m|n|os c oss|b|||d+dcs
|cssc modo + +tu+io dos |C|s b|+s||c||os dcvc||+ contc| +s scgu|ntcs |cm|ss+s uc cxocm +
ccnt|+||d+dc d+s c++c|d+dcs dc +bso|io cm |occssos |nov+t|vos |) cst+bc|cc|mcnto dc ||
cx|o|+to||o +|+ dcscnvo|vc| nov+s c++c|d+dcs ||) dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc t|+b+||o com|cmcn-
t+| +|+ |cn+| c cx|ot+| csscs con|cc|mcntos dc modo nio +d|on|z+do c |||) cx|ot+io
m+|s |ot|n|z+d+ dcsscs con|cc|mcntos ^tcnio + |cco|tc uc contcm|c cstc c|| dc +t|v|d+-
dcs dc um |C| c |mo|t+ntc |nc|us|vc como modo dc |m+| + os|io dc uc scm c++c|d+dcs
dc |+zc| csu|s+ css+s |nst|tu|ocs nio sob|cv|vcm |sto c + |dcnt|d+dc d|st|nt|v+ |cg|t|m+io c
c|ct|v|d+dc dos |C|s no |ongo |+zo dccndcm dc |c|+t|v+ dcns|d+dc tccn|co-c|cnt|c+ cm su+s
+t|v|d+dcs c t|+ns|c|cnc|+ dc con|cc|mcntos +|+ + soc|cd+dc nio obst+ntc + |mo|tnc|+ d+
o|c|t+ dc sc|v|os tccn|cos cscc|+||z+dos
Os |C|s b|+s||c||os cm gc|+| nio tcm +com+n|+do (ou sc +ntcc|+do) +s mud+n+s cm scu +m-
b|cntc dc +tu+io V+||os c|cmcntos do ||sto||co o|g+n|z+c|on+| dos |C|s b|+s||c||os sc |mocm
sob|c o |cscntc |ctcndo cxc||cnc|+s cm su+s |ot|n+s c |+t|c+s uc c|du|+m como o modo
cc|to dc cns+| os |ob|cm+s c dc |+zc| +s co|s+s |omovcndo cst+b|||d+dc no como|t+mcnto
dos |nd|v|duos +|cm dc ||g|dcz c |nc|c|+ o|g+n|z+c|on+| uc |cst||ngcm + c++c|d+dc dcss+s o|g+-
n|z+ocs |dcnt|c+|cm oo|tun|d+dcs no +mb|cntc cxtc|no V+||os |C|s b|+s||c||os sc cst+b|||z+-
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
::)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
|+m cm su+s +t|v|d+dcs c |ot|n+s usu+|s c||+ndo-sc com |sso tod+ so|tc dc d|cu|d+dcs cm dcscn-
vo|vc| c +||c+| modos +|tc|n+t|vos dc |+nc,+mcnto c +io uc os |cvcm + |occssos |nov+t|vos
^|gum+s d+s m+n||cst+ocs uc cv|dcnc|+m |sso sio +s cont|nu+s d|cu|d+dcs dc |dcnt|c+io c
+tcnd|mcnto dc dcm+nd+s d+ soc|cd+dc +ss|m como (c t+|vcz cscc|+|mcntc) + d|cu|d+dc cm
+ntcc|+-|+s c + |ncx|stcnc|+;ouc+ c|ct|v|d+dc dc mcc+n|smos c cst|utu|+s uc |+vo|c+m + t|oc+
const+ntc dc |n|o|m+ocs com scu +mb|cntc O |occsso cvo|ut|vo oco||c ondc |+ |ntc|cmb|o
cont|nuo dc cnc|g|+ m+tc||+ c |n|o|m+ocs com o mc|o cxtc|no O +umcnto n+ c++c|d+dc dc
|csost+ dos |C|s dccndc mu|to dcss+ t|oc+ const+ntc dc |n|o|m+ocs com out|+s o|g+n|z+ocs
O uc sc dcsc,+ +|+ os |C|s c uc c|cs +m||cm su+ c++c|d+dc dc |csost+ + mud+n+s no
contcxto cconom|co c soc|+| do +|s (|csons|vcncss) |+s +|+ |sto +contccc| sc |+z ncccss+||+
um+ mud+n+ dc mcnt+||d+dc c cu|tu|+ n+ const|uio;|cv|t+||z+io dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs t+n-
to d+ +|tc dos |o||os |C|s como t+mbcm dos govc|nos | |cc|so +v+n+| cm tc|mos dc
+bc|tu|+ dcss+s o|g+n|z+ocs +|+ +bso|io dc |og|cssos c novos modos dc sc |+zc| +s co|s+s
|nt|ct+nto sc nio |ouvc| mcc+n|smos uc c|m|t+m t|oc+ const+ntc dc |n|o|m+ocs cnt|c os
|o||os |C|s c cnt|c c|cs c out|+s o|g+n|z+ocs dc scu +mb|cntc (c dc |o|+ dc|c) uc c|m|t+m
+os mcsmos + gc|+io dc |csost+s |+|d+s + |ocnsio n+tu|+| c |+vc| |nc|c|+ o|g+n|z+c|on+|
Referncias
^|||| ^s mc||o|cs |+t|c+s oc|+c|on+|s +|+ + gcstio d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ tccno|og|c+
cxc||cnc|+s c c|scct|v+s u+nto +||c+io d+ mctodo|og|+ dc mc||o|cs |+t|c+s oc|+c|on+|s
d+ \+|t|o cm|n+||o |ntc|n+c|on+| Anals ||+s|||+ ^|||| |+n+us ||C^|| .ooo
^|||||||| |C Cc|+io dc ||ucz+ o +c| dos |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ |n Con|c|cnc|+ |+c|on+| dc
C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io , .oo, ||+s|||+ Anals ||+s|||+ |C;CC||;^||||
^|||||||| ||| Modelos de excelncla gerenclal nos lnstltutos e centros de p8d brasllelros
cnt|c |+|+c|+s mod|smos c |nov+ocs .o++ .,.| csc (|outo|+do cm |o||t|c+ C|cnt|c+ c
ccno|og|c+) |nst|tuto dc Ccoc|cnc|+s |n|vc|s|d+dc |st+du+| dc C+m|n+s C+m|n+s
^|^Oz ^ |ndust||+| tcc|no|ogy |csc+|c| |nst|tutcs |n |+t|n ^mc||c+ t|c|| |o|c |n t|c +,,os |n cm|n+||o
|ntc|n+c|on+| O +c| dos |nst|tutos dc csu|s+ cm tccno|og|+ |ndust||+| +,,e io |+u|o Anals
||+s|||+ ^ssoc|+io ||+s||c||+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc |csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ +,-,|
C|O|| || ot+| u+||ty m+n+gcmcnt +n+cc+ o| |t|+|| lnternatlonal ournal or byslcal Ulstrlbutlon
8 Loglstlcs v.+ ns ,+-,, +,,+
|+|con| ^|buuc|uc |+||+ |c+t||z |on+cc|||
::s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
CO||| \| ||V|||^| |^ ^bso|t|vc c++c|ty + ncw c|scct|vc on |c+|n|ng +nd |nnov+t|on
Admlnlstratlve Sclence Quarterly v,, n+ +.s-+,. |+|+,,o
|^|| |C Managlng quallty |cd |+|dcnOx|o|d|c|bou|nc |c|||n ||+c|wc|| |ub||s||ng .oo,
|O| C |^|||CO | omc c|cmcnts o| +n cvo|ut|on+|y t|co|y o| o|g+n|z+t|on+| comctcnccs |n
||C|^|| |\ (|d) Lvolutlonary concepts ln contemporary economlcs !c |n|vc|s|ty o|
||c||g+n +,,| +,;-+;s
|O| C |^|||CO | |^C|O|O C |c+|n|ng |n cvo|ut|on+|y cnv||onmcnts LLM - Worklng aper
Serles .oo,;.o ||s+ |+bo|+to|y o| |conom|cs +nd |+n+gcmcnt - +nt^nn+ c|oo| o| ^dv+nccd
tud|cs Oct .oo, ,o
|| Crlterlos de excelncla :o+o +v+||+io c d|+gnost|co d+ gcstio o|g+n|z+c|on+| io |+u|o |und+io
|+c|on+| d+ u+||d+dc .oo,
||| Crlterlos de excelncla :oo+ o cst+do d+ +|tc d+ gcstio +|+ + cxcc|cnc|+ do dcscmcn|o io
|+u|o |und+io +|+ o ||cm|o |+c|on+| d+ u+||d+dc .oo+
C^|C|^ ^|| ^|||-||||O || |+,cto||+ |nst|tuc|on+| dc um |nst|tuto ub||co dc csu|s+ o c+so
do |t+| +os +,,, kevlsta de Admlnlstrao ubllca v|, n, ee+-e,, .oo,
C|||||C| |O ^|||||||| ||| ||occsso cst|utu|+ c +n+||sc dc |nd|c+do|cs dc dcscmcn|o
dc |nst|tu|ocs dc csu|s+ tccno|og|c+ |n CO|C||O ^|||| .oo. ||||^ |C|O|OC|C^
|^|^ ||OV^^O | CO|||||V||^|| |^ |||||^ || .oo. Cu||t|b+ Anals ||+s|||+
^ssoc|+io ||+s||c||+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc |csu|s+ ccno|og|c+ .oo. cd-|om
|^||||CO| || !c |+||+cy o| un|vc|s+| oes: a.:.es le 1QM Magazlne v, n+ e+-;, +,,;
|^| | ct +| roduo, estrategla e tecnologla cm busc+ d+ v+nt+gcm comct|t|v+ |o|to ^|cg|c
|oo|m+n .oos
|^|^| | Orlentao de negoclos nos lnstltutos de pesqulsa tecnologlcas lndustrlals brasllelros.
um cstudo cx|o|+to||o .oo, +|,| ||ssc|t+io (|cst|+do cm ^dm|n|st|+io) |c+|t+mcnto
dc ^dm|n|st|+io |+cu|d+dc dc |conom|+ ^dm|n|st|+io c Cont+b|||d+dc |n|vc|s|d+dc dc io
|+u|o io |+u|o
|^||| C| Measurlng buslness excellence |ondon |cw o|| |out|cdgc .oo.
|cC^|| | \|||||O| ^ !c ||sc +nd |+|| o| | t|c v|s|on mc+n|ng +nd oc|+t|on o| c|+ngc
lndustrlal kelatlons ournal v., n+ +s-., +,,;
|||^||^ ^ dc ot+| u+||ty m+n+gcmcnt +nd |ncu+||ty t|c t|||c |c||x |n g|ob+| ||sto||c+| c|scct|vc
Sclence, 1ecbnology, 8 luman values v.s n+ ,|-,+ \|ntc| .oo,
^ |omoio d+ cxcc|cnc|+ gc|cnc|+| nos |nst|tutos c ccnt|os
dc || b|+s||c||os +|+ +|cm dos mod|smos gc|cnc|+|s
::,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .o,-.,o ,u|-dcz .o++
||\||| !c |+||+cy o| s|m||st not|ons o| t|c t|+ns|c| o| bcst |+ct|cc |n ||||O ^ |O|||||
| Cballenges and lssues ln knowledge management C|+||ottc |n|o|m+t|on ^gc |ub||s||ng
.oo, ,+-e;
||C|^||||| ^ Qualldade x desempenbo m|to ou |c+||d+dc .oo; +,+| ||ssc|t+io (|cst|+do cm
^dm|n|st|+io) |sco|+ dc ^dm|n|st|+io dc |m|cs+s dc io |+u|o |CV io |+u|o
|O||| C |c|o|m+s d+ gcstio ub||c+ + cxc||cnc|+ |ntc|n+c|on+| odc sc| t|+ns|c||d+ Semlnarlos
lnternaclonals ^ nov+ gcstio ub||c+ cm dcb+tc ||^| .oo. .,
^|||-||||O || |O|^C|||| || |cnds |n t|c o|g+n|z+t|on o| ub||c |csc+|c| |nst|tut|ons |cssons
||om t|c ||+z|||+n c+sc Sclence and ubllc ollcy v,; n, +-+. .o+o
|||| || ^|c you| oes: a.:.es |c+||y t|c bcst l, Update}Lntovatlon lnternatlonal News n,| |
.oo+ ||son|vc| cm n:://...s,oe.co/aaa:es/a,;_/n:o ^ccsso cm +| nov .oo,
O|z^ ||O | ^ dc Manual de elaborao de planos de negoclos em lnstltutos de pesqulsa em
tecnologla lndustrlal ||+s|||+ ^|||| +,,s
z||^||| C |x|o||ng |ntc|n+| st|c||ncss |mcd|mcnts to t|c t|+ns|c| o| bcst |+ct|cc w|t||n t|c |m
Strateglc Management ournal v+; \|ntc| cc|+| |ssuc .;-|, +,,e
z^||^ ^ C|O|C| C ^bso|t|vc c++c|ty + |cv|cw |cconcctu+||z+t|on +nd cxtcns|on Academy
or Management kevlew v.; n. +s,-.o, .oo.
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
Condies histricas e aspectos atuais da C&T
na Regio Metropolitana do RJ: notas preliminares
de pesquisa
*
Brasilmar Ferreira Nunes

**, Heitor Vianna Moura

***
' |csu|s+ cm cu|so n+ |||;|cto dc oc|o|og|+ +o|+d+ c|+ |+c|,
'' ||o|csso| t|tu|+| d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| ||um|ncnsc (|||) ||og|+m+ dc |os-g|+du+io cm oc|o|og|+ |csu|s+do| do C||
c |+c|,
'''|o|s|st+ ||||C;|cto dc oc|o|og|+ |||
Resumo
O |cscntc +|t|go +|cscnt+ + |c|+io cnt|c o cs-
+o u|b+no;mct|oo||t+no d+ c|d+dc do ||o dc
|+nc||o c + |oduio d+ c|cnc|+ c d+ tccno|og|+ uc
sc |+t|c+ n+ c|d+dc ^o |ongo do tcxto os +uto-
|cs +ont+m os c+m|n|os uc sc odcm c|co||c|
+|+ com|ov+| uc + c|d+dc o|c|ccc b+scs ||s|c+s
c cst|utu|+|s como |+to|cs dc |nduio no +v+no
dc dctc|m|n+d+s +t|v|d+dcs no c+mo c|cnt|co c
tccno|og|co n+c|on+|
alavras-cbave ||o dc |+nc||o C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+
|cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+
Abstract
's ae eseo:s :ne e'a:cosn oe:.eeo :ne a
oao / oe:cc':ao .:, c/ |c ae (aoec aoa :ne
caa.:co c/ s.eo.e aoa :e.noc'c, :na: s a.
:.ea o :ne .:, 'canca: :ne :e\: :ne aa:ncs
co: ca: :ne a:ns ,ca .ao c :c c.e :na: :ne .:,
ces a n,s.a' oass aoa s:a.:aa' /a.:cs sa.n as
oaa.:co c/ .e:ao a.:.:es o :ne aa.ao.eoeo:
o oa:coa' s.eo:. aoa :e.noc'c.a' s,s:eo
keywords |c ae (aoec :.eo.e e.noc'c,
/e:cc':ao |eco
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:,:
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
1. Introduo
O ob,ct|vo uc ||cmos c|scgu|| ncstc +|t|go c o dc d|scut|| + |c|+io cnt|c o cs+o u|b+no;
mct|oo||t+no do ||o dc |+nc||o c + |oduio d+ c|cnc|+ c d+ tccno|og|+ uc +u| sc |+t|c+
io du+s d|mcnsocs uc ||cmos |ocu|+| +|t|cu|+| cons|dc|+ndo uc +s b+scs ||s|c+s c cst|utu-
|+|s uc um+ c|d+dc o|c|ccc odcm sc| t|+t+d+s cnu+nto |+to|cs dc |nduio no +v+no dc dc-
tc|m|n+d+s +t|v|d+dcs +|s |cssuostos nos +ont+m os c+m|n|os uc ||cmos c|co||c| +|+
com|ov+| csscs +|gumcntos ^|t|cu|+| um +mb|cntc c|cnt|co + um +mb|cntc u|b+no odc
+|ccc| obv|o num ||mc||o momcnto m+s cst+mos |ntc|css+dos cm +n+||s+| o g|+u dc |ntc|-
-|c|+io cnt|c css+s du+s d|mcnsocs no scnt|do dc most|+| uc um cs+o u|b+no c mu|to m+|s
do uc o +g|omc|+do dc csso+s |movc|s c cu|+mcntos co|ct|vos m+s uc su+s c+|+ctc||st|c+s
soc|o-cu|tu|+|s dcvcm sc| cons|dc|+d+s como |+to|cs |oc+c|on+|s +|+ |numc|+s +t|v|d+dcs |nc|u-
s|vc + |+t|c+ c|cnt|c+ |+|t|cu|+|mcntc + +t|v|d+dc c|cnt|c+ v|st+ no scu con,unto sc bcncc|+
dc |+to|cs o|c|cc|dos c|o +mb|cntc |ntc|cctu+| d+ c|d+dc o uc odc||+ cx||c+| cm +|tc + |m-
o|tnc|+ d+ |cg|io |ct|o||t+n+ do ||o dc |+nc||o no ccn+||o d+ c|cnc|+ no ||+s||
^|guns c|cmcntos +n+||t|cos sio cntio ncccss+||os +|+ +v+n+|mos no ob,ct|vo |oosto |n|-
c|+|mcntc + |o||+ conccio dc c|cnc|+ |c|ton (+,;,) d|scut|ndo o tcm+ nos c|+m+ +tcn-
io +|+ + mu|t|||c|d+dc dc co|s+s uc odc||+m sc| cntcnd|d+s como c|cnc|+ t+|s como os
mctodos ut|||z+dos c uc |+zcm +v+n+| o con|cc|mcnto o |o||o +cumu|o dc s+bc|cs |odu-
z|dos + +|t|| d+ ut|||z+io dcsscs mctodos ou mcsmo um con,unto dc v+|o|cs cu|tu|+|s c cos-
tumcs uc govc|n+m +s +t|v|d+dcs c|cnt|c+s |csmo scm cst+bc|ccc| d|st|nio cnt|c c|cnc|+ c
tccno|og|+
+
nio sc odc csuccc| uc o g|+ndc mov|mcnto uc sc |n|c|ou nos u|t|mos sccu|os
d+ |d+dc |cd|+ cu|oc|+ + cx+nsio do mo|n|o dc +gu+ o| vo|t+ do sccu|o +. dco|s + |nvcn-
io do |c|og|o mccn|co + tccn|c+ sc |mos |+|d+mcntc como um dos ||nc|+|s comoncntcs
dcst+ c|v|||z+io c dcu o||gcm +tu+| c|v|||z+io |ndust||+| uc con|cccmos |o,c c|w+|tm+n
(+,;,) com b+sc ncssc cntcnd|mcnto c +n+||s+ndo + |o|m+io d+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ no ||+-
s|| |ocu|+ |c|+c|on+| + +t|v|d+dc c|cnt|c+ com +s c+|+ctc||st|c+s m+|s gc|+|s dos s|stcm+s soc|+|s
c cconom|cos cm uc c|+s sc dio c v|cc-vc|s+ ou sc,+ o |m+cto uc + +t|v|d+dc c|cnt|c+ cxc|cc
sob|c o s|stcm+ soc|+| c |odut|vo d+ soc|cd+dc |csmo scndo cssc |m+cto c|uc|+| +|+ cx||-
c+| +s c+|+ctc||st|c+s d+s soc|cd+dcs contcmo|nc+s nio sc odc csuccc| uc + |cscn+ dos
c|cnt|st+s c csu|s+do|cs +cs+| dc on||cscntcs +ss+ mu|t+s vczcs dcsc|ccb|d+ c|+ g|+ndc
m+|o||+ | no cnt+nto cst+mos |odc+dos dc ob,ctos c s|tu+ocs |csu|t+ntcs d+ |+t|c+ c|cnt|c+
^ ucstio c|m|tc o|t+nto v+||os |cco|tcs c d+| nosso |ntc|cssc cscc|co cm d|scut|| + |c|+-
io uc sc c||+ cnt|c + |+t|c+ c|cnt|c+ c o mc|o u|b+no |ocu|+ndo most|+| como vc|cmos
n+ scucnc|+ + |nt|m+ |c|+io cnt|c +mbos + +|t|| do c+so d+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do ||o dc
+ |odcmos cons|dc|+| o| momcnto + tccno|og|+
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
|+nc||o ^ tcnt+t|v+ sc|+ dcscob||| o +c| dcscmcn|+do c|+ c|d+dc +|+ uc |nst|tu|ocs c
csu|s+do|cs +u| sc |nst+|cm |ocu|+ndo dct+||+| os modos c|os u+|s cxcct+t|v+s o|c|c-
c|d+s c|+ c|d+dc +t|+cm + c|csccntc +tcnio dc um+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ bcm como + m+-
nc||+ c|+ u+| sc cst|utu|+ + d|st||bu|io dcss+s |+t|c+s c|cnt|c+s c|o tc|||to||o d+ mct|oo|c
^ tcsc |und+mcnt+| uc gu|+ noss+s |ccxocs c uc cssc +mb|cntc c|cnt|co +|cscnt+do c|o
||o dc |+nc||o c |csu|t+do dc um |occsso ||sto||co uc +u|+t|n+mcntc v+| conso||d+ndo + +|c+
como o|o dc +t|+io dc |nst|tu|ocs c csu|s+do|cs c uc css+ c+|+ctc||st|c+ c |o,c um |mo|-
t+ntc |+to| dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto d+ |o||+ c|d+dc
2. Aspectos histricos da institucionalizao da cincia
no Rio de Janeiro
2.1. O Rio de Janeiro e os primrdios da cincia no Brasil
^ c|d+dc do ||o dc |+nc||o c os mun|c||os + c|+ conu|b+dos |o|m+ndo + |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+
do ||o dc |+nc||o c |o,c + +g|omc|+io u|b+n+ m+|s |mo|t+ntc do ||+s|| |ogo +os + dc io
|+u|o |ss+ |mo|tnc|+ sc ||g+ +o |+to dc tc| s|do + c+|t+| do +|s o| um |ongo c||odo +o
vo|umc dc ou|+io |cs|dcntc +o |+to dc sc| o scgundo o|o |ndust||+| n+c|on+| +|cm dc +|c-
scnt+| um scto| dc comc|c|o c |cst+io dc sc|v|os d|nm|co c d|vc|s|c+do
^ |nst|tuc|on+||z+io d+ c|cnc|+ no ||+s|| |cmont+ +os ||mc||os +nos do dcscob||mcnto u+nto
cm +,|, os ,csu|t+s |und+m n+ |+||+ + ||mc||+ csco|+ dc |c| c csc|cvc| no ||+s|| uc sc mu|t|||-
c+ cm |o|to cgu|o |||cus |s|||to +nto io V|ccntc c io |+u|o nos +nos scgu|ntcs |m +,,e
c |und+do +|nd+ n+ |+||+ c|os mcsmos ,csu|t+s o Co|cg|o dc odos os +ntos +|+ o cns|no dc
|cto||c+ |oso+ c tco|og|+ c cm +,,; c c||+do no ||o dc |+nc||o o Co|cg|o do ||o dc |+nc||o
^ cvo|uio do |occsso dc |nst|tuc|on+||z+io d+ c|cnc|+ cnt|c nos v|st+ com o |ccuo do tcm-
o +|ccc t|m|d+ nos sccu|os +e c +; o|cm nio c dc |o|m+ ncn|um+ dcs|cz|vc| sc |cv+|mos
cm cont+ dc uc cst+v+mos +|nd+ num c||odo ||mc||o dc ocu+io do tc|||to||o c|o |mc-
||o o|tugucs |+uc|c c||odo + |+||+ ocu+ os|io dc dcst+uc sob|ctudo o|uc +|v+-
do| c|+ + c+|t+| d+ co|on|+ cst+ cond|io sc |o|ong+ +tc o sccu|o +, u+ndo cm +sos + co|tc
o|tugucs+ sc t|+ns|c|c +|+ o ||o dc |+nc||o |csscs t|cs sccu|os uc +ntcccdcm +ss+gcm do
||o dc |+nc||o + c+|t+| do |c|n+do o|tugucs o uc sc |+z como c|cnc|+ no ||+s|| c m+|s sob|c
o ||+s|| sob|ctudo |c|+tos c cstudos dc v|+,+ntcs cu|ocus uc o| +u| +ss+|+m ^ t|tu|o dc
cu||os|d+dc cm +,s+ c conccd|do c|o Co|cg|o d+ |+||+ com |cstc,os dc uc +|t|c|+m tod+ +
ou|+io |oc+| os ||mc||os g|+us dc douto| d+ co|on|+ |o ||o dc |+nc||o +cs+| dc ++|ccc|
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
cm +|guns momcntos so cm +;,, c c||+do o cm|n+||o dos O||ios dc io |cd|o m+|s t+|dc
c|+m+do dc io |o+u|m c ostc||o|mcntc cm +s,; d+|+ o||gcm +o Co|cg|o | |cd|o ||
|ntct|z+ndo o|t+nto o ||o dc |+nc||o |cccbcu no sccu|o +, + co|tc o|tugucs+ sc t|+ns|o|-
m+ndo cm V|cc-|c|no d+ Co|on|+ o|tugucs+ dcn|ndo +s cond|ocs o||t|c+s |nst|tuc|on+|s
uc ||c t|ouxc|+m bcnc||c|os |cccbcndo |nvcst|mcntos n+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc |o|m+ + co||cson-
dc| + cssc +c| o||t|co ||oio V| c scus succsso|cs t|vc|+m |mo|t+ntc +c| n+ conso||d+io
d+ c|d+dc c n+ su+ modc|n|z+io Com + |oc|+m+io d+ |cub||c+ u+ndo sc to|n+ c+|t+|
d+ n+io os |nvcst|mcntos sc conso||d+m c t|+ns|o|m+m + c|d+dc no o|o n+c|on+| uc c|du-
|+ o| v+||+s dcc+d+s +o |ongo do sccu|o .o ^ t|+ns|c|cnc|+ d+ c+|t+| o||t|c+ +|+ ||+s|||+ cm
+,eo mud+ dc |o|m+ +b|ut+ + su+ |unio o||t|c+ o|cm nio c|cg+ + +mc++| +s su+s dcm+|s
|unocs sob|ctudo cconom|c+ cu|tu|+| c c|cnt|c+ |o cnt+nto t+| mud+n+ |cz com uc o |s-
t+do cnt|+ssc n+ mcsm+ |og|c+ dos dcm+|s |st+dos n+ busc+ o| |ccu|sos um+ vcz uc c|dcu
scu odc| dc |cssio no ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ ccno|og|+ c |nov+io (|C|) |sso sc +g|+vou
+|nd+ m+|s +os o c||odo dc |cdcmoc|+t|z+io no u+| |o| |nccnt|v+d+ + c||+io dc scc|ct+||+s
cst+du+|s dc C tcndo como |csu|t+do um+ nov+ |og|c+ dc +|oc+io dc |ccu|sos +|+ csu|s+
dcst+ vcz mu|to m+|s u|vc||z+d+
Os d+dos +|cscnt+dos no ^ncxo+ c|m|tcm c|ccbc| uc + |nst|tuc|on+||z+io d+ c|cnc|+ no
||+s|| +v+n+ subst+nc|+|mcntc no sccu|o +, com + c|cg+d+ d+ co|tc o|tugucs+ no ||o dc |+-
nc||o |ss+ c|d+dc ,unto com +|v+do| d+ |+||+ c + +|t|| d+| + ||nc|+| |c|c|cnc|+ +|+ sc v|su+-
||z+| + conso||d+io do uc cx|st|+ dc |nst|tu|ocs c|cnt|c+s no +|s no c||odo |cmb|cmos uc
+|v+do| |o| c+|t+| d+ co|on|+ +ntcs do ||o dc |+nc||o +ont+ndo +|+ um+ cst|c|t+ |c|+io cnt|c
|st+do c c|cnc|+ no ||+s|| |c|+io cst+ uc sc cstcndc|+ +o |ongo do sccu|o .o
.
cm cnt|+|mos
num+ +v+||+io dcss+ |c|+io o|s |ug|||+ +o cscoo dc nosso t|+b+||o nio sc odc ncg+| + |m-
o|tnc|+ do |occsso dc conso||d+io do c+mo c|cnt|co no ||+s|| tc| sc |n|c|+do du|+ntc o
c||odo cm uc + c|d+dc do ||o dc |+nc||o c|+ c+|t+| um+ vcz uc + c|d+dc sc t|+ns|o|mou no
||nc|+| o|o c|cnt|co do +|s c|o mcnos +tc mc+dos do sccu|o .o u+ndo io |+u|o comc-
+ + +du|||| |mo|tnc|+ ncstc +|t|cu|+|
2.2. As instituies cienticas no RJ ao longo do sculo 20
O sccu|o .o m+|c+ um d||c|cnc|+| n+ |og|c+ gcog|+c+ dc |m|+nt+io dc |nst|tu|ocs c|cnt|c+s
no +|s u+ ||nc|+| c+|+ctc||st|c+ c + |cscn+ dc io |+u|o + +|t|| d+ |oc|+m+io d+ |cu-
b||c+ com um+ |cnt+ c g|+du+| t|+ns|c|cnc|+ +|+ +uc|c |st+do dc g|+ndc +|tc d+s nov+s |ns-
. ^n+ |+||+ |c|n+ndcs cm su+ tcsc dc douto|+do dc|cnd|d+ cm Ox|o|d t|+t+ do +ssunto +|+ o c||odo do |cg|mc m|||t+|
b|+s||c||o n+ scgund+ mct+dc do sccu|o .o c dcsvcnd+ css+ |c|+io o| c|+ dcnom|n+d+ dc +t|+io c |cu|s+ u+ndo v|v|+mos
cm |cno |cg|mc m|||t+| Vc|||||^||| ^ ^ ||C c + comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ b|+s||c||+ |dunb;^nocs +,s,
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
t|tu|ocs uc sc c||+m no +|s + +|t|| dc cntio O ||o dc |+nc||o cont|nu+ |mo|t+ntc mcsmo
o|uc sc bcncc|+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs c||+d+s +ntc||o|mcntc +|cm dc sc| +|nd+ +tc os +nos +,,o +
c+|t+| o||t|c+ |o|cm + cconom|+ c+|cc||+ sc cstcndc c|o su| (||n+s io |+u|o c |+|+n+) +t|+|
o scto| |ndust||+| +|nd+ |nc||cntc +m||+ o mc|c+do dc t|+b+||o +ss+|+||+do c sob|ctudo dom|-
n+ o ++|c||o do |st+do com + o||t|c+ do c+|c com |c|tc dcs|oc+ndo +|+ |+ os novos |nvcst|-
mcntos |nc|us|vc os vo|t+dos |+t|c+ c|cnt|c+
c +com+n|+|mos c|ono|og|c+mcntc cssc |occsso v+mos c|ccbc| uc o ||o dc |+nc||o n+
||mc||+ mct+dc do sccu|o .o +|nd+ ocu+|+ os|io dc dcst+uc cmbo|+ c|c+ o scu u+-
sc monoo||o obsc|v+do +o |ongo do sccu|o +, |m +,oo conso||d+-sc n+ c|d+dc + |und+io
Osw+|do C|uz +tu+|mcntc +|nd+ o m+|o| ccnt|o dc csu|s+ |+|m+co-s|o|og|co do +|s ^ |n|-
vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| |u|+| do ||o dc |+nc||o (|||||) |nst+|+d+ cm +,++ sc dcst+cou nos c+mos dc
cxc||mcnt+io dc |+t|c+s +g||co|+s |o|mou os ||mc||os cngcn|c||os +g|onomos c mcd|cos
vctc||n+||os do ||+s|| | n+ c|d+dc uc sc |nst+|+ + ^c+dcm|+ ||+s||c||+ dc C|cnc|+ (^|C) |oc+d+
cm t|cs scto|cs c|cnc|+s m+tcm+t|c+s ||s|co-u|m|c+s c b|o|og|c+ cm +,+e |m +,.o o ||cs|dcn-
tc ||t+c|o |csso+ un|ndo +s |+cu|d+dcs |so|+d+s d+ c|d+dc |und+ + |n|vc|s|d+dc do ||+s|| m+|s
t+|dc |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| do ||o dc |+nc||o (||||) |m +,.+ c||+-sc o |nst|tuto |+c|on+| dc cc-
no|og|+ (||) um+ cvo|uio d+ +nt|g+ |st+io |xc||mcnt+| dc Combust|vc|s c ||nc||os com
+ |unio dc +ux|||+| + |ndust||+ b|+s||c||+ cm ucstocs tccn|c+s c tccno|og|c+s |+zcndo csu|s+s
v|s+ndo + mc||o||+ d+ u+||d+dc dc |odutos c m+tc||+s ||m+s n+c|on+|
|+s dcc+d+s scgu|ntcs um+ sc||c dc |mo|t+ntcs |nst|tu|ocs cont|nu+ scndo c||+d+ no ||o dc
|+nc||o c +d,+ccnc|+s ^ss|m tcmos cnt|c out|+s +s scgu|ntcs o |nst|tuto |+c|on+| dc ccno|o-
g|+ (||) +,,| oc|cd+dc ||+s||c||+ dc C|cnc|+ do o|o +,,| o |nst|tuo ||+s||c||o dc |conom|+
(||||) +,|, |st+ |o| + ||mc||+ |nst|tu|io + c+|cu|+| o ||oduto |ntc|no ||uto (|||) b|+s||c||o |c-
+||z+ndo cstudos cconom|cos c cst+t|st|cos sob|c o |oduto n+c|on+| |cos s+|+||os |oduio
c comc|c|o ||c sc subd|v|dc cm v+||+s cscc|+||d+dcs Ccnt|o dc |o||t|c+s oc|+|s (C|) Ccnt|o
dc |conom|+ c |ct|o|co Ccnt|o dc |studos ^g||co|+s (C|^) Ccnt|o dc Comc|c|o |ntc|n+c|on+|
c Ccnt|o dc C|csc|mcnto |conom|co o |nst|tuto dc |+tcm+t|c+ |u|+ c ^||c+d+ (|m+) +,,+
||mc||+ un|d+dc dc csu|s+ c||+d+ c|o |cccntc Consc||o |+c|on+| dc |csu|s+ (C||) c +
|n|vc|s|d+dc do ||st||to |cdc|+| (|||) +,,. +tu+| |n|vc|s|d+dc do |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o
(||||) c o Ccnt|o |+c|on+| dc |ns|no c |csu|s+s ^g|onom|c+s (C|||^)
|o govc|no Cctu||o V+|g+s cm +,,o nov+s |nst|tu|ocs vio su|g|| no bo,o dc um |occsso dc
|ndust||+||z+io uc sc d|n+m|z+ no +|s |c|ccc dcst+uc + c||+io cm +,|+ d+ |+b||c+ |+c|o-
n+| dc |oto|cs (|||) c + Com+n||+ |dc|u|g|c+ |+c|on+| (C|) |ss+s sio +s ||mc||+s |ndus-
t||+s dc b+sc do +|s c||+d+s com |ccu|sos dc um ^co|do com os ||^ c o govc|no b|+s||c||o
+|+ |n|c|+|mcntc +||mcnt+| + |ndust||+ bc||c+ +mc||c+n+ +|cm dc |o|nccc| m+tc||+ ||m+ +|+ +
cmc|gcntc |ndust||+ n+c|on+| ^ |und+io Cctu||o V+|g+s (|CV) c||+d+ cm +,|| sc vo|t+ +|+ +
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:,c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
d|scussio +c+dcm|c+ dos |ob|cm+s |c|+c|on+dos +o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do +|s +|t|cu|+|mcntc
ucstocs cconom|c+s c +dm|n|st|+t|v+s cxc|ccndo |o|tc cst|mu|o n+ |o|m+io dc um cns+-
mcnto tco||co uc ||+ |nucnc|+| +s o||t|c+s cconom|c+s n+c|on+|s +o |ongo dos +nos scgu|ntcs
^|gum+s un|d+dcs |ndust||+|s mc|cccm sc| |cmb|+d+s o|s c|tcnccndo +os scto|cs dc |odu-
io dc bcns du|+vc|s ou bcns dc c+|t+| tcm um |o|tc +c| |nduto| dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto t+nto
cconom|co como t+mbcm c|cnt|co c tccno|og|co ^ss|m + |+b||c+ |+c|on+| dc |oto|cs (|||)
su|g|d+ n+ dcc+d+ dc +,|o t|n|+ o |oos|to dc |+b||c+| moto|cs +c|on+ut|cos m+s +c+bou cx-
+nd|ndo scu mc|c+do +|+ + |+b||c+io dc t|+to|cs c c+m|n|ocs c tcntou +|+v+nc+| + cconom|+
|ndust||+| n+c|on+| |m +,|, + ||| |cz um +co|do ,unto cm|cs+ |t+||+n+ ^||+ |omco +|+ dc-
scnvo|v|mcnto dc tccno|og|+ +|+ c+m|n|ocs com moto|cs n+c|on+|s Com |sso + ||| obtcvc
|c|+t|vo succsso cnt|c +s dcc+d+s dc +,,o c +,;o u+ndo + ||| c vcnd|d+ +|+ + ^||+ |omco uc
m+|s t+|dc sc||+ |nco|o|+d+ c|+ ||+t |m +,s, dcv|do + dc|+s+gcm dc tccno|og|+ +||+d+ + |+|t+ dc
|nvcst|mcntos c|+ |o||+ ||+t |cz com uc + ||| cncc||+ssc su+s oc|+ocs
ob|c + Com+n||+ |dc|u|g|c+ |+c|on+| (C|) v+|c |css+|t+| uc c|+ comcou + oc|+| com
+oo/ do scu otcnc|+| somcntc no govc|no dc |u||co C+s+| |ut|+ (+,|e-+,,+) Com o m d+ ||
Cuc||+ |und|+| + C| mudou o |oco c v|s+v+ +cn+s + cx|o|+io dc m|nc||os dc |c||o c c+|vio
+|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do ||+s|| d|vc|s|c+ndo su+s +t|v|d+dcs c sc t|+ns|o|m+ndo n+ m+|o|
|ndust||+ s|dc|u|g|c+ d+ ^mc||c+ |+t|n+ c um+ d+s c|nco m+|o|cs do mundo
^|cm d+ C| c ||| |ouvc + c||+io dc out|+s |+b||c+s dc o|tc no ||o dc |+nc||o no c||odo
do |st+do |ovo (+,,;-+,|,) como + Com+n||+ |+c|on+| dc ^|c+||s (C|^) |oduz|ndo b+|||||+
c s+| cm +,|, n+ c|d+dc dc ^||+|+| do C+bo c + V+|c do ||o |occ (|o,c V+|c) vo|t+ndo m|nc|+-
io cm +,|. ^ V+|c do ||o |occ |o| c||+d+ + +|t|| d+ const|uio dc um+ cst|+d+ dc |c||o cnt|c
V|to||+ (|) c ||n+s Cc|+|s |css+ const|uio |o| dcscobc|t+ + cx|stcnc|+ dc um+ g|+ndc |csc|v+
dc m|nc||o dc |c||o n+uc|+ |cg|io +mbcm const|u|d+ + +|t|| dc ^co|dos dc \+s||ngton +
V+|c cx+nd|u-sc |cnt+mcntc nos ||mc||os .o +nos (ncss+ coc+ + V+|c +cn+s t|n|+ o +c| dc
su||| +s ncccss|d+dcs d+ C| c dc out|+s |ndust||+s n+c|on+|s) c |o| so n+ dcc+d+ dc +,eo uc
comcou + cx+nd|| os |o||zontcs dc scu mc|c+do c obtcvc |ccon|cc|mcnto |ntc|n+c|on+| n+
cx|o|+io c cxo|t+io dc m|nc||o dc |c||o
|m +,,+ o govc|no b|+s||c||o |+z um g|+ndc +v+no n+ +|c+ dc csu|s+s +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcn-
to n+c|on+| c c||+ do|s dos m+|s |mo|t+ntcs ccnt|os dc |omcnto csu|s+ o Consc||o |+c|o-
n+| dc |csu|s+ (C||) c + Coo|dcn+io dc ^c||c|o+mcnto dc |csso+| dc ||vc| uc||o| (C+-
cs) u|g|d+ d+ |dc|+ d+ ^c+dcm|+ ||+s||c||+ dc C|cnc|+s n+ dcc+d+ dc +,,o o C|| cmc|gc d+
ncccss|d+dc do dcscnvo|v|mcnto c|cnt|co c tccno|og|co do ||+s|| ,+ uc out|+s n+ocs c||+|+m
+gcnc|+s dc |omcnto csu|s+ c |osc|+v+m O ||+s|| +cs+| dc dctcnto| dc |ccu|sos m|nc|+|s
cst|+tcg|cos nio ossu|+ tccno|og|+ ncccss+||+ +|+ m+x|m|z+io dc scu +|ovc|t+mcnto V|s-
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
to css+ ncccss|d+dc o cntio |cs|dcntc |u||co C+s+| |ut|+ s+nc|on+ um+ |c| +|+ + c||+io do
C|| v|ncu|+do + ||cs|dcnc|+ d+ |cub||c+ O C|| c|+ um+ cscc|c dc cst+do-m+|o| d+ c|cn-
c|+ d+ tccn|c+ c d+ |ndust||+ c++z dc t|++| |umos scgu|os +os t|+b+||os dc csu|s+s c|cnt|-
c+s c tccno|og|c+s do +|s dcscnvo|vcndo c coo|dcn+ndo-os dc modo s|stcm+t|co ^ntcs c|+-
m+d+ dc C+m+n|+ |+c|on+| dc ^c||c|o+mcnto dc |csso+| dc ||vc| uc||o| + C+cs tcm +
m|ssio dc +sscgu|+| + cx|stcnc|+ dc csso+| cscc|+||z+do cm u+nt|d+dc c u+||d+dc suc|cntcs
+|+ +tcndc| s ncccss|d+dcs dos cm|ccnd|mcntos ub||cos c ||v+dos uc v|s+m +o dcscnvo|-
v|mcnto do +|s cndo o|gios dc govc|no +mbos sio scd|+dos no ||o dc |+nc||o cntio c+|t+|
c so sc||+m t|+ns|c||dos +|+ ||+s|||+ nos +nos +,eo
|m |unio do dcscnvo|v|mcnto +cc|c|+do d+ |ndust||+ no c||odo gctu||st+ dos +nos +,,o |o| |c-
|cv+ntc o +umcnto do numc|o dc vc|cu|os +utomot|vos |+vo|cccndo +ss|m + cx+nsio d+ m+||+
|odov|+||+ b|+s||c||+ Com |sso v|u-sc + ncccss|d+dc d+ |ocu|+ o| m+tc||+ ||m+ +|+ +b+stccc|
o +|s |o| cntio uc V+|g+s c||ou cm +,,, no |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o + |nst|tu|io dc m+|o|
succsso no ||+s|| + |ct|o|co ||+s||c||o ^ (|ct|ob|+s) Com + c||+io d+ |ct|ob|+s +umcntou-sc
+ dcm+nd+ dc mio dc ob|+ tccn|c+ cscc|+||z+d+ no ||o dc |+nc||o mot|v+ndo + c||+io dc cs-
co|+s tccn|c+s +|+ +tcndc| + dcm+nd+ do scto| ct|o|||c|o O +cc|vo do +nt|go Consc||o |+c|o-
n+| dc |ct|o|co (C||) c +bso|v|do c|+ nov+ cm|cs+ bcm como su+s +t|v|d+dcs dc cx|o|+io
|oduio |cno comc|c|+||z+io c t|+nso|tc dc g+s n+tu|+| ct|o|co c dc||v+dos do mcsmo
+|+ todo o tc|||to||o n+c|on+| ncstc scto| ondc + |ct|ob|+s sc to|n+ + ||dc|
|m+ cm|cs+ dcssc o|tc gc|+ c|c|tos mu|t|||c+do|cs no scu |ug+| scdc ^ss|m ,+ cm +,,, cm
+|cc||+ com + |||| c||+ o Ccnt|o dc ^c||c|o+mcnto c |csu|s+s dc |ct|o|co (Ccn+) vo|t+do
|o|m+io dc csso+| u+||c+do cm csu|s+ ct|o|||c|+ c n+ |m|cmcnt+io dc csu|s+s dc
cun|o tccno|og|co |ostc||o|mcntc cm +,e, +s +t|v|d+dcs do Ccn+ sc cx+nd|ndo conso||d+ +
csu|s+ ct|o|||c|+ c n+ |o|m+io dc csso+| u+||c+do no +|s ^ Ccn+ |o,c dcnom|n+d+ dc
Ccncs +tu+ sob|ctudo n+ +d+t+io dc tccno|og|+s |mo|t+d+s +|+ +s cond|ocs c +d|ocs
n+c|on+|s |o,c + |ct|ob|+s oc|+ cm m+|s dc .; +|scs c c + u+|t+ m+|o| cm|cs+ ct|o|||c|+
dc c+|t+| +bc|to do mundo + tc|cc||+ m+|o| cm|cs+ dc todo cont|ncntc +mc||c+no no uc d|z
|csc|to +o scu v+|o| dc mc|c+do c + scxt+ m+|o| cm|cs+ do mundo
|m +,eo c |und+d+ + |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| ||um|ncnsc (|||) ^ un|vc|s|d+dc |o| c||+d+ + +|t||
d+ t+mbcm |nco|o|+io dc |+cu|d+dcs ,+ cx|stcntcs n+ c|d+dc dc ||tc|o| ^ ||| vcm sc som+| +
out|+s un|vc|s|d+dcs |cdc|+|s c cst+du+|s no ||o dc |+nc||o cont||bu|ndo +|+ conso||d+| o scto|
dc cns|no un|vc|s|t+||o ub||co n+ +|c+ scm duv|d+ um dos m+|s |mo|t+ntcs no +|s ^ c|cg+d+
dos m|||t+|cs +o odc| cm +,e| v+| |ovoc+| um+ mud+n+ nos |umos do cns|no c d+ csu|s+
no +|s Com o novo |cg|mc o||t|co + c|cnc|+ c + tccno|og|+ +ss+m + como| |tcns do |og|+-
m+ govc|n+mcnt+| +t|+vcs d+ v|sio m|||t+| dc scgu|+n+ n+c|on+| +|go ,+ |cscntc nos +|gumcn-
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:,s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
tos uc sustcnt+|+m + c||+io do C|| nos +nos +,,o O +|s dcvc||+ +sscgu|+| su+ +utonom|+
c|cnt|c+ c tccno|og|c+ cntcnd|d+ como ucstio cst|+tcg|c+
|o ||o dc |+nc||o os m|||t+|cs c||+|+m + Com+n||+ dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto |ndust||+| do |st+do
do ||o dc |+nc||o cm +,e| com o ob,ct|vo dc cst|utu|+| +s +|c+s |ndust||+|s do |st+do |o| + +|-
t|| dcst+ Com+n||+ uc cmc|g|u + |dc|+ c + const|uio d+ |s|n+ |uc|c+| dc ^ng|+ dos |c|s uc
co|ocou o |st+do do ||o cm um |ug+| |m+| cm |c|+io +dm|n|st|+io dc tccno|og|+s cons|-
dc|+d+s dc ||mc||o mundo ^ Ccnt|+| |uc|c+| ^|m||+ntc ^|v+|o ^|bc|to (|s|n+ dc ^ng|+ dos
|c|s) su|g|u d+ |dc|+ ,+ ostu|+d+ cm +,,o do |og|+m+ nuc|c+| b|+s||c||o do C|| ^ C|^^ c
comost+ o| t|cs g|+ndcs us|n+s (^ng|+ | ^ng|+ || c ^ng|+ |||) c so |o| comc+| su+s oc|+ocs
no +no dc +,s.
+mbcm n+ dcc+d+ dc +,eo |o|+m |nst|tu|dos c|os m|||t+|cs novos ccnt|os dc +o|o c|cnc|+
c + tccno|og|+ no |st+do do ||o como + |cdc|+io d+s |sco|+s |cdc|+|s |so|+d+s do |st+do do
||o dc |+nc||o (|cc|,) uc no m d+ dcc+d+ dc +,;o v|||+ + sc to|n+| + |n|vc|s|d+dc do ||o dc
|+nc||o (|n|||o) (|nst|tu|io ub||c+ c |cdc|+|) c + ||nc (+,e;)
C||+d+ cm +,e; +|+ |nst|tuc|on+||z+| o |undo dc ||n+nc|+mcnto dc |studos dc ||o,ctos c ||o-
g|+m+s dc +,e, + ||nc subst|tu|u c +m||ou o +c| cxc|c|do c|o |+nco |+c|on+| dc |cscn-
vo|v|mcnto |conom|co c oc|+| (||||) c scu |undo dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto ccn|co-C|cnt|co
(|untcc) const|tu|do com + n+||d+dc dc n+nc|+| + |m|+nt+io dc |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+-
io n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs b|+s||c||+s ^ ||nc |o| + |csons+vc| c|+ |omoio cx+nsio c conso||d+-
io d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ dc csu|s+s n+s +|c+s dc c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs b|+s||c||+s
+|t|cu|+|mcntc no ||o dc |+nc||o dcst+c+ndo + c||+io do |nst|tuto ^|bc|to |u|z Co|mb|+ dc
|os-C|+du+io c |csu|s+ dc |ngcn|+||+ (Coc) o m+|o| cong|omc|+dos dc cstudos c csu|-
s+s dc cngcn|+||+ no +|s +ss|m como d+ ^mc||c+ |+t|n+ scd|+d+ dcnt|o d+ |o||+ ||||
|+ dcc+d+ dc +,;o |o| |und+do c|os m|||t+|cs o Ccnt|o dc ccno|og|+ ||nc|+| (Cctcm) uc sc
const|tu|+ dc um+ sc||c dc ccnt|os dc csu|s+s dcnt|o d+ |||| ^ c||+io do Cctcm vc|o |ccc-
d|do o| um d|scu|so d+ o||t|c+ m|||t+| uc |ctcnd|+ dot+| o +|s dc um +o|tc dc dcscnvo|-
v|mcnto c|cnt|co c tccno|og|co no scto| m|nc|o-mct+|u|g|co |m +,;+ como |csu|t+do d+ |u-
sio dc t|cs |nst|tu|ocs cx|stcntcs com t|+d|io cm csu|s+ (|nst|tuto dc ccno|og|+ ^||mcnt+|
|nst|tuto dc ccno|og|+ dc O|cos c |nst|tuto dc ccno|og|+ dc |cb|d+s c |c|mcnt+ocs) su|g|u o
Ccnt|o dc ccno|og|+ ^g||co|+ c ^||mcnt+| (C^^) uc tcm como ||nc|+| |unio cst|mu|+|
c |omovc| + mc||o||+ d+ cc+c|+ c cc|cnc|+ dos s|stcm+s dc |oduio +g|occu+||os +g|o-
o|cst+|s +g|o|ndust||+|s c +mb|cnt+|s cm su+s |c|c|cnc|+s cscc|c+s o| mc|o dc t|+b+||os dc
csu|s+ coo|dcn+dos c|+ |mb|++
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
|+ dcc+d+ dc +,so os m|||t+|cs |und+m n+ c|d+dc dc |ct|oo||s o |+bo|+to||o |+c|on+| dc Com-
ut+io C|cnt|c+ (||CC) cscc|+||z+do cm comut+io c|cnt|c+ c modc|+gcm comut+c|o-
n+| +tu+ndo como un|d+dc dc csu|s+ c|cnt|c+ c dcscnvo|v|mcnto tccno|og|co do govc|no
m|||t+| c como o|gio govc|n+mcnt+| |ovcdo| dc |n||+cst|utu|+ comut+c|on+| dc +|to dcscm-
cn|o +|+ + comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ c tccno|og|c+ n+c|on+|
|m +,s, t+|vcz o u|t|mo +to dc |nccnt|vo csu|s+ +ntcs d+ +bc|tu|+ o||t|c+ o govc|no m|||-
t+| |und+ o |uscu dc ^st|onom|+ c C|cnc|+s ^ns (|+st) O |+st v|ncu|+do +o C|| c um+
|nst|tu|io ,+ |dc+||z+d+ c|o C|uo |cmo||+ d+ ^st|onom|+ (+,s.) no mb|to do Obsc|v+to||o
|+c|on+| uc t|+b+||+ com + ||sto||+ c|cnt|c+ c tccno|og|c+ do ||+s|| +o mcsmo tcmo cm uc
|omovc c cstud+ + d|vu|g+io c + cduc+io cm c|cnc|+s
O |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o ||sto||c+mcntc |o| c+ |und+mcnt+| n+ cst|utu|+io do +|s no
uc d|z |csc|to |o|m+io dc mio dc ob|+ u+||c+d+ dc nov+s tccno|og|+s c csu|s+s |st+s
u+ndo +ss+m + sc| +|tc |ntcg|+ntc dc um+ o||t|c+ n+c|on+| dc |+nc,+mcnto cont||bu||+m
dc m+nc||+ s|gn|c+t|v+ +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto n+c|on+| ^|cm do m+|s o |st+do bcncc|ou-sc
dos m+|o|cs |nvcst|mcntos cm |n||+cst|utu|+ do govc|no |cdc|+| +tc + dcc+d+ dc +,eo c||odo
c|o u+| |o| c+|t+| do ||+s|| cond|io uc cc|t+mcntc ||c t|ouxc v+nt+gcns cndo +ss|m o ||o
dc |+nc||o +dm|n|st|ou scus |o,ctos c dc|xou um |cg+do dc |n||+cst|utu|+ c|cnt|c+ c tccno|o-
g|c+ +|+ o ||+s|| |csmo com + t|+ns|c|cnc|+ d+ c+|t+| +|+ ||+s|||+ o ||o dc |+nc||o m+ntcm
su+s |nst|tu|ocs +t|+|ndo novos |nccnt|vos csu|s+ |csu|t+do dc um |ongo |occsso ||sto||co
dc conso||d+io dc scu +|uc c|cnt|co c tccno|og|co
V|mos +ss|m uc +o |ongo do sccu|o +, du|+ntc o |cg|mc mon+|u|co o ||o dc |+nc||o |+t|-
c+mcntc dcnc o scu +c| n+ c|cnc|+ b|+s||c||+ +c| cssc uc sc m+ntcm mcsmo sc +o |ongo
do sccu|o .o v+| d|v|d|| com out|os cst+dos b|+s||c||os + |oc+||z+io dc nov+s |nst|tu|ocs uc
||io su|g|| c|w+|tm+n (oc|t +,o c scg) |ocu|+ d|scut|| css+ cond|io sob|ctudo u+ndo o
|st+do dc io |+u|o dcsont+ como ccnt|o ||v||cg|+do ncss+ d|mcnsio O +uto| ||+ sc dctc|
ncss+ c|+io cnt|c io |+u|o c ||o dc |+nc||o c most|+| como scndo o ||o dc |+nc||o c+|t+| |+
um+ cu|tu|+ do |unc|on+||smo ub||co uc |c,ud|c+ + cont|+t+io c + |cmunc|+io do t|+b+||o
c|cnt|co cnu+nto uc io |+u|o m+|s d|nm|co c mcnos |m|cgn+do dc o||t|c+s c||cntc||st+s
conscguc +||cg|mcnt+| os mc||o|cs u+d|os +|+ +s |nst|tu|ocs uc +|| sc |m|+nt+m O c|c|to
d|sso c uc +s |nst|tu|ocs c+||oc+s +ss+m o| um c||odo dc dcc||n|o cnu+nto +s dc io |+u|o
o|csccm |c |o|m+ +mb|gu+ cnt|ct+nto sc|+ no ||o dc |+nc||o uc sc +ss|stc +o su|g|mcnto dc
um+ |dco|og|+ dc v+|o||z+io d+ +t|v|d+dc c|cnt|c+ d+ un|vc|s|d+dc c d+ nov+ |+c|on+||d+dc do
sccu|o .o uc sc d+v+ dc |o|m+ |ndccndcntc c scm |c|+io d||ct+ c ncccss+||+ com o t|+b+||o
c|cnt|co |oss|on+| |o||+mcntc d|to | no ||o uc su|gc o g|+ndc mov|mcnto c|+ c||+io
dc um+ vc|d+dc||+ un|vc|s|d+dc no ||+s|| cm um |o,cto uc mu|to s|gn|c+t|v+mcntc so c|c-
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
gou + sc| conc|ct|z+do cm io |+u|o Vc,+mos +|guns +scctos dcssc |occsso nos +nos m+|s
|cccntcs + +|t|| d+ dcmoc|+t|z+io do |st+do nos +nos +,so
3. A ps-graduao na Regio Metropolitana do RJ
^ os-g|+du+io n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs b|+s||c||+s c um |cnomcno d+ scgund+ mct+dc do sccu|o .o
c tcm |c|+io com + c|scct|v+ dos govc|nos m|||t+|cs dc g+n|+|mos +utonom|+ n+ cs|c|+ c|cn-
t|c+ co|oc+d+ n+uc|c momcnto como um dos c|cmcntos d+ cst|+tcg|+ dc scgu|+n+ n+c|o-
n+| c css+ o||t|c+ tcvc su+s c||t|c+s sob|ctudo sob|c o +v+no d+s c|cnc|+s |um+n+s n+uc|c
momcnto sob cont|o|c dc um+ ccnsu|+ o||t|c+ nio sc odc +|m+| o mcsmo +|+ |+mos d+s
c|+m+d+s c|cnc|+s du|+s ^ ||s|c+ + u|m|c+ + b|o|og|+ ctc nio so||c|+m os c|c|tos do momcnto
o||t|co n+ mcsm+ |oo|io sob|ctudo o|uc cst+v+m |nsc||d+s ncss+ cst|+tcg|+ dc +utono-
m|+ c scgu|+n+ n+c|on+| O cxcm|o d+ |nst+|+io d+ |s|n+ |uc|c+| cm ^ng|+ dos |c|s c ||us-
t|+t|vo m+s nio c +cn+s +|| uc tcmos cv|dcnc|+s d+ ||o||d+dc m|||t+| + c||+io d+ Coc n+
|||| + cx+nsio d+ csu|s+ n+ ^m+zon|+ +t|+vcs dc cst|mu|os +o |n+ o cst|mu|o +os cu|sos
dc cngcn|+||+ n+s o||tccn|c+s do +|s cscc|+|mcntc no udcstc Os ||+nos |+c|on+|s dc |c-
scnvo|v|mcnto (|||s) c|+bo|+dos +o |ongo dos +nos +,eo c +|tc dos dc +,;o co|oc+m + C
como +|c+s ||o||t+||+s con|m+ndo cssc d|+gnost|co O |o|t+|cc|mcnto d+ C+cs no ||n|stc||o
d+ |duc+io c o do C|| n+ cc|ct+||+ d+ ||cs|dcnc|+ d+ |cub||c+ c ,+ nos +nos +,so + c||+io
do ||n|stc||o d+ C|cnc|+ c ccno|og|+ (|C) com|ov+m o cont|nuo |o|t+|cc|mcnto |nst|tuc|o-
n+| dcnt|o do |st+do d+ o||t|c+ dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto c|cnt|co c tccno|og|co
|ss+ cx+nsio c |cn+ dc cont|+d|ocs sob|ctudo cm |+zio d+ |og|c+ dc +t|+io c |cu|s+
cnt|c + comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ c o |st+do b|+s||c||o |csu|c|o do c||m+ |mc|+ntc +o |ongo dos
u+sc .o +nos dc govc|no m|||t+| nio sc odc cnt|ct+nto ncg+| uc noss+s un|vc|s|d+dcs scm-
|c sc bcncc|+|+m d+s vc|b+s ub||c+s ouco sc +|t|cu|+ndo com + |n|c|+t|v+ ||v+d+ sob|c-
tudo no uc sc |c|c|c s csu|s+s c + gc|+io dc con|cc|mcnto Com + sub|d+ do +|t|do |
||cntc do govc|no cm .oo. c|ccbc-sc um ++z|gu+mcnto ncss+ |c|+io n+ mcd|d+ cm uc
|ouvc cst|+tcg|+s d||ct+s dc |o|t+|cc|mcnto d+ csu|s+ n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs +com+n|+do o|
um+ o||t|c+ dc v+|o||z+io s+|+||+| dos doccntcs +bc|tu|+ dc v+g+s c c||+io dc nov+s un|d+dcs
un|vc|s|t+||+s ub||c+s ^o mcsmo tcmo c||+m-sc |og|+m+s cscc|cos dc cst|mu|o cnt|+d+
dc novos g|uos soc|+|s no cns|no suc||o| +t|+vcs do ||oun| c + mc||o||+ d+s un|d+dcs ||s|c+s
d+s un|vc|s|d+dcs +t|+vcs do |cun| O +o|o c n+nc|+mcnto csu|s+ sc mod|c+m +t|+vcs d+
+doio dc cd|t+|s +bc|tos +o con,unto d+s un|d+dcs c g|uos cs+||+dos c|o +|s n+ tcnt+t|v+
dc cont|+b+|+n+| + cxccss|v+ conccnt|+io ||sto||c+ d+s +t|v|d+dcs c|cnt|c+s no c|xo ||;|;||
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
O |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o ncssc contcxto v+| d|sut+| com out|os |st+dos + +||c+io dc |c-
cu|sos cm C sc,+ n+ |o|m+io dc |ccu|sos |um+nos sc,+ no n+nc|+mcnto dc |o,ctos n+s
un|vc|s|d+dcs ou +gcnc|+s cscc|+||z+d+s Con|o|mc t|vcmos oo|tun|d+dc dc c|ccbc| o ||o dc
|+nc||o |o| ||v||cg|+do ||sto||c+mcntc +|+ + |m|+nt+io n+ |||| dc |numc|+s |nst|tu|ocs dc
csu|s+ uc ||c d+ v+nt+gcns com+|+t|v+s u+ndo com+|+do com out|os ccnt|os do +|s
^ss|m mcsmo com + su|cm+c|+ dc io |+u|o + |||| nunc+ c|dc su+ |mo|tnc|+ mcsmo
dco|s dc dc|x+| dc sc| + scdc d+ c+|t+| o||t|c+ do +|s |ssc cstouc dc |nst|tu|ocs const|tu|
um c+|t+| |nst+|+do dc c|uc|+| |mo|tnc|+ o|s c|+ c o suo|tc +|+ uc +o |ongo do tcmo v+
sc conso||d+ndo um+ comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ no || uc dcscmcn|+ +c| |mo|t+ntc n+ c+-
t+io dc |ccu|sos c no dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc cc|tos |+mos d+ c|cnc|+ n+ |cg|io c+|+ctc||z+ndo
um c||cu|o v||tuoso cnt|c + c|d+dc o c|cnt|st+ c + c|cnc|+ |ss+ d|nm|c+ +t|+vcss+ c||odos dc
m+|o| ou mcno| cx+nsio m+s cm ncn|um momcnto +b+|+ su+ |mo|t+ntc os|io no ccn+-
||o c|cnt|co n+c|on+| c +n+||s+|mos + v+||+io do numc|o dc |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io n+s
u|t|m+s +v+||+ocs d+ C+cs vcmos uc +s |nst|tu|ocs |cdc|+|s cont|nu+m +tc |o,c scndo +s m+|s
|mo|t+ntcs no ccn+||o d+ |oduio d+ C no |st+do (u+d|o + +ncxo)
Cons|dc|+ndo + scgund+ mct+dc do sccu|o .o c + +|t|| dc |n|o|m+ocs d+ |+c|, odcmos
const+t+| uc os m+|s +nt|gos cu|sos dc os-g|+du+io no |st+do sio os cu|sos dc mcst|+do
cm |+tcm+t|c+ d+ ^ssoc|+io |nst|tuto |+c|on+| dc |+tcm+t|c+ |u|+ c ^||c+d+ (|m+) c cm
Odonto|og|+ d+ |||| cm +,eo c os cu|sos dc douto|+do cm m+tcm+t|c+ t+mbcm do |m+ cm
||s|c+ do Ccnt|o ||+s||c||o dc |csu|s+s ||s|c+s (C|||) C|cnc|+s (||c|ob|o|og|+) d+ |||| todos
os t|cs |n|c|+dos cm +,e. c +n+||s+|mos + d|st||bu|io dos |og|+m+s +tu+|s o| +no dc |n|c|o
(C|+cos + c . +ncxo) vcmos uc +o;s/ |o|+m c||+dos n+ dcc+d+ dc scsscnt+ .o oe/ n+ dc-
c+d+ dc +,;o ;|,/ n+ dcc+d+ dc +,so .o,e/ n+ dcc+d+ dc +,,o c |o;./ c||+dos + +|t|| do
+no .ooo +tc ,u||o ^ ucd+ obsc|v+d+ nos +nos +,so tcm |c|+io com + c|+m+d+ dcc+d+ c|-
d|d+ ondc + |cdcmoc|+t|z+io sc dcu cm contcxto dc |o|tc c||sc cconom|c+ uc sc |cct|u cm
|numc|+s cs|c|+s |nc|us|vc n+s +t|v|d+dcs +c+dcm|c+s |st+ d|nm|c+ sc +|tc|+ + +|t|| dos +nos
+,,o c sob|ctudo nos ||mc||os +nos do sccu|o .+ |c|cscnt+ndo um +umcnto dc u+sc +oo/
dos |og|+m+s cnt|c os do|s c||odos ^ +|t|| dos +nos +,,o c uc sc c|ccbc um c|csc|mcnto
m+|s v|go|oso dos cu|sos dc douto|+do c |o| ncssc c||odo t+mbcm uc |n|c|+ o ||mc||o cu|so
dc mcst|+do |oss|on+| mod+||d+dc uc ||+ cx+nd|| nos u|t|mos +nos + +|t|| dc o||t|c+s dc
|nccnt|vo d+ C+cs (C|+co . +ncxo)
^ +n+||sc d+ v+||+io c|ccntu+| do numc|o dc |og|+m+s cnt|c os do|s u|t|mos t||cn|os dc +v+-
||+io d+ C+cs c dcstc u|t|mo +tc ,u||o dc .oos scgundo g|+ndc +|c+ dc con|cc|mcnto (u+-
d|o . +ncxo) |cvc|+ uc os |og|+m+s d+ g|+ndc +|c+ mu|t|d|sc|||n+| |o|+m os uc m+|s c|cscc-
|+m com um +umcnto dc m+|s dc e|/ cnt|c os do|s t||cn|os c dc u+sc ;o/ do u|t|mo t||cn|o
+tc ,u||o dc .oos Cons|dc|+ndo + v+||+io cnt|c o t||cn|o .oo+-.oo, c ,u||o dc .oos cst+ +|c+
tcvc um +umcnto dc +;,/ n+ o|c|t+ dc |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io |m scgundo |ug+| cm
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
::
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
c|csc|mcnto vcm os |og|+m+s d+ g|+ndc +|c+ dc c|cnc|+s d+ s+udc com um+ v+||+io c|ccn-
tu+| dc ,o/ cnt|c os do|s u|t|mos t||cn|os +|/ cnt|c o u|t|mo t||cn|o c ,u||o dc .oos c dc |s/
+|+ todo o c||odo ^s +|c+s com mcno| c|csc|mcnto n+ o|c|t+ dc |og|+m+s |o|+m +s dc c|-
cnc|+s cx+t+s c d+ tc||+ ||ngu|st|c+ |ct|+s c +|tcs cst+ com o/ dc c|csc|mcnto do u|t|mo t||cn|o
dc +v+||+io +tc ,u||o dc .oos c + g|+ndc +|c+ dc c|cnc|+s b|o|og|c+s (u+d|o . +ncxo)
Obsc|v+ndo-sc + v+||+io do numc|o dc |og|+m+s scgundo concc|to n+ +v+||+io d+ C+cs
(u+d|o , +ncxo) dcst+c+-sc o nio c|csc|mcnto do numc|o dc |og|+m+s com concc|tos e c ; Os
||mc||os cm todo o c||odo +umcnt+|+m +cn+s cm um |og|+m+ cnu+nto os dc concc|to ;
t|vc|+m o/ dc c|csc|mcnto O numc|o dc |og|+m+s com concc|to , t+mbcm v+||ou ouco cc|c+
dc e/ c +/ |cscct|v+mcntc cnt|c os do|s u|t|mos t||cn|os c n+ ||mc||+ mct+dc do +tu+| t||cn|o
Os |og|+m+s com concc|tos mcno|cs , c | |o|+m os uc m+|s c|cscc|+m |ssc u+d|o +|cscn-
t+ os c|c|tos nio so d+ |ntcns|c+io no numc|o dc novos |og|+m+s uc cm gc|+| |n|c|+m com
concc|tos m+|s b+|xos m+s +|ccc t+mbcm |cct|| um +umcnto no n|vc| dc cx|gcnc|+ c um m+|o|
||go| nos c||tc||os dc +v+||+io d+ C+cs |csu|t+ndo cm m+|o|cs dcs+os +|+ uc os |og|+m+s
sc,+m c|+ss|c+dos cm n|vc|s dc cxcc|cnc|+ c t+mbcm cvcntu+|mcntc gc|+ndo + |cc|+ss|c+io dc
|og|+m+s cm concc|tos m+|s b+|xos do uc os uc sc cncont|+v+m +ntc||o|mcntc
|ss+ |+|d+ dcmonst|+io d+ s|tu+io d+ os-g|+du+io no ||o dc |+nc||o c|m|tc +|gum+s con-
s|dc|+ocs |m ||mc||o |ug+| c+ cv|dcntc + d|nm|c+ dc c|csc|mcnto dc |og|+m+s dc os-
-g|+du+io n+s |nst|tu|ocs c+||oc+s c |cv+|mos cm cont+ uc + csu|s+ sc |+z sob|ctudo cm
|nst|tu|ocs com |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io c sc cons|dc|+|mos +|nd+ uc + |||| conccnt|c
|+t|c+mcntc + g|+ndc m+|o||+ dos |og|+m+s dc osg|+du+io do || odcmos dcduz|| uc
sc |cctc + os|io ||sto||c+ d+ +|c+ como o|o c|cnt|co do |st+do |o| out|o |+do sc tom+|-
mos os |nd|ccs dc +v+||+io d+ C+cs d+ os g|+du+io b|+s||c||+ +o |ongo d+ ||mc||+ dcc+d+
dos +nos .ooo o || nio +|cscnt+ +umcnto nos n|vc|s dc cxcc|cnc|+ (not+s e c ;) tcmos s|m
um c|csc|mcnto s|gn|c+t|vo nos ||og|+m+s com not+s , c | +ont+ndo +|+ um +sccto uc
mc|ccc dcst+uc + d|nm|c+ dc c||+io dc cu|sos novos c |ntcns+ n+ +|c+ +ont+ndo +|+ um+
|o|tc |cscn+ dc cst|mu|os C o|cm os g+n|os cm cxcc|cnc|+ nio cstio sc m+n||cst+ndo
com + mcsm+ |ntcns|d+dc O d+do |nd|c+ uc dc |+to obsc|v+-sc dcnt|o d+ |||| um+ c||+io
dc |||+s dc cxcc|cnc|+ num+ s|tu+io s|m||+| +o uc sc const+t+ + n|vc| n+c|on+| cnt|c d||c|cntcs
un|vc|s|d+dcs nos |st+dos d+ |cdc|+io +ont+ +|nd+ uc +|cm dc |nccnt|vo c||+io dc novos
|og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io dcvc +|nd+ |+vc| cs|o|os + sc|cm dcscnvo|v|dos +|+ + mc||o||+
u+||t+t|v+ dos |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io no |st+do
Com |c|+io +o uso do tc|mo |||+s dc cxcc|cnc|+ c c|t|ncntc ontu+| o |c-d||cc|on+mcnto
+|c|+| uc oco||cu n+ gcstio dc C n+ dcc+d+ dc +,,o no +|s +ont+do o| |+umg+|tcn
(.oo;) ||cntc csc+ss+ d|son|b|||d+dc dc |ccu|sos dcv|do +o momcnto |cccss|vo d+ cconom|+
n+c|on+| c |cgcmon|+ dc um d|scu|so nco||bc|+| sc otou o| um c|csc|mcnto vc|t|c+| do scto|
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
dc C ou sc,+ + o||cnt+io do scto| + +|t|| do ||nc||o dc cxcc|cnc|+ +| d|scu|so +c+bou
o| |ntcns|c+| +s +ss|mct||+s no scto| v|sto uc sc dc|cnd|+ + |nsc|io do +|s n+ nov+ o|dcm
cconom|c+ mund|+| cm dct||mcnto dc |cocu+io com +s dcm+nd+s soc|+|s;|cg|on+|s cx|s-
tcntcs |+umg+|tcn (.oo;) t+mbcm dc|cndc uc css+ o||t|c+ uc dcst+c+ + |mo|tnc|+ do
mc|c+do c||ou |o|m+s dc cont|o|c no s|stcm+ dc cduc+io s|ntct|z+d+s n+ +v+||+io u+nt|t+-
t|v|st+ n+ |dc|+ dc cc|cnc|+ no cont|o|c dc dcscmcn|o c n+ |+|cnc|+ d+s cst|utu|+s ub||c+s
cst+t+|s o uc scus |ccxos t+|vcz oss+m cx||c+| o +umcnto u+nt|t+t|vo dos cu|sos dc os
scm uc |+,+ um+ mc||o|+ u+||t+t|v+
,

4. Os grupos de pesquisa na RMRJ e na Regio Sudeste
^cs+| d+ csu|s+ +c+dcm|c+ no ||+s|| sc| ouco +|t|cu|+d+ com s|stcm+ |odut|vo mu|t+s
vczcs +tu+ndo com|ct+mcntc |so|+d+ d+s ncccss|d+dcs cconom|c+s d||ct+s c|+ sc |oc+||z+ ||s-
to||c+mcntc n+s |cg|ocs ondc sc conccnt|+ ou o odc| o||t|co ou o odc| cconom|co do +|s
ob|ctudo +o |ongo do sccu|o .o cm io |+u|o c ||o dc |+nc||o os do|s ||nc|+|s o|os c|cn-
t|cos do +|s c ondc sc |m|+nt+ um scto| |ndust||+| modc|no uc ||+ +o |ongo do sccu|o sc
d|vc|s|c+ndo tc|||to||+|mcntc |ss+ d|vc|s|c+io c|o tc|||to||o v+| scndo com+nd+d+ c|o |s-
t+do n+c|on+| num+ |og|c+ gcog|+c+ uc |nco|o|+ +os oucos +s dcm+|s |cg|ocs do +|s |ss+
|nco|o|+io sc |+z dc m+nc||+ dcs|gu+| sc gu|+ndo ||nc|+|mcntc ou o| |ontcs dc m+tc||+
||m+ ou o| o||t|c+s dc |nccnt|vos sc+|s uc c||+m v+nt+gcns com+|+t|v+s cm dctc|m|n+d+s
|oc+||d+dcs |cg|on+|s
|o| out|o |+do + |ndust||+ no gc|+| c um+ +t|v|d+dc u|b+n+ uc sc bcncc|+ d+s c|+m+d+s
cconom|+s dc u|b+n|z+io ou cconom|+s dc +g|omc|+io |c|c||ndo +ss|m sc |m|+nt+| cm
c|d+dcs ,+ com o|tc |c|+t|v+mcntc g|+ndc bcncc|+ndo-sc d+ |n||+cst|utu|+ c d+ d|son|b|||-
d+dc dc mio dc ob|+ c mc|c+do consum|do| ^ |m|+nt+io dc ccnt|os dc csu|s+ n+s un|-
vc|s|d+dcs b|+s||c||+s scguc + |og|c+ |oc+c|on+| d+ |ndust||+ no +|s |o|t+nto cmbo|+ nio scndo
n+nc|+d+ d||ct+mcntc c|o c+|t+| |odut|vo + csu|s+ +c+dcm|c+ v+| sc gu|+| c|+ otcnc|+|
+|t|cu|+io uc c|+ tc||+ com +s +t|v|d+dcs |odut|v+s c cconom|c+s c,+ |o|m+ndo csso+| com
c|cv+d+ u+||c+io sc,+ csu|s+ndo novos |odutos c m+tc||+|s |+ um+ |nt|m+ |c|+io cnt|c
+s cs|c|+s +c+dcm|c+ c |odut|v+ uc |+z com uc |+,+ um+ sob|cos|io dc um+ sob|c +
out|+ no tc|||to||o
|+|+ co||obo|+| com css+ +n+||sc c oss|vc| |ccuc|+| os g|+cos . c , +ncxo |cscntcs no ||+no
|+c|on+| dc |os C|+du+io (.oo,;.o+o) uc +|cscnt+m + co||c|+io cnt|c +s v+||+vc|s ||| nu-
mc|o dc doccntcs n+ os-g|+du+io c o v+|o| dc |nvcst|mcnto o| doccntc cm bo|s+s c|+s +t|-
, |utu|+mcntc +o |ongo dos t|+b+||os d+ csu|s+ vo|t+|cmos d|scussio dcssc +|gumcnto
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
v|d+dcs dc |omcnto Obsc|v+-sc uc cx|stc s|m um+ |c|+io d||ct+ cnt|c + +|t|c|+io dos |st+-
dos no ||| c + o|ccnt+gcm dc doccntcs +ss|m como o m+|o| |nvcst|mcnto ub||co ondc cx|stc
css+ m+|o| conccnt|+io ^ss|m + |cg|io udcstc sc dcst+c+ m+|s um+ vcz +o sc| |c|cscnt+d+
o| t|cs |st+dos (io |+u|o ||o dc |+nc||o c ||n+s Cc|+|s) cnt|c os u+t|o m+|s |c|cscnt+t|vos
|o|t+ndo c |nd|scut|vc| uc cx|stc um+ conccnt|+io dc |nvcst|mcntos ub||cos ondc |+ um+
m+|o| c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc |ccu|sos |um+nos u+||c+dos c dc gc|+io dc ||ucz+ +t|+vcs
do s|stcm+ |odut|vo
||sto||c+mcntc no ||+s|| + |cscn+ do |st+do no cst|mu|o +o cns|no suc||o| c csu|s+ +c+-
dcm|c+ t+mbcm |csu|t+ num+ |o|tc |c|+io cnt|c + |oc+||z+io d+ +t|v|d+dc +c+dcm|c+ c + d+s
|nst|tu|ocs +dm|n|st|+t|v+s do |st+do no tc|||to||o |cst+ u|t|m+ dcc+d+ not+-sc um+ ||gc||+
|ncxio ncss+ tcndcnc|+ com + c||+io dc nov+s un|vc|s|d+dcs ub||c+s cm c|d+dcs nio c+-
|t+|s |nt|ct+nto +|nd+ c um+ cxc||cnc|+ |n|c|+| cu,os |m+ctos sio +|nd+ ontu+|s o usu+| c
co|||uc||o no +|s c + |cscn+ dc un|vc|s|d+dcs c ccnt|os dc csu|s+ cm c|d+dcs c+|t+|s ou
mun|c||os + c|+s conub+|dos uc t+mbcm sio no gc|+| os m+|s |mo|t+ntcs cconom|c+mcntc
|ss+ |og|c+ |oc+c|on+| mc|ccc um+ +n+||sc m+|s dct+||+d+ uc nio sc|+ +|o|und+d+ +u| +go|+
||+ com|ov+ + tcsc dc |c|n+ndcs (+,s,) sob|c + comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ b|+s||c||+ uc v|vcnc|+
um mcc+n|smo dc +t|+io c |cu|s+ com o odc| o||t|co c odcmos +c|csccnt+| com +|tc
do s|stcm+ cconom|co
|

c nos dct|vc|mos n+ d|st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ |cg|st|+dos no C|| scgundo +s m+-
c|o||cg|ocs do ||+s|| ncstcs u|t|mos o|to +nos (.ooo-.oos) os +|gumcntos +c|m+ sc com|ov+m
(u+d|os |^ c || +ncxo) ^ |cg|io udcstc sc dcst+c+ +o |ongo do c||odo + ||nc|+| no |cg|s-
t|o dc g|uos dc csu|s+ c + |cg|io |o|tc + mcnos |mo|t+ntc |vcmos n+ ||mc||+ no +no
.ooo um tot+| dc e;,, g|uos numc|o cssc uc c|cscc +o |ongo do c||odo +|c+n+ndo no +no
dc .oos um tot+| dc +++.o |cg|st|os ou sc,+ um c|csc|mcnto dc e,+,/ no c||odo |+ + |cg|io
|o|tc +ss+ dos ,,| g|uos cm .ooo +|+ +o;o cm .oos |nd|c+ndo um +c|csc|mo dc .o./ ^|n-
d+ m+|s |ntc|css+ntc uc cssc d+do uc |cvc|+ um c|csc|mcnto mu|to suc||o| d+ |cg|io |o|tc
u+ndo com+|+d+ com +o udcstc c c|ccbc| css+ mcsm+ d|st||bu|io cm tc|mos c|ccntu+|s
d+s |cg|ocs ^o obsc|v+| o u+d|o |^ +ncxo const+t+-sc uc + |cg|io udcstc |o| + un|c+ uc
c|dcu |c|cscnt+t|v|d+dc no ccn+||o n+c|on+| +o sc t|+t+| do numc|o dc g|uos dc csu|s+ o
uc ossu| um+ |c|+io com um+ c|d+ t+mbcm d+ |c|cscnt+t|v|d+dc dc su+ +t|v|d+dc ccono-
m|c+ +cs+| dc +mb+s +|nd+ sc +|cscnt+|cm como dom|n+ntcs cm +mbos os c||tc||os Ou sc,+
cst+ |o|tc conccnt|+io dc g|uos no udcstc +||+do +o c|csc|mcnto gcnc|+||z+do dc g|uos
dc csu|s+ c|+s dcm+|s |cg|ocs +ont+ um+ tcndcnc|+ +|nd+ cmb||on+||+ dc um+ d|st||bu|io
mcnos dcs|gu+| v|sto uc +s dcm+|s |cg|ocs g+n|+|+m cs+o no ccn+||o n+c|on+|
| |+ mcsm+ m+nc||+ conccnt|+io cconom|c+ sc t|+duz t+mbcm o| conccnt|+io ou|+c|on+| num+ |c|+io d||ct+ cnt|c +mb+s
v+||+vc|s m|g|+ntc c +|gucm |ocu|+ndo sc |nsc||| no mc|c+do dc t|+b+||o c os ostos dc t|+b+||o cstio ondc cst+ o c+|t+|
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
Vc,+mos +go|+ como sc d|st||bu| dcnt|o d+ |cg|io udcstc os g|uos dc csu|s+ Como v|mos
+ntcs c nc|+ uc sc conccnt|+ + m+|o||+ dos g|uos c+d+st|+dos no C|| c cst+mos cons|dc|+n-
do uc + |oc+||z+io gcog|+c+ dos mcsmos gu+|d+ cst|c|t+ |c|+io com o odc||o cconom|co
d+ +|c+ |o|s bcm dcnt|o do udcstc t+nto o ||o dc |+nc||o u+nto io |+u|o c|dcu +|tc dc
su+ |c|cscnt+t|v|d+dc no ccn+||o n+c|on+| |nu+nto |sso ||n+s Cc|+|s +|cscntou um c|csc|-
mcnto s|gn|c+t|vo c o |s|||to +nto nio +|cscntou mud+n+s (u+d|os ,^ c ,| +ncxo) C|+-
c+mcntc odcmos c|ccbc| com m+|s c|+|cz+ + tcndcnc|+ +ont+d+ Obv|o uc io |+u|o c ||o
dc |+nc||o +|nd+ sio os m+|s |mo|t+ntcs (cmbo|+ o || +|cscntc s|n+|s dc cst+gn+io) o|cm +
|cscn+ dc ||n+s Cc|+|s vcm sc conso||d+ndo c+d+ vcz m+|s o uc gu+|d+ |c|+io com + +|-
t|c|+io dcsscs |st+dos no ||| n+c|on+| no c||odo cgundo os d+dos do ||C| dos +nos dc
.ooo c .oos + +|t|c|+io do ||| +u||st+ ||cntc +o ||| b|+s||c||o d|m|nu|u dc ,eo/ +|+ ,,+/
o mcsmo mov|mcnto oco||cu no |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o uc tcvc + +|t|c|+io d|m|nu|d+
dc ++s/ +|+ ++,/ |nu+nto |sso o m|nc||o +ssou dc s,/ +|+ ,,/ O uc co||obo|+ com +
co||c|+io uc cst+mos +ont+ndo cnt|c cconom|+ c +t|v|d+dc dc csu|s+
Vc,+mos t+mbcm + d|st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ n+s |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no d+ |||| sc-
gundo + su+ os|io no ccn+||o n+c|on+| ^ +|t|c|+io |oo|c|on+| (u+d|o e^ +ncxo) u+n-
to +bso|ut+ (u+d|o e| +ncxo) dos g|uos dc csu|s+ n+ |||| cm |c|+io +o ||+s|| c cv|dcntc
O d+do uc c|+m+ m+|s +tcnio n+ +bc|+ e^ c + s|gn|c+t|v+ ucd+ do c|ccntu+| d+ ||||
cnu+nto +s dcm+|s |nst|tu|ocs +|cscnt+m v+||+ocs mcno|cs m+s t+mbcm dc ucd+ ou no
c+so d+ ||| dc cst+b|||d+dc |io ncccss+||+mcntc cst+ +ont+ndo um+ ucd+ +bso|ut+ o|s
c|+ +bc|+ e| c|ccbcmos uc os g|uos +umcnt+m scm|c no c||odo o|cm cm tc|mos
|c|+t|vos |+ c|d+ dc os|io d+ |||| no ccn+||o b|+s||c||o |csu|t+do d+ cx+nsio d+ os-g|+-
du+io n+s dcm+|s |cg|ocs do +|s
^ |||| conco|||+ cm .ooo com ,s/ dos g|uos dc csu|s+ do +|s c|cg+ndo cm .oos com
,e/ c +|nd+ um+ |o|tc |cscn+ no ccn+||o b|+s||c||o com os s.. g|uos c+d+st|+dos cm .oos
o|cm c|dc cs+o +|+ out|+s |nst|tu|ocs t+mbcm dcnt|o d+ |||| ^s out|+s |nst|tu|ocs d+
|||| cmbo|+ c|c+m os|io n+c|on+| o ||tmo dc ucd+ c |n|c||o| +o obsc|v+do +|+ + ||||
|nd|c+ndo um+ ||gc||+ +comod+io dcnt|o do tc|||to||o d+ mct|oo|c dc scus csu|s+do|cs ^
|cscn+ d+ ||| c|m+nccc cst+vc| no c||odo (+;/ dos g|uos do +|s) + ||oc|uz |c|, |||||
com cucnos dcc|csc|mos dcst+c+ndo o su|g|mcnto d+ |n|||o uc nio ontu+v+ nos t|cs
||mc||os +nos d+ dcc+d+ c + +|t|| dc .ooe ,+ conco||c com o|/ do tot+| n+c|on+| |m |csumo
o c|cmcnto uc sc most|+v+ |cgcmon|co (||||) c|dcu cs+o ||cntc +o +|s c +s dcm+|s |ns-
t|tu|ocs do ||o dc |+nc||o cnt|ct+nto ucm ocuou cssc cs+o c|d|do no ccn+||o n+c|on+|
nio |o|+m +s |nst|tu|ocs c+||oc+s
Vo|t+|cmos + css+ d|scussio ostc||o|mcntc o|cm odcmos +g|cg+| +n+||sc os d+dos sob|c
m+t||cu|+s dc d|sccntcs nos douto|+dos do +|s c com+|+-|+s com +s uc const+m nos |og|+-
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
m+s o| m+c|o||cg|ocs ^ |ntcnio c |ocu|+| c|ccbc| + c++c|d+dc uc + +|c+ dctcm dc +t|+||
cstud+ntcs +|+ scus |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io um |nd|c+do| scm duv|d+s s|gn|c+t|vo n+
|og|c+ +c+dcm|c+ |v|dcntc uc cm sc t|+t+ndo dc um+ |cg|io com m+|o| numc|o dc cu|sos
c o|t+nto dc o|c|t+ dc v+g+s tcmos cm tc|mos +bso|utos um+ |cgcmon|+ c|+|+ do udcstc
ncssc |nd|c+do| |o +no dc .ooo o udcstc conco|||+ com ;,,/ d+s m+t||cu|+s cm cu|sos dc
douto|+mcnto no +|s ou sc,+ um+ |cgcmon|+ |nucst|on+vc| |nt|ct+nto c+bc |css+|t+| uc
|+ um+ tcndcnc|+ dc d|m|nu|io ncss+ +|t|c|+io c|ccntu+| o|s cm .oos o c dc e.|/
(u+d|o ; +ncxo) ^s |cg|ocs u| c |o|dcstc vio +o |ongo do c||odo g+n|+ndo |c|cscnt+t|v|-
d+dc +ont+ndo um+ tcndcnc|+ dc d|st||bu|io mcnos conccnt|+d+ cs+c|+|mcntc d+s m+t||-
cu|+s |mbo|+ nio sc,+ ob,cto dc noss+ +n+||sc +u| odcmos cons|dc|+| uc |+ um+ cst|+tcg|+
dc d|st||bu|io m+|s cu|t+t|v+ d+ o|c|t+ dc v+g+s |csu|t+do do cst|mu|o c||+io no c||odo dc
novos |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io n+s un|vc|s|d+dcs cs+||+d+s c|o +|s
^o +n+||s+| ||+no |+c|on+| dc |os-C|+du+io (|||C) .oo,;.o+o c|+bo|+do c|+ C+cs c os |+nos
+ntc||o|cs obsc|v+-sc uc + |cocu+io com +s dcs|gu+|d+dcs |cg|on+|s scm|c cstcvc |cscntc
cm m+|o| ou mcno| mcd|d+ m+s uc + +|t|| dos d+dos +|cscnt+dos +s mud+n+s nio cstio
+cn+s no c+mo d+s |dc|+s m+s uc comc+m + |cct|| n+ c|d+ d+ |c|cscnt+t|v|d+dc no ccn+-
||o n+c|on+| dos g|+ndcs ccnt|os ||sto||cos dc |oduio dc C |o|t+nto cx|stc um mov|mcnto
|mo|t+ntc scndo |n|c|+do +cs+| dc +|nd+ |nsuc|cntc +|+ +|tc|+| +s +ss|mct||+s cx|stcntcs cnt|c
+s |cg|ocs |ssc u|t|mo |+no nio so c|+m+ +tcnio +|+ o c||cu|o v|c|oso |c|c|cntc c+n+||z+io
dos |nvcst|mcntos nos g|uos m+|s conso||d+dos d|cu|t+ndo o c|csc|mcnto dos g|uos c |cg|ocs
cmc|gcntcs m+s t+mbcm +|+ + ||nc|+| cont|+d|io no scto| c + d|scussio dc um c+m|n|o oss|-
vc| +|+ sc |cvc|tc| o u+d|o ^ cont|+d|io cx|stcntc c uc +o mcsmo tcmo cm uc nio sc odc
cns+| n+ d|m|nu|io dos |nvcst|mcntos nos g|uos m+|s u+||c+dos c |cc|so c||+| cond|ocs +dc-
u+d+s +|+ os g|uos ,+ conso||d+dos cm |cg|ocs com mcno| dcns|d+dc dc g|uos dc csu|s+ ou
cm +|c+s do con|cc|mcnto cst|+tcg|c+s +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto |+|mon|co d+ c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+
n+c|on+| |o|t+nto scgundo o |||C (.oo,;.o+o) |sso |m||c+ no cst+bc|cc|mcnto dc |oost+s
|ndut|v+s uc contcm|cm |ccu|sos novos c;ou |cm+nc,+mcnto dc o|+mcntos ^s |n|c|+t|v+s +|+
co||cio d+ tcndcnc|+ dcvc||+m comc+| c|o |ccon|cc|mcnto o| +|tc dos govc|nos cst+du+|s
d+ |mo|tnc|+ d+ u+||c+io dc |ccu|sos |um+nos |oc+|s +|+ |o|c|+| o dcscnvo|v|mcnto do
cst+do c d+ |cg|io O onto dc +|t|d+ sc||+ + +bso|io dc douto|cs cm +|c+s cscc|c+s dc modo
+ |o|m+| m+ss+ c||t|c+ c++z dc |oo| |og|+m+s dc os-g|+du+io dc u+||d+dc |+ |+umg+|tcn
(.oo;) sugc|c out|o c+m|n|o +o d||cm+ +|cscnt+do + tcnt+t|v+ dc ||o||z+| tcm+s dc |ntc|cssc |c-
g|on+| c|m|t|ndo uc c+d+ |cg|io do +|s sc dcst+c+ssc cm dctc|m|n+d+s +|c+s c||+ndo +ss|m o-
|os dc |oduio dc C O uc nio s|gn|c+ um+ ||+gmcnt+io do con|cc|mcnto +t|+vcs d+ c||+-
io dc ccnt|os dc cxcc|cnc|+ m+s o +|ovc|t+mcnto d+s otcnc|+||d+dcs |oc+|s;|cg|on+|s obtcndo
+ss|m |csost+s tccno|og|c+s +|+ |ob|cm+s |oc+|s cscc|cos ^ss|m + +uto|+ dcst+c+ + |mo|tn-
c|+ dos cstudos sob|c o +ssunto cst+|cm d|sostos + cstud+|cm c c||+|cm t|o|og|+s |cg|on+|s uc
c|m|t+m um d|+gnost|co c +n+||sc m+|s dct+||+dos c cscc|cos +|+ c+d+ |cg|io
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
5. Elementos para uma sntese futura da posio da Regio
Metropolitana do RJ no cenrio cientco nacional
|ss+ ||mc||+ +|ox|m+io +n+||t|c+ sob|c + os|io d+ |||| no ccn+||o b|+s||c||o d+ os-g|+-
du+io tcm +|gum+s |m||c+ocs |m ||mc||o |ug+| c+bc |cmb|+| uc sc t|+t+ dc um+ s|stcm+-
t|z+io dc +|guns d+dos cx|stcntcs dcnt|o dc um+ c|scct|v+ m+|s +m|+ dc tcnt+| c|ccbc| o
|ug+| uc + |cg|io mct|oo||t+n+ ocu+ como o|o c|cnt|co n+c|on+|
V|mos uc + +|c+ +ssou o| |o|und+s +|tc|+ocs n+ su+ os|io o||t|c+ n+c|on+| +|cm do |+to
dc uc tcm |o,c uc b+|g+n|+| cs+o n+s o||t|c+s dc C com out|+s |cg|ocs do +|s uc
t+mbcm ||o||z+m cm su+s +ocs o |o|t+|cc|mcnto d+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc gc|+| con|cc|-
mcnto cndo ||sto||c+mcntc sc ||v||cg|+do d+ cond|io dc c+|t+| d+ |cub||c+ c||odo cm
uc sc bcncc|+ dc |numc|+s +ocs cst+t+|s dc |oc+||z+io dc cst+bc|cc|mcntos dc csu|s+ cm
scu tc|||to||o o ||o dc |+nc||o dcs||utou du|+ntc mu|to tcmo dcss+ cond|io uc sc vc +|tc|+d+
com +s t|+ns|o|m+ocs n+ o||t|c+ n+c|on+| +o |ongo d+ scgund+ mct+dc do sccu|o .o
cndo +ss|m + +|t|| dcss+ ||mc||+ +n+||sc odc-sc c|ccbc| uc o |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o +ss|m
como + |cg|io udcstc ocu+m um+ os|io |cgcmon|c+ n+ |oduio dc C no +|s |nt|ct+n-
to cssc +c| |ot+gon|st+ vcm c|dcndo cs+o com o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc out|+s |cg|ocs do +|s
mov|mcnto uc dcvc sc| cstud+do + +|t|| dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s cscc|c+s n+ d|m|nu|io d+s +ss|mc-
t||+s c n+ dcsconccnt|+io do s|stcm+ |odut|vo O c+so do ||o dc |+nc||o como odc sc| c|ccb|do
+ +|t|| dos g|+cos c u+d|os + s|tu+io c um ouco m+|s +|+|m+ntc v|sto uc cstc +|cscntou n+s
du+s u|t|m+s dcc+d+s um u+d|o dc ucd+ nio so dc |c|cscnt+t|v|d+dc no scto| cm numc|os c|-
ccntu+|s m+s s|n+|s dc um+ d|m|nu|io ou cst+gn+io dc scu c|csc|mcnto cm numc|os +bso|utos
|o cnt+nto + |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ v|vc ncssc momcnto um+ ond+ dc |cnov+io dc scu +|uc
c|cnt|co +|t|cu|+|mcntc n+s su+s un|vc|s|d+dcs |cdc|+|s (|||| c |||) scndo + |||+ do |undio
ondc sc |m|+nt+ |mo|t+ntcs |+bo|+to||os dc csu|s+ tccno|og|c+ cc|t+mcntc um dos m+|s d|-
nm|cos no cont|ncntc O ct|o|co |o| scm duv|d+ + ||nc|+| |ontc dc +t|+io dcsscs ccnt|os dc
csu|s+ m+s +|| sc |oc+||z+m +|nd+ d|vc|s+s +|c+s d+ |||| otcnc|+||z+ndo + oss|b|||d+dc dc m+
|ntc|+io +c+dcm|c+ un|vc|s|t+||+ c cm|cs+||+| m+|s +b|+ngcntc ncss+ |cg|io d+ c|d+dc |+ mcsm+
|o|m+ + ||| vcm +m||+ndo + su+ |mo|tnc|+ dcnt|o do ccn+||o d+ c|cnc|+ mct|oo||t+n+ sob|c-
tudo sc bcncc|+ndo dos +o|tcs dc |ccu|sos |cdc|+|s +dv|ndos dc |og|+m+s t+|s como o |cun|
^s +tu+|s cond|ocs cstio +ont+ndo +|+ um+ |cvc|sio d+ tcndcnc|+ dc cst+gn+io uc sc
obsc|v+v+ n+ |||| n+s u|t|m+s dcc+d+s do sccu|o .o u+ndo cntio + c|d+dc c|d|+ cs+o n+
d|sut+ o| cc|cb|os ^ cst+gn+io cconom|c+ do |st+do n+uc|c c||odo cst+v+ |m||c+ndo no
dcs|ntc|cssc dc |cnom+d+s com+n||+s dc cngcn|+||+ cscc|+|mcntc no scgmcnto dc |o,ctos
c mu|t+s dcs++|cccm do ccn+||o c+||oc+ o| |+|t+ dc oo|tun|d+dcs ^ cx|o|+io dc ct|o|co
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+
:s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
no m+| |o|ou um +v+no d+ ||ontc||+ d+ tccno|og|+ no scto| c tudo |sso cst+ +contcccndo n+
cost+ do ||o dc |+nc||o V+||+s cm|cs+s comc+|+m + sc dcscnvo|vc| d||ct+mcntc ncssc |occs-
so c os nuc|cos dc csu|s+ cm to|no d+ |||| n+ |||+ do |undio +c+b+|+m c||+ndo o +mb|cntc
+dcu+do +|+ uc com+n||+s como + c||umbc|gc| ||C |+|c| |ug|cs |s|m|n+s |cso| c
+go|+ + C| tom+sscm + dcc|sio dc |nst+|+| no |oc+| un|d+dcs dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto dc tccno|og|+
^ mud+n+ cst+ |c|+c|on+d+ + um u+d|o gc|+| dc |cv|t+||z+io d+ cconom|c+ um|ncnsc c d+ |o||+
c|d+dc do ||o dc |+nc||o |io c oss|vc| sc+|+| os ccnt|os dc csu|s+ dos novos cm|ccnd|mcntos
|ndust||+|s sc,+ n+ const|uio n+v+| n+ s|dc|u|g|+ n+ ct|ou|m|c+ n+ nuc|c+| n+ +|c+ +utomot|v+ ou
cm scgmcntos dc |n||+cst|utu|+ c |og|st|c+ |cm nio +ssoc|+-|os +o cs|o|o +|+ sc comb+tc| + v|o|cn-
c|+ c |cst+bc|ccc| + o|dcm u|b+n+ com |og|css|v+ mc||o|+ d+s cond|ocs dc |+b|t+io t|+nso|tc c
sc|v|os b+s|cos |+ como |ccxo dcssc cs|o|o c t+mbcm como um+ |o|m+ dc +cc|c|+-|o o ||o vo|-
tou + +t|+|| |mo|t+ntcs cvcntos |ntc|n+c|on+|s uc cu|m|n+|io com os |ogos O||m|cos dc .o+e O
|st+do do ||o cscc|+|mcntc + c+|t+| c + |cg|io mct|oo||t+n+ cst+ |ongc dc |cso|vc| scus g|+vcs
|ob|cm+s |+ mu|to uc sc| |c|to +|+ uc o ||o |cconu|stc o t|tu|o dc C|d+dc |+|+v|||os+ uc
|nc|us|vc tcm uc sc| cns+d+ +t|+vcs d+ |ntcg|+io dos d||c|cntcs ontos uc comocm + ||||
Referncias
8augarten, M. ^v+||+io c gcstio dc c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ |n |cv|st+ dc C|cn|c+s soc|+s |czcmb|o .oo|
,,-,e io |+u|o ^||OC
CALS}MLC (Coordenao de Aperreloamento de essoal de Nlvel Superlor) ||+no |+c|on+| dc |os-
C|+du+io (|||C) .oo,-.o+o ||+s|||+ |czcmb|o .oo|
CNQ |+nco dc d+dos c cst+t|st|c+s ||son|vc| cm n:://....oo/es:a:s:.as/oae\n:o ^ccsso
cm o,;oe;.o++
|ALk ||+gnost|co |nst|tuc|on+| dos ||og|+m+s dc |os-C|+du+io do |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o .oos
||son|vc| cm n:://.../aeo/se..cs/oas.acsaa/cs_aa_|(_aeseo:a.acn:o'
^ccsso cm o,;oe;.o++
|ernandes, A.M ^ ||C c + comun|d+dc c|cnt|c+ b|+s||c||+ ||+s|||+ |||||;^||OC +,s,
||c|t+g | C+|t+|s m|g|+ntcs c odc|cs c|cg||nos o c+so do ||o dc |+nc||o ||o dc |+nc||o |+||us .o+o
Merton, k.k !c soc|o|ogy o| sc|cncc !co||c+| +nd |m|||c+| |nvcst|g+t|ons C||c+go |n|vc|s|ty o|
C||c+go ||css +,;,
lnbelro, A.l.|. (o|g) ||o dc |+nc||o c|nco sccu|os dc ||sto||+ c t|+ns|o|m+ocs u|b+n+s ||o dc |+nc||o
C+s+ d+ |+|+v|+ |d|t .o+o
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+
:,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++
ANEXO
V+||+io do |umc|o dc ||og|+m+s dc |os-C|+du+io cnt|c os |o|s ||t|mos ||cn|os dc ^v+||+-
io d+ C^|| do ||t|mo ||cn|o +tc |u||o dc .oos c dc .oo+ + |u||o dc .oos scgundo |ccn-
dcnc|+ ^dm|n|st|+t|v+ |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o .oos
Quadro +
Uependncla
Admlnlstratlva
1otal de
programas
exlstentes
ate o trlnlo
z00!-z00!
1otal de
programas
exlstentes
ate o trlnlo
z004-z006
varlao +
1otal de
programas
exlstentes ate
jul}z008
varlao +
varlao z00!
jul z008
|st+du+| ! 1 !c4 c 1!! oo
|cdc|+| 14 1o 14. .04 11 !.4
|+|t|cu|+| 1 o. .1! . 1o1! 411c
1otal z4z z89 !9,4z !!4 !,7 !8,0z
|ontc |^|||( Caa.:es:.as a.aa`o.as .a.a'aes e .aa.aaae ae caaac |aocs:.c |os::a.coa' acs c
aoas ae csaaaaac ac |s:aac ac |c ae (aoec |sco.e' eo n:://.../aeo/se..cs/oas.acsaa/
cs_aa_|(_.aa.:es:.as_a.aaeo.asn:o'
||og|+m+s dc |os-C|+du+io o| |cc+d+ dc |n|c|o |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o .oos
40,72%
40,72%
7,49%
20,06%
Dcada de 60
Dcada de 70
Dcada de 80
Dcada de 90
De 2000 at julho/2008
10,78%
Craco +
|ontc |^|||( Caa.:es:.as a.aa`o.as .a.a'aes e .aa.aaae ae caaac |aocs:.c |os::a.coa' acs c
aoas ae csaaaaac ac |s:aac ac |c ae (aoec |sco.e' eo n:://.../aeo/se..cs/oas.acsaa/
cs_aa_|(_.aa.:es:.as_a.aaeo.asn:o'
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++


Cu|so dc |os-C|+du+io o| ||vc| scgundo |cc+d+ dc |n|c|o |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o - .oos
0
1960-1969 1970-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2009
10
36
Mestrado Acadmico Doutorado Mestrado Prossional
66
29
25
30
66
90
73
46
52
04
09
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Grco
|ontc |^|||( Caa.:es:.as a.aa`o.as .a.a'aes e .aa.aaae ae caaac |aocs:.c |os::a.coa' acs c
aoas ae csaaaaac ac |s:aac ac |c ae (aoec |sco.e' eo n:://.../aeo/se..cs/oas.acsaa/
cs_aa_|(_.aa.:es:.as_a.aaeo.asn:o'
V+||+io do |umc|o dc ||og|+m+s dc |os-C|+du+io cnt|c os |o|s ||t|mos ||cn|os dc ^v+||+-
io d+ C+cs do ||t|mo ||cn|o +tc |u||o dc .oos c dc .oo+ + |u||o dc .oos scgundo C|+ndc
^|c+ dc Con|cc|mcnto |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o .oos
Quadro
Grandes reas
Total de
programas
existentes
at o trinio
2001-2006
Total de
programas
existentes
at o trinio
2004-2006
Variao %
Total de
programas
existentes at
jul/2008
Variao %
Variao 2001
jul 2008
C|cnc|+s +g|+||+s 11 14 .. 1 14 !o!o
C|cnc|+s b|o|og|c+s .! . c0 . c00 1!
C|cnc|+s d+ s+udc !! 4! !0!0 4 1! 4c4c
C|cnc|+s cx+t+s c d+
tc||+
!1 !! o4 ! o0o 1.0
C|cnc|+s |um+n+s 40 4c .000 o 1oo 4000
C|cnc|+s soc|+|s
+||c+d+s
! 4! 10.o 4o oc 1
|ngcn|+||+s ! 4 .1o. . 1o 404
||ngu|st|c+s |ct|+s
c +|tcs
14 1 14 1 000 14
|u|t|d|sc|||n+| 14 .! o4. ! o 1c
Total 242 289 19,42 334 15,57 38,02
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++


|ontc |^|||( Caa.:es:.as a.aa`o.as .a.a'aes e .aa.aaae ae caaac |aocs:.c |os::a.coa' acs c
aoas ae csaaaaac ac |s:aac ac |c ae (aoec |sco.e' eo n:://.../aeo/se..cs/oas.acsaa/
cs_aa_|(_.aa.:es:.as_a.aaeo.asn:o'
V+||+io do |umc|o dc ||og|+m+s dc |os-C|+du+io cnt|c os |o|s ||t|mos ||cn|os dc ^v+||+-
io d+ C^|| do ||t|mo ||cn|o +tc |u||o dc .oos c dc .oo+ + |u||o dc .oos scgundo Concc|to
do ||og|+m+ |st+do do ||o dc |+nc||o .oos
Quadro
Conceito atual
da Capes
Total de
programas
existentes
at o trinio
2001-2003
Total de
programas
existentes
at o trinio
2004-2006
Variao %
Total de
programas
existentes at
jul/2008
Variao %
Variao 2001
jul 2008
!1 4. 1 o0 10! 40 14.4
4 c. o 10 10 114o !04
0 4 !1 1! 14
o !1 !1 000 !. !.! !.!
1 1 000 1 000 000
Total 242 289 19,42 334 15,57 38,02
|ontc |^|||( Caa.:es:.as a.aa`o.as .a.a'aes e .aa.aaae ae caaac |aocs:.c |os::a.coa' acs c
aoas ae csaaaaac ac |s:aac ac |c ae (aoec |sco.e' eo n:://.../aeo/se..cs/oas.acsaa/
cs_aa_|(_.aa.:es:.as_a.aaeo.asn:o'
0
10
V V
IV
III
II
I
IV
Observado Linha de igualdade
III
II
I
20
30
40
Relao entre % Docente e % PIB (*)
%

D
o
c
e
n
t
e
s
% PIB
10 20 30 40
0
10
20
30
40
Relao entre % Investimentos em
bolsas e % Docentes (*)
%

I
n
v
e
s
t
i
m
e
n
t
o
s

e
m

b
o
l
s
a
s
% Docentes
10 20 30 40
Observado Linha de igualdade
Grcos e
|ontc |'aoc `a.coa' ae |cs Gaaaaac .oo,.oo)
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++


||st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ scgundo + |cg|io gcog|+c+ cm o|ccnt+gcm (.ooo .oos)
0
2000
3
15
20
57 51,8 52,5
50,4
48,8
24 23,5 23,6 23,2
15 14,2
15,5 16,9
3,9
4 4,4 4,7
2002 2004 2006 2008
Sudeste
10
20
30
40
50
60
Sul
Nordeste
Centro-Oeste
Norte
Quadro A
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
||st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ scgundo + |cg|io gcog|+c+ cm numc|os +bso|utos (.ooo
.oos)
0
2000
Sudeste
Sul
Nordeste
Centro-Oeste
Norte
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Quadro B
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++


||st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ n+ |cg|io sudcstc scgundo + |n|d+dc |cdc|+t|v+ cm |c|+io
+o ||+s|| C|+co cm o|ccnt+gcm (.ooo - .oos)
0
5
10
2000
1,2
8,7
16,3
31
28,6 28,5
27
26
13,9
14,3
13,2
12,2
8,3
8,7
9,1 9,4
1 1,1 1,1 1,2
2002 2004 2006 2008
So Paulo
Rio de Janeiro
Minas Gerais
Esprito Santo
15
20
25
30
35
Quadro A
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
||st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ n+ |cg|io sudcstc scgundo + |n|d+dc |cdc|+t|v+ cm |c|+io
+o ||+s|| C|+co cm numc|os +bso|utos (.ooo .oos)
2000
140
1026
1922
3645
4338
5541
5678 5938
2111
2786 2772 2779
1257
1694
1919
2135
149
200 223
268
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
2002 2004 2006 2008
So Paulo
Rio de Janeiro
Minas Gerais
Esprito Santo
Quadro B
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
||+s||m+| |uncs |c|to| |ou|+

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++


||st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do ||o
dc |+nc||o scgundo su+ +|t|c|+io no u+d|o n+c|on+| C|+co cm o|ccnt+gcm (.ooo .oos)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
UFRJ
UFF
FIOCRUZ
UERJ
PUC/RIO
UFRRJ
CNEN
UNIRIO
Quadro A
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
||st||bu|io dos g|uos dc csu|s+ d+s |nst|tu|ocs dc cns|no n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do ||o
dc |+nc||o scgundo su+ +|t|c|+io no u+d|o n+c|on+| C|+co cm numc|os +bso|utos (.ooo
.oos)
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
200
0
400
600
800
1000
1200
UFRJ
UFF
FIOCRUZ
UERJ
PUC/RIO
UFRRJ
CNEN
UNIRIO
Quadro B
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
Cond|ocs ||sto||c+s c +scctos +tu+|s d+ C n+ |cg|io |ct|oo||t+n+ do || not+s |c||m|n+|cs dc csu|s+

|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,+-.,e ,u|-dcz .o++


||st||bu|io tot+| dos cstud+ntcs dc douto|+do scgundo + |cg|io gcog|+c+ C|+co cm o|-
ccnt+gcm (.ooo .oos)
2000
0,7
3,6
4,0
12,5
19,3
62,4
3,8
11,4
18,6
65
3,5
9,4
17
69,1
9,8
17,9
67,6
3,7
6,7
13,6
75,3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
80
70
2002 2004 2006 2008
Sudeste
Sul
Nordeste
Centro-Oeste
Norte
1,1 1,0
1,2 1,8
Quadro
|ontc |aacs coas ac C`|Q
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
O papel do BNDES no financiamento do setor de
energia eltrica no Brasil
1
*
Simone Uderman
2
**, Luiz Ricardo Cavalcante
3
***
' Os +uto|cs sio g|+tos + C+||os |cn||uc |oc|+ |+x|mo |omc|m+yc| C+||os C+mos c |c|n+ndo |ug+ c|+ d|son|b|||d+dc
cm |csondc| s ucstocs |oost+s c d|scut|| os |csu|t+dos do t|+b+||o ^g|+dcccm t+mbcm + C|+utc| |oc|+ |u|z Cu|||c|mc
O||vc||+ c |+|c|+ |cd|c||+ c|os comcnt+||os c sugcstocs
'' ||o|csso|+ do |c+|t+mcnto dc C|cnc|+s |um+n+s c do mcst|+do cm |o||t|c+s |ub||c+s Ccstio do Con|cc|mcnto c
|cscnvo|v|mcnto |cg|on+| d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc do |st+do d+ |+||+ (|ncb)
'''ccn|co cm |csu|s+ c ||+nc,+mcnto do |nst|tuto dc |csu|s+ |conom|c+ ^||c+d+ (|c+)
Resumo
O |oos|to dcstc +|t|go c +n+||s+| o +c| dcscm-
cn|+do c|o |||| no n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc
cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| |o onto dc v|st+ mctodo-
|og|co + csu|s+ b+sc|+-sc +) cm +n+||sc documcn-
t+| c cnt|cv|st+s sob|c + +tu+io do |||| .) cm
d+dos |c|+t|vos +os |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc cnc|-
g|+ c|ct||c+ c c++c|d+dc dc gc|+io dc c|ct||c|d+dc
c ,) n+ s|stcm+t|z+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s d|||g|d+s
+|+ o scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ ^ +n+||sc scgmcnt+-
-sc cm do|s ||nc|+|s c||odos o ||mc||o c m+|c+-
do c|+ |cdom|nnc|+ dc |nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do
|st+do (d+ dcc+d+ dc +,,o dcc+d+ dc +,so) c o sc-
gundo (dos +nos +,,o cm d|+ntc) c|o |occsso dc
||v+t|z+io c c|+ cst|utu|+io dc novos +d|ocs dc
|cgu|+io C+d+ c||odo c+|+ctc||z+-sc o| d||c|cn-
tcs |o|m+s dc n+nc|+mcnto c d|st|ntos +c|s dc-
scmcn|+dos c|o |||| ^s ||nc|+|s conc|usocs
|nd|c+m uc du|+ntc o ||mc||o c||odo o ||||
Abstract
'e ao c/ :ns ae s :c e.a'aa:e :ne c'e 'a,ea o,
:ne 8`||: o sac:o e'e.:. c.e o.es:oeo:s
o 8a' 'e esea.n /c.ases /co a oe:ncac'c.a'
co: c/ .e. co ) :ne ac.aoeo:a' aoa',ss aoa o:e
.e.s c/ 8`||: e/coao.e .) aa:a co e'e.:. c.
e o.es:oeo:s aoa c.e eoea:co .aa.:, aoa ,)
:ne s,s:eoa:a:co c/ :ne ao'. c'.es /c.asea co :ne
e'e.:. c.e se.:c 'e aoa',ss s seoeo:ea o :.c
oao ecas :ne s: coe oaea o, ae.: o.es:
oeo:s o, :ne s:a:e /co :ne ,,os :c :ne ,os) aoa
:ne se.coa /co :ne ,,os co.aas) .naa.:eea o,
.a:a:co aoa oe. ea'a:co a::eos |a.n eca
nas oeeo .naa.:eea o, aeeo: oao.o a::eos
aoa aeeo: c'es 'a,ea o, :ne 8`||: 'e oao
.co.'ascos oa.a:e :na: aao :ne s: eca :ne
8`||: aae :c :s os::a:coa' oa:ae a s:a:e oao
eoac.ea .:n oce aa:coco, aoa eaaoess :nao
:ne c.eooeo: :se'/) oc: co', oaae :ne o.es:oeo:s
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
258
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduo
|io +|ccc |+vc| duv|d+s dc uc |nvcst|mcntos cm |n||+cst|utu|+ cm +|t|cu|+| no scto|
dc cnc|g|+ scm|c cxc|cc|+m um s|gn|||c+t|vo |m+cto sob|c os n|vc|s dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto
cconom|co cst+ndo usu+|mcntc +ssoc|+dos c||+io dc cxtc|n+||d+dcs os|t|v+s (O||C 1.c
|O|||||-|O|^| 14! |||C||^| 1c) ^ gc|+io c d|st||bu|io dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+
dc |+to cstio |o|tcmcntc |c|+c|on+d+s cx+nsio d+s +t|v|d+dcs cconom|c+s (cscc|+|mcntc
d+s +t|v|d+dcs |ndust||+|s |ntcns|v+s cm c+|t+| m+s t+mbcm dos dcm+|s scgmcntos o| mc|o
dc c|c|tos mu|t|||c+do|cs) +ss|m como cm n|vc|s dc bcm cst+| d+s |+m|||+s |ss+ c|ccio
c not+vc| no c+so dc +|scs cm dcscnvo|v|mcnto uc vcm |+zcndo |ntcns|vos cs|o|os com
v|st+s + |omovc| m+|o|cs n|vc|s dc c|csc|mcnto cconom|co c mc||o|+| +s cond|ocs soc|+|s d+
ou|+io (||||| ct +| .00o)
|+ ^mc||c+ do u| o ||+s|| d|soc do m+|o| mc|c+do dc consumo dc c|ct||c|d+dc +|cscnt+ndo
cm ,+nc||o dc .011 um+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc gc|+io dc cc|c+ dc 11! m|| |\ (^|||| .011)
^ c++c|d+dc dc gc|+io |oc+| |nst+|+d+ c u+sc 1` ||d|c|ct||c+ (m+,o||t+||+mcntc g|+ndcs
|+nt+s uc |c|cscnt+m m+|s dc o` do tot+| c |cuc|cm um mont+ntc mu|to cx|css|vo dc
|nvcst|mcntos) .!` tc|m|c+ c mcnos dc .` nuc|c+| como ||ust|+do n+ +bc|+ 1
dcv|do su+ n+tu|cz+ |nst|tuc|on+| (um b+nco u-
b||co dot+do dc m+|o| +utonom|+ c +g|||d+dc uc o
|o||o govc|no) nio +cn+s v|+b|||zou + |c+||z+io
dc |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ como
t+mbcm coo|dcnou +ocs |c|cv+ntcs +|+ o dcscn-
vo|v|mcnto scto||+| |u|+ntc o |occsso dc ||v+t|z+-
io o| out|o |+do como +s cm|cs+s cst|+ngc||+s
tcm|+m dcsv+|o||z+ocs c+mb|+|s |ocu|+v+m cs-
t+bc|ccc| mcc+n|smos dc |otcio cont|+ cssc ||s-
co cont|+t+ndo c|cd|tos do |||| cm mocd+ |o-
c+| (+|+ com+t|b|||z+| |cnd|mcntos c ob||g+ocs)
^|cm d|sso +|+ ||d+| com |ob|cm+s +ssoc|+dos +
um +mb|cntc dc ||+g|| |cgu|+io c g|+ndcs |ncc|tc-
z+s sob|c os |cos d+ cnc|g|+ o |||| t+mbcm |o|
ut|||z+do ncssc scgundo c||odo como um+ csc-
c|c dc |cdgc |cgu|+to||o ou sc,+ como um+ |o|m+
dc com+|t|||+| os ||scos dc mud+n+s n+s |cg|+s do
,ogo com o |o||o govc|no
Palavras-chave n+nc|+mcnto cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+
||+s|| |cdgc |cgu|+to||o
o :ne e'e.:. c.e se.:c csso'e oa: a'sc .cca
oa:ea e'e.ao: a.:cos :c.aas se.:ca' ae.e'coeo:
|ao :ne .a:a:co c.ess as /ceo .coaoes
.ee a/aa c/ e\.naoe a:e ae.a'aa:cos a .a, c/
neao aaos: :ns s .as :c .co:a.: 8`||: .ea
:s o 'c.a' .aeo., :c oa:.n 'ao':es aoa e.eoaes
o 8||) 8esaes :c .ce .:n :ne co'eos assc.a:ea
:c a .ea ea'a:co aoa ao.e:ao:es aoca: eoe,
.es :ne 8`||: .as a'sc asea /co ,,os co.aas
as a ea'a:co neae e as a .a, c/ snao :ne s
c/ .naoes o :ne a'es c/ :ne aoe .:n :ne c.eo
oeo: :se'/
Keywords o.es:oeo:s e'e:. c.e 8as' ea
'a:co neae
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
259
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
Tabela 1 C++c|d+dc dc Cc|+io no ||+s|| (1) |+nc||o;.011
Tipo Quantidade
Capacidade Instalada
KW
Participao (%)
Ccnt|+| Cc|+do|+ ||d|c|ct||c+ CC| !.c 1cc11c 01
Ccnt|+| Cc|+do|+ |o||c|ct||c+ |O| 0 .occo 0c.
|cucn+ Ccnt|+| ||d|c|ct||c+ |C| !c !44011. !0!
Ccnt|+| Cc|+do|+ o|+| |otovo|t+|c+ O| 4 co 0
|s|n+ ||d|c|ct||c+ dc |nc|g|+ ||| 1! 0..1c o0
|s|n+ c|mc|ct||c+ dc |nc|g|+ || 1! .co01 .!!.
|s|n+ c|monuc|c+| || . .00000 1
ot+| .!4 11!441.. 10000
|ot+ (1) |c:`o.a |s.a'aaa |w) acs eoeeoaoeo:cs eo ceaac
|co:e n:://...aoee'c.o/a'.a.ces/.aa.aaaeoas'/.aa.aaaeoas'as ^.essc eo ././..
^ dcsc|to d+ |c|cvnc|+ dos |o,ctos do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ o +ccsso + ||n+nc|+mcnto
c|m+nccc um+ ucstio c|+vc +|+ + conc|ct|z+io dos |nvcst|mcntos usu+|mcntc
c+|+ctc||z+dos o| 1) dcsc+s+mcnto cnt|c o scu |ongo |+zo dc m+tu|+io c o cu|to |+zo
dos |cto|nos |cuc||dos o| |nst|tu|ocs ||n+ncc||+s ||v+d+s .) |ncc|tcz+s +ssoc|+d+s + |cos;
t+|||+s c |cnt+b|||d+dc c !) t+x+s |c|+t|v+mcntc b+|x+s dc |cto|nos ||v+dos (|^||^ .00!) |sscs
+scctos sio cscc|+|mcntc |c|cv+ntcs cm +|scs uc cn||cnt+m |cst||ocs |ovcn|cntcs dc
dc||c|cnc|+s c ||+g|||d+dcs dc scus s|stcm+s ||n+ncc||os
O ||+s|| c cc|t+mcntc um dcsscs +|scs cus mc|c+dos dc c|cd|to c c+|t+| sio o| d|vc|s+s
|+zocs ||sto||c+mcntc c+|+ctc||z+dos o| scvc|+s |cst||ocs Como |csu|t+do |uc|os |ct|dos
|ccu|sos cxtc|nos c;ou |ovcn|cntcs dc |nst|tu|ocs ||n+ncc||+s ub||c+s ||n+nc|+|+m v+||os
|nvcst|mcntos dc |c|cvo | b+st+ntc con|cc|do o |+to dc uc o |occsso dc |ndust||+||z+io
c |o|m+io dc |n||+cst|utu|+ no +|s cst+ |o|tcmcntc +ssoc|+do +o +c| dcscmcn|+do
c|o |||| |nst|tu|io ub||c+ dcst|n+d+ + |ovc| c|cd|to dc |ongo |+zo +|+ |nvcst|mcntos
|odut|vos dc |og|st|c+ c |n||+cst|utu|+ (|^|| .00. .! |O||||| |||||||O 14) |csdc +
su+ c||+io cm 1. o |||| tcm d|son|b|||z+do c|cd|to c +o|+do + |m|cmcnt+io dc v+||os
|o,ctos no scto| dc cnc|g|+
|+do cssc u+d|o o ob,ct|vo do t|+b+||o c +n+||s+| o +c| dcscmcn|+do c|o |||| no
suo|tc + |nvcst|mcntos no scto| c|ct||co no ||+s|| ^|gumcnt+-sc uc + +tu+io do |+nco
nio cstcvc |cst||t+ |ov|sio dc |undos cm cond|ocs +t|+t|v+s c cst+vc|s +|+ csscs |o,ctos
m+s |nc|u|u t+mbcm + coo|dcn+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto vo|t+d+s +|+
|omovc| um +mb|cntc +|c|to +os |nvcst|mcntos
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
260
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
|c modo + cum||| cssc ob,ct|vo + csu|s+ do onto dc v|st+ mctodo|og|co +o|ou-sc nos
scgu|ntcs |occd|mcntos 1) +n+||sc documcnt+| c cnt|cv|st+s +cc|c+ d+ +tu+io do ||||
1
.)
co|ct+ c o|g+n|z+io dc d+dos sob|c |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ c + c++c|d+dc dc
gc|+io no +|s c !) s|stcm+t|z+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s |oc+d+s no scto| c|ct||co ^|cm d|sso
+s |n|o|m+ocs |cco|||d+s |nc|ucm 1) + +|t|c|+io do |||| no tot+| dc |ccu|sos |cuc||dos
+|+ ||n+nc|+| |o,ctos no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ .) +s c+|+ctc||st|c+s dos d||c|cntcs modc|os
dc |c+|t|io dc ||scos c !) +s mud+n+s obsc|v+d+s nos +d|ocs dc |cgu|+io n+ scgund+
mct+dc do sccu|o no ||+s||
om+ndo como b+sc css+s |n|o|m+ocs +|gumcnt+-sc uc + +tu+io do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto
dc |o,ctos do scto| dc cnc|g|+ mod|||cou-sc +o |ongo do tcmo |dcnt|||c+m-sc como +no dc
|undo dcst+ csu|s+ do|s g|+ndcs c||odos dc +n+||sc o ||mc||o cnt|c +s dcc+d+s dc 10 c 1c0
c+|+ctc||z+do c|+ |cdom|nnc|+ dc |nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do |st+do o scgundo uc sc |n|c|+ n+
dcc+d+ dc 10 m+|c+do c|o |occsso dc ||v+t|z+io c c|+ cst|utu|+io dc novos +d|ocs dc
|cgu|+io C+d+ um dos c||odos +ssoc|+-sc + d|st|ntos modc|os dc ||n+nc|+mcnto c d||c|cntcs
|unocs dcscmcn|+d+s c|o |||| |m +mbos o b+nco cxc|ccu um +c| |mo|t+ntc c +t|vo
Contudo d||c|cntcs c+|+ctc||st|c+s odcm sc| |dcnt|||c+d+s cm scu dcscmcn|o
|stc +|t|go c comosto +|cm d+ |cscntc |nt|oduio o| u+t|o scocs +d|c|on+|s |+ ||mc||+
dc|+s +|cscnt+m-sc +s o||t|c+s ub||c+s d|||g|d+s +|+ o scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
dcst+c+ndo-sc +s ||nc|+|s d||c|cn+s |dcnt|||c+d+s +o |ongo do tcmo ^s du+s scocs
subscucntcs +n+||s+m |cscct|v+mcntc +s cscc|||c|d+dcs +ssoc|+d+s + c+d+ um dos c||odos
dc||n|dos no uc d|z |csc|to +os +d|ocs dc |nvcst|mcnto c ||n+nc|+mcnto scto||+|s ^ u|t|m+
scio o| ||m s|ntct|z+ +s ||nc|+|s conc|usocs d+ csu|s+
2. Polticas pblicas e o setor de energia eltrica no Brasil
|x|stc um |c|+t|vo conscnso dc uc do|s ||nc|+|s c|cmcntos mo|d+|+m +s o||t|c+s ub||c+s
d|||g|d+s +|+ o scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| 1) o |oco n+ gc|+io ||d|c|ct||c+ c .) os
d||c|cntcs +c|s +ssum|dos c|o |st+do n+ cconom|+ b|+s||c||+ cm su+s d|vc|s+s ct++s dc
dcscnvo|v|mcnto (|||||||^ .000 ^|^|| |^|| .00)
O |oco n+ gc|+io ||d|c|ct||c+ uc no|tc|+ + |o|mu|+io c + cxccuio d+s o||t|c+s ub||c+s
scto||+|s c dcco||cntc d+s c+|+ctc||st|c+s ||s|c+s do +|s (+m|+ b+sc tc|||to||+| c |ccu|sos ||uv|+|s
+bund+ntcs) c do +ccsso |cst||to + |ontcs +|tc|n+t|v+s como o o|co c + nuc|c+| dcv|do |+|t+ dc
|csc|v+s c s |cst||ocs tccno|og|c+s c +mb|cnt+|s (|||||||^ .000 1c4)
1 O |otc||o dc cnt|cv|st+s c + ||||+io |nst|tuc|on+| dos cnt|cv|st+dos cncont|+m-sc d|son|vc|s no +ncxo 1
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
261
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
Os d||c|cntcs +c|s +ssum|dos c|o |st+do n+ cconom|+ b|+s||c||+ ,+ |o|+m |+|g+mcntc
d|scut|dos o| d|vc|sos +uto|cs como Vc|+sco || (1) ^m+nn c |+c| (.00) |+ttos (.00o)
c |dc|m+n (.00) ^ m+|o| +|tc dos +n+||st+s conco|d+ uc du|+ntc os u|t|mos 0 +nos o
+c| do |st+do +|tc|ou-sc cons|dc|+vc|mcntc +|+st+ndo-sc dc um modc|o dcscnvo|v|mcnt|st+
c +|ox|m+ndo-sc dc um +d|io mcnos |ntc|vcnc|on|st+ c m+|s ||bc|+| |ss+ t|+,cto||+ odc sc|
csucm+t|z+d+ como scguc
|nt|c +s dcc+d+s dc 10 c 10 o |st+do +|t|c|ou d||ct+mcntc dc |o,ctos dc
|nvcst|mcntos |odut|vos c dc |n||+cst|utu|+
|os +nos 1c0 o modc|o +ntc||o| cnt|+ cm co|+so sob|ctudo cm |unio d+ c||sc ||sc+|
c d+ c||sc d+ d|v|d+ cxtc|n+ c
|+ dcc+d+ dc 10 o govc|no +v+n+ no |occsso dc dcscst+t|z+io d+ cconom|+
||v+t|z+ndo |n|c|+|mcntc un|d+dcs |odut|v+s (ct|ou|m|c+ +o) c n+ scucnc|+
sc|v|os dc ut|||d+dc ub||c+ como tc|ccomun|c+ocs c c|ct||c|d+dc (|^|| .00.)
|studos |cv|os com cssc mcsmo |oco +bo|d+ndo um c||odo m+|s cxtcnso uc sc |n|c|+ no
||n+| do sccu|o 1 c|+m+m + +tcnio +|+ o |+to dc uc +s mud+n+s no +c| do |st+do n+
cconom|+ b|+s||c||+ cstio +ssoc|+d+s + |mo|t+ntcs +|tc|+ocs nos +d|ocs dc |nvcst|mcntos no
scto| c|ct||co no +|s |u+s dcss+s +n+||scs cm +|t|cu|+| sustcnt+m + scgmcnt+io |oost+
ncst+ csu|s+ |+c| c |c|on+|d (1c) c C+|nc||o (.000)
|+c| c |c|on+|d (1c) dccomocm + cvo|uio do scto| c|ct||co no ||+s|| n+s scgu|ntcs |+scs
|nvcst|mcntos cst|+ngc||os cm sc|v|os dc ut|||d+dc ub||c+ |n|c|+|mcntc
Cc|+io c|ct||c+ como um ncgoc|o ||v+do +tc + dcc+d+ dc 1o0
|+c|on+||z+io g|+du+| do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+
|c||odo dc tot+| |o||cd+dc cst+t+| (1c0-1o)
|||v+t|z+io dos sc|v|os dc ut|||d+dc ub||c+
|ss+ c|ccio c com+t|vc| com + v|sio +|cscnt+d+ o| C+|nc||o (.000) uc |dcnt|||c+ u+t|o
c||odos d|st|ntos dc +co|do com os +||+n,os o|g+n|z+c|on+|s c |odut|vos uc c+|+ctc||z+m o
scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| C+d+ um dos |ntc|v+|os |oostos |c||ctc d||c|cntcs co||c|+ocs
cnt|c o |unc|on+mcnto do mc|c+do c + |og|c+ |nst|tuc|on+| d+ |cgu|+io cst+t+| ^ss|m dc +co|do
com C+|nc||o (.000) + cvo|uio do scto| dc c|ct||c|d+dc no ||+s|| |nc|u|
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
262
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
|m+ |+sc |n|c|+| m+|c+d+ o| um b+|x|ss|mo g|+u dc |nst|tuc|on+||z+io dos sc|v|os c
c|+ |cv+|cnc|+ dc |cg|+s dc mc|c+do uc c|du|+ do ||n+| do sccu|o 1 +tc o |n|c|o do
sccu|o scgu|ntc
|m scgundo c||odo c+|+ctc||z+do c|+ |nst|tu|io dc um m+|co |cg+| uc |n|bc dcc|socs
||v+d+s (cnt|c os +nos 1!0 c 10)
|m tc|cc||o momcnto cnt|c os +nos 10 c 1c0 u+ndo + |og|css|v+ |ntc|vcnio
cst+t+| |o| m+x|m|z+d+ com + n+c|on+||z+io d+s +t|v|d+dcs dc gc|+io c d|st||bu|io
^ cmc|gcnc|+ dc um u+|to c||odo sustcnt+do c|+ |n||cxio cm d||cio s |cg|+s dc
mc|c+do |n|c|+do n+ dcc+d+ dc 10 cssc c||odo c s|mu|t+nc+mcntc m+|c+do c|+
|cduio d+ |ntc|vcnio d||ct+ do |st+do c c|+ c||+io dc cond|ocs |nst|tuc|on+|s +|+
gu|+| o mc|c+do c +m||+| o +c| dcscmcn|+do o| +gcntcs ||v+dos
Os c||odos dcsc||tos +c|m+ odcm sc| s|ntct|z+dos n+ ||gu|+ + scgu|| uc |cv+ cm cons|dc|+io
no c|xo |o||zont+| + |ocm|ncnc|+ dc |nvcst|mcntos ub||cos ou ||v+dos c no c|xo vc|t|c+|
+ |cv+|cnc|+ dc |cos |cgu|+dos ou dc mc|c+do ^s comb|n+ocs dcss+s c+|+ctc||st|c+s
cv|dcnc|+m d||c|cntcs |+scs m+|c+d+s n+ ||gu|+ 1 +|+ ||ust|+| + cvo|uio do scto| dc cnc|g|+
c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| |+ ||mc||+ |+sc |nvcst|mcntos ||v+dos c |cos dc mc|c+do |cdom|n+m n+
mcd|d+ cm uc o +|s nio +|cc|+ dc |+to |c+|+do +|+ ||d+| com +|tc|n+t|v+s oc|+c|on+|s cm
|unio dc g+|g+|os ||n+ncc||os c tccno|og|cos bcm como o| cont+ d+s ||m|t+d+s oss|b|||d+dcs
bu|oc|+t|c+s c +dm|n|st|+t|v+s dc |ntc||c|cnc|+ cst+t+| |+ scgund+ |+sc + cmc|gcnc|+ dc um
|st+do |ntc|vcnto| |cv+ + um+ c|csccntc |ngc|cnc|+ ub||c+ nos |cos ^ tc|cc||+ |+sc conso||d+
css+ tcndcnc|+ mcd|d+ uc os |nvcst|mcntos ub||cos comc+m + sc| |o|t+|cc|dos com +
c||+io do |||| c d+ ||ct|ob|+s (Ccnt|+|s ||ct||c+s ||+s||c||+s)
.
^ u+|t+ |+sc o| ||m +||+
o |occsso dc ||v+t|z+io +o conscucntc dcc||n|o dos |nvcst|mcntos ub||cos c +tc cc|to
onto m+|o| ||cx|b|||d+dc dc |cos ^ +|t|| dcssc momcnto ,+ n+ dcc+d+ dc .000 obsc|v+-
sc t+mbcm um+ tcndcnc|+ |ctom+d+ dc |cos |cgu|+dos o uc cx||c+ + sct+ dc b+|xo +|+
c|m+ no ||n+| do c|c|o
. C||+d+ cm 1o. + ||ct|ob|+s ||dc|+ um s|stcm+ comosto o| sc|s cm|cs+s subs|d|+||+s o Ccnt|o dc |csu|s+s dc |nc|g|+
||ct||c+ (Ccc|) c + ||ct|ob|+s |+|t|c|+ocs ^ (||ct|o+|) ^ ||ct|ob|+s c t+mbcm dctcnto|+ dc 0` do cstouc dc c+|t+| d+
|t+|u ||n+c|on+| + m+|o| cm|cs+ do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ d+ ^mc||c+ |+t|n+
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
263
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
Investimentos
Privados
Investimentos
Pblicos
Preos
Regulados
1 Fase
2 Fase
3 Fase
4 Fase
Emergncia do
Estado regulador
(1930s a 1950s)
Final do Sculo
XIX e Incio do
Sculo XX
Privatizao de
parte dos ativos e
preos de
mercado
Investimentos
diretos do Estado
(1950s a 1980s).
Criao da
Eletrobrs
Figura 1 |vo|uio do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
|ontc |'aocaac e'cs aa:ces .co oase eo Caoec ....) e 8ae e /.|coa'a )
|cst+ csu|s+ o |oco dc +n+||sc |cc+| sob|c o |ntc|v+|o ostc||o| c||+io do |||| (|+scs !
c 4) mcd|d+ uc o ||nc|+| ob,ct|vo t|++do c +v+||+| o +c| dcscmcn|+do c|o b+nco no
suo|tc + |nvcst|mcntos cm cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| ^ss|m do|s ||nc|+|s c||odos odcm sc|
|dcnt|||c+dos
|+ dcc+d+ dc 10 dcc+d+ dc 1c0 c||odo c+|+ctc||z+do o| |nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do
|st+do c c|+ c||+io d+ ||ct|ob|+s
^ +|t|| dos +nos 10 ||v+t|z+io dc +|tc dos +t|vos dc gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ c
tcndcnc|+ |cv+|cnc|+ dc |cos dc mc|c+do |cgu|+dos
^ ||mc||+ v|st+ odc +|ccc| +|+dox+| uc um b+nco ub||co dcst|n+do + |ovc| c|cd|to
dc |ongo |+zo oss+ tc| dcscmcn|+do um +c| s|gn|||c+t|vo num contcxto m+|c+do o|
|nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do |st+do (||mc||o c||odo) ou du|+ntc um+ ct++ c+|+ctc||z+d+
c|+ ||v+t|z+io dc cm|cs+s dc c|ct||c|d+dc (scgundo c||odo) |nt|ct+nto com sc|+ v|sto
n+s |ox|m+s scocs o |||| dc |+to cxc|ccu um +c| |c|cv+ntc cm +mbos os c+sos
^d|c|on+|mcntc como conscucnc|+ dos d||c|cntcs +d|ocs dc ||n+nc|+mcnto uc m+|c+m os
do|s c||odos +s +t||bu|ocs do |||| t+mbcm mud+|+m |n|o|m+ocs c +n+||scs |oc+ndo css+s
d|st|nt+s |+scs +,ud+m + com|ccndc| como o |||| +tuou c + +v+||+| + |mo|tnc|+ dc su+s
+ocs +|+ o |unc|on+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
264
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
3. O primeiro perodo: investimentos diretos do estado
|c cc|c+ dc 10 |\ cm 100 + c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc gc|+io c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| +|c+nou
cc|c+ dc .000 |\ no |n|c|o dos +nos 10 c +|ox|m+d+mcntc 40000 |\ no ||nc||o d+
dcc+d+ dc 1c0 Como |nd|c+do n+ +bc|+ . cnt|c 10 c 1c0 +s t+x+s +nu+|s dc c|csc|mcnto
d+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ s|tu+|+m-sc cm to|no dc 10` Cons|dc|+ndo uc + m+|o| +|tc dcss+
c++c|d+dc c |c|cscnt+d+ c|+ gc|+io ||d|c|ct||c+ c uc du|+ntc csscs +nos g|+ndcs |o,ctos
|n|c|+|+m +s su+s oc|+ocs +s t+x+s dc c|csc|mcnto dcss+ |ontc |o|+m t+mbcm mu|to c|cv+d+s
Tabela 2 +x+s +nu+|s dc c|csc|mcnto d+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc gc|+io no ||+s||
Perodo Capacidade instalada total Capacidade hidreltrica instalada
100-110 !1` !`
110-1.0 c` !`
1.0-1!0 c` `
1!0-140 4c` 4c`
140-10 4.` 4!`
10-1o0 c` 0`
1o0-10 c` !`
10-1c0 11` 1.1`
1c0-10 4` 1`
10-.000 !!` !0`
.000-.00 4` !!`
|ontc w..eaaa:ac.o |'aocaac ca
^|cm d+s s|gn|||c+t|v+s t+x+s dc c|csc|mcnto c d+ |cv+|cnc|+ d+s |ontcs ||d|c|ct||c+s +|gum+s
c+|+ctc||st|c+s +d|c|on+|s m+|c+m o scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ ncssc c||odo
C|+ndcs |nvcst|mcntos como |csu|t+do do c|csccntc t+m+n|o d+s |+nt+s c d+ cxtcnsio
d+s ||n|+s (C^|||||O .000) como cconom|+s dc csc+|+ const|tucm um |mo|t+ntc
c||tc||o +|+ dcc|socs dc |nvcst|mcntos scto||+|s |o|+m |m|cmcnt+dos g|+ndcs |o,ctos
com c|cv+dos custos ||xos c |ongos |+zos dc m+tu|+io (|||||||^ .000) |+v|+ t+mbcm
um+ dcm+nd+ |c||m|d+ + sc| s+t|s|c|t+ c +s |+nt+s |cg|on+|s |o|+m cons|dc|+d+s cm
gc|+| um+ bo+ oio (|^||^ .00!)
|+|x+s t+|||+s como |csu|t+do d+ |ntc|vcnio do |st+do (sub+v+||+io dos +t|vos c
o||t|c+s +nt|-|n||+c|on+||+s) con|o|mc |nd|c+do o| ^m+nn c |+c| (.00 4.4) st+tc
|||ms |ov|dcd |c|+t|vc|y c|c+ |nuts to t|c ||v+tc sccto| (stcc| c|cct||c owc| ctc)
^ cu+io g|+ndcs |nvcst|mcntos + b+|x+s t+|||+s dc um |+do c |ongo |+zo dc m+tu|+io
+ c|cv+do mont+ntc dc |nvcst|mcntos dc out|o to|n+v+ o ||n+nc|+mcnto dcsscs |o,ctos um+
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
265
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
ucstio d+ m+|o| |mo|tnc|+ |+||+ (.00!) +n+||sou os |ccu|sos ||n+ncc||os +|oc+dos cm |o,ctos
dc c|ct||c|d+dc du|+ntc cssc c||odo c c|+mou + +tcnio +|+ o +c| dcscmcn|+do o|
|nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do |st+do
C|cd|to dc |nst|tu|ocs n+c|on+|s (||||) c mu|t|n+c|on+|s (||| c ||||)
^||cc+d+io t+|||+||+ usu+|mcntc |n||ucnc|+d+ o| mcd|d+s |ntc|vcnc|on|st+s como +
+v+||+io dc +t|vos ||xos cons|dc|+ndo v+|o|cs ||sto||cos c o con,unto dc cs|o|os +|+
cont|o|+| + |n||+io
|mosto |n|co sob|c |nc|g|+ ||ct||c+ (||||) - c||+do cm 14 |c|cscnt+v+ !0` do v+|o|
b+s|co d+s t+|||+s dos consum|do|cs tcndo os scus |cnd|mcntos d|v|d|dos n+ scgu|ntc
|oo|io o0` cnt|c cst+dos c mun|c||os c 40` +|+ o govc|no |cdc|+| (|undo |cdc|+|
dc ||ct||||c+io gc|cnc|+do c|+ ||ct|ob|+s)
C|+m+ndo + +tcnio +|+ + ncccss|d+dc dc mob|||z+io dc g|+ndc vo|umc dc |ccu|sos cm |unio
d+s cconom|+s dc csc+|+ do |+zo dc m+tu|+io dos |o,ctos do +|to g|+u dc cscc|||c|d+dc dc
+t|vos c d+ |cscn+ dc custos |||ccuc|+vc|s |cgo c C+mos (.00c) dcst+c+m + |mo|tnc|+ d+
|ntc|vcnio do |st+do uc +ssum|+ ||scos uc + |n|c|+t|v+ ||v+d+ nio cst+v+ d|sost+ + +ssum||
+|+ g+|+nt|| + |ov|sio dc sc|v|os csscnc|+|s |nu+nto + |cgu|+io do |st+do bcnc||c|ou
c|+|+mcntc +s cm|cs+s cst+t+|s o |cto|no |c|+t|v+mcntc b+|xo dos |nvcst|mcntos g|+du+|mcntc
+|+stou |nvcst|do|cs ||v+dos ^ss|m + +|t|c|+io ||v+d+ n+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ uc c|+ dc
c.4` cm 1. dcc|csccu +|+ 41` cm 1o4 (+bc|+ !)
Tabela 3 C++c|d+dc dc gc|+io |nst+|+d+ (ub||co ||v+d+ c +uto|oduto|cs) 1. - 1o4
Pblico Privada Autoprodutores Total
Taxa de
crescimento
MW % MW % MW % MW %
1. 1! oc` 1o!o c.4` .14 10c` 1c 100`
1! 11 c1` 1o!1 ` !0! 144` .10 100` o`
14 !0! 10c` .1o1 0` !4. 1..` .c0o 100` !!`
1 !c 11` ..4c 14` !o. 11` !14c 100` 1.`
1o o 1c` .. 1` !41 o` !0 100` 1!`
1 oc. 1c1` .o 1` !. 104` !1 100` o`
1c c.! .0o` .4! oc` 4. 10` !! 100` o`
1 o .!` ..4 oo.` 4.4 10!` 411 100` !`
1o0 10 ..` !1c. oo!` 1c 10c` 4 100` 1`
1o1 1!4! .c` !.4! o.!` o1 11` .0 100` c`
1o. 1! !1!` !1o. .` ! 1!` .c 100` 10`
1o! .c! 4.0` !0c 41` cc. 1.` oc40 100` 1`
|ontc |aoaa/|es aaa /eoca aa |'e:.aaae ... |aa ...! )
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
266
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
|m mc+dos d+ dcc+d+ dc 1o0 + ||ct|ob|+s conso||dou su+ |mo|tnc|+ como ccnt|o dc dcc|socs
tccn|c+s c ||n+ncc||+s |+nc,+ndo c coo|dcn+ndo |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no
+|s |cssc c||odo o |||| nio +cn+s ||n+nc|ou v+||os |o,ctos no scto| dc c|ct||c|d+dc m+s
t+mbcm |o|ncccu +s g+|+nt|+s ncccss+||+s +|+ o +ccsso + c|cd|tos cxtc|nos |nt|c 1. c 1o.
141 oc|+ocs (cnvo|vcndo ||n+nc|+mcnto c +v+|) |o|+m +|ov+d+s no mb|to do scto| dc cnc|g|+
c|ct||c+ o uc co||csondc + !.` do tot+| +|ov+do c|o |||| ncsscs +nos (CO|| ct +|
.00.) |o c||odo 1-1o. con|o|mc ||ust|+ + t+bc|+ + scgu|| cc|c+ dc 0` do c|csc|mcnto d+
c++c|d+dc dc gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| contou com o +o|o do |||| (+bc|+ 4)
Tabela 4 - ^c|csc|mo +nu+| d+ c++c|d+dc dc gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ (|\) 1. - 1o.
Acrscimo total (A)
Acrscimo com
nanciamento do BNDES (B)
(B/A)
1.-4 coo
1 !4! .. o!`
1o 40. 4 1!4`
1 .1 10. 4o`
1c ..o c. !o.`
1 1.. ! 4`
1o0 oc 1 .`
1o1 40 1.o !1.`
1o. .4 0. `
|ontc Ccoes e: a' ....)
|o cu|to c||odo uc v+| do ||n+| dos +nos 1o0 +o |n|c|o dos +nos 10 o |||| nio sc
most|ou tio |mo|t+ntc no ||n+nc|+mcnto + |o,ctos do scto| c|ct||co um+ vcz uc
^ o||t|c+ dc vc|d+dc t+|||+||+ cx+nd|u + d|son|b|||d+dc dc ut|||z+io dc |ccu|sos
|o||os o| +|tc d+s cm|cs+s (com um+ t+x+ |c|+t|v+mcntc b+|x+ dc |n||+io +s t+|||+s
dc|x+|+m dc sc| us+d+s como um |nst|umcnto dc cont|o|c do n|vc| gc|+| dc |cos dc
modo uc os |cnd|mcntos udc|+m sc| ut|||z+dos +|+ ||n+nc|+| +|tc dos |nvcst|mcntos)
^s cm|cs+s +ss+|+m + +ccss+| |ccu|sos d||ct+mcntc do cxtc||o| (|^|| V|||||^ 1c0
4!4) cont+nto com + g+|+nt|+ sobc|+n+
|+ dcc+d+ dc 10 contudo +s cond|ocs |+vo|+vc|s do mc|c+do ||n+ncc||o |ntc|n+c|on+| c
+ |ntc|mcd|+io d+ ||ct|ob|+s +b|||+m nov+s +|tc|n+t|v+s dc c|cd|to +|+ +s cm|cs+s Como
|csu|t+do cnt|c 10 c 1c0 + +|t|c|+io dc cm|cst|mos c ||n+nc|+mcntos n+ cst|utu|+
||n+ncc||+ do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ +m||ou-sc dc !` +|+ 1` (^|O .00. !) |o
||n+| dos +nos 10 + +|t|c|+io dc c|cd|tos cxtc|nos c|+ dc !.` cnu+nto c|cd|tos dc b+ncos
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
267
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
n+c|on+|s (cscc|+|mcntc o ||||) +|c+n+v+m cc|c+ dc !0` dos |ccu|sos ut|||z+dos +|+
||n+nc|+| |nvcst|mcntos cm cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no +|s (C^|||||O .000 !!o) (C|+||co)
0
10
1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
Emprstimos (fontes externas)
Emprstimos (fontes internas)
Oramento Pblico
Equity
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Grfico 1 - |st|utu|+ dc ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| c|ct||co no ||+s|| o| |ontc dc |ccu|sos 14 - 1 (`)
|ontc |'e:coas |ea:aoeo:c ae |s:aacs e |'aoeaoeo:c |.coco.c|oao.ec :e:c ae |oea |':.a
|co:es e ascs ae e.ascs se e:cse.:.a 7/77 e 7/7 |\:aac ae |oa ( | |c':.as ae c.eoc e
aeseo.c'.oeo:c ac se:c ae eoea e':.a ac Ccac ae ^aas .se acs aocs c:eo:a !++) |c ae (aoec
Ceo:c aa /eoca aa |'e:.aaae oc 8as' C^|`|||O .... !!) |'aocaac ca
Com c|c|to + +|t|| dc mc+dos d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 + s|tu+io do mc|c+do ||n+ncc||o |ntc|n+c|on+|
o |cto|no dc t+x+s m+|s c|cv+d+s dc |n||+io c + const|uio d+ cno|mc |+nt+ b|n+c|on+| dc
|t+|u
!
|+z|+m com uc o |||| sc to|n+ssc um |mo|t+ntc +|cc||o out|+ vcz ^ss|m u+ndo
o ||mc||o c||odo dc +n+||sc c cons|dc|+do cm su+ tot+||d+dc ||c+ c|+|o o |mo|t+ntc +c|
dcscmcn|+do c|o |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto + |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+
|io obst+ntc css+ +|||m+io c oss|vc| |nd+g+| o|uc + |ntc|vcnio dc um b+nco ub||co
sc||+ |cuc||d+ +|+ ||n+nc|+| o |o||o scto| ub||co ,+ uc + m+|o| +|tc dos |nvcst|mcntos do
c||odo c|+ dc |csons+b|||d+dc d+ ||ct|ob|+s ^ |csost+ +|ccc cst+| n+ n+tu|cz+ |nst|tuc|on+|
do |||| con|o|mc +ont+m |+c| c V|||c|+ (1c0) |c |+to du|+ntc o c||odo m+|c+do o|
|nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do |st+do o |||| dcv|do su+ n+tu|cz+ |nst|tuc|on+| (um b+nco cst+t+|
dot+do dc m+|s +utonom|+ c +g|||d+dc uc o govc|no |cdc|+| ou os govc|nos cst+du+|s) nio
+cn+s coo|dcnou +s +ocs m+s t+mbcm to|nou oss|vc| + |c+||z+io dos |nvcst|mcntos ^|cm
d|sso mcsmo o |n||uxo dc c+|t+| |ntc|n+c|on+| c|+ |+c|||t+do c|+ |ntc|vcnio do |||| uc
con|c||+ m+|o| scgu|+n+ s oc|+ocs |c+||z+d+s
! O |+zo tot+| dc +mo|t|z+io do ||n+nc|+mcnto conccd|do +|+ |t+|u |o| dc .0 +nos (1c + 1c) n:://...ooaesc.o/
eo'sn/oe.s/oc:._.7as ^.essc .././...
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
268
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
^ dcsc|to dos c|c|tos os|t|vos d+s o||t|c+s cm|ccnd|d+s no c||odo n+ c||+io dc c++c|d+dc
dc gc|+io t|+nsm|ssio c d|st||bu|io dc cnc|g|+ c no cum||mcnto dos ob,ct|vos cst|+tcg|cos dc
dcscnvo|v|mcnto n+c|on+| +|guns cu|vocos |dcnt|||c+dos o| |+,+y (.00o) mc|cccm sc| dcst+c+dos
^s t+|||+s +|t|||c|+|mcntc b+|x+s no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ +com+n|+ndo + m+|o| +|tc
d+s t+|||+s dc sc|v|os ub||cos ||x+d+s c|o govc|no |cdc|+| no +|s const|tu|+m-sc cm
cs|o|os gc|+|mcntc vios +|+ cont|o|+| +s +|t+s t+x+s dc |n||+io |cg|st|+d+s
O m+u uso o||t|co d+ o|c|t+ dc c|ct||c|d+dc c dos sc|v|os dc d|st||bu|io dc g+s -
cnvo|vcndo gcstio |ncomctcntc c ||cucntcmcntc co||ut+ c o |n|c|o d+ const|uio
dc d|vc|s+s |+nt+s scm |ccu|sos su||c|cntcs +|+ conc|usio dos |o,ctos com v|st+s +
co||c| bcnc||c|os o||t|cos +|+ +|guns |csu|t+|+m cm ob|+s |n+c+b+d+s ou cm +t|+sos
com|omctcdo|cs cm scus c|onog|+m+s
O govc|no |cdc|+| nio conscgu|u obtc| |nc|cmcntos subst+nc|+|s c |+|dos n+ |oduio
domcst|c+ dc o|co c g+s con|o|mc |ctcnd|+
|c||c||+ (.000) t+mbcm +ont+ uc o |+nc,+mcnto ccnt|+| c + d|son|b|||d+dc dc c|cd|to
d|ssoc|+v+m +s dcc|socs dc |nvcst|mcntos d+ +n+||sc dc ||uxo dc c+|x+ dos |o,ctos c dos n|vc|s
dc |odut|v|d+dc oc|+c|on+|s d+s un|d+dcs |ssc dcsc+s+mcnto mu|to ouco v|s|vc| num
+mb|cntc dc c|cv+d+ ||u|dcz to|n+|-sc-|+ um sc||o |ob|cm+ + +|t|| d+ dcc+d+ dc 1c0
u+ndo + c||sc ||sc+| c ||n+ncc||+ |ovoc+ndo um scvc|o cst|+ngu|+mcnto dos ||n+nc|+mcntos
cxtc|nos +|+ o ||+s|| c |m+ct+ndo n+ c++c|d+dc dc |nvcst|mcnto do |st+do dcscnc+dcou +
cx+ustio do modc|o dcscnvo|v|mcnt|st+ +tc cntio cm v|go|
|ss+ dcc+d+ como d|scut|do o| d|vc|sos +uto|cs (CO|C|O|C| 10 ^|||||^ 1c
|z|C^| .000 C^|||||O |O||^|O 1.) c m+|c+d+ o| t+x+s m+|s c|cv+d+s dc |n||+io
scvc|+s |cst||ocs c|cd|t|c|+s c custos m+|s +|tos do c+|t+| |cssc +mb|cntc + c++c|d+dc dc
|nvcst|mcnto do scto| ub||co nos |o,ctos dc |n||+cst|utu|+ dctc||o|ou-sc |og|css|v+mcntc
^|cm d|sso |cu|s|tos +mb|cnt+|s m+|s ||go|osos +m||+v+m o mont+ntc dc |ccu|sos ncccss+||os
+|+ + const|uio dc nov+s |+nt+s ||d|c|ct||c+s +|cm dc cstcndc| os |+zos +ssoc|+dos +os
cstudos dc v|+b|||d+dc c s ct++s dc +|ov+io dos |o,ctos |o scto| c|ct||co os |nvcst|mcntos
+nu+|s dcc||n+|+m dc |; c! b|||ocs cm 1c. +|+ |; !. b|||ocs cm 1! (|^|| |C|O|^||
1c) |c +co|do com ||n|c||o (.00) +os o boom dc |nvcst|mcntos uc c+|+ctc||zou o scto|
c|ct||co cnt|c os +nos 10 c 1c0 u+ndo + c++c|d+dc dc gc|+io sc cx+nd|u + um+ t+x+
mcd|+ dc c` ++ (11-1c0) cst+ c|csccu modcst+mcntc cnt|c 1c1 c 1! + um+ t+x+ dc
41` ++ mcnos do uc o consumo (!` ++)
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
269
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
^ |n||cxio obsc|v+d+ ncss+ dcc+d+ t+mbcm sc +ssoc|+v+ + um+ mud+n+ nos +d|ocs dc
||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc c|ct||c|d+dc no ||+s|| |+||+ (.00!) +ss|n+|+ uc no ||n+| dos +nos 1c0
o govc|no b|+s||c||o |ocu|+v+ nov+s m+nc||+s dc ||n+nc|+| |nvcst|mcntos cm |n||+cst|utu|+ c
comc+v+ + d|scut|| sc||+mcntc o +c| do |st+do n+ cconom|+ Con|o|mc dcst+c+m C+|nc||o
c |oc|+ (.000) os +|scs |+t|no-+mc||c+nos +os + c||sc dos +nos 1c0 +v+n+v+m no |occsso
dc +,ustc ||sc+| +bc|tu|+ comc|c|+| ||v+t|z+io c dcs|cgu|+mcnt+io const|u|ndo um novo
+mb|cntc ^o mcsmo tcmo +gcntcs ||n+ncc||os cxtc|nos |ccomcnd+v+m + ||v+t|z+io
como |o|m+ dc +|+v+nc+| |ccu|sos ||v+dos (||CO C^||O ||O .00c) ||v||cg|+ndo o
||n+nc|+mcnto d||cto +os |o,ctos |ss+ nov+ s|tu+io mo|dou +s o||t|c+s +dot+d+s + +|t|| dc
10 cst+bc|cccndo um novo +c| +|+ o |||| no suo|tc +os |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc
c|ct||c|d+dc no +|s
4. O segundo perodo: privatizao e novos padres
de regulao
|o ||nc||o d+ dcc+d+ dc 10 to|n+v+-sc c+d+ vcz m+|s cv|dcntc + ncccss|d+dc dc +|c+n+|
+ cst+b|||z+io monct+||+ o|g+n|z+| nov+s |nst|tu|ocs c cst|utu|+| um m+|co |cgu|+to||o
c++z dc sustcnt+| +d|ocs dc comct|t|v|d+dc +dcu+dos +|+ +|+v+nc+| um novo c|c|o dc
dcscnvo|v|mcnto |ct+s dc |nduio dc |nvcst|mcntos ||v+dos |cduio dc t+|||+s c mc||o||+
dc sc|v|os comun|+m + o||t|c+ dc |c|o|m+ scto||+| uc |nc|u|+ o |ccu|so ||v+t|z+io
^ c|+m+d+ |c| dc Conccssocs (|c| cc;) + |nc|usio do |stcm+ ||ct|ob|+s no ||og|+m+
|+c|on+| dc |cscst+t|z+io ||| (|cc|cto 10!;) o cst+bc|cc|mcnto dc b+scs |cg+|s +|+ +
com|+ ||v|c dc cnc|g|+ o| g|+ndcs consum|do|cs (|c| 04;) c + |cgu|+mcnt+io do |oduto|
|ndccndcntc c d+ vcnd+ dc su+ |oduio cxccdcntc (|cc|cto .00!;o) d+v+m co|o +m|+
|c|o|m+ do scto| dc c|ct||c|d+dc (O^|| ct +| .00 1o)
|mcd|+t+mcntc cv|dcnc|ou-sc + |mo|tnc|+ scto||+| no |og|+m+ dc ||v+t|z+io no c||odo
com|ccnd|do cnt|c 1 c .000 o scto| c|ct||co |c|cscnt+v+ oo` dos |ccu|sos cnvo|v|dos no
||| (|^||^ .00!) |+dos d|son|vc|s cm .00! most|+v+m uc no mb|to dcssc scto| o` d+s
+t|v|d+dcs dc d|st||bu|io !.` d+ gc|+io c 11` d+ t|+nsm|ssio cst+v+m sob |csons+b|||d+dc
dc +gcntcs ||v+dos (|^||^ .00!) |sscs numc|os convc|gcm com os +|cscnt+dos o| ||n|c||o
(.00) uc c|+m+ + +tcnio +|+ o |+to dc uc no scto| c|ct||co o!` d+s +t|v|d+dcs dc d|st||bu|io
c ..` d+ gc|+io |o|+m t|+ns|c||d+s +|+ +gcntcs ||v+dos cnt|c 1. c .001 |mu|t+nc+mcntc
cst|utu|+v+m-sc cond|ocs dc suo|tc +o ||n+nc|+mcnto dos |o,ctos
^tc 14 o c|cd|to c|+ ||m|t+do o|uc +s cm|cs+s dc c|ct||c|d+dc +|nd+ c|+m ub||c+s c
cn||cnt+v+m |cst||ocs +ssoc|+d+s su+ c++c|d+dc dc cnd|v|d+mcnto |co|s d|sso o |||| como
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
270
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
coo|dcn+do| c +gcntc ||n+ncc||o do ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc |cscst+t|z+io o|c|cccu cm|cst|mos
+os govc|nos cst+du+|s |ntc|css+dos cm ||v+t|z+| +s su+s cm|cs+s c c||ou out|os |nst|umcntos
+d|c|on+|s +|+ cst|mu|+| css+ tcndcnc|+ (|||||||^ .000)
4
|ss+s mcd|d+s scgu|+m um+ +gcnd+ uc
v|s+v+ |nc|usio dc novos scto|cs no |og|+m+ dc ||v+t|z+io

O |||| t+mbcm +|tc|ou no|m+s


c c||tc||os oc|+c|on+|s dc modo + cx+nd|| + conccssio dc c|cd|to cscc|+|mcntc +|+ |o,ctos
dc |n||+cst|utu|+ ^ss|m dcscmbo|sos +|+ |n||+cst|utu|+ uc co||csond|+m + .c` do tot+| dc
dcscmbo|sos do b+nco no c||odo 10-1! +umcnt+|+m +|+ 4!` cm 1c (||^| ct +| .000)
Out|+ |mo|t+ntc mud+n+ |o| + oss|b|||d+dc + +|t|| dc 1 dc uc o |||| conccdcssc
t+mbcm ||n+nc|+mcnto s cm|cs+s mu|t|n+c|on+|s um+ vcz uc |mcnd+ Const|tuc|on+| n o
c||m|nou + d|st|nio cnt|c cm|cs+ dc c+|t+| n+c|on+| c cst|+ngc||o c |gu+|ou +s cond|ocs dc
+ccsso +o c|cd|to d+s +gcnc|+s o||c|+|s dc |omcnto c +os |nccnt|vos c subs|d|os govc|n+mcnt+|s
(||^| ct +| .000) |m 1 + dcc|sio do |||| dc cstcndc| os ||n+nc|+mcntos +os |c||ocs dc
||v+t|z+io t+mbcm + g|uos |o|m+dos o| c+|t+| cst|+ngc||o (||CO C^||O ||O .00c)
+m||ou +s cond|ocs dc +t|+io dc |nvcst|do|cs |ntc|n+c|on+|s
|cssc ccn+||o um+ ucstio cmc|gc o| uc um+ cm|cs+ cst|+ngc||+ us+||+ c|cd|to |oc+|
u+ndo odc||+ +ccss+| cm|cst|mos cm mocd+s cst|+ngc||+s + t+x+s dc ,u|os m+|s b+|x+s
^ |csost+ +|ccc sc| o ||sco |m|ncntc dc dcsv+|o||z+io c+mb|+| n+uc|c momcnto como
o |cnd|mcnto d+s cm|cs+s ||v+t|z+d+s c|+ cm mocd+ |oc+| m+ntc| d|v|d+s cm mocd+
cst|+ngc||+ odc||+ sc| um g|+ndc |ob|cm+ cm c+so dc dcsv+|o||z+io (cm 1o;1 1 |; =
1 |;) ^ss|m o c|cd|to do |||| to|n+v+-sc um+ cscc|c dc |cdgc c+mb|+| dcst|n+do + cob|||
os ||scos +ssum|dos c|+s cm|cs+s |cduz|ndo |ncc|tcz+s c ||scos c|ccb|dos c|os +|t|c|+ntcs
dos |c||ocs o c|cd|to o|c|t+do c|o |||| +|ccc tc| cont||bu|do +|+ +g|||z+| o |occsso dc
||v+t|z+io c sustcnt+| |cos m+|s c|cv+dos |c |+to cm 1 o v|cc-|cs|dcntc do ||||
|osc ||o |o|gcs +dm|t|+ uc +s |ncc|tcz+s tcndcsscm + |cduz|| o v+|o| d+s cm|cs+s ||v+t|z+d+s
c |+zc| com uc os |nvcst|do|cs |cuc|csscm m+|o|cs t+x+s dc |cto|no (|o||+ dc io |+u|o
1o;01;1) |sso cx||c+ o|uc o |||| d|son|b|||z+v+ c|cd|to +|+ cm|cs+s cst|+ngc||+s uc
+|t|c|+v+m do |og|+m+ dc ||v+t|z+io no ||+s||
o

^os + ||v+t|z+io d+s cm|cs+s os |ccu|sos ||n+ncc||os |cuc||dos +|+ novos |nvcst|mcntos c;
ou +|+ um+ +dcu+d+ oc|+io sc||+m tco||c+mcntc conscgu|dos +t|+vcs dc ||n+nc|+mcntos
d||ctos +os |o,ctos (c nio m+|s o| mc|o do govc|no) c +t|+vcs dc novos |nst|umcntos
4 |cgo c C+mos |cto (.00c 1c) c|+m+m + +tcnio +|+ o |+to dc uc cmbo|+ os cst+dos dct|vcsscm ` d+ |o||cd+dc
dos +t|vos do scgmcnto dc d|st||bu|io + s|tu+io dc cnd|v|d+mcnto gcnc|+||z+d+ c|m|t|u +o govc|no |cdc|+| no mb|to do
|occsso dc |cncgoc|+io d+s d|v|d+s |mo| um+ o||t|c+ dc ||v+t|z+io d+s cm|cs+s c|ct||c+s cst+du+|s
|ss+ +gcnd+ |nc|u|+ cm 1 c|ct||c|d+dc tc|ccomun|c+ocs c t|+nso|tc
o |cgo c C+mos |cto (.00c) |+zcm |c|c|cnc|+ |mo|tnc|+ d+ |otcio cont|+ o ||sco c+mb|+| |+sc|mcnto (.00o) t+mbcm
|ccon|ccc + |mo|tnc|+ dcss+ ucstio |c +co|do cssc +uto| + c|ccio do |ob|cm+ |cduz + +|t|c|+io do cnd|v|d+mcnto
cm mocd+ cst|+ngc||+ d+s com+n||+s +bc|t+s b|+s||c||+ dc 4o` +|+ !0` cnt|c .001 c .00
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
271
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
||n+ncc||os ce.: /oao.e .a:e ea:, 'easo co: .eo:ae .eo:ae .a:a' sccu||t|z+io
dos +t|vos (||^| ct +| .000 Comcs ct +| .00. |^||^ .00!) Como |nd|c+do o| |+||+ (.00!)
|nvcst|mcntos odcm sc| sustcnt+dos c|+ cst|utu|+io dc oc|+ocs ||n+ncc||+s cm to|no
do ||uxo dc c+|x+ dos |o,ctos c dos +t|vos |o||os d+s cm|cs+s |csc|nd|ndo dc g+|+nt|+s
+d|c|on+|s dc tc|cc||os ^s cx|cssocs-c|+vc ncss+ nov+ cngcn|+||+ ||n+ncc||+ sio d|v|sio dc
||scos c c|csccntc +|t|c|+io dc |nvcst|do|cs ||v+dos
Contudo dc modo + cst+| |cn+mcntc oc|+c|on+| c |unc|on+| +dcu+d+mcntc cssc modc|o
|cuc| um+ +u|+d+ cst|utu|+ dc |cgu|+io u+ndo c|s|stcm |ncc|tcz+s +cc|c+ d+s |cg|+s do
,ogo (cxccss|v+ |nst+b|||d+dc n+s o||t|c+s dc |cos |m|cc|socs |cgu|+to||+s ou c|cv+dos ||scos
c+mb|+|s) os novos |nst|umcntos ||n+ncc||os tcndcm + nio |unc|on+| ^ss|m um +mb|cntc
cst+vc| c con||+vc| c c|uc|+| +|+ |nvcst|do|cs ||v+dos uc sc |ooc + +|||sc+| o scu c+|t+|
cm novos |o,ctos dc gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ ||son|b|||d+dc dc ||n+nc|+mcnto dc |ongo |+zo
scgu|+n+ no cum||mcnto d+s no|m+s ||x+io dc v+|o|cs t+|||+||os c cu|||b||o ||n+ncc||o dos
|o,ctos sio c|cmcntos ccnt|+|s +|+ sustcnt+| dcc|socs dc |nvcst|mcnto

|o ||+s|| + c||+io d+ ^gcnc|+ |+c|on+| dc |nc|g|+ ||ct||c+ (^ncc|) cm 1o nio +|ccc tc| s|do
su||c|cntc +|+ |ovc| + ncccss+||+ +tmos|c|+ dc scgu|+n+ +os |nvcst|do|cs Os ||nc|+|s |ob|cm+s
usu+|mcntc mcnc|on+dos sio 1) |nd|c+ocs o||t|c+s +|+ |unocs cm|ncntcmcntc tccn|c+s .)
+uscnc|+ dc c||tc||os tccn|cos |nst|umcntos c mctodo|og|+s cons|stcntcs +|+ dc||n|| mct+s dc
|nvcst|mcntos c v+|o|cs dc t+|||+s c !) dcc|socs cont|ovc|s+s c d|sut+d+s |nc|us|vc n+s |nstnc|+s
,u||d|c+s +dcu+d+s o| conccss|on+||+s c;ou g|uos dc consum|do|cs (C^|^|^ .00o)
c

|cgo c C+mos |cto (.00c 1) |dcnt|||c+m n+ dcmo|+ n+ dc||n|io d+s |cg|+s +|+ + oc|+io
do |c|c+do ^t+c+d|st+ dc |nc|g|+ ||ct||c+ uc so |o| conc|u|d+ cm .000 c n+ c||sc c+mb|+|
dc 1 uc dcscnc+dcou |mo|t+ntcs mud+n+s n+ conduio d+ o||t|c+ m+c|occonom|c+
|+to|cs uc +t|+s+|+m + +gcnd+ dc |c|o|m+s +m||+ndo o g|+u dc |nscgu|+n+ no mc|c+do |||cs
Cost|o|zcw|cz c C|+mb|+g| (.001 1) t+mbcm +ssoc|+m |ob|cm+s no scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+
dcss|nc|on|z+d+ t|+ns|io do modc|o cst+t+| +|+ o modc|o ||v+do c +os ||scos |cgu|+to||os
do novo modc|o

cgundo csscs +uto|cs +s |cg|+s dc |unc|on+mcnto do |c|c+do ^t+c+d|st+


^|gum+s +n+||scs |nvcst|g+m como + cx|stcnc|+ dc |ncc|tcz+s |c|+t|v+s + |ccst|utu|+ocs |cgu|+to||+s +|ct+m o como|t+mcnto
dos |nvcst|do|cs O +|gumcnto b+s|co c uc |cgu|+to|y uncc|t+|nty c+n c|c+tc + subst+nt|+| ot|on v+|uc t|+t |c+ds to |||ms
dc|+y|ng t|c|| |nvcstmcnt dcc|s|on |n o|dc| to g+t|c| mo|c |n|o|m+t|on +nd +ssu|+nccs |cg+|d|ng |utu|c |cgu|+to|y c|+ngcs
(|||| ^| .004) ^uto|cs como \+tts (.001) o| su+ vcz cntcndcm uc + dcs|cgu|+mcnt+io c|cv+ os custos do c+|t+|
cons|dc|+ndo uc o |ob|cm+ dos mcc+n|smos dc cont|o|c +|nd+ nio |o| cu+c|on+do
c |c|c||+ (.010) +g|cg+ o cont|ngcnc|+mcnto dc |ccu|sos +o |cuc dc |+to|cs uc cn||+ucccm + +tu+io d+s +gcnc|+s |cgu|+do|+s
C||+d+ c|+ |c| 4.;o + ^|||| o|gio |cgu|+do| c ||sc+||z+do| do s|stcm+ |n|c|ou su+s +t|v|d+dcs cm dczcmb|o dc 1c ^ o||t|c+
dc ||v+t|z+io scto||+| o| su+ vcz tcvc |n|c|o cm 1 com + c|+m+d+ |c| dc Conccssocs (|c| cc;) c + |nc|usio do |stcm+
||ct|ob|+s no ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc |cscst+t|z+io (|cc|cto 10!;) ^|nd+ cm 1 +|gum+s un|d+dcs d+ |cdc|+io |nc|u|+m
+t|vos dc su+s conccss|on+||+s dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ nos |cscct|vos ||og|+m+s |st+du+|s dc |cscst+t|z+io (O^|| ct +| .00)
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
272
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
dc |nc|g|+ (|^|) c + t+|||+io do uso d+s ||n|+s dc t|+nsm|ssio o| cxcm|o so |o|+m dc||n|d+s
c|nco +nos +os o |n|c|o d+ ||v+t|z+io nio tcndo gc|+do no tcmo +dcu+do s|n+|s +|+
cst|mu|+| + |c+||z+io dc novos |nvcst|mcntos ||v+dos O |+to dc uc o |occsso dc ||v+t|z+io
no scto| c|ct||co dcu-sc dc |o|m+ +|+|c|+ +o cst+bc|cc|mcnto do ++|+to |cgu|+to||o scto||+|
dcscnc+dcou +|cm d|sso |ncc|tcz+s |cgu|+to||+s uc |nc|d||+m sob|c os cont|+tos dc conccssio
|nst|umcntos uc no|tc|+m + |c|+io cnt|c o |cgu|+do| + |||m+ c os consum|do|cs cst+bc|cccndo
d||c|tos c ob||g+ocs |cc||oc+s (|||| ||CC||||| 1) |c +co|do com ^mo||m (.00c;.00)
cmbo|+ o m+|co |cgu|+to||o scto||+| tcn|+ s|do conso||d+do cm .004 c|+ |c| 10c4c d|vc|sos
cont|+tos dc conccssio |o|+m |||m+dos +ntcs do cst+bc|cc|mcnto do novo modc|o do scto|
c|ct||co o uc tcm mot|v+do |ntc||ct+ocs d|vc|gcntcs
^ |+|t+ dc con||+n+ dos |nvcst|do|cs cm |+cc dc um +mb|cntc +|nd+ b+st+ntc |nst+vc| +|+stou cm
mu|t+s oc+s|ocs novos |o,ctos ||v+dos Con|o|mc +|||m+m Comcs ct +| (.00.) + t|+ns|io +|+
o modc|o m|sto (+|t|c|+io ub||c+ c ||v+d+) gc|ou |ncc|tcz+s uc ||zc|+m com uc mu|t+s
dcc|socs dc |nvcst|mcnto tcn|+m s|do ostc|g+d+s Como |csu|t+do o +|s dc+|ou-sc com um
sc||o ++gio cnc|gct|co cm .001 (|^|^ .00o)
10
\+tts c ^||zt|+ (.00. 10) +ss|n+|+m uc
:ne oe. oae: s:a.:ae nas oc: ne'ea o occs:o oe. o.es:oeo:s e:ne oao', as a
esa': c/ :nee /a.:cs :ne e//e.: c/ :ne o:a' .co:a.:s s.neoe :ne .aeo., e\.naoe s a:
.n.n :ne :neoa' eoea:cs ae e\csea aoa /oa'', :ne 'a. c/ .coss:eo., aoa cae c/ :ne
e/cos
|cssc +mb|cntc o ||sco dc mud+n+s nos +d|ocs |cgu|+to||os c|+ c|ccb|do c|os |nvcst|do|cs
como +|go dc uc dcvc||+m sc |otcgc| Como +|gumcnt+m |+c| c |c|on+|d (1c)
:nee s a'.a,s :ne csso':, :na: :ne s:a:e .'' .naoe :s a:::aae aao o :ne /a:ae Oo.e
:ne esso oeea /c /ceo .a:a' o e\aoao :ne e'e.:. c.e aoa c:ne ao'. a:':es
saosaes :ne /ceo o.es:c/eoa', a:::aae c/ :ne .s oa, /aae ^ aa, oa, .coe .neo
:ne c':.a' eoaa'ao .'' co.e aao s.o :c.aas eas:oa:.e ca's: a:::aaes .n.n
.ca'a co.e oce esa': o oa.n 'ess /a.cao'e o:ee:a:cos c/ .co.essco .co:a.:s o, :ne
ea'a:o aeo.,
|+|+ ||d+| com css+s |ncc|tcz+s o |||| +ssou + sc| us+do como um+ cscc|c dc neae
ea'a.coa' ou sc,+ como um+ |o|m+ dc d|v|d|| os ||scos dc mud+n+s n+s |cg|+s do ,ogo
com o |o||o govc|no Como conscucnc|+ cnt|c o |n|c|o dc 1 c +gosto dc .001 o ||||
10 ^ c||sc no +b+stcc|mcnto +|c|tou +|+ + ncccss|d+dc dc |nt|oduz|| nov+s |ontcs dc cnc|g|+ ||m+||+ n+ m+t||z cnc|gct|c+
n+c|on+| |cv+ndo o |||| + +v+n+| n+ cst|utu|+io dc |og|+m+s vo|t+dos +|+ o ||n+nc|+mcnto dc |o,ctos cnvo|vcndo
|ontcs +|tc|n+t|v+s (CO|| ct +| .00.)
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
273
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
cont|+tou oc|+ocs uc c|cv+|+m + c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ do scto| cm o0. |\
11
Os |o,ctos
m+|s |mo|t+ntcs uc cnvo|vc|+m |nvcst|mcntos tot+|s dc |; 4. m|||ocs cont+|+m com um+
+|t|c|+io do |+nco dc |; 1 b|||io co||csondcntcs + 44!`
1.

Como sc odc obsc|v+| nos d+dos s|stcm+t|z+dos + scgu|| mcsmo + +|t|| dc 1 os
dcscmbo|sos do |||| +|+ o scto| dc c|ct||c|d+dc c g+s nio +cn+s sc m+nt|vc|+m c|cv+dos
m+s t+mbcm |o|+m s|gn|||c+t|vos u+ndo com+|+dos com os |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc
c|ct||c|d+dc no ||+s||
1!
(vc| +bc|+ c C|+||co . + scgu||)
Tabela 5 |cscmbo|sos do |||| +|+ o scto| c|ct||c|d+dc c g+s (|; m|||ocs) 1 - .00
Ano Eletricidade e gs Total
Participao do setor
eletricidade e gs (%)
1 o4c 0c 1`
1o 1441 o! 14`
1 o4 1c4 !..`
1c 400! 1c1 .11`
1 1o1 1c0. 10`
.000 144o .!04o o!`
.001 14.! ..1 o`
.00. cc. !41 .!`
.00! 0c. !!!4 1.`
.004 o0 !c!4 1o!`
.00 4o! 4oc0 10o`
.00o !o4 1!1c o`
.00 o40 o4c. 10`
.00c c.! 0cc c`
.00 141o 1!o!o 10c`
.010 1!cc 1oc4.! c.`
|ontc |:://...ooaesc.o/es:a:s:.as/ac.o'caa/|o:./..|/..o/..se:cC`^|\'s ^.essc ./../...
e n:://...ooaesc.o/::e8`||:/e\c:/s:es/ae/aa':/ooaes_:/Ga'eas/^a.cs/eoesa/es:a:s:.as/
|o:._|_a_se:cC`^|a/ ^.essc ../../.. |'aocaac ca
11 |ssc mont+ntc cu|v+|c + m+|s dc !` do c|csc|mcnto d+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no c||odo uc
s+|tou dc 1.0 |\ cm 1 +|+ o. |\ cm .001 (d+dos d|son|vc|s cm www|c+d+t+govb| ^ccsso cm 0!;0.;.011)
1. |+t+-sc d+s ||d|c|ct||c+s dc c||+ d+ |cs+ |+c|+d|n|o c |+,c+do (|||| .001)
1! |ug+ c |+sc|mcnto (.00c) |cvc|+m uc cnt|c .001c .00 o |||| |csondcu o| cc|c+ dc .0` dos |ccu|sos us+dos +|+
||n+nc|+| os |nvcst|mcntos d+s cm|cs+s |ndust||+|s c dc |n||+cst|utu|+
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
274
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
0
1970
(*) Taxa de cmbio utilizada para Projeo de Investimento entre 2002-2004: US$= 3,50
1972
Etapa 1:
1970-1978
22,1%
Etapa 2:
1979-1982
5,4%
Etapa 3:
1983-1989
4,8%
Etapa 4:
1990-1995
-6,8%
Etapa 5:
1996-1998
21,7%
Etapa 6:
1999-2001
-41,3%
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1994 1992 1996 2002* 1998 2000 2004*
2,0
1,0
3,0
4,0
e
m

B
i
l
h

e
s

U
S
$
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
Grfico 2 |nvcst|mcntos tot+|s no scto| c|ct||co do ||+s|| 10 - .004 (|; b|||ocs)
(') +x+ ae .ooc a:'aaa aa ceac ae o.es:oeo:c eo:e .......+ J:, = |, !.
|co:e |aa ...! +)
^|guns +uto|cs mcnc|on+m uc c|o mcnos !0` dos |nvcst|mcntos tcndcm + sc| cobc|tos nos
|o,ctos ||n+ncc||os com c+|t+| |o||o dos |nvcst|do|cs (|O|C|O| 1 +ud ||^|
ct +| .000) |o ||+s|| css+s oc|+ocs no scto| c|ct||co cont+|+m com cm|cst|mos do ||||
+|+ cob||| cc|c+ dc 0` dos |nvcst|mcntos ^ out|+ mct+dc dos |ccu|sos |o| ||n+nc|+d+ com
c+|t+| dos |nvcst|do|cs c |ccu|sos cxtc|nos |cv+nt+dos no |+nco |und|+| |ntc|n+t|on+| ||n+ncc
Coo|o|+t|on (||C) Ovc|sc+ ||o,cct |nvcstmcnt Coo|o|+t|on c out|os (||^| ct +| .000) ^
||nc|+| conc|usio + uc sc odc c|cg+| c uc o |||| mcsmo +os 14 cont|nuou + sc|
+ |ontc m+|s |mo|t+ntc dc |ccu|sos dc |ongo |+zo d|son|vc| +|+ |nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc
cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
5. Consideraes nais
|cstc t|+b+||o d|scut|u-sc o +c| dcscmcn|+do c|o |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto +
|nvcst|mcntos no scto| c|ct||co no ||+s|| ^ +n+||sc |o| scgmcnt+d+ cm do|s ||nc|+|s
c||odos o ||mc||o m+|c+do o| |nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do |st+do (d+ dcc+d+ dc 10
dcc+d+ dc 1c0) c o scgundo (dos +nos 10 cm d|+ntc) c+|+ctc||z+do c|+ ||v+t|z+io c c|+
cst|utu|+io dc nov+s |o|m+s dc |cgu|+io Con|o|mc d|scut|do +ntc||o|mcntc c+d+ c||odo
c+|+ctc||zou-sc o| d||c|cntcs +d|ocs dc ||n+nc|+mcnto c d|st|nt+s |unocs +ssum|d+s c|o
|||| |m +mbos os c||odos o b+nco dcscmcn|ou um +c| +t|vo c |mo|t+ntc cmbo|+
c+|+ctc||st|c+s d|vc|s+s oss+m sc| |dcnt|||c+d+s
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
275
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
|u|+ntc o c||odo m+|c+do o| |nvcst|mcntos d||ctos do |st+do o |||| dcv|do su+
n+tu|cz+ |nst|tuc|on+| (um b+nco ub||co dot+do dc m+|o| +utonom|+ c +g|||d+dc uc
o |o||o govc|no) nio +cn+s v|+b|||zou |nvcst|mcntos no scto| c|ct||co m+s t+mbcm
coo|dcnou +ocs |c|cv+ntcs +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto scto||+|
|os +nos 10 (du|+ntc o |occsso dc ||v+t|z+io) cm|cs+s cst|+ngc||+s tcm|+m
os c|c|tos dc dcsv+|o||z+ocs c+mb|+|s |m+ m+nc||+ dc |ovc| |otcio cont|+ cssc
t|o dc ||sco cons|st|+ cm cont|+t+| os ||n+nc|+mcntos cm mocd+ |oc+| (+|+ conc|||+|
|cnd|mcntos c ob||g+ocs) Os cm|cst|mos do |||| cum||+m css+ |unio |+|+ ||d+|
como |ob|cm+s +ssoc|+dos ||+g|| |cgu|+io c s |ncc|tcz+s sob|c os |cos d+ cnc|g|+ o
|||| t+mbcm |o| us+do como um+ cscc|c dc neae dc |cgu|+io ou sc,+ como um+
m+nc||+ dc com+|t|||+| os ||scos dc mud+n+s n+s |cg|+s dc ,ogo com o |o||o govc|no
^ +n+||sc cm|ccnd|d+ ncst+ csu|s+ |ovc suo|tc +|+ + |o|mu|+io dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s
mcd|d+ uc cxt|+| |mo|t+ntcs ||ocs d+ t|+,cto||+ ||sto||c+ b|+s||c||+ |mbo|+ o s|stcm+ ||n+ncc||o
no ||+s|| cstc,+ sc to|n+ndo c+d+ vcz m+|s com|cxo (um+ vcz uc +s cm|cs+s tcm +ccsso m+|s
|+c|| +os mc|c+dos dc c+|t+|s c tcm s|do dcscn|+dos novos mcc+n|smos dc suo|tc) |nst|tu|ocs
ub||c+s uc sc d|st|ngucm o| um m+|o| g|+u dc +utonom|+ c +g|||d+dc uc o |o||o govc|no
dcvcm |osscgu|| dcscmcn|+ndo um +c| s|gn|||c+ntc no dcscnvo|v|mcnto cconom|co do +|s
c+|+ctc||z+do o| um +mb|cntc |nst|tuc|on+| +|nd+ cm |+sc dc conso||d+io ^ss|m mcsmo num
contcxto m+|c+do o| mud+n+s cst|utu|+|s nos +d|ocs dc gc|+io cnc|gct|c+ (uc odc |csu|t+|
dc d||c|cntcs comb|n+ocs dc |ontcs dc cnc|g|+ cscc|+|mcntc ct|o|co c g+s) c c|+ com|cx|d+dc
do s|stcm+ ||n+ncc||o os |csu|t+dos d+ csu|s+ |nd|c+m uc o |||| dcvc cont|nu+| cxc|ccndo
um +c| |und+mcnt+| no ||n+nc|+mcnto + |nvcst|mcntos no scto| c|ct||co no ||+s||
|sc|+-sc uc +s conc|usocs +u| +|cscnt+d+s s||v+m como suo|tc + +n+||scs |oscct|v+s
d+s mud+n+s cst|utu|+|s no +d|io dc gc|+io cnc|gct|c+ no ||+s|| |ss+s mud+n+s dcvcm
cnvo|vc| |cocu+ocs +cc|c+ d+ |c+|t|io dos |cnd|mcntos dc |t+|u cnt|c o ||+s|| c o
|+|+gu+| do ||m|t+do +ccsso + |ontcs cxtc|n+s dc g+s n+tu|+| d+ t|+,cto||+ dc dcscnvo|v|mcnto
dc |ontcs +|tc|n+t|v+s dc cnc|g|+ (cscc|+|mcntc ct+no|) d+ |cccntc dcscobc|t+ dc cxtcns+s
|csc|v+s uc odcm mud+| + comb|n+io dc |ontcs cnc|gct|c+s no ||+s|| (c+m+d+ |c-s+|) c
||n+|mcntc d+s c|csccntcs |cst||ocs +mb|cnt+|s c||+io dc |+nt+s ||d|c|ct||c+s dc g|+ndc
csc+|+ |+dos ||m+||os |c|c|cntcs +o c||odo dc .001 + .00 co|ct+dos d||ct+mcntc no ||||
c|m|t||+m + scgmcnt+io dos cm|cst|mos cm d||c|cntcs c+tcgo||+s dc |o,ctos |sscs d+dos
co||obo|+m + c|ccio co||cntc dc uc os ||n+nc|+mcntos +|+ |nvcst|mcntos dc gc|+io dc
cnc|g|+ tc|mc|ct||c+ ou dc cogc|+io cnvo|vcndo |ontcs +|tc|n+t|v+s (como cnc|g|+ dc c+n+-dc-
+uc+|) +|nd+ |c|cscnt+m um+ cucn|ss|m+ +|cc|+ dos c|cd|tos | |und+mcnt+| uc sc +v+ncc
no con|cc|mcnto d+s cscc|||c|d+dcs dcssc t|o dc |o,cto dc modo + com|ccndc| como o
|||| odc +m||+| o +o|o su+ cxccuio
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
276
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
Referncias
^|||||^ |c||+ |+|c|+ | O +c| dos o|g+n|smos ||n+ncc||os |ntc|n+c|on+|s n+s cconom|+s cm
dcscnvo|v|mcnto |n |||^ Para a dcada de 90 ||o||d+dcs c c|scct|v+s dc o||t|c+s ub||c+s
||+s|||+ |||^ 1c .-4
^|^|| |dmund |^|| \c|nc| ||om t|c dcvc|omcnt+| to t|c |cgu|+to|y st+tc t|c t|+ns|o|m+t|on
o| t|c govc|nmcnts |m+ct on t|c ||+z|||+n cconomy The Quarterly Review of Economics and
Finance v 4 4.1-4!1 .00
^|O||| |+b|o |+|s |+zo +|+ +s conccssocs dc cnc|g|+ Custo Brasil ^no ! n 1c |czcmb|o .00c;
|+nc||o .00 oc-. ||son|vc| cm n:://...e.s:a.as:coas'.coo//a//^:c/...a/
^ccsso cm 1.;04;.011
^|||| Capacidade de gerao no Brasil ||son|vc| cm n:://...aoee'c.o/a'.a.ces/
.aa.aaaeoas'/.aa.aaaeoas'as ^cccsso .c;01;.011
|^|| \c|nc| |c|O|^|| Cu|t ^ |ctu|n to t|c |+st ||+z||s |||v+t|z+t|on o| |ub||c |t|||t|cs |c C+sc
o| t|c ||cct||c |owc| ccto| The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance Vo| !c |o ! |+||
1c 0!-.!
|^|| \c|nc| V|||||^ ^nn|b+| |c c|+ng|ng n+tu|c o| dcvc|omcnt b+n||ng |n ||+z|| Journal of
Interamerican Studies and World Affairs v .. n 4 nov 1c0 4.!-440
|^|| \c|nc| A Economia Brasileira io |+u|o |obc| .00. 0
|^|^ V |ntcg|+t|ng comct|t|on +nd |+nn|ng ^ m|xcd |nst|tut|on+| modc| o| t|c ||+z|||+n c|cct||c
owc| sccto| Energy v !1 co-co .00o
|||| Informe Infra-Estrutura n +gosto;.001
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dcscnvo|v|mcnto dcs+||os +|+ o |||| Revista do BNDES ||o dc |+nc||o v 1 n 1 ,un 14 1-!o
C^|^|^ ^||||C^|^ || CO|||C|O || ^O |^||O ^|C|^|-| Relatrio sobre a Agncia
Nacional de Energia Eltrica ^ncc| |czcmb|o dc .00o
C^|||||O ||on|s|o ||+s |O||^|O |du+|do ^,ustc cxtc|no c dcscu|||b||o |ntc|no 1c0-1c4
|n ^b|cu |+|cc|o dc |+|v+ (O|g) A ordem do progresso ccm +nos dc o||t|c+ cconom|c+
|cub||c+n+ 1cc-1c ||o dc |+nc||o C+mus 1. !.!-!4o
C^|||||O ||+nc|sco C+||io |OC|^ C+||os |cn||uc |c|o|m+ do scto| ub||co n+ ^mc||c+ |+t|n+
um+ c|scct|v+ com+|+d+ |n |||| A privatizao no Brasil o c+so dos sc|v|os dc ut|||d+dc
ub||c+ ||o dc |+nc||o |||| .000 4-0
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
277
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
C^|||||O ||c+|do |stado, mercado e o desenvolvimento do setor eltrico brasileiro csc +|cscnt+d+
+o |outo|+do cm C|cnc|+s |um+n+s oc|o|og|+ c |o||t|c+ d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| dc ||n+s
Cc|+|s |c|o |o||zontc .000
CO|C|O|C| C|||sto|c| |st|uctu|+||smo y |co||bc|+||smo un+ |nt|oducc|on |n CO|C|O|C|
C|||sto|c| |^|O| |+mcs (Com) Estados o Mercados?: || nco||bc|+||smo y c| dcb+tc sob|c
|+s o||t|c+s dc dcs+||o||o |cx|co |ondo dc Cu|tu|+ |conom|c+ 10 11-44
|^||^ V|v|+n+ C+|doso dc + | O Papel do Project Finance no financiamento de Projetos de Energia
Eltrica C+so d+ ||| dc C+n+ ||+v+ ||o dc |+nc||o] .00! 1c0 (CO|||;|||| |c ||+nc,+mcnto
|nc|gct|co .00!) csc |n|vc|s|d+dc |cdc|+| do ||o dc |+nc||o CO|||
|||||||^ C+||os |+w+|| |c+| |||v+t|z+io do scto| c|ct||co no ||+s|| |n |||| A privatizao no Brasil
o c+so dos sc|v|os dc ut|||d+dc ub||c+ ||o dc |+nc||o |||| .000 1-..0
CO|| ^nton|o C|+|ct ^|^|C^ C+||os |+v|d C |^||^ |||+d+ ^nton|ct+ ||||^||| |c|o|s+
|c|cn+ dc O O scto| c|ct||co |n ^O |^||O |||z+bct| |+||+ dc |^|^C|| ||||O |o|gc (O|g)
BNDES 50 Anos ||sto||+s scto||+|s io |+u|o ||^ ^|tcs C|+||c+s .00. !.1-!4c
|||||^| ^|bc|t O The Strategy of Economic Development |cw |+vcn +|c |n|vc|s|ty ||css 1c
||||| C|+||cs | ||||^|^| |s|+ ||||V^^| y|+,+ |n||+st|uctu|c |xtc|n+||t|cs +nd |conom|c
|cvc|omcnt ^ tudy o| t|c |nd|+n |+nu|+ctu||ng |ndust|y The World Bank Economic Review
v .0 n . .00o
|||| |un ^| ||ngm|ng Investment under Regulatory Uncertainty | ||cct||c|ty Ccnc|+t|on
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|+||cts (C||) |+|c| .004 (wo|||ng +c|)
|^O |+u|o odcsc+n |css+ ^ |o|m+io do cst+do |cgu|+do| Novos estudos C|||^|
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!!........!....7:s.:=s._a::e\: ^ccsso cm 11;04;.011
|^C||||O |+|cc|o |+c|+do |m|cs+s +bc|t+s g+n|+m |o|cgo +|+ |nvcst|| Viso do
Desenvolvimento ||o dc |+nc||o |||| n c +go .00o
||CO |o||v+| C^||O ||O C+||os ^|v+|cs d+ ||v+ O PAC e o setor eltrico dcs+||os +|+ o
+b+stcc|mcnto do mc|c+do b|+s||c||o (.00-.010) ||+s|||+ |||^ |cvc|c||o dc .00c (cxto +|+
d|scussio 1!.)
||||||^ |cncc ^gcnc|+ |cgu|+do|+ ||c+ scm vc|b+ O Estado de So Paulo 1o;0c;.010 C+dc|no |1
|||||||O ^|m+ndo C+stc|+| |c|o|m+ |cgu|+to||+ n+ |n||+cst|utu|+ b|+s||c||+ cm uc c cst+mos |n
^|C^|O |uc|+ |c|cn+ |O^ |on+|do c|o+ d+ (cds) Marcos regulatrios no Brasil o uc
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|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
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||+s|| |n C|^|||^C| |+b|o c |O||||^ |+u||c|o |csu|t+ (o|gs) A economia brasileira nos
anos 90 ||o dc |+nc||o |||| 1 .1-.o0
|||| |osc C|+ud|o ||n|+|cs CO|O|z|\|Cz |o+n+ C|^|||^C| |+b|o O Cenrio macroeconmico
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||^| |+n|c|+ |+g+||ics C|||^ |+|co ^nton|o |+ccdo ||||^ |+||+ C||st|n+ |cn|do dc O
+c| dcscmcn|+do c|o |||| c d||c|cntcs |n|c|+t|v+s dc cx+nsio do ||n+nc|+mcnto dc |ongo
|+zo no ||+s|| dos +nos 0 Economia e Sociedade C+m|n+s (1) c-11o dcz .000
||C^ |c|n+ndo ||mcntc| |^C||||O |+|cc|o |+c|+do Como +s cm|cs+s ||n+nc|+m
|nvcst|mcntos cm mc|o c||sc ||n+ncc||+ |ntc|n+c|on+| Viso do Desenvolvimento ||o dc |+nc||o
|||| n c dcz .00c
|O|||||-|O|^| | | ||ob|cms o| |ndust||+||s+t|on o| |+stc|n +nd out|-|+stc|n |u|oc The
Economic Journal vo| ! n .10;.11 .0.-.11 |un-c 14!
^|O n|+ |+||+ |o|nc||+s dos A Crise no setor eltrico brasileiro |n|vc|s|d+dc dc ||+s|||+ |uc|co
dc |csu|s+ cm |o||t|c+s |ub||c+s ||| Cu|so dc |scc|+||z+io cm |o||t|c+s |ub||c+s .00.
O^|| ||c+|do |c|c||+ C^||O ||O C+||os ^|v+|cs d+ ||v+ ||CO |o||v+| ^|||| ||+nccsc+
|O|||C|| ^|||cdo |||c ^ C|;cc c + |n||+cst|utu|+ |conom|c+ ||+s||c||+ |n A Constituio
brasileira de 1988 revisitada |ccuc|+io ||sto||c+ c dcs+||os +tu+|s d+s o||t|c+s ub||c+s n+s +|c+s
cconom|c+ c soc|+| ; o|g+n|z+do| |osc Cc|so C+|doso || ||+s|||+ |c+ .00 1o1-1
|z|C^| \||son |ndust||+||z+io b|+s||c||+ cm c|scct|v+ ||sto||c+ Histria Econmica & Histria de
Empresas v ! n . -. .000
|||||^| |monc Indstria e Desenvolvimento Regional um+ +n+||sc d+s cst|+tcg|+s dc
|ndust||+||z+io n+ |+||+ 1 cd +|v+do| |||| .00 v 01 ..
V||^CO || ||c|n|o A economia poltica das polticas pblicas +s ||v+t|z+ocs c + |c|o|m+ do |st+do
||o dc |+nc||o |||| 1 (cxto +|+ ||scussio )
\^ |||cc C |c|csy |c C+sc ^g+|nst |c|cgu|+t|on o| ||cct||c|ty Ccnc|+t|on The Electricity Journal
1-.4 |+y .001
\^ |+v|d ^||z|^ |+|+c| |c ||cct||c|ty C||scs o| C+|||o|n|+ ||+z|| +nd C|||c |cssons to t|c C|||c+n
|+||ct Proceedings of the 2002 Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering .00.
O||C ^^ |nc|c+s|ng |ctu|ns +nd |conom|c ||og|css Economic Journal vo| !c .-4. 1.c
O +c| do |||| no ||n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s||
279
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
Anexo 1
Roteiro de entrevista
^s cnt|cv|st+s |o|+m |c+||z+d+s cm +gosto dc .010 u+ndo um+ vc|sio |c||m|n+| d+ csu|s+
,+ cst+v+ d|son|vc| O |otc||o +|cscnt+do + scgu|| contcm|+ sctc to|cos d|scu|s|vos uc
|nduzcm o |ntc||ocuto| + cm|t|| o|n|ocs c s|stcm+t|z+| +|gumcntos +cc|c+ dc ucstocs c|+vc
|nvcst|g+d+s |+t+-sc +ss|m dc c|gunt+s +bc|t+s vo|t+d+s sob|ctudo +|+ tcst+| +s ||otcscs
c conc|usocs |c||m|n+|cs obt|d+s c|m|t|ndo +os csu|s+do|cs +v+n+| n+ com|ccnsio dos
|occssos |nvcst|g+dos
1 u+| o +c| dcscmcn|+do c|o |||| no n+nc|+mcnto do scto| dc cnc|g|+ c|ct||c+ no ||+s|| + +|t|| d+ dcc+d+
dc 10
. u+| + |mo|tnc|+ d+ ||ct|ob|+s n+ o|g+n|z+io do scto| c|ct||co no ||+s||
! O uc cx||c+||+ + ucd+ d+ +|t|c|+io ||v+d+ n+ c++c|d+dc |nst+|+d+ dc gc|+io dc cnc|g|+ dc c.4` cm
1. +|+ 41` cm 1o4
4 |o|uc + |ntc|vcnio do |||| sc||+ |cuc||d+ +|+ n+nc|+| o |o||o scto| ub||co ,+ uc + m+|o| +|tc dos
|nvcst|mcntos cnt|c 10 c 1c0 c|+ dc |csons+b|||d+dc d+ ||ct|ob|+s
Os +nos 1c0 m+|c+m um+ mud+n+ no +c| do |st+do n+ cconom|+ |m uc mcd|d+ csscs novo +mb|cntc
mo|dou +s o||t|c+s +dot+d+s + +|t|| dc 10 cst+bc|cccndo um novo +c| +|+ o |||| no suo|tc +os
|nvcst|mcntos no scto| dc c|ct||c|d+dc no +|s
o O ||og|+m+ |+c|on+| dc |cscst+t|z+io |omovcu + cx+nsio do c|cd|to do |||| cscc|+|mcntc +|+
|o,ctos dc |n||+cst|utu|+ ^|cm d|sso + |mcnd+ Const|tuc|on+| n o c|m|t|u s cm|cs+s mu|t|n+c|on+|s
+ +|t|| dc 1 +ccss+| c|cd|tos do |||| +|+ +|t|c|+| do |occsso dc ||v+t|z+io |+s o| uc um+
cm|cs+ cst|+ngc||+ us+||+ c|cd|to |oc+| u+ndo odc||+ +ccss+| cm|cst|mos cm mocd+s cst|+ngc||+s + t+x+s
dc ,u|os m+|s b+|x+s
u+| + su+ v|sio sob|c + c||+io d+ ^gcnc|+ |+c|on+| dc |nc|g|+ ||ct||c+ c +s su+s |c+|s cond|ocs +|+ |ovc|
scgu|+n+ +os |nvcst|do|cs
Relao de entrevistados
C+||os C+mos - Coo|dcn+do| dc |n||+cst|utu|+ |conom|c+ do |nst|tuto dc |csu|s+s
|conom|c+s ^||c+d+s (|c+)
C+||os |cn||uc |oc|+ ||o|csso| ^d,unto d+ |n|vc|s|d+dc dc ||+s|||+ (|||) c V|cc-
|||cto| dc ^dm|n|st|+io do Ccnt|o |ntc|d|sc|||n+| dc |studos cm |+nso|tc (Cc|t|u)
|monc |dc|m+n |u|z ||c+|do C+v+|c+ntc
280
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .-.c0 ,u|-dcz .011
|c|n+ndo ||mcntc| |ug+ - C|c|c do |c+|t+mcnto dc |csu|s+ |conom|c+ do |+nco
|+c|on+| dc |cscnvo|v|mcnto |conom|co c oc|+| (||||)
|+x|mo |u|z |omc|m+yc| - uc||ntcndcntc dc |csu|s+ c |cscnvo|v|mcnto c |||c|cnc|+
|nc|gct|c+ d+ ^gcnc|+ |+c|on+| dc |nc|g|+ ||ct||c+ (^ncc|)
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-dcz .011
|caaoa Tecnolgico: proposta de uma mtrica para
levantamento de demandas e ofertas tecnolgicas
Elias Pereira Lopes Jnior
1
*, Luiz Eduardo dos Santos Tavares
2
**, Aloma Vernica Bernardo Meireles Pessoa
3
***
' |||+s |c|c||+ |ocs |un|o| c mcst|c cm ^dm|n|st|+io c|+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |st+du+| do Cc+|+ (||C|) | doccntc n+ |+cu|d+dc dc
ctcmb|o |o|s|st+ n+ +|c+ dc |o+dm+ ccno|og|co do |o,cto dc cst|utu|+io d+ |cdc dc |uc|cos dc |nov+io ccno|og|c+
do |st+do do Cc+|+ (|cdcn|t-C|)
'' |u|z |du+|do dos +ntos +v+|cs c mcst|c cm ^dm|n|st|+io c|+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |st+du+| do Cc+|+ (||C|) Coo|dcn+do|
tccn|co do |o,cto ||||||-C| c |csons+vc| c|+ +|c+ dc |o||cd+dc |ntc|cctu+| d+ ||C| | doccntc d+ |+cu|d+dc |^| cm
|o|t+|cz+ no cu|so dc ^dm|n|st|+io
'''^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |c|n+|do |c||c|cs |csso+ c mcst|c cm ^dm|n|st|+io c|+ |n|vc|s|d+dc |st+du+| do Cc+|+ (||C|) Vcm
+tu+ndo n+ +|c+ dc Ccstio d+ |nov+io ccno|og|c+ ^tu+|mcntc coo|dcn+ o |uc|co dc |nov+io ccno|og|c+ (||) d+ ||C|
Resumo
O +mb|cntc cm|cs+||+| c mu|to |ncc|to tcndo +s cs-
t|+tcg|+s +dot+d+s um +c| |mo|t+ntc n+ m+nu-
tcnio dc su+s +t|v|d+dcs |+|+ ||d+| com cst+s |ncc|-
tcz+s cx|stcm mctodo|og|+s dc |osccio cst|+tcg|-
c+ tccno|og|c+ c o|g+n|z+c|on+| uc +,ud+m +s cm-
|cs+s n+ dcc|sio d+s +ocs |cscntcs com ob,ct|vos
|utu|os m+|s |cc|sos O ob,ct|vo ccnt|+| dcstc +|t|go
c dcscnvo|vc| um+ |c||+mcnt+ +|+ |cv+nt+mcnto dc
|n|o|m+ocs sob|c dcm+nd+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
d+s cm|cs+s dc d|vc|sos scgmcntos dc |o|t+|cz+-C|
uc +||mcntcm o mctodo e.noc'c, |caaoao
(||) ^ mctodo|og|+ us+d+ n+ c|+bo|+io dcst+
csu|s+ +b|+ngcu um+ |cv|sio d+ ||tc|+tu|+ n+c|on+|
c |ntc|n+c|on+| +|cm d+ vc||c+io dc |nst|umcntos c
|c||+mcnt+s ut|||z+dos cm cstudos scmc||+ntcs Con-
c|u|-sc uc o || c um+ |c||+mcnt+ ut|| dc |+nc,+-
Abstract
'e oasoess eo.cooeo: s .e, ao.e:ao aoa :ne
s:a:ees aac:ea ao oc:ao: c'e o oao:aoo
:ne a.:.:es c aea' .:n :nese ao.e:ao:es :nee
ae oe:ncas c/ e\'co s:a:e. :e.noc'c.a' aoa
caoa:coa' :na: ne' .coaoes o ae.ao co /a
:ae ca's .:n :nese a.:cos ae oce a..aa:e 'e
ao c/ :ns ae s :c ae.e'c a :cc' /c a:neo o/c
oa:co aoca: aeoaoas aoa :e.noc'c, ceos /c
.coaoes c/ aeeo: seoeo:s c/ |c:a'eaC| oe:n
ca :na: /eea :ne e.noc'c, |caaoao |/) 'e
oe:ncac'c, asea o eao :ns esea.n o.'aaea
a ':ea:ae e.e. oa:coa'', aoa o:eoa:coa'', aoa
o :ne .e.a:co c/ os:aoeo:s aoa :cc's asea o so
'a s:aaes |: .as .co.'aaea :na: :ne |/ s a ase/a'
:cc' o 'aooo ao o.easo', .coe::.e eo.co
oeo: o .na:e.e seoeo: ^ sa..ess/a' c.ess c/ :ne
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |du+|do +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
282
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-dcz .011
1. Introduo
||+ntc dc um ccn+||o dc mu|t+ comct|t|v|d+dc m+s comosto o| mu|t+s oo|tun|d+dcs
dc |nvcst|mcnto +s cm|cs+s tcm uc c+d+ vcz m+|s ||d+| com +ocs uc vio no|tc+| scu
dcscmcn|o Contudo o +mb|cntc cm uc cst+s cm|cs+s cstio |nsc||d+s t+mbcm c mu|to
|ncc|to tcndo +s cst|+tcg|+s +dot+d+s um +c| |mo|t+ntc n+ m+nutcnio dc su+s +t|v|d+dcs
|+|+ ||d+| com cst+s |ncc|tcz+s cx|stcm mctodo|og|+s dc |osccio cst|+tcg|c+ tccno|og|c+ c
o|g+n|z+c|on+| uc +,ud+m +s cm|cs+s n+ dcc|sio d+s +ocs |cscntcs com ob,ct|vos |utu|os
m+|s |cc|sos |nt|ct+nto |+zc| |sso nio c t+|c|+ s|m|cs ^ m+|o||+ d+s cm|cs+s +|nd+ |ut+
cot|d|+n+mcntc +|+ sob|cv|vc| ||+s nio tcm tcmo |ccu|sos |um+nos c ||n+ncc||os +|+
|+n+|-sc cm cstudos c +t|v|d+dcs dc |osccio (O|z^ ct +| .00c )
|m+ ucstio +t|c|+d+ +tu+|mcntc + sob|cv|vcnc|+ d+s cm|cs+s c + tccno|og|+ cm uc cst+ |cscntc
cm |odutos c sc|v|os Con|o|mc ||+dy ct +| (1) + tccno|og|+ c +||c+d+ nos |occssos dc
|+b||c+io dc |odutos n+ +dm|n|st|+io d+s cm|cs+s cm oc|+ocs dc vcnd+ c d|st||bu|io ctc
Ccstio d+ tccno|og|+ c um tcm+ dcs+||+do| t+nto cm tc|mos dc tco||+ c |+t|c+ dcv|do su+
n+tu|cz+ mu|t|d|sc|||n+| c mu|t||unc|on+| o|t+nto con|o|mc ||++| |+||u|| c ||obc|t (.00o)
cc|to numc|o dc d|sc|||n+s sio |c|cv+ntcs do onto dc v|st+ +c+dcm|co como + cngcn|+||+ +
cconom|+ + soc|o|og|+ c + s|co|og|+
|+|+ t+nto o mctodo e.noc'c, |caaoao (||) com su+ +bo|d+gcm cst|utu|+d+ |+z |ntc|+g||
g|uos dc cscc|+||st+s c |nduz dc |o|m+ com+|t|||+d+ + c||+io dc v|socs |oscct|v+s c + c|+bo|+io
dc con,untos dc +ocs cnc+dc+d+s cm um |o||zontc tcmo|+| dc cu|to mcd|o c |ongo |+zo
O ||nc|+| bcnc||c|o obsc|v+do com + ut|||z+io d+ |c||+mcnt+ c + oss|b|||d+dc dc |cv|sio
dos s|stcm+s |odc-sc |+nc,+| dc |o|m+ m+|s cons|stcntc +|oc+| |ccu|sos dc |o|m+ ot|m|z+d+
+umcnt+do +ss|m + v+nt+gcm comct|t|v+ d+ o|g+n|z+io |+vo|cccndo su+ sob|cv|vcnc|+
(^|||^|| |O|| ||V^ .00c)
mcnto cm um +mb|cntc c+d+ vcz m+|s comct|t|vo
cm u+|uc| uc sc,+ o scgmcnto |m |occsso bcm
succd|do do || c |und+mcnt+| +|+ |dcnt|c+| o|
os mot|vos d+ c|+bo|+io dc |otc||os c dc como c|cs
sc|io ut|||z+dos
Palavras-chave |osccio mctodo|og|+ |c||+-
mcnt+ cc|no|ogy |o+dm+|ng (||
|/ s .:.a' :c aeo:/, :ne eascos /c :ne ae.e'c
oeo: c/ caaoas aoa nc. :ne, ae asea
Keywords caaoa oe:ncac'c, :cc' e.noc'
c, |caaoao |/)
|caaoa ccno|og|co |oost+ dc um+ mct||c+ +|+
|cv+nt+mcnto dc dcm+nd+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
283
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-dcz .011
|o|t+nto o mctodo e.noc'c, |caaoao ou |caaoa dc ccno|og|+ c um+ odc|os+ c
vc|s+t|| tccn|c+ +|+ gcstio c |+nc,+mcnto sob|ctudo u+ndo sc t|+t+ dc cx|o|+| os v|ncu|os
+t|vos cnt|c |ccu|sos tccno|og|cos ob,ct|vos o|g+n|z+c|on+|s c dcscnvo|v|mcnto d+s tccno|og|+s
O ob,ct|vo ccnt|+| dcstc +|t|go c dcscnvo|vc| um+ |c||+mcnt+ +|+ |cv+nt+mcnto dc |n|o|m+ocs
sob|c dcm+nd+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s d+s cm|cs+s dc d|vc|sos scgmcntos dc |o|t+|cz+-C|
uc +||mcntcm o mctodo e.noc'c, |caaoao
2. Referencial terico
2.1. O mtodo Technology Roadmapping
Con|o|mc ||+y c C+|c|+ (1c) o tc|mo caaoa c um nco|og|smo cm |ng|cs uc s|gn|||c+ um
|occsso dc |+nc,+mcnto tccno|og|co +|+ |dcnt|||c+| sc|cc|on+| c dcscnvo|vc| +s +|tc|n+t|v+s
tccno|og|c+s com ob,ct|vo dc +tcndc| + um con,unto dc ncccss|d+dcs |c-c|+bo|+d+s o| um+
ou m+|s cm|cs+s
|+|+ ||++| |+||u|| c ||obc|t (.001) o mctodo e.noc'c, |caaoao c const|tu|do dc succss|v+s
ct++s dc co|ct+ c +n+||sc dc d+dos (wo||s|os) |o|ncccndo |n|o|m+ocs |mo|t+ntcs uc sc|vcm
dc b+sc +|+ + tom+d+ d+s dcc|socs cst|+tcg|c+s |+ os |csu|t+dos dcst+s ct++s sio o|g+n|z+dos cm
|c|+to||os c m++s dc suo|tc uc sc|io ut|||z+dos como |nuts +|+ o m++ ||n+|
Os |csu|t+dos dcssc t|o dc t|+b+||o sio conso||d+dos cm caaoas ou sc,+ |c|cscnt+ocs
g|+||c+s s|m||||c+d+s uc c|m|tcm comun|c+| c com+|t|||+| dc |o|m+ c||c+z um+ |ntcnio
cst|+tcg|c+ com v|st+s + mob|||z+| +||n|+| c coo|dcn+| cs|o|os d+s +|tcs cnvo|v|d+s +|+
+tcndc| um ou v+||os ob,ct|vos (O|z^ ct +| .00c )
|+|+ ^|b||g|t (.00!) caaoas sio |otc||os uc dcsc|cvcm um +mb|cntc |utu|o bcm como
os ob,ct|vos + sc|cm +|c+n+dos dcnt|o dcssc +mb|cntc c os |+nos +|+ o modo como csscs
ob,ct|vos sc|io +|c+n+dos +o |ongo dc um c||odo dctc|m|n+do
cgundo ^|b||g|t (.00!) o caaoa +,ud+ + cu|c + |cun|| d|vc|s+s c|scct|v+s sob|c todos os
+scctos do +mb|cntc c do |+nc,+mcnto +|cm dc +,ud+| + cu|c + const|u|| um conscnso |+|+
Coc||o ct +| (.00 .0o) + |mo|tnc|+ dcstc t|o dc cstudo c uc os caaoas |o|c|+m +
c||+io dc um |+no uc |ntcg|c +s ncccss|d+dcs do mc|c+do c do consum|do| + cvo|uio do
|oduto c + |nt|oduio dc nov+s tccno|og|+s |ogo no |n|c|o do |occsso
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |du+|do +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
284
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-dcz .011
Con|o|mc ||c|t+s ct +| (.00o) o mctodo || tcvc su+ ||mc||+ +||c+io cnt|c +s dcc+d+s
dc 10 c 1c0 com + |oto|o|+ c + Co|n|ng scndo +dot+do o| g|+ndcs o|g+n|z+ocs
ostc||o|mcntc O su|g|mcnto do mctodo tcvc como mot|v+io ||nc|+| + ncccss|d+dc dc
sc tc| um+ cst|utu|+ dc m+c+mcnto dc |n|o|m+ocs |c|+c|on+d+s +o t||nom|o tccno|og|+
|oduto c mc|c+do |ntcg|+ndo-+s +o |ongo do tcmo (||||^ ct +| .00o)
Contudo o ||mc||o +|t|go uc c|ct|v+mcntc +bo|dou o || so vc|o + sc| ub||c+do cm 1c
n+ |cv|st+ |esea.n /aoaeoeo: c|o d||cto| dc |+nc,+mcnto tccno|og|co d+ |oto|o|+
(\|||^|| |CC||| 1c)
|+|+ ^nd|+dc |ont| c ||v+ (.00c) o mctodo || c um+ |mo|t+ntc |c||+mcnt+ +|+ tccno|og|+
uc co|+bo|+ no |+nc,+mcnto c n+ coo|dcn+io d+s co|o|+ocs c |ndust||+s |o| mc|o d+s
|n|o|m+ocs co|ct+d+s c|o |o+dm+ + cm|cs+ odc tom+| dcc|socs dc |nvcst|mcnto +tcndcndo
+ss|m +s ncccss|d+dcs do |oduto C+|v|n (.004) cons|dc|+ os |o+dm+s como |c||+mcnt+s +|+ +
|nov+io scndo o|t+nto um |nvcnt+||o dc oss|b|||d+dcs +|+ um c+mo cm +|t|cu|+|
|c +co|do com ^|b||g|t (.00!) o con|cc|mcnto |um+no c um c|cmcnto mu|to |mo|t+ntc
+|+ o || c +|+ um bom |unc|on+mcnto do |o+dm+ |+z-sc ncccss+||o + +|t|c|+io dos
scgu|ntcs +gcntcs
Cont||bu|ntc uc t|+z |n|o|m+ocs v+||os+s +|+ um contcxto dc c|+bo|+io dc |otc||os
Cont|o|+do| uc g+|+ntc uc o |o+dm+ cst+ scndo |c|to dc |o|m+ s|stcm+t|c+
||st||bu|do| uc +bso|vc |n|o|m+ocs cm um contcxto dc c|+bo|+io dc |otc||os c +s
d|vu|g+ +|+ +uc|cs uc |cc|s+m +g||
|m g|+ndc numc|o dc +bo|d+gcns (|c||+mcnt+s) |o| dcscnvo|v|do o| gcsto|cs consu|to|cs
c +c+dcm|cos +|+ com|ccndc| +s ucstocs concc|tu+|s c |+t|c+s +ssoc|+d+s gcstio d+
tccno|og|+ +|s |c||+mcnt+s odcm +ssum|| mu|t+s |o|m+s |nc|u|ndo +s m+t||zcs u+d|os
g|+||cos ||st+s dc vc||||c+io t+xonom|+s c so|tw+|c ,unt+mcntc com +s oss|b|||d+dcs dc
comb|n+ocs cnt|c css+s |o|m+s (||^^| |^||||| ||O||| .00o)
^ d|sos|io dc um caaoa odc sc| gcnc|+||z+d+ contcndo ||ust|+ocs dc v+||+s c+m+d+s c
subc+m+d+s (tcm+s cst|+tcg|cos) scndo |dcnt|||c+d+s t|cs c+m+d+s cxtc|n+s (|nco|o|+ndo os
tcm+s d+s subc+m+d+s) c|m|t|ndo + gcnc|+||z+io c +||c+io do con|cc|mcnto cm d|vc|s+s
s|tu+ocs (||gu|+ 1) cm uc (||^^| |^||||| ||O||| .00)
1 ^s c+m+d+s suc||o|cs do caaoa t|+t+m dos |oos|tos (oc..n,) uc c+d+
o|g+n|z+io +s||+ ,unt+mcntc com os |+to|cs uc |n||ucnc|+m c+d+ |oos|to |su+|mcntc
|caaoa ccno|og|co |oost+ dc um+ mct||c+ +|+
|cv+nt+mcnto dc dcm+nd+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
285
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-dcz .011
no n|vc| cm|cs+||+| cst+ c+m+d+ contcm +s c|scct|v+s cxtc|n+ c |ntc|n+ ^|guns +ssuntos
cncont|+dos no|m+|mcntc ncstc n|vc| sio mc|c+do consum|do|cs comct|do|cs
+mb|cntc |ndust||+ ncgoc|o tcndcnc|+s mot|v+io +mc++s ob,ct|vos m+|cos c cst|+tcg|+
. ^s c+m+d+s |ntc|mcd|+||+s do |o+dm+ d|zcm |csc|to +os mcc+n|smos ut|||z+dos +|+
o +|c+ncc dos ob,ct|vos scndo dc cxt|cm+ |mo|tnc|+ o|s |unc|on+m como um+
ontc cnt|c o |oos|to c os |ccu|sos dctc|m|n+ndo o uc |+zc| (oc..na:) |m n|vc|
cm|cs+||+| css+s c+m+d+s t|+t+m dc |odutos sc|v|os oc|+ocs cnt|c out|os scndo
||g+d+s d||ct+mcntc + gc|+io dc |ccc|t+
! ^s c+m+d+s |n|c||o|cs do |o+dm+ t|+t+m dos |ccu|sos (|nc|u|ndo tccno|og|cos) uc
|cc|s+m cst+| o|dcn+dos c |ntcg|+dos +|+ o dcscnvo|v|mcnto dos mcc+n|smos dc
cnt|cg+ (oc.nc.) |cst+ c+m+d+ sc|io cm|cg+d+s tccn|c+s dc como |+zc| (oc.
nc.) ut|||z+d+s +|+ +tcndc| + dcm+nd+ cst|u|+d+ n+s c+m+d+s suc||o|cs Out|os
|ccu|sos +bo|d+dos ncstc n|vc| sio |+b|||d+dcs +|cc||+s |o|ncccdo|cs |nst+|+ocs
|n||+cst|utu|+ o|g+n|z+io no|m+s c|cnc|+ ||n+n+s c |o,ctos dc ||
Passado Presente Planos Futuro Viso
Mercado/Consumidores/ Competidores/
Ambiente/ Indstria/ Negcios/ Ameaas/
Tendncias/ Objetivos/ Marcos/ Estratgia
Produtos/ Servios/ Aplicaes/
Habilidades/ Desempenho/
Caractersticas/ Componentes/
Processos/ Sistemas/ Plataformas/
Oportunidades/ Requisitos/ Riscos
Tecnologia/ Competncias/ Conhecimento
Propsito
(Know-why)
(Know-when)
(Know-how))
(Know-what)
Recursos
Outros recursos:
Habilidades/ Parcerias/ Finanas/
Fornecedores/ Instalaes/ Infra-estrutura/
Normas/ Cincia/ Projetos de P&D
Tempo
Figura 1 |caaoa gcnc||co +|+ concxio cnt|c |ccu|sos +|+ os ob,ct|vos
|ontc |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
|c +co|do com ||++| |+||u|| c ||obc|t (.00) o caaoa odc tc| v+||+s |o|m+s c busc+
|csondc| t|cs s|m|cs ucstocs (s|m|cs dc |oo| m+s nio dc |csondc|) uc |cv+m cm
cons|dc|+io um+ g+m+ dc c|scct|v+s t+|s como mc|c+do |oduto c tccno|og|+ 1) |+|+ ondc
cst+mos |ndo .) Ondc cst+mos +go|+ c !) Como c|cg+|cmos |+ (||gu|+ .)
Elias Lopes Jnior, Luiz Eduardo Tavares, Aloma Vernica Pessoa
286
Parc. Estrat. Braslia-DF v. 16 n. 33 p. 281-296 jul-dez 2011
Mercado
Produto
Tecnologia
Programas P&D
Pesquisa
Time
M1
T1
RD1 RD2
RD3 RD5
RD4
Investimento de capital/ nanas
Cadeia de suprimentos
RH/Competncias
RD6
T2
T3 T4
P2 P1 P3
P4
M2
Questes
fundamentais que os
roadmaps buscam
responder
Onde estamos
agora?
Como poderemos
chegar l?
Para onde
queremos ir?
Figura 2 Roteiro de caaoa para a integrao e alinhamento dos planos estratgicos.
Fonte: |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
Devido a essa flexibilidade em sua disposio, o TRM pode ser aplicado em diversos segmentos e
para os mais variados produtos/servios, tornando-se um atrativo para as empresas que desejam
fazer um planejamento em longo prazo. Segundo o Senai (2007), atualmente, alm dos caaoas
tecnolgicos, que so os mais comuns, tambm encontra-se referncias de caaoas para produtos,
polticas, cadeia de fornecedores, inovao, estratgias, competncias, entre outros campos.
Conforme Phaal, Farrukh e Probert (2001), a abordagem do caaoa tecnolgico muito
flexvel e seus produtos podem ser mais apropriados para diversos usos. Os autores examinaram
um conjunto de cerca de 40 caaoas e este estudo revelou uma srie de objetivos diferentes,
agrupados em oito grandes reas: 1) planejamento de produto, 2) servio/capacidade de
planejamento, 3) planejamento estratgico, 4) planejamento de longo alcance, 5) conhecimento
de planejamento de ativos, 6) programa de planejamento, 7) processo de planejamento, e 8)
planejamento da integrao.
Phaal, Farrukh e Probert (2001) tambm elencaram as diversas maneiras grficas que um
caaoa pode assumir, onde entre elas tem-se:
|caaoa Tecnolgico: proposta de uma mtrica para
levantamento de demandas e ofertas tecnolgicas
287
Parc. Estrat. Braslia-DF v. 16 n. 33 p. 281-296 jul-dez 2011
Mltiplas camadas: este o formato de roadmap de tecnologia mais utilizado e nele consta uma
srie de camadas, tais como tecnologia, produto e mercado. Este tipo de estrutura permite a
evoluo em cada camada a ser explorada, juntamente com as camadas dependentes, facilitando
a integrao entre as camadas (Figura 3);
Tempo
Meta
Caractersticas
do produto
Mdulo/
Componente
Processo de
Manufaturamento
Figura 3 |caaoa no formato de mltiplas camadas.
Fonte: |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
Barras: muitos caaoas so exibidos em forma de um conjunto de barras, em que cada uma
representa uma camada ou subcamada do roadmap. Este tipo de estrutura possui a vantagem
de simplificar e unificar as produes para facilitar comunicao e integrao como suporte ao
roadmap (Figura 4);
Tempo
Produtos:
reas
Tecnolgicas
1 2 Prx. Ger. Futuro
Figura 4 |caaoa no formato de barra.
Fonte: |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |ou+|oo +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
288
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
|cs+s cm +|guns c+sos os caaoas oocm sc| cx|cssos cm t+bc|+s |c|+c|on+noo tcmo
.esas ocscmcn|o |stc t|o oc +bo|o+gcm c +|t|cu|+|mcntc +ocu+oo +|+ s|tu+ocs onoc o
ocscmcn|o ooc sc| u+nt|||c+oo ou no c+so o+s +t|v|o+ocs cst+|cm +g|u+o+s cm c||ooos
oc tcmo cscc|||cos (||gu|+ )
Tempo
Ferramentas produtos &
evoluo desempenho
reas Tecnolgicas &
evoluo desempenho
Figura 5 |caaoa no |o|m+to oc mcs+s
|ontc |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
C|+||cos u+noo o ocscmcn|o oo |oouto ou tccno|og|+ ooc sc| u+nt|||c+oo o |o+om+
ooc sc| cx|csso como um s|m|cs g|+||co cm uc sio |c|tos no|m+|mcntc um +|+ c+o+
subc+m+o+ |ssc t|o oc g|+||co t+mbcm ooc sc| c|+m+oo oc cu|v+ oc cxc||cnc|+ (||gu|+ o)
Tempo
Desempenho
Tecnologia 1 Tecnologia 2 Futuro da Tecnologia
Produtos
Figura 6 |caaoa no |o|m+to g|+||cos
|ontc |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
|caaoa ccno|og|co |oost+ oc um+ mct||c+ +|+
|cv+nt+mcnto oc ocm+no+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
289
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
|c|cscnt+io |cto||c+ +|guns caaoas oocm ossu|| um+ cst|utu|+ m+|s c||+t|v+ com
|c|cscnt+ocs |cto||c+s +|+ comun|c+| + |ntcg|+io oc tccno|og|+ c |+nos ^s vczcs
mct+|o|+s sio us+o+s +|+ +o|+| os ob,ct|vos (||gu|+ )
Con|o|mc ||++| |+||u|| c ||obc|t (.001) + g+m+ oc oss|vc|s comb|n+ocs occo||cntcs oos t|os
oc caaoas comb|n+noo-sc |oos|ocs c t|os oc |o|m+tos v|su+||z+oos n+ ||gu|+ c ooc sc|
+|c|+|mcntc +t||bu|o+ |+|t+ oc no|m+s c|+|+s c +cc|tcs ou |otoco|os +|+ + su+ const|uio
|o cnt+nto cons|oc|+-sc uc cst+ |c||ctc t+mbcm + ncccss|o+oc oc +,ust+| o mctooo +|+ sc
+ocu+| + c+o+ s|tu+io cm tc|mos oc ||n+||o+oc oc ncgoc|o |ontcs oc |n|o|m+io cx|stcntcs
|ccu|sos o|son|vc|s ctc
Setores & produtos
reas tecnolgicas
Figura 7 |caaoa no |o|m+to |c|cscnt+ocs |cto||c+s
|ontc |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
Proposito
Genrico TRM
Planejamento
produto
Planejamento
capacitao
Planejamento
estratgico
Planejamento
longo prazo
Planejamento
recursos
Planejamento
programa
Planejamento
processo
Planejamento
integrao
Formato
Multiplas
camadas
Barras
Tabelas
Simples
camadas
Infogrco
Texto
Fluxo
Grcos
Figura 8 |os oc caaoa |oos|io c |o|m+to
|ontc |naa' |aan e |coe: ...)
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |ou+|oo +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
290
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
Os caaoas ncm scm|c sc cnc+|x+m c||c|t+mcntc ocnt|o o+s c+tcgo||+s |ocnt|||c+o+s
n+ ||gu|+ c c oocm contc| c|cmcntos oc m+|s oc um t|o t+nto cm tc|mos oc ||n+||o+oc c
|o|m+to |csu|t+noo cm |o|m+s ||b||o+s (||^^| |^||||| ||O||| .001) ||++| |+||u||
c ||obc|t (.00o) ostc||o|mcntc ocscnvo|vc|+m um cstuoo com o ocscnvo|v|mcnto oc um+
|c||+mcnt+ oc gc|cnc|+mcnto oc c+t+|ogo cm uc + co||c|t+ ocss+s |c||+mcnt+s |ocnt|||cou
u+t|o t|os gcnc||cos oc |c||+mcnt+ m+t||z m+t||zcs g|c||+s t+bc|+s c c|||s m+|c+oos
|c +co|oo com + +no|+ |+t|on+| |+bo|+to||cs (.00) os |occssos oo caaoa tccno|og|co
oocm sc| c|+bo|+oos cm t|cs |+scs cm uc + ||mc||+ |+sc cnvo|vc + +t|v|o+oc |c||m|n+| +
scguno+ |+sc co||csonoc +o ocscnvo|v|mcnto oo caaoa tccno|og|co c + tc|cc||+ |+sc o|z
|csc|to +o +com+n|+mcnto c ut|||z+io oo mctooo
FASE I: Atividade preliminar
1. Satisfazer as condies essenciais
|cccss|o+oc oo cnvo|v|mcnto c +|t|c|+io oc o||c|cntcs g|uos (o||c|cntcs c|scct|v+s)
|nvo|vc| mcmb|os o+ |noust||+ scus c||cntcs c |o|ncccoo|cs govc|no c +c+ocm|+
|ost|+| +os cnvo|v|oos uc um |o+om+ c ncccss+||o +|+ +tcnoc| ncccss|o+ocs
2. Fornecer liderana / patrocnio
|st+bc|cc|oo ocv|oo +o tcmo c cs|o|o cx|g|oo c|o caaoa
^ ||oc|+n+ ocvc sc| o||uno+ oo g|uo uc cst+ |m|cmcnt+noo o +tu+| caaoa
3. Definir o mbito e limites para o roadmap tecnolgico
C+|+nt|| uc o contcxto +|+ o caaoa |o| cscc|||c+oo
C+|+nt|| uc + v|sio cst+ co||ct+ c uc o |o+om+ ooc suo|t+-|+
|scc|||c+| o mb|to c o +|c+ncc oo caaoa
FASE II: Desenvolvimento do plano tecnolgico
1. Identificar o produto" que ser o foco do roadmap
O +sso c||t|co oo ocscnvo|v|mcnto oo |o+om+ c c|cg+| + um conscnso cnt|c os
+|t|c|+ntcs oc u+|s sio os |ooutos ncccss+||os +|+ o caaoa
|ccnocnoo o+ com|cx|o+oc oo |oouto cx|stcm mu|tos comoncntcs c n|vc|s cm
uc o caaoa |cc|s+ m+ntc| o |oco
|caaoa ccno|og|co |oost+ oc um+ mct||c+ +|+
|cv+nt+mcnto oc ocm+no+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
291
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
2. Identificar os requisitos sistmicos crticos e seus objetivos
|o|nccc| + cst|utu|+ tot+| +|+ o |o+om+ c sio os n|vc|s m+|s c|cv+oos uc sc |c|+c|on+m
com + tccno|og|+
3. Especificar as principais reas da tecnologia
|st+s sio +s +|c+s m+|s |mo|t+ntcs o|s oocm +,uo+| no +|c+ncc oos |cu|s|tos
s|stcm|cos c||t|cos +|+ o |oouto oo caaoa
4. Especificar os direcionadores da tecnologia e suas metas
|stcs o||cc|on+oo|cs o+ tccno|og|+ sio v+||+vc|s c|uc|+|s uc ||io octc|m|n+| u+|s
+|tc|n+t|v+s tccno|og|c+s sc|io sc|cc|on+o+s
^s mct+s oos o||cc|on+oo|cs oc v+|o| cscc|||c+m como + +|tc|n+t|v+ tccno|og|c+ v|+vc|
|cc|s+ cst+| |+b|| +|+ ocscmcn|+| su+ |unio + um+ octc|m|n+o+ o+t+
5. Identificar as alternativas tecnolgicas e suas linhas de tempo
|m+ mct+ o|||c|| ooc |cuc|c| +v+nos cm mu|t+s tccno|og|+s
|m+ tccno|og|+ ooc |m+ct+| mu|t||+s mct+s
6. Recomendar a alternativas tecnolgicas que devem ser perseguidas
^|tc|n+t|v+s tccno|og|c+s v+||+m cm tc|mos oc custo |og|+m+s c ocscmcn|o
7. Criar o relatrio roadmap tecnolgico
|ocnt|||c+io c ocsc||io oc c+o+ +|c+ tccno|og|c+ c su+ +tu+| os|io
|+to|cs c||t|cos cm uc scm c|cs o caaoa ooc||+ |+||+|
^|c+s nio +b|+ng|o+s c|o caaoa
|ccomcno+ocs tccn|c+s
|ccomcno+ocs oc |m|cmcnt+io
FASE III: Seguimento da atividade
1. Crtica e validao do roadmap tecnolgico
O |o,cto |cc|s+ sc| |cv|sto c||t|c+oo c v+||o+oo
^s +|tc|n+t|v+s oc tccno|og|+ sio scns+t+s
|st+ |+|t+noo +|gum+ tccno|og|+ |mo|t+ntc
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |ou+|oo +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
292
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
O caaoa cst+ c|+|o c com|ccns|vc| +|+ +s csso+s uc nio cstio cnvo|v|o+s no
|occsso oc ocscnvo|v|mcnto oo |o,cto
2. Desenvolver um plano de implementao
^t|+vcs o+s +|tc|n+t|v+s tccno|og|c+s |ccomcno+o+s
|cvc sc| um ou m+|s |o,ctos uc ocvc|io sc| ocscnvo|v|oos b+sc+oos n+s +|tc|n+t|v+s
tccno|og|c+s sc|cc|on+o+s
3. Reviso e atualizao
|caaoas tccno|og|cos ocvcm sc| const+ntcmcntc |cv|stos c +tu+||z+oos
O c|c|o oc |cv|sio tcm uc sc| b+sc+oo no c|c|o n+tu|+| oc |+nc,+mcnto o+ cm|cs+ ou
b+sc+oo m+|s +|o||+o+mcntc n+ |oo|io cm uc + tccno|og|+ v+| muo+noo
2.2. Prospeco de informaes
Con|o|mc |+yc||o|| (.00c) cstuoos oc |osccio const|tucm + |c||+mcnt+ b+s|c+ +|+ +
|uno+mcnt+io nos |occssos oc tom+o+ oc occ|sio cm o|vc|sos n|vc|s n+ soc|co+oc mooc|n+
O |oos|to oos cstuoos oc |osccio nio c ocsvcno+| o |utu|o m+s s|m oc||nc+| c tcst+|
v|socs oss|vc|s c ocsc,+vc|s +|+ uc sc,+m |c|t+s |o,c csco||+s uc cont||bu||io o+ |o|m+ m+|s
os|t|v+ oss|vc| n+ const|uio oo |utu|o
|st+s |n|o|m+ocs oocm +,uo+| + gc|+| o||t|c+s oc |ongo |+zo cst|+tcg|+s c |+nos uc
o|socm c||cunstnc|+s |utu|+s |ov+vc|s c ocsc,+o+s cm um cst|c|to +||n|+mcnto
O ocscnvo|v|mcnto o+s tccno|og|+s o+ |n|o|m+io |ovoc+ + ncccss|o+oc oc +umcnto o+
comct|t|v|o+oc o| +|tc o+s o|g+n|z+ocs c +|scs |ssc +umcnto nos n|vc|s comct|t|vos |+z
com uc + +ntcc|+io o+s muo+n+s tccno|og|c+s sc to|nc um |+to| |mo|t+ntc |cv+noo + uc
+ c++c|o+oc oc um+ cm|cs+ |noust||+ ou +|s cm |ocnt|||c+| nov+s tccno|og|+s c tom+| +ocs
+|o||+o+s sc,+ oc v|t+| |mo|tnc|+ (|| ||||z ||O||| 1)
^|cm o|sso + muo+n+ tccno|og|c+ ooc sc| v|st+ como um+ |csost+ s o|vc|s+s |o|+s uc
|mu|s|on+m +s tcnocnc|+s tccno|og|c+s n+ u+| oocm sc| o||t|cos soc|+|s cconom|c+s ou oc
n+tu|cz+ tccno|og|c+ (|| ||||z ||O||| 1)
Out|+ |mo|tnc|+ o+ ut|||z+io oos mctooos oc |osccio tccno|og|c+ c uc c|+ ooc
ocmonst|+| um+ +t|tuoc |c-+t|v+ no scnt|oo oc uc + busc+ o| |n|o|m+ocs +cc|c+ o+s
muo+n+s oss|vc|s no |utu|o ou ,+ cm cu|so const|tu| o| s| so um+ |o|m+ oc |c+|+io +|+
t+|s muo+n+s (|^|||O|| .00c)
|caaoa ccno|og|co |oost+ oc um+ mct||c+ +|+
|cv+nt+mcnto oc ocm+no+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
293
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
^s o|c|t+s c ocm+no+s tccno|og|c+s o+s cm|cs+s sio oc||n|o+s + +|t|| o+ octc|m|n+io oc |+to|cs
c||t|cos oc m+|o| |m+cto sob|c + mc||o||+ oc c||c|cnc|+ u+||o+oc c o+ comct|t|v|o+oc oo scto|
Contuoo o |utu|o nio ooc sc| |co|to oc m+nc||+ octc|m|n|st|c+ m+s cx|stc + oss|b|||o+oc oc
sc +ntcc|+| o |utu|o tccno|og|co gc|+noo +ss|m v+nt+gcm comct|t|v+
|caaoa c um+ |c||+mcnt+ |oc+| +|+ t|+t+| +s |n|o|m+ocs co|ct+o+s o|s c|m|tcm |+nc,+|
c cxccut+| um |+no +|+ +t|ng|| octc|m|n+oo ob,ct|vo o+ mcsm+ m+nc||+ uc um m++
|ooov|+||o c|m|tc + um v|+,+ntc occ|o|| cnt|c |ot+s +|tc|n+t|v+s +|+ +|c+n+| um ocst|no
|o|t+nto o mctooo c um+ |c||+mcnt+ oc +o|o + um+ cu|c cnc+||cg+o+ oo ocscnvo|v|mcnto
oc um |oouto |o|ncccnoo o mctooo +|+ ||g+| su+ cst|+tcg|+ s +ocs |utu|+s c |nco|o|+|
cx||c|t+mcntc um |+no +|+ uc + |n||+cst|utu|+ +s comctcnc|+s c +s tccno|og|+s ncccss+||+s
cstc,+m o|son|vc|s no momcnto +ocu+oo (CO|||O ct +| .00)
3. Mtodo
^ mctooo|og|+ us+o+ n+ c|+bo|+io ocst+ csu|s+ +b|+ngcu um+ |cv|sio o+ ||tc|+tu|+ n+c|on+|
c |ntc|n+c|on+| o|son|vc| sob|c o tcm+ +|+ + const|uio oo |c|c|cnc|+| tco||co +|cm oc vc||||c+|
os |nst|umcntos c |c||+mcnt+s ut|||z+oos cm cstuoos scmc||+ntcs
^ c|+bo|+io oos |o|mu|+||os |o| b+sc+o+ cm cstuoos +ntc||o|cs uc t|+t+|+m oo |cv+nt+mcnto oc
|n|o|m+ocs tccno|og|c+s (|^||| .00 ||||O |^|^|^||| || ||||VO|V||||O
|CO|O||CO | OC|^| .00 |||O|| .00)
Como |o|m+ oc obtc| |n|o|m+ocs c oss|vc|s |csonocntcs |c+||zou-sc um wo||s|o com
ob,ct|vo oc |cun|| cscc|+||st+s oc o|vc|sos scgmcntos +|+ uc cstcs uocsscm +||mcnt+| +
|c||+mcnt+ oo caaoao tccno|og|co |m scgu|o+ sc|+ cm|cg+o+ + tccn|c+ |c||| uc
cst+bc|ccc um+ comun|c+io cnt|c os cscc|+||st+s c oss|b|||t+ um+ nov+ consu|t+ onoc os
|csonocntcs oocm obsc|v+| su+s |csost+s cm |c|+io +o con,unto oos |csonocntcs
(|^|||zz| ct +| .004)
4. Resultados nais e concluses
Os |o|mu|+||os c|+bo|+oos |o|+m |c+|+oos +|+ |unc|on+|cm +t|+vcs oc |ntc||+cc c|ct|on|c+
cm tcmo |c+| c|+ |ntc|nct c cstio o|son|vc|s no s|tc o+ |coc oc |uc|cos oc |nov+io
ccno|og|c+ oo Cc+|+ (|cocn|t-C|)
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |ou+|oo +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
294
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
O ucst|on+||o uc t|+t+ oo |cv+nt+mcnto oc |n|o|m+ocs sob|c o mc|c+oo cst+ o|son|vc| c ooc
sc| +ccss+oo +t|+vcs cm n:://...eaeo:.e.coo/aes:coac/ao'.c/esasa_a=..
O |o|mu|+||o uc cst+ scnoo |ccnc||oo c|+s cm|cs+s busc+ |n|o|m+ocs oc mooo +
cont||bu|| com + const|uio oc v|socs oc |utu|o +|+ os o|vc|sos scgmcntos +|cm oc +||n|+| os
ob,ct|vos o+ +|c+ oc c|cnc|+ c tccno|og|+ com +s ocm+no+s c ncccss|o+ocs oo mc|c+oo
|stc |o|mu|+||o busc+ +|cm oc |n|o|m+ocs oc |ocnt|||c+io oo |csonocntc como scto|
cm|cs+ cscc|+||st+ c+|go ctc |n|o|m+ocs u+nto +os +mb|cntcs o|g+n|z+c|on+| |nst|tuc|on+|
tccno|og|co c comct|t|vo |cv+noo cm cons|oc|+io t|cs c||ooos s|tu+io +tu+| s|tu+io cm
.01o c s|tu+io cm .0.0
Out|+s |n|o|m+ocs uc sc busc+ ncstc |o|+m u+nto s |nov+ocs tccno|og|c+s |nc|cmcnt+|s
u+nto +os |ooutos |occssos sc|v|os c o|g+n|z+c|on+|s +mbcm sio so||c|t+o+s |n|o|m+ocs
sob|c os |+to|cs c||t|cos oc c+o+ scgmcnto c su+s |n||ucnc|+s
O out|o |o|mu|+||o c cxc|us|vo +|+ |o|csso|cs c cst+ o|son|vc| cm n:://...eaeo:.e.co
o/.coe:eo.as/. |stc ucst|on+||o tcm o| ob,ct|vo |cv+nt+| +s comctcnc|+s oos |o|csso|cs
o+s |Cs +|+ +ux|||+| n+ tom+o+ oc occ|sio o+s un|vc|s|o+ocs v|s+noo o m+|o| |nccnt|vo
csu|s+ c |nov+io +ss|m como um+ m+|o| +|ox|m+io cnt|c un|vc|s|o+oc c soc|co+oc
|cst+ |o|m+ o |o|mu|+||o t|+t+ oc ucstocs sob|c os v|ncu|os |nst|tuc|on+|s +s ||nc|+|s
|oouocs c|cnt|||c+s os ||nc|+|s g|uos oc cstuoo c |o,ctos cxc||cnc|+s |o||ss|on+|s +|cm
oc um+ +|c+ uc t|+t+ o+ +uto-+v+||+io oo |o|csso|c cm uc contcm ucstocs u+nto s
+t|tuocs con|cc|mcntos |+b|||o+ocs comctcnc|+s c oss|vc|s o|c|t+ oc sc|v|os
Conc|u|u-sc o|t+nto uc o mctooo e.noc'c, |caaoao c um+ |c||+mcnt+ ut|| oc
|+nc,+mcnto cm um +mb|cntc c+o+ vcz m+|s comct|t|vo cm u+|uc| uc sc,+ o scgmcnto
|m |occsso bcm succo|oo oo || c |uno+mcnt+| +|+ |ocnt|||c+| o| os mot|vos o+
c|+bo|+io oc |otc||os c oc como c|cs sc|io ut|||z+oos
O mctooo e.noc'c, |caaoao c cscc|+|mcntc |mo|t+ntc +|+ coo|ocn+| o
ocscnvo|v|mcnto oc v+||+s tccno|og|+s cscc|+|mcntc cm v+||os |o,ctos |st+ coo|ocn+io
c mu|to ut|| o|s cst+ csu|s+ ||o+ com tccno|og|+s c csu|s+s uc cstio |c|+c|on+o+s
o||ct+mcntc com +s comctcnc|+s csscnc|+|s o+ |nst|tu|io
|o|t+nto +t|+vcs ocsscs |o|mu|+||os ooc-sc |ocnt|||c+| +v+||+| c sc|cc|on+| +|tc|n+t|v+s
tccno|og|c+s uc oocm sc| us+o+s +|+ so|uc|on+| ocm+no+s oc mc|c+oo
|caaoa ccno|og|co |oost+ oc um+ mct||c+ +|+
|cv+nt+mcnto oc ocm+no+s c o|c|t+s tccno|og|c+s
295
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
Referncias
^||||C| | | Roadmapping Convergence Commc|c|+||z|ng +no |+n+g|ng t|c |cw Convc|g|ng
cc|no|og|cs \o||s|o ctcmbc| .. .00!
^|||^|| C C |O|| | | ||V^ ^ | | ^||c+io oo cc|no|ogy |o+om+|ng cm cm|cs+
+utomob|||st|c+ Anais V |mos|o oc cxcc|cnc|+ cm gcstio c tccno|og|+ |Cc |cscnoc |C .00c
|^||| Arranjo produtivo local metalmecnico do Esprito Santo otcnc|+| oc |o|ncc|mcnto c o+
ocm+no+ V|to||+ |^||| .00 ||son|vc| cm ...oaoaesco'oe.coo/oeoa^a'/es:aacs/
ac.aoeo:cs/|s:aac_C|/|C_/oa'a/. ^ccsso cm .!;0;.010
||^| ||| | |O||^ | |^V|| ^ ||O||| | |^|||||| oo|s |o| cc|no|ogy
|+n+gcmcnt ^n ^c+ocm|c |c|scct|vc Technovation Vo| 1 n c 41-4.o 1
||^ O | C^|C|^ | | Technology roadmapping t|c |ntcg|+t|on o| st|+tcg|c |+nn|ng |o|
comct|t|vcncss |o|t|+no ||C|| - |o|t|+no |ntc|n+t|on+| Con|c|cncc on |+n+gcmcnt +no
cc|no|ogy 1c
CO|||O C | ^|O | | ^|O | | ||||O\ ||||O | C+m|n|os +|+ o ocscnvo|v|mcnto
cm |osccio tccno|og|c+ cc|no|ogy |o+om+|ng um o||+| sob|c |o|m+tos c |occssos
Parcerias Estratgicas ||+s|||+ v .1 1-.!4 .00
|| ||||z C ||O||| C \ | cc|no|og|c+| t||c+t +no oo|tun|ty +sscssmcnt Technological
Forecasting and Social Change V o1 .1-.!4 1
||||^ | C|||C | C |||^ | | ^ |^O ||O | |||||O|| | | | CO^ ||||O| |
| C ^||c+io oo |ctooo || n+ |st|utu|+io oo ||+nc,+mcnto |st|+tcg|co oc |ovos ||ooutos
cm um+ |m|cs+ ||+s||c||+ oo cto| oc |ntc|nct |ovc| Anais 1! |o|n+o+ |+c|on+| oc |n|c|+io
C|cnt|||c+ .00o ||o||+noo||s (||C) ^n+|s;|csumos o+ c+ |cun|io ^nu+| o+ ||C .00o
C^|V|| | |o+om+|ng + |+ct|t|onc|s uo+tc Technological Forecasting & Social Change n 1
101-10! .004
||||O |^|^|^||| || ||||VO|V||||O |CO|O||CO | OC|^| Identificao de gargalos
tecnolgicos da agricultura familiar subs|o|os c o||ct||zcs +|+ um+ o||t|c+ ub||c+ |c|+to||o ! o
|occsso oc |nov+io tccno|og|c+ n+ |noust||+ oc m+u|n+s c cu|+mcntos +g||co|+s oo |+|+n+
Cu||t|b+ ||^||| .00 c
|^|||zz| C | |^C||O | z^C|||\|Cz | ^|^|^ | | | ^ |osccio tccno|og|c+ cm
cnc|g|+ c + csu|s+ c ocscnvo|v|mcnto no ||+s|| c|cmcntos +|+ um cst|+tcg|+ C+m|n+s |
Energy Discussion Paper n .o4.;04 .004
|||+s |ocs |un|o| |u|z |ou+|oo +v+|cs ^|om+ Vc|on|c+ |csso+
296
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v 1o n !! .c1-.o ,u|-ocz .011
|^|||O|| z | V | |m+ ^n+||sc ob|c os |stuoos oc ||osccio ccno|og|c+ Cadernos de
Prospeco v 1 n 1 - .00c
||^^| | |^||||| C | | ||O||| | | Technology Roadmapping ||n||ng tcc|no|ogy |csou|ccs to
bus|ncss ob,cct|vcs Ccnt|c |o| cc|no|ogy |+n+gcmcnt |n|vc|s|ty o| C+mb||ogc .001
||^^| | |^||||| C | | ||O||| | | Developing a Technology Roadmapping System
||occco|ngs o| t|c .00 ||C|| |o|t|+no .00
||^^| | |^||||| C | | ||O||| | | cc|no|ogy |+n+gcmcnt oo|s Concct |cvc|omcnt
+no ^||c+t|on Technovation Vo| .o !!o-!44 .00o
^|||^ |^|O|^| |^|O|^O||| Fundamentals of technology roadmapping ||son|vc| cm
|tt;;wwws+no|+gov;|o+om+;|omc|tm ^ccsso cm .c;04;.010
||^| |c+|t+mcnto |cg|on+| oo |+|+n+ Rotas Estratgicas para o futuro paranaense |o+om+|ng
oc |ooutos oc consumo - .01 Cu||t|b+ ||^|;|| .00
|||O|| | | ^n+||sc o|+gnost|c+ c |oscct|v+ o+ c+oc|+ |oout|v+ oc cnc|g|+ oc b|om+ss+ oc o||gcm
||o|cst+| no |+n+|to su| oc +nt+ C+t+||n+ (Tese - Doutorado em Engenharia Florestal) Cu||t|b+
|n|vc|s|o+oc |coc|+| oo |+|+n+ .00 1!.
O|z^ | C||||||| ^ | |O||C|| C | ||O|O | C |||C|^||| | ^ mctooo|og|+
|o+om+|ng como |c||+mcnt+ oc +o|o +|+ |o|m+|uio c |m|cmcnt+io oc cst|+tcg|+s Anais
C|ob+| |o|um ^mc||c+ |+t|n+ .00c Cu||t|b+ C|ob+| |o|um ^mc||c+ |+t|n+ Cu||t|b+ ||^| .00c
v 1 0-0o
\|||^|| | |cC||| \ |oto|o|+s tcc|no|ogy |o+om+ |occss Research Management Vo| !0
|o 1c
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
Rodolpho von lhering, o pai da piscicultura
*
' |stc +|t|go |o| ub||c+oo n+ |cv|st+ ConV|vc| oo ||OC;||| cm outub|o .oo, |umc|o e O ccu|o oo ||OC
|m oos |concs o+ ||sto||+ oo |c+|t+mcnto |+c|on+| oc Ob|+s Cont|+ + cc+ (||OC) |ooo|-
|o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+ C|++s + scu t|+b+||o c|cnt|co mct|cu|oso scu cs|||to
oc ||oc|+n+ c + um+ cu|c oc co|+bo|+oo|cs |mbu|oos oc um scnt|oo oc m|ssio os +uocs c
out|os m+n+nc|+|s no|ocst|nos +|cm oc m+ntc|cm su+s cscc|cs n+t|v+s g+n|+|+m cscc|cs +o-
vcnt|c|+s v|no+s oos ||os +m+zon|cos |ooo||o Von ||c||ng n+sccu no ||o C|+noc oo u| cm +;
oc ,u||o oc +ss, c cm io |+u|o |cz-sc b+c|+|c| cm C|cnc|+s c |ct|+s cm +,o+ |ooo||o oco|-
cou-sc oc co|o c +|m+ +o cstuoo o+ |+un+ b|+s||c||+ c so|uio oos |ob|cm+s o+ |sc|cu|tu|+
|c|co||cnoo tooo o ||+s|| c+t+|ogou too+s +s cscc|cs b|+s||c||+s +ssoc|+noo nomcs c|cnt|cos
+os nomcs ou|+|cs o+oos +os +n|m+|s cm c+o+ |cg|io C|cgou + +|cnoc| o tu|-gu+|+n| ob,c-
t|v+noo con|ccc| mc||o| +s |+|zcs ct|mo|og|c+s oos nomcs oos +n|m+|s |+sccu +ss|m um+ ob|+
|mo|t+ntc ||c|on+||o oos ^n|m+|s oo ||+s|| ub||c+o+ c|+ |n|vc|s|o+oc oc ||+s|||+ (|n|)
|co|cou-sc sob|ctuoo +o cstuoo oos c|xcs c||+noo no ||+s|| o c|v|o oc ||sc|cu|tu|+ |cz |nu-
mc|+s cxc||cnc|+s +|+ conscgu|| + |ccuno+io |n v|t|o oc c|xcs oc +gu+ oocc com o ob,ct|vo
oc obtc| +|cv|nos cm g|+noc u+nt|o+oc +|+ o |covo+mcnto oc ||os +uocs c b+||+gcns |m
+,,| ||c||ng c||ou c ocscnvo|vcu o |occsso +|t|c|+| oc |c|oouio oc c|xcs con|cc|oo como
||os+io O |csu|t+oo c + |mcns+ |oouio +tu+| oc c|xcs nos +uocs +om|n|st|+oos c|o
||OC um+ |ontc |ncst|m+vc| oc |otc|n+s no scm|+||oo
|ooo||o c+sou-sc com |s+bc| oc ^zcvcoo Von ||c||ng c tcvc ou+s ||+s |+||+ c |o|+ Von
||c||ng uc csc|cvcu o ||v|o C|cnc|+ c |c|cz+ nos c|tocs oo |o|ocstc + mcmo||+ o+ Com|s-
|cmo||+
|cmo||+
.,s
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
sio oc ||sc|cu|tu|+ uc c|co||cu os sc|tocs no|ocst|nos cnt|c +,,. c +,,, ob|+ uc + |cv|s-
t+ ConV|vc| ncst+ co|io c|o Ccntcn+||o oo ||OC ub||c+ ||+gmcntos como |ct|+tos oc
tcmos |c|o|cos
1. Fragmentos de Cincia e belezas nos sertes do Nordeste
(por Dora von lhering)
|ossos ccn+||os c|+m os m+gn|cos |st+oos oo |o|ocstc c |o|tc ocstc +|s |mcnso |ooo||o
Von ||c||ng mcu +| c|c+v+ um+ com|ssio oo govc|no nos +nos |oos oc +,,. + +,,, |m
g|uo |ctc|ogcnco const|tu|oo oc mco|cos c c|cnt|st+s +|guns |cccm-|o|m+oos v|noos oc io
|+u|o ||o oc |+nc||o c oc out|os ontos b|+s||c||os cnm c|c|os oc cntus|+smo c v|b|+noo +o
cn||cnt+| um ocst|no o||c|cntc o+uc|c oo +s|+|to o+s g|+nocs c|o+ocs |u|tos c|cnt|st+s conv|-
o+oos ou uc sc o|c|cc|+m +|+ un|| scus con|cc|mcntos +os cstuoos + uc + Com|ssio ccn|-
c+ oc ||sc|cu|tu|+ sc |oun|+ |c+||z+| Como cst+g|+||os c|cg+v+m c|son+||o+ocs oc o|vc|sos
|+mos o+ b|o|og|+ o+ |u|o+ oc v+||os +|scs out|os oos |st+oos |n|oos C+n+o+ c +|no+ oo
|+io oc |+v+ ctc +|+ um+ c|m+ncnc|+ oc |ntc|cmb|o cu|tu|+| uc sc ocst|n+v+ + csu|-
s+s m+|s cscc|c+mcntc s o+ |sc|cu|tu|+ |moss|vc| |gno|+| tooo o munoo oc ||ucz+s uc
+ tc||+ o|c|cc|+ n+ su+ |cn|tuoc oos t|cs |c|nos oo so|o +m|+mcntc g|+t|c+oos como o sio os
ocstc ||+s|| ||v||cg|+oo |o m+|s comun|+ o u+o|o o+ C|| um ocscn||st+ oc nomc+o+
^|||coo |o|n| um ,o|n+||st+ ||ust|c ^m+ocu ^m+|+| || O |otog|+|o cscc|+||z+oo +|+ o
oocumcnt+||o m+|s com|cto oc noss+s +no+n+s uc| oo onto oc v|st+ o+ o|+ o+ |+un+ c
oos m|nc||os +|no+ tio ocscon|cc|oos c|+ m+|o| +|tc oos nossos ||mios oo u| c|+ o |o||o
|ooo||o Von ||c||ng |+v|+ +|no+ m|n|+ mic c cu como scc|ct+||+s vo|unt+||+ um+ |ono|+||+
out|+ coz|n|c||os sc|vcntcs c moto||st+s
ooos un|oos no +|i oc co||g|| +o m+x|mo m+tc||+| +|+ + |sc|cu|tu|+ c o+oos mcsmo |o|+
oos cstuoos b|o|og|cos +ss|m uc| o+ mus|c+ (c | |s+bc| c|+ cx|m|+ |oss|on+| cntcnocnoo
+ |unoo o +ssunto) uc| oos t|os |+b|tos toog|++ tuoo o uc |o|m+ssc um ++n|+oo gc|+|
ocst+ tc||+ tio g|+noc tio ||c+ c bc|+ cm tooos os +scctos c t+mbcm tio o|v|o|o+ n+ ctnog|+-
+ c|+ su+ |mcns|oio
^s ||mc||+s cx|o|+ocs comc+|+m cm |c|n+mbuco |st+oo uc +t|+vcss+mos oc ont+ +
ont+ con|cccnoo ocsoc |ogo + sc||c oc |cg|ocs bcm o|st|nt+s oo |o|ocstc o +bu|c||o |+-
n+|to oc ouc+ c|cv+io gc|+|mcntc +|cnoso o|uc +|no+ c cont|nu+io oc |+|+s + vcgct+-
io c |+stc||+ com oucos +|bustos cnt|c c|cs + m+ng+bc||+ oc ||utos s+bo|osos sc|v|noo +|+
ooccs comot+s x+|ocs c v|n|os |io os con|cccnoo c|u+mos uns +|no+ vc|ocs c o t|+vo
nos oc|xou oc boc+ |cs+
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
.,,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|co|s cnt|+mos c|+ C++t|ng+ (c++ m+to t|ng+ c|+|o |+|o) |cg|io comost+ oc cuc-
n+s +|vo|cs uc sc ocscm oc su+s ouc+s |o||+s ou|+ntc +s |o|ong+o+s scc+s c uc comumcn-
tc c ||c+ oc cs|n|c||os c+ct+cc+s b|omc||+s |+ss+mos oo C+|||| v+||co+oc oc c++t|ng+ com
vcgct+io t+mbcm |+|+ mcnos +sc|+ o|cm |gu+|mcntc t||stc Como sio ocsc|t+s css+s |+g+s'
|oo+noo oc c+||o ou|+ntc oo|s ou t|cs o|+s nio v|+mos v|v+ +|m+ ^ monoton|+ c|+ +cn+s uc-
b|+o+ o| bc|+s +vcs ++g+|os +zu|ocs c||u|tos cm b+noos g+v|ocs oc o|tc +|t+nc||o c um
scm numc|o oc +ss+|os co|o||oos mu|tos c+|+ngos (|+g+|tos vc|oc-+zu|+oo) |no|cns|vos +ss|m
como out|os +n|m+|s uc |cs|stcm + tuoo ncsscs scm| ocsc|tos
|+mos oo ^g|cstc c+mo s||vcst|c |ust|co cnt|c + m+t+ c + c++t|ng+ oc so|o co|cgoso +o
+g|cstc-+c++t|ng+oo m+|s scco c +|cnosos +||oo t+mbcm c oc vcgct+io csc+ss+ cgu|mos
c|+ |cg|io oo C+||+sco cscc|c oc m+t+ +ni |+|+s +s |+nt+s m+|s +|t+s c u+sc ncn|um vc|-
oc como scm|c os |+mos ou|os csgu|os csto|||c+oos O tc||cno mu|to ob|c c |ost|| c|c|o
oc co|+s + vcgct+io m+|s +bc|t+ cn|cz+o+ +sc|+ c cs|n|cnt+ |o| oo uc + o+ c++t|ng+
|ss+s +|s+gcns tcm +s ton+||o+ocs oo +m+|c|o c oo c|nz+ c|+|o +o cscu|o C|+m+m oc zon+
|o|ocst|n+ + tooo cssc con,unto oc so|o |m|oout|vo +sso|+oo c|o c||m+ csc+|o+ntc uc m+|s
t+|oc vc||c+||+mos sc| o com|cxo oc tooo cssc v+sto tc|||to||o ^b|sm+oos o| too+ css+ o-
b|cz+ oc tc||+ c|cg+mos +o c||oo zon+ oc c+|o| +|no+ m+|s +|ocntc oc c+mos cstc|c|s uc
c + t|+ns|io cnt|c + c++t|ng+ c o c+|||| c sc |cst+ +cn+s m+s g|+nocmcntc +o |+nt|o oo +|-
gooio oo mcsmo nomc cons|oc|+oo como o mc||o| c|+ b|+ m+|s |ong+ c |o|tc |oo+v+mos
scm|c com +|+o+s nos ontos onoc o| m||+g|c +|no+ |ouvcssc +|gum+ +gu+ | scgu|+m-sc
os o|+s c os mcscs cm ,o|n+o+s cst+|+ntcs uc |ocu|+v+mos +mcn|z+| como o bom |umo| c
c|cg+v+mos mcsmo + nos o|vc|t|| com +s nov|o+ocs os cmb+|+os |m|cv|stos com tuoo tio
v+||+oo c ocs|gu+| ncsscs ccn+||os com|ct+mcntc o||c|cntcs +|+ + gcntc oo u| ou +|+ os oc
|+g+s cst|+ngc||+s
|c |cc||c |omos v|s|t+| O||no+ cnc+nt+oo|+ tc||+ o+ oon+t+||+ oc |u+|tc Coc||o uc |unoou
css+ c|o+oc c + V||+ oc |g+|+u onoc |+ um+ o+s m+|s +nt|g+s const|uocs oo ||+s|| o Convcnto
c |g|c,+ oc +nto ^nton|o s|ngc|os c g|+c|osos n+ +|u|tctu|+ co|on|+| o+t+noo oc +,,, |st|vc-
mos no mun|c||o oc |+u||st+ con|cc|oo c|+ g|+noc |noust||+ tcxt|| |+b||c+s uc cm io |+u|o
c ||o tcm +s |+mos+s C+s+s |c|n+mbuc+n+s c scgu|mos o| um scm numc|o oc cucnos o-
vo+oos C|cg+mos c nos oct|vcmos cm C+|+n|uns const|u|o+ num m+c|o uc +|c+n+ m+|s
oc +ooom oc +|tu|+ c onoc sio ||cucntcs +s tcmc|+tu|+s oc ..C O ovo +|| c m+|s |o|tc c
co|+oo c uc|x+-sc oo |||o oo+ css+ +|c+ s|tu+o+ + |stc o+ csc+|+ o+ |o|bo|cm+ usu||u| oc
|uv|os|o+oc +buno+ntc ^s |c||+s ocss+ |cg|io tcm |+|tu|+ oc |cgumcs tubc|cu|os ||utos bo+
c+|nc oc g+oo c ||no+s o|cs o ncss+s +|+gcns goz+mos o+s oc||c|+s oo c||m+ ||csco +s c|uv+s
c + um|o+oc sio m+|s const+ntcs
|cmo||+
,oo
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|um+noo +|+ o |o|tc +|c+n+mos C+|u+|u bo+ c|o+oc t+mbcm oc tcmc|+tu|+ +mcn+ |n-
u+nto os |omcns t|+b+||+v+m nos scus cstuoos + |+ c ||+ oo C|c|c v|vc|+m cxc||cnc|+s
o||c|cntcs n+ bon|t+ |+t||z |+vcnoo um |+|mon|o occ|o|o+s +|cg|+|+m +s m|ss+s c o c|o
um+ no tcc|+oo c + out|+ c+nt+noo cnt|cos o+ |g|c,+ m+|s con|cc|oos oc tooos' | tcnoo o
nosso +|t|st+ |o|n| c sc o|c|cc|oo +|+ |nt+| um g|+noc +|nc| no +o|o +mb+s ous+|+m
como | cn|o|+ c |+||+ |+o+|cn+ |cst|c V|t+||no o |+moso cscu|to| no b+||o nos |o|
+|cscnt+oo c o| uns o|+s |cz +|tc oo g|uo C|| |m |csuc||+ cnc+nt+|+m-nos os v+s-
tos c+mos oc tom+tc||os com os |ub|os ||utos cno|mcs omooo|os tcmos um+ |oto-
g|++ com um cs+noo u+sc um u||o o+s |+b||c+s oc m+ss+ oc tom+tc m+|s |+mos+s n+
coc+ + |c|xc c + |os+ |st|c+noo +s v|+gcns ||un|o c |+|n+m|||m cst+v+m no c+m|n|o
oco|s c||+ +||+o+ |osc oo |c|montc |xu c ^|+|||n+ ,+ no m oo |st+oo O c+|o| tc|||vc|
nos |+z|+ su+| cm b|c+s o so| |nc|cmcntc csucnt+v+ +tc + ouc+ b||s+ o |oc|o|no uc
nos +|cc|+ v|| oo |n|c|no
^c+m+v+-sc s m+|gcns oos ||os m+|o|cs oc |c|n+mbuco como o C+|bc||bc |+,cu |oxoto c
oos ||+c|os |||g|o+ |+c+|c o+s C|++s +ss|m como cm v+||os +uocs u+|uc| |cg+to uc +|no+
|cv+ssc +gu+ co||cnoo oct|n|+ + C || +|+ + co||c|t+ oc m+tc||+| +|+ cstuoos
Cont|nu+noo |o| + vcz o+ |+|+|b+ cucn|n+ mu|c m+c|o s|m s|n|o como o|z + c+nt|g+ +|-
m+noo o |c|o|smo oc um ovo so|||oo c v+|cntc |c|+ cm C+m|n+ C|+noc cx-V||+ |ov+
o+ |+|n|+ n+ ||c|o-|cg|io o+ |o|bo|cm+ c|m+ncccmos bom tcmo c +|| |o| |nst+|+oo o |
|osto o+ ||sc|cu|tu|+ |u+ oos |+us C|+nocs e. |ox|mo oo +uoc |ooocongo O c|c|c +|u-
gou v+||+s c+s+s um+ s|m|cs|n|+ c cucn+ |cs|ocnc|+ oos t|cs Von ||c||ng out|+ +|+ os
com+n|c||os oc c|cnc|+ uc |ogo + b+t|z+|+m oc |cnsio |+ |+-ooos +c|+noo-+ cno|mc
+g+s+||+noo t+mbcm os sc|v|+|s c scnoo +|| |c|t+s +s noss+s |c|c|ocs Out|+ mcno| +|+ o c+s+|
c ||o |||m+n \||g|t c + | mu|to cs+os+ + c+||+| +|+ os |+bo|+to||os com o |uxo oc um+
s+|+ ||b||otcc+ c scc|ct+||+ +|cm oc bom |ug+| +|+ o +|mox+|||+oo
C+m|n+ C|+noc c + m+|o| c|o+oc oo |st+oo ||c+ no ||+n+|to o+ |o|bo|cm+ com um c||m+
bcm +g|+o+vc| cont+ com |coc oc +gu+ c csgoto |uz c|ct||c+ v+||+s |noust||+s bom comc|c|o
Os +uocs Vc||o c |ooocongo n+s cc|c+n|+s sio oc g|+noc v+|o| +|+ + ou|+io ^ m+t||z c +
|++ n+tu|+|mcntc mu|to ||cucnt+o+s c oo|s c|ncm+s ||||+|s oc b+ncos o+ c+|t+| bo+s csco|+s
c |os|t+| gc|+| bcm ++|c||+oo |n|+mos cnm um mc|o m+|s cu|to n+ soc|cty c+m|ncnsc
|cssc ccnt|o +|t|+mos nos t|cs C|cv|o|ct nov|n|os m+s tio m|nuscu|os oos +nos +,,o os
|o|os ||gooc uc |o,c ncm s+bcmos como c+b|+mos nc|cs c com m+|s oo|s c+m|n|ocs |ct+-
||+mos cm |ncu|socs cont|nu+s o m++ oo |st+oo |o| vczcs |+mos + |oio |csso+ + cucn+
c |o|mos+ C+|t+| +|bo||z+o+ com |ut||os c vc|mc||os +mbo|+ns+|+ o |c+b+stcc|mcnto oc
v|vc|cs ^s ||no+s |+|+s +|no+ sc|v+gcns oc g|++ c bc|cz+ cscc|+|s nos cnc+nt+v+m cm +mb+u
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
,o+
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
tio c|+|+ c ont|||+o+ o| oczcn+s oc couc||os ocmos cstucnoos mc|gu||os c b|++o+s c ||
|ooo||o |ov|ocnc|ou um +ssc|o co|ct|vo n+s ||+gc|s ,+ng+o+s + scns+io oc tooos c|+ + oc
cst+|mos +no+noo sob|c +s ono+s uc nos ocu um+ +u|+ +| |sso ocu' |+|+ o+ |+|io C+bo
||+nco o onto m+|s o||cnt+| oo ||+s|| C+bcoc|o com o |o|to oo |st+oo t+mbcm tcm |+|+s
m+gn|c+s Vo|t+v+mos scm|c o| c+m|n|os c |ug+|c,os o||c|cntcs csm|u+noo tuoo
|umo +o c|tio cst|vcmos cm |+tos scnoo |osco+oo o nosso |st+oo |+|o| n+ +m|+ c+s+
|ust|c+ oos m|ss|on+||os +ng||c+nos Com su+s csos+s n|ss|m+s |+z|+m ucstio oc to||ctc +|+
o ,+nt+| (|css+s +|tu|+s c|+ so t|oc+|mos oc c+m|s+ ou b|us+ c +,c|t+|mos os c+bc|os +os o
b+n|o oc c|uvc||o-oc-|+t|+s') |omb+| c ouz+ ou+s c|o+ocs b+n|+o+s c|o ||o |||+n|+s uc
oc |+|go c c|c|o n+s scc+s co|t+oo c+ |couz|oo + um o o+gu+
Os com+noos oo c+ng+cc||o |+m|io comctc|+m v+||+s cst||u||+s t+mbcm n+ |+|+|b+ c|cg+noo
ncss+s b+no+s oc sc|tio +|+|b+no c tom+| + c|o+oc oc ouz+ uc c o+s mc||o|cs oo |st+oo onoc
s+uc+|+m o comc|c|o c |+t|c+|+m |o|||vc|s m+|o+ocs cu,+s |ov+s c os |c|+tos nos +||c|+|+m
|||ocs c |o,c + c|o+oc ^ntcno| |+v+||o cm |omcn+gcm +o + |ntc|vcnto| |coc|+| o+ |+|+|-
b+ +os + |cvo|uio oc +,,o mo|to no +c|ocntc oo +v|io +voy+ |+|uctt| cm uc v|+,+v+
t+mbcm o ||ust|c ||n|st|o |osc ^mc||co oc ^|mc|o+ cm +,,. Com c|cs ,+nt+|+mos ,untos n+
vcsc|+ cm |cc||c o co|o oc ^ntcno| vc|o o+ |+||+ onoc sc ocu o ocs+st|c c cou cxosto
n+ C+tco|+| o cntc||o |o| cm |oio |csso+ +com+n|+oo o| |numc|os +|+|b+nos uc ||c oc-
vot+v+m +om||+io c con+n+
Os +uocs oc Co|cm+ c |||+n|+s scm|c nos +t|+|+m c o+|| +|t|mos +|+ ||+co ||sto||c+ cm
+,.e um+ o+s t|o+s o+ Co|un+ ||cstcs sob o com+noo oc Osw+|oo Co|oc||o oc |+||+ t|+vou
cnc+|n|+oo comb+tc os com |+gunos oo c|c|c o||t|co |oc+| |+o|c ^||st|ocs |c||c||+ oc||o-
t+oos |+tcnoo cst|+o+s cst|vcmos cm C+,+zc||+s c |||nccs+ t+mbcm |+mos+s o| |+tos bc||cos
|css+ u|t|m+ |omos |oscocs oc |on|+ oc um +m+b|||ss|mo co|onc| |+zcnoc||o C+s+-C|+noc
t||c+ com +|cno|c vo|t+ m+s scm o m|n|mo v|s|umb|c oc con|o|to c oc ||g|cnc (^||+s |sso
c|+ comum ncsscs c|mos |ncu|tos c o|st+ntcs cnc+sto+oos cm zon+s tio +||o+s c ob|cs) |um+
s+|+ |mcns+ |+v|+ .. +|cs oc g+nc|os |+ |cocs nc|+ sc |nst+|ou o g|uo oc c|cnt|st+s c mco|cos
|m u+|to |o| cco|oo +o || Von ||c||ng c |+ out|o +os t|cs t|||m+n \||g|t ^ ||+ oo C|c|c
coubc + s+|ct+ oc o|+ocs Cub|cu|o oc ,m x ,m com o|+to||o bc|+ c+ cnt+||+o+ c oou|+o+
com ||c+s |m+gcns +nt|g+s um gcnucxo||o oo|s toc|c||os scm vc|+ c onoc usc|+m um+ c+m|-
n|+ cx|gu+ O tcto tooo cm m+oc||+ |nt+o+ + o|co com gu|+s s+c|+s |+o+ oc ,+nc|+ ncm mcs-
mo um+ cucn+ og|v+ como vc|o+oc||+ +|cov+ mco|cv+| | + ob|c mo+ cnou + no|tc |ntc||+
su|oc+o+ c scm |uz oc|+m-||c +cn+s um |o (|+m+||n+) |c |+ntc|n+ cm un|o com + bot+
|ocu|+v+ m+ss+c|+| o +t+uc oc m|||+|cs oc u|g+s |css+s tooos sc uc|x+|+m +m+|g+mcntc'
|cmo||+
,o.
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|+||ss|m+mcntc v|mos +gu+ cnc+n+o+ co||cntc o b+n|o cm gc|+| c oc cu|+ cm b+c|+s nos
u+|tos +t|,o|+oos ou cntio nos +uocs cm ||cntc c+s+ c nunc+ ncsscs sc|tocs sc ouv|u |+|+|
cm ++|c||os s+n|t+||os' O |ob|cm+ c|+ mcsmo sc||o ucm |cc|s+ssc |+ sc cmb|cn|+| no
m+to c t|n|+ uc || |ongc scm|c com +|gucm oc gu+|o+ |n|+mos mcsmo um |o|cgo +|+
+gucnt+| oc tuoo m+s c|+ +|cg|c c o|vc|t|oo o uc cssc un|+oo oc gcntc n+ cn||cnt+v+ too+s
+s c||cc|+s | tooos csscs c+|unoos sio ocvc|+s b|+vos
|oto cont|nuo c|co|||+mos +s cst|+o+s oc bc|os t|++oos o+s Ob|+s Cont|+ +s cc+s Ot|m+s
cm c|io b+t|oo |mc |c|to oc m+c+o+mc (oc || |uc ^o+ms) co|t+noo +s +|s+gcns +g|cstcs
o|n+mcnt+o+s oc x|uc-x|ucs +|m+s-s+nt+s ou |ou|b+n| (nomc uc cou oo botn|co uc
ocscob||u um cnxc|to to|n+noo-+s m+|s ||c+s o+gu+) m+no+c+|us c+|oc||os +|m+to||+s u|-
+ cscc|c oc c+cto |+stc||o |u|t+s ocss+s |+nt+s C+ct+cc+s ocsc|to no|ocst|no |mb|cn|+v+-
mo-nos c|+ C++t|ng+ + ocnt|o obsc|v+noo o vc|o+oc||o cm+|+n|+oo oc +|bustos sccos uc
+ oucos mct|os cncob||+ u+|uc| vu|to |omcm sc||cm+s o|cos-oo-m+to c+|v+|+s mio-
-c|+o+ c out|os +n|m+|s oc o|tc | +|| um cstucnoo csconoc||,o oo c+ng+o Os t+ngc||nos
toc+noo scu g+oo tcm + m+n+o+ g+|+nt|o+ o| c|ncc||os uc b+o+|+noo oio o +v|so oc gcntc
oc +z | ||no|ss|mo oc sc ouv|| o|cm tio cmoc|on+ntc o +bo|o c+nto nost+|g|co |+ngcntc
com o u+| gu|+m +s bo|+o+s num |o|ong+oo ||| OOO uc so+ |ongc c|o cco num t||st|ss|-
mo ocs+b+|o o+ +|m+ so||t+||+
| |osscgu|+mos ocstcm|oos +|cg|cs c|+s +|+gcns |o|mos|ss|m+s cx+no|o+s cm c|++oocs
onou|+ntcs ou c|+s |+n|c|cs +||o+s oos +bu|c||os cxtcnsos |+n+|tos oc ouc+ c|cv+io
gc|+|mcntc +|cnosos c oc vcgct+io |+stc||+ onoc c+mc|+ + soc|co+oc |uoc oos |nt|c|oos
v+uc||os | o|gn+ oc not+ css+ c|+ssc oc |omcns +uo+c|osos oc um+ co|+gcm |noom|t+ uc
+ c+v+|o sc +||o,+ c|o c+|||| c++t|ng+ c||oo |ocu|+ oo g+oo c|o|oo |os mcsmos t|vcmos
+ oo|tun|o+oc oc cxo| noss+ v+|cnt|+ c vc||c+| o c||go oc ||cntc +o || |ooo||o c m+|s
uns u+t|o oc nos cm|cst+|+m uns +n|m+|s uc +costum+oos +os oonos c s su+s c+v+|g+-
o+s oo|o+s ocscbcst+|+m-sc mc|o c|o oo m+to scco |cm s+bcmos como vo|t+mos |ntc||os
cmbo|+ |c||oos o| sc||os +||+n|ocs c +to|oo+oos +os |+vc|mos nos s+|+oo oc c+bc+o+s cm
t|oncos c ocsv|+noo n+ c+||c||+ |ouc+ oc |+m+||+ scc+ c cs|n|uo+ |o| um+ tc|||vc| |++n|+'
!om+s |+nn csc|cvcu ^ bc|cz+ ooc nos +ss+|t+| como um+ oo|' s|gn|c+noo uc c|+ oo|+
toc+| co|o+s tio |nt|m+s oo nosso sc| + onto oc s||cnc|+| com|ct+mcntc out|os scnt|mcntos
^o +contccc| |sto scm u+|uc| +v|so c como sc oc |ccntc |cn+sccsscmos' ^ um c|ouc su-
+vc somos um+ nov+ csso+ m+|s c++z oc cn||cnt+| +s t+|c|+s ocs+g|+o+vc|s oo momcnto'
cm|c |sso nos +contcc|+ ncss+ v|o+ onoc o ocscon|o|to c o c+ns+o nos +to|mcnt+v+m ou
n+s s|tu+ocs ocs+st|os+s nos |m|cv|stos |nocsc,+vc|s +ss|m c|+ no cncont|+| um c+cto cm o|
como + ,o|+ n+sccnoo o+ co|+ b|ut+ um c+|+ngo |+g+|to mu|t|co| su|c+noo o +|c+| |csscu|-
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
,o,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
oo um g+v|io-|c+| c c+|c+|+s sob|cvo+noo o cs|n|c||o ov|n|os co|o||oos +conc|cg+oos num
n|n|o sob + m+tc|n+| |otcio os sc|xos |o|+oos |u|gu|+ntcs c ||sos no |c|to oc um ||+c|o scco
onoc os c+|+ngos |+z|+m su+ |cst+ u+nt+s vczcs mcu +| sc +t|cv|+ ocstcm|oo + +co|o+| + uns
c + out|os s u+t|o |o|+s o+ m+o|ug+o+ +|+ uc +|cc|+sscmos + +u|o|+ |+o|os+ c ocs|um-
b|+ntc u+noo too+ + n+tu|cz+ ocsc|t+v+ o+noo-nos um |cscntc |no|z|vc| |+v|+ t+mbcm
o c|cuscu|o o+uc|+s |+g+s uc nos un|+ s||cnc|osos c|+ +z + u|ctuoc u+sc |coos+
oc um o|+ uc sc |cco||c +os + |ut+ c|+ sob|cv|vcnc|+ oc c+o+ sc| c||+oo o| um |cus +b|o
m|sc||co|o|oso c bom |+ bc+t|tuoc cm uc sc c+v+ +ntc o ccn+||o m+g|st|+| nos +|cg|+v+m
b+noos oc |occ|+||+s cm ||n|+ |o|m+noo o c|+ss|co V cc|to |cc|so |umo +os scus n|n|os |
c+o+ um n+ c+c||n|+ uc t|+zcmos cscono|o+ cm nossos co|+ocs mu|mu|+v+ su+ |ccc oc
g|+t|oio csco||cnoo o m+nto |nn|to oc uc sc cob|c + no|tc + su+ cst|c|+ |c|c||o+ o+noo-||c
um nomc uc||oo
|c u+noo cm vcz ouv|+-sc um+ v|o|+ |+ngcntc ou um ocs+o moo+ no|ocst|n+ |cstc,os t||-
cos +|s+gcns o|vc|s+s ovo o||c|cntc +m|go c |os|t+|c||o |o| vczcs +c+m+v+mos m+|gcm
oos +uocs ou oc +|gum ||o c|cnc somb|c+oos o| c+|n+ub+|s cxtcnsos oc cno|mcs |o||+s
+||coono+o+s |c|+s +|mc||+s |o|tun+ oo sc|tio c|o +|ovc|t+mcnto |ntcg|+| + comc+| c|+
cc|+ tio ut|| c con|cc|o+ uoo c|+ +cc|to c cnc+|+oo com cs|||to cso|t|vo +|t|u|st|co c |c||z-
mcntc cnt|cmc+oo com +s o|st|+ocs oo nosso |o|c|o|c v|vo c ||co +ss|m +os cncont|os com os
v+uc||os ocstcm|oos c c|cg+ntcs cnvc|g+noo su+s vcstcs c+|+ctc||st|c+s c t|+o|c|on+|s oc cou|o
bcm cu|t|oo +ss|st|mos +s |+mos+s v+uc,+o+s csct+cu|o |nco|to +|+ o su||st+ m+s uc o+
um+ |oc|+ o+ co|+gcm oc vc|o+oc||+ tou|+o+
Con|cccmos os c+ntos c +s o+n+s oo ||tu+| oo |umb+-mcu-|o| t|++v+mos n+s cc|cb|cs |c|-
|+s |o|ocst|n+s onoc ++|ccc o tuoo uc o sc|t+nc,o conscguc c oc uc sc v+|c +|+ su+ +||mcn-
t+io + v+||co+oc cm +||+ tcc|o+ cc|m|c+ |+t|c+ c +|t|st|c+ c |cvc|+noo + |o|+ oc vont+oc c
+ +|m+ |ngcnu+ c u|+ oo so|||oo ovo no|ocst|no |+ c|o+ocz|n|+s v||+s |ntc||+s cu,os mo|+oo-
|cs v|vcm cxc|us|v+mcntc oo +|tcs+n+to o+ +||+ no u+| sio vc|o+oc||os +|t|st+s c|+cus cs-
tc||+s +b+nos ccstos ||noos c t+nt+s out|+s |nvcnocs utc|s uc tcccm |o|+ oc c+s+ n+ cxtcnsio
o+ |u+ cm +|cg|cs convc|s+s com os v|z|n|os ^ss|m sio t+mbcm +s |cnoc||+s oc mios oc |+o+s
n+ su+ +|tc oc |+b|||ntos (c||vo) c |cno+s |+mos+s oo |o|ocstc cnt+m-sc n+s so|c||+s o+s o|-
t+s c c+nt+noo ou n+ |os+ com +s co|cg+s vio cnt|c|++noo os b|||os sono|os + c+o+ |nst+ntc
+ cst+|+| num+ vc|oc|o+oc |nc||vc| u+sc num+ mus|c+ oc c|cussio ||tm+o+ c vio comonoo
ocscn|os +|t|st|cos co|+oos ou |nvcnt+oos ^ou|||+mos v+||+s c+s mu|to n+s c +tc com os
o|zc|cs ||u tc +mo |c||z +mo| |c||c|o+oc ctc|n+ t+|vcz + |oc|+ |ossc +|+ cnxov+|s oc no|v+s
|u|to utc|s ||cs sio os com||oos cs|n|os oc m+no+c+|u uc vio csct+noo n+ +|mo|+o+ n-
c+oos n+ scucnc|+ oos t|+b+||os subst|tu|noo os +|nctcs
|cmo||+
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|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|css+s tc||+s onoc os couc||os c +|mc||+s |mc|+m m+|s g|+c|os+s sio +s ccn+s |to|csc+s oo
mu||c||o cm +t|v|o+oc C+o+ c+scb|c tcm su+s |+t|n|+s oc |+nt+s oc cst|m+io |csmo onoc
nio |+ +gu+ c|+s g+n|+m ncm uc sc,+ um ocoo oc c+ncco o+ oon+' |+s |+|+s + ocs|+ c +|no+
m+|o| + |ns||+| css+s ob|c||+s no scu +|i ||mo|oso | vio +s to+||+s c+m|so|+s com +|+s um+
v+||co+oc |mcns+ oc |cno+s +|+ css+s |c||+s Os |cos tio b+|xos nio cono|zcm com o csmc|o
oo t|+b+||o c o tcmo g+sto
^ com|ssio +c+m+o+ cc|t+ vcz s m+|gcns oo c+uo+|oso c oct|co ||o io ||+nc|sco cm |+-
tob+ oc +c+|+tu-|| |+ sc |nst+|+| ocss+ vcz cm c+|+tc| c|m+ncntc num+ cno|mc c+s+ oc oo|s
+no+|cs uc |o|+ +ntcs um |osto oo Covc|no c|to oo c+|s n+ m+|gcm oo ||o |cssc +mb|cntc
+go|+ +|+ nos m+,cstoso |occocu-sc um+ ||mcz+ cm |cg|+ n+s tc|+s oc +|+n|+ cnxot+noo
+s b||b+s (|+g+|t|x+s) c+|+ngos c |+tos uc +|| zc|+m scu |+b|t+t |co|s o+ v+|||o+ |ouvc
+ |+v+gcm com v+ssou|+s nov+s c +bunonc|+ oc +gu+ o+ u+| tom+|+m +|tc v+||os mco|cos
moos c os t|,o|os |ctom+|+m su+ co| ||m|t|v+ uoo c|c||+v+ + ||mcz+ |um +m|o u+|to
no +no+| suc||o| n+ u+nt|o+oc oc g+nc|o n+s +|cocs +s |cocs oc co|cs bc||+ntcs |o|+m cs-
tcno|o+s c |o|m+v+m o oo|m|to||o oos oouto|cs
|| t|||m+n |o||s c |mmy g+n|+|+m o scu |cc+nto ||v+oo O C|c|c c cn|o|+ t|vc|+m su+
||v+c|o+oc cm bom +oscnto c + ||+ cxu|tou com o u+|to mcno| tcnoo + ,+nc|+ +bc|t+ +|+
+ +|s+gcm oos b+||+ncos c o+s ||m|o+s +gu+s oo C||co' O +no+| tc||co |o| tooo ocst|n+oo
+o |+bo|+to||o s+|+ oo cont+oo| u+|to oc |o|n| +|mox+|||+oo c + v+st+ s+|+ oc ,+nt+| c oc
v|s|t+s ^s mios |cm|n|n+s |ogo |m|ov|s+|+m co|t|n+s v+sos oc b+||o occo|+t|vos com m+no+-
c+|u +|mc|||n|+s c co|oio-oc-||+oc O +|t|st+ cm ouco tcmo |ntou uns ||noos u+o|os +s
C+b|oc|+s oo c|tio sc||c cstucno+ um+s com v+uc||os n+ +uc|+ out|+s o+n+noo ou
|+zcnoo |cno+ oc b|||o ou com m+nt|||+ oc || |g|c,+ ou bc||+ o+gu+ mo||+noo os cs |m
cnc+nto oc cucn+s +u+|c|+s scnoo uc um+ |ct|+tou + ||+ oo C|c|c oc cu|otc c|+cu oc
+||+ c toc+noo g+|t+
^ntc o +|+cctc no c|io scco cobc|to o| c+|m |+stc||o + |c||+ oc c+||os o+v+ cc|t+ |mo-
ncnc|+ o c+||o-|+bo|+to||o g|+noc c+m|n|io |cc|+oo uc |o|+ o u+|tc| Ccnc|+| +mbu|+ntc oo
Ccnc|+| |||ngc||o|c| n+ |cvo|uio oc +,,o cm io |+u|o +o+t+oo +|+ cssc m com mcs+
c+oc||+ csto|+o+ gc|+oc||+ + g+s +ssomb|o oos sc|t+nc,os +|m+||o cu|+oo com m+tc||+|
c||u|g|co uc t+nto sc|v|+ +|+ os cns+|os c|cnt|cos como n+ +,uo+ + oczcn+s ccntcn+s oc o-
b|cs +gc|+oos +|tu||cntcs c +|co+oos Os nossos c+||os oc t|+nso|tc o c+||o-+u+||o +|+ +
conouio oos c|xcs c os c+m|n|ocs oc b+g+gcns
|+s +gu+s +t|+c+v+ + ||ot+ oc t|cs b+|cos + moto| o |||+ o u|ub|m c o |+no| |unc+ + C||
sc v|u cm t+| |uxo ^|| ncssc cs|cno|oo +mb|cntc c+mo |+|to oc m+tc||+| +|+ t|+b+||o os c|cn-
t|st+s |||+m +ss+| mu|tos mcscs bcm |ongc oc |cc||c o+ c|v|||z+io |c |uxo c o onto com|co
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
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|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
c|+ o \C o+ m+nsio |so|+oo + .o mct|os oc o|stnc|+ nunc+ v|||+mos n+o+ |gu+| ou +|cc|oo
|os sc|tocs nio cx|stc ncm + c|+m+o+ c+s|n|+ t+|vcz o C|c|c ocssc +nt|go osto tcn|+ cx||-
c+oo +o co|c||o como |occoc| +|+ um+ |oss+ num u+|to ||v+oo +|vcz t+mbcm tcn|+ sc
+uscnt+oo ou|+ntc + const|uio c o mcst|c oc ob|+s sc csmc|+oo +o const|u|| um vc|o+oc||o
t|ono omoso |cm no mc|o ocss+ +m|+ s+|+ oc b+n|o cu,o c|uvc||o c|+ +b+stcc|oo o| |+-
t|+s o+gu+ c|o tc||+oo u+t|o ocg|+us +|tos |ooc+v+m + c|stc|n+ c|cv+o+ com um +||cmcoo
oc c+no oc csgoto s+|noo +|+ o m+to ^s cob|+s c uc sc cnc+nt+|+m com cssc |couto ||csco
sosscg+oo c +|| +n|n|+v+m |+c|nt+ oc |+tob+ noss+ cunz|n|c||+ c |onnc + tout |+||c +u
|+ too+ ob|+ ucm ||mc||o ocu o +|+|mc s+|noo cs+vo||o+ +os g||tos |ntio o +|m+oos
ooc|-sc-|+ ||'
uoo nos +|cc|+ um +|+|so c|+ bc|cz+ c g|+no|os|o+oc oo ccn+||o c|+ +z |c|n+ntc cc|t+ |+|-
tu|+ n+ +||mcnt+io ocv|oo + um s|t|+ntc o+s |coonocz+s uc |nst+|+|+ um cnc+n+mcnto c+no
oc +cn+s um+ o|cg+o+ oc g|ossu|+ bombc+noo +gu+ oo ||o c t|n|+ |+|tu|+ oc tuoo o uc o
so|o |c|t|| bcm ||||g+oo |oouz|+ |cgumcs tubc|cu|os vc|ou|+s ||csu|n|+s c t+mbcm ||utos
oc v+||+s u+||o+ocs m+ng+s cno|mcs c oc||c|os+s s+ot|s go|+b+s sc||guc|+s b+n+n+s |+|+n,+s
||+ onoc |+mos nos +b+stccc| |o|cm ncss+s +|+gcns |o| + ||mc||+ vcz cm uc tooos t|vcmos
+ noio oo c||go || |ooo||o |cun|u + Com|ssio co|noo uc sc |cc+t+sscm sc +|m+sscm
o|s o +v|so c|+ uc |+m|io |ono+v+ o| c|to c com scus |omcns sc +||+nc|+|+ ,us+ntc oo
||o + oo|s u||omct|os oc nos
C|cg+noo-sc ||+ com um+ tc|n+ sut||cz+ |o| o|zcnoo-||c oo c||go c co|u-||c - |io s+|+
m+|s +s c+v+|o ncm + +ssc|o ncm +|+ || busc+| +s |o|t+||+s c ||utos ||uc scm|c c|to oc
su+ |ic Como v+| su+ ont+||+ ^go|+ c |o|+ oc +no+| com o |cvo|vc| n+ c|ntu|+ |o| uns o|+s
+bstcn|+-sc oo b+n|o oc ||o Com su+ mic |o||s c |mmy c|m+nc+ ocnt|o oc c+s+ |cu
+| cst+v+ |c+|mcntc |cocu+oo c + s|tu+io +|cc|+ b+st+ntc sc||+ ^ o|ocm |o| cum||o+ +tc
uc |c|o um+ |o|+ +|m+o+ sob o com+noo oo tcncntc |+nc |ctto |ssc c|+ um oos m+|s |+n-
co|osos c|scgu|oo|cs oo c+ng+cc||o uc ||c zc|+ onoc mo|tcs n+ |+m|||+ |n|m|go |c||cn|o
+no+v+ n+s cg+o+s oc V||gu||no c t|n|+ t+mbcm o scu b+noo oc |+stc,+oo|cs uc o| su+ vcz
con+v+m nos scus |n|o|m+ntcs
^ c|o+oc cst+v+ mo|t+ n|ngucm s+|+ oc c+s+ |+|o c|+ o vu|to sc csguc||+noo +tc o +|m+zcm ou
cm busc+ oc +gu+ ooo munoo tcm|+ um t||otc|o cnt|c +s ou+s |o|+s |gu+|mcntc |c|ozcs O
tcmo +|cc|+ nio +ss+| O s||cnc|o +gu+v+ +|no+ m+|s + |cocu+io uc sc v|+ cm tooos os
|ostos |io oo|+mos |+zc| |+nos uc |+nos' O C|c|c sc scnt|+ |csons+vc| t+nto c|os cs-
t|+ngc||os como c|os |++zcs c o| nos mu||c|cs ^ com|o+ cs|||+v+ nos |+tos c +s convc|s+s
c|+m cnt|cco|t+o+s ou cm ||+scs |+con|c+s | nos |cz+v+mos' |m +||v|o |mcnso nos vc|o n+s no-
t|c|+s oc uc o |+m|gc|+oo b+noo|c||o |+v|+ +t|+vcss+oo o ||o c cst+v+ +go|+ n+ m+|gcm oost+
oc toc+|+ csc|+ oo cncntc
|cmo||+
,oe
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|+ m+o|ug+o+ scgu|ntc s u+t|o |o|+s c ouco +ss|st|mos +|t|o+ oo c|otio cu,os so|o+oos
oo Covc|no |+m tooos vcst|oos |ocnt|cos +os c+ng+cc||os s+no+||+s c|+cus oc cou|o c |ou+
comum com +s c+|tuc|c||+s c|uz+o+s no c|to |+|+ con|uno|| |co||+m uc + ||+ oo C|c|c
|ossc su+ m+o||n|+ | +os ||mc||os |+|os o+ +|vo|+o+ |o| + ocsco|o+ s||cnc|os+ |+ns+mcntc +s
c+no+s |+m sc o|st+nc|+noo ooos nos uco+mos ost+oos n+ csc+o+||+ oo c+|s +|no+ tcnsos
scm s+bc| uc |umo tom+||+m +s co|s+s
oubcmos oco|s uc nio |ouvc c|ouc cnt|c +s ou+s |o|+s |+m|io tcm|+ os m+c+cos sc
nio |ug||+ t+mbcm nio u|sc|+ cn||cnt+-|os Os bo+tos co|||+m uc cnt|+| no ||+u| |ntio |c-
to|n+mos +os nossos +|+zc|cs o+noo C|++s + |cus'
oo+s +s ou|+ocs ||bc|||n|+s gost+m c +|ovc|t+m o b+n|o oc ||o O C||co como c c+||-
n|os+mcntc c|+m+oo vcm oc |+ o+ c||+ o+ C+n+st|+ |C sc|cntc+noo ocsccnoo oc g|+n-
oc +|tu|+ su+s +gu+s ||m|o+s m+s |o|tcs oss+ntcs |o|m+noo su+s c+c|oc||+s uc sc cs+||+m
no c|cu|so |m |+tob+ +ss+ cnt|c b+||+nc+s scm |+|+s c num+ |+|gu|+ oc u||omct|os o|c|c-
ccnoo um |+bu|oso c+uo+| oc +gu+ c + ou|+io ||bc|||n|+ s+bc como +|ovc|t+-|o |m |o|+s
oo o|+ cm uc o c+|o| c su|oc+ntc |cun|+-sc cm g|+noc nocg+ scnoo uc +s mu||c|cs t|n|+m
|cconc+vos +|t|cu|+|cs c +|| tot+|mcntc ocs|o+s o+v+m scus mc|gu||os n+o+v+m c |+v+v+m
|ou+s |n|+m nos +v|s+oo o|sso so +s scn|o|+s oocm sc +|ox|m+| ocssc |oc+| c ouv|noo +
+|g+z+||+ c|cg+mos c|to oo b+||+nco cst+noo + uns o|to mct|os oc +|tu|+ |nc+bu|+o+s sc cn-
co||c|+m m+s |omos convc|s+noo c vc|o-nos o +m+vc| conv|tc oc nos un||mos + c|+s o uc -
zcmos |noo vcst|| os m+|os uc cst|+n|+|+m |os t|cs mu|to c|+|+s c|+mos +|vo oc comcnt+||os
c +|gum+s +tc sc +t|cv|+m + toc+| cm noss+ c|c c vc| + o||c|cn+
|+tob+ oc +c+|+tu m|sc|o ovo+oo ,+ tcvc scus o|+s g|+no|osos |cccbcnoo + v|s|t+ oc | |c-
o|o || uc +|| |cz const|u|| g|+noc +|coio c cscc|c occ+|s cntus|+sm+oo c|+ oss|b|||o+oc oc
n+vcg+io uv|+| uc +|no+ |o,c sc |+z oc |ct|o||n+ |^ + |cncoo ^| c ||o||+ | |cssc
mu|o oc +; mct|os oc +|tu|+ num +||cmcoo oos mc|gu||+oo|cs oc ^c+u|co + |++z|+o+ mc|-
gu||+v+ oc c+bc+ o| um c|uz+oo +ntc os v|s|t+ntcs |m g|uo o+ Com|ssio oo|oo o| um
bom b+n|o +os + v|+gcm no c+|+|io +t||ou-sc +gu+ c o| ouco nio |ouvc um+ t|+gco|+
o|s nio cont+v+m com + |o|+ b|ut+| o+ co||cntcz+ ,+ uns |+m sum|noo c |c++|cccnoo |o-
|+m os c||tos n+o+oo|cs c csc+oo|cs com su+s c+no+s csc|+ oos |nc+utos ||o +b+|xo uc
os t||+|+m ocssc +u|o
|ouco +o|+ntc ocscnc+v+ v|go|os+ + C+c|oc||+ oc |t++||c+ ||x+oos ncss+ m+|gcm +ntc +
|+|gu|+ |mcns+ oo ||o |+z|+-sc cxcu|socs c|os +||coo|cs c c|cg+mos +tc |+bu|os+ |+u|o
^|onso cxt+s|+oos +ntc + m+gn|ccnc|+ + |moncnc|+ c g|+nocz+ ocss+ oss+ntc c+t+|+t+
|unc+ m+|s sc ++g+|+ oos nossos o||os oc cxcu|s|on|st+s ocs|umb|+oos + m||+gcm oo bc|o
csct+cu|o sc|v+gcm m+,cstoso |cun|noo t|cs +|t|ss|m+s uco+s o+gu+ Vcu oc |o|v+ |||n-
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
,o;
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
ccs+ c ^ng|co n+ o|v|s+ oos |st+oos o+ |+||+ ^|+go+s c |c|n+mbuco o ucm con|cccu +
c+c|oc||+ oc |+u|o ^|onso o+uc|cs tcmos +|no+ sc|v+gcm b|+v|+ ooc|+ |+zc| um+ |oc|+
o+ bc|cz+ c |o|+ c|c|o|c+
O ||o io ||+nc|sco n+uc|+s +|+gcns tcm +|gum+ co|s+ oc t|+g|co n+ su+ |m|css|on+ntc m+,cs-
t+oc | um bc|o |o|||vc| uc ocs|umb|+ c ++vo|+ O ||o c+vou n+s co|+s um +b|smo |o|unoo
onoc +s +gu+s sc |cc||t+m c to||cntcs c v+o|cs cm ncvo+ | um o||uv|o c+n+||z+oo oo ||o |mcn-
so uc cs+o+n+ cm bo|botocs oc csum+ +|v+ |onc+noo |o|tcmcntc num+ con|usio t|cmcn-
o+ n+ ns|+ oc ||bc|o+oc c oc mco|| su+s |o|+s com o m+| |ong|nuo ||ngucm ooc c+|cu|+| +
su+ |mctuos|o+oc | |cc|so tc| co|+gcm oc suo|t+| nos ouv|oos +uc|+ |u||+ |ug|oo|+ uc sc
|o+g+ + c|nco |cgu+s oc o|stnc|+ |unc+ nos |o|+ o+oo cxc||mcnt+| m+|o| scns+io oo uc
u+noo ocsccmos o| um+ |ong+ c cst|c|t+ csc+o+ cm cs||+| c|+ ^ng|u|n|o +om||+noo +
|+nt+st|c+ |+u|o ^|onso co|o+o+ oc so| c sob o cs|cnoo| oc um +|co-|||s |m m|stc||o |ncx||c+-
vc| c uc u+sc ,unto uco+ |+ um+ sc|cn|o+oc |n+c|co|t+vc| |+z-sc um |cm+nso num |cnomc-
no + nos |nt||g+| +uc|c |+go c+|mo uc so |cus s+bc o uc ||c v+| o| b+|xo n+s |o|unocz+s
^|| c|to cst+v+ + c|o+ocz|n|+ oc |co|+ |o,c |c|m||o Co|vc|+ cm |omcn+gcm +o |omcm oc
v|sio cxt|+o|o|n+||+ uc c||+|+ ocnt|o o+ b|cn|+ s+n||+nc|sc+n+ o uc son|+|+ t|+ns|o|m+| cm
o||o+ C+n+i c|t+nc,+ oc +z c t|+b+||o c conscgu||+ |+zc| su|g|| um+ c|v|||z+io |c|+ cssc cc-
+|cnsc oc +|t+ c++c|o+oc c |ntc||gcnc|+ oc +stuc|+ |nc||vc| conocnsou + v|sio oc |c+||z+ocs mo-
numcnt+|s num m||+g|c oc gcn|o most|+noo +os b|+s||c||os o uc no |utu|o sc||+ um+ o+s m+|s
oss+ntcs us|n+s ||o|c|ct||c+s oc nosso +|s Cont|+||+noo + o|n|io oc cngcn|c||os |cso|v|+
tuoo cm go|cs oc |ntu|io cs+ntos+ | oucos mcscs m+|s t+|oc um+ bomb+ oss+nt|ss|m+
ocsc,+v+ n+ c|o+oc oczcn+s oc ||t|os o+gu+ o| scgunoo |ontou cno|mc |+b||c+ oc ||n|+ ocu
+gu+ |uz c csgotos os c|cmcntos ||mo|o|+|s o+ ||g|cnc c cnt|c out|os mc||o|+mcntos c||ou
g|+noc cu|tumc |+b||c+ oc gc|o +|+ o m+t+oou|o cno|mc co|o oc bombc||os cxtcns+ v||+
oc|+||+ o+noo cm tuoo o uc |+z|+ um t|no c c|s|c+c|+ scu g|+noc cxcm|o oc tcn+c|o+oc
c v+|o| s oss|b|||o+ocs
|co|s oc c+t+o+ + |o|+ ||o|+u||c+ +|+ + cnc|g|+ |n|c|ou + |nst+|+io oc tu|b|n+s c|ct||c+s c o
|og|csso vc|o v|noo ^|guns +nos m+|s t+|oc cssc g|+noc |omcm cssc c|n|o |nvu|g+| c|+ co-
v+|ocmcntc +ss+ss|n+oo u+ v|sio |nc||vc| |o| um c+m|n|o +|+ o uc c |o,c + |+nt+st|c+ |s|n+
||o|c|ct||c+ oo io ||+nc|sco |os +t||ot+s |cvc|cnc|+mos + mcmo||+ ocssc bcncmc||to uc
cons+g|ou too+ su+ cx|stcnc|+ cm |ovc|to o+ ou|+io sc|t+nc,+ |c+||z+noo com too+ + u-
,+n+ o+ su+ |o|+ oc vont+oc + m+|o| ob|+ oc uc sc ooc o|gu||+| um |omcm so no |ntc||o|
oo +|s ^ v|o|cnc|+ o+s +gu+s |o| oomcst|c+o+ oom+o+ cm bcnc||c|o oo |og|csso c oo bcm
cst+| oo ovo oc v+||os |st+oos oo |o|ocstc |ccon|cccmos cssc bcno|to v+|o| m+s n+ noss+
|cmb|+n+ oo m+|+v|||osos +no|+m+ gu+|o+mos + |m+gcm |uoc c oct|c+ o+ sc|v+gcm c m+g-
n|c+ C+c|oc||+ oc |+u|o ^|onso oos +nos +,,o
|cmo||+
,os
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|m o|+ cm busc+ oc m+tc||+| um+ +|tc oo g|uo |o| ||o + |o|+ +tc |cncoo ^| o vo|t+mos
oc m+o|ug+o+ |+|+v|||+ oc ccu o+ +|vo|+o+ m+|gcm oo |+|go c |o|moso ||o' |+noos oc g+|+s
cm b|+nc+ |cvo+o+ um+ +|g+z+||+ mcoon|+ oc +|+|+s ++g+|os c c||u|tos cm csvo++ntc
+|co-|||s |nn|o+oc oc +ss+|os +co|o+noo o o|+ cm ocs|umb|+ntc |cst+ |cu +| com scu c|+-
cu oc +||+ bot+s c scm|c + m+u|n+ |otog|+c+ + t||+ co|o c|+ um+ gu|+ |moncntc ^|to
+|ou|+oo oc o||os mu|to +zu|s +|+vc| +|+ com tooos |||+o|+noo scu cxt|+o|o|n+||o scnsc o|
|umo| c ||nc|+|mcntc |ntc|css+oo cm tuoo uc uocssc cont||bu|| +|+ o |og|csso o+ c|cn-
c|+ cm gc|+| +|cm o+ |sc|cu|tu|+ |ossc +vc |nscto |ct|| +|vo|c ou o|
|cssc +|vo|ccc| |cmb|o-mc bcm |cv+v+ um c+,+oo com o u+| |+ ||tm+noo os +ssos |umo
||b+ncc||+ |m octc|m|n+oo onto o som o+ tc||+ |o| o||c|cntc soou oco |sso o |m|css|onou
c |c-|o |cct|| +s b+t|o+s uc con|m+|+m su+s susc|t+s +|| o tc||cno gu+|o+v+ +|go oc cx|cs-
s|vo c |o|+ oo comum +no|m+| Com + +,uo+ oc tooos os-sc + c+v+| c |+o|+ntc com o +c|+oo
cxc|+m+v+ cu|o||co | um tcsou|o o |ouctc ||nto v+| cxu|t+|' Cu|o+oo' | um tcsou|o' | su|g|-
|+m |g++b+s m+c|+oos oc s||cx ob,ctos c csuc|ctos oc |no|os uc cnc+nt+oos cxt|+|mos ocs-
sc cucno s+mb+u| |+tu|+|mcntc ,+ |+v|+ noss+ vo|t+ um +g|omc|+oo oc cu||osos mu|t+
gcntc o uc scm|c +contcc|+ |nt|c cstcs |ono+v+m csguc||+noo-sc os |noc|cct|vc|s co|tc||os
oc |+m|io | sc ,+ co|||+ + |+m+ oc oouto|cs oo govc|no cm +no+n+s +|+ c|cs m|stc||os+s +s
|ntc|,c|ocs oo C|c|c con|m+|+m + suos|io oc uc c|c c+||cg+v+ um ++|c||o oc ocscob|||
ou|o scnoo o c+||o-|+bo|+to||o com + g|+noc |nsc||io Com|ssio ccn|c+ oc ||sc|cu|tu|+ oo
|o|ocstc +|+v|+s uc nio s+b|+m occ|||+| o nosso Co||c |o|tc'
|m ouco tcmo cs+||ou-sc + not|c|+ |+nt+st|c+ |noo cc|c|c +os ouv|oos oo c+ng+cc||o-mo|
|c||z csc|+n+oo com + |oc|+ o+ |o|tun+ |+c|| o C+|tio |c+|ou-sc com scu b+noo c os-sc
+o nosso cnc+|o
^ ||nc||o |gno|+ntcs |osscgu|mos v|+gcns cm cxcussocs c|os +||coo|cs oo nosso onto xo
|co|s b+st+ntc tcmc|osos c|o +|c|t+ so||+tc||o uc co|||+ oc boc+ cm boc+ c+mos tooos
+|m+oos c com o|ocns oc |cc+uio (mcnos | |cz|n|+ m|n|+ mic c +|vo|+o+ n+ oc tooos
os com+n|c||os ucm n+ su+ cc|tcz+ ||no+ c |ngcnu+ cns+v+ conscgu|| + convc|sio oo b+n-
oo|c||o uc o|z|+m |ntc||gcntc com cc|t+ cu|tu|+ c mu|to ,ust|cc||o)
|ooo||o Von ||c||ng tcvc cntio um+ |oc|+ gcn|+| um+ |ns||+io o+ su+ bo+-|c b+sc+o+ cm
uc o| bcm tuoo sc conscguc |nv|ou um+ c+|t+ +o C+|tio V||gu||no |c||c||+ |ouvc cntio
um+ t|oc+ oc |cc+oos cnt|c o C|c|c o+ C|| c |+m|io ucm o| vczcs soubc|+mos +|+u-
o||+ os nossos |c|tos |um+n|t+||os ||sso tuoo |csu|tou c |o| cnv|+oo um conv|tc +m+vc| +o b+n-
oo|c||o +|+ uc v|s|t+ssc c con|cccssc o |+bo|+to||o c os cstuoos bcm como os suostos b+n-
co +mbu|+ntc c o ++|c||o oc cncont|+| ou|o O |+|sc+oo| |+tu|+|mcntc com + cono|io
oc cst+|mos |ongc ^ss|m o| |ntc|mco|o oc um m+sc+tc |omcm o+ con+n+ c |cv+-c-t|+z
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
,o,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
oo c+ng+o tuoo sc +||umou |ouco m+|s t+|oc soubcmos o+ |nscio |c|t+ c|o C+|tio
nos conns oo c|tio cm Cc||t+co || bc||+ oo ||o |oxoto |cstcm|oo c cu||oso c+|+ um
oos mco|cos || |u|z C+n+|c oc io |+u|o como vo|unt+||o c +nt||io +|+ |cccbc| cx||c+| c
most|+| +s csu|s+s +s cxc||cnc|+s c os c|tcnccs oc um un|+oo oc b|+s||c||os c cst|+ngc||os
oco|c+oos c|cnc|+ cm |o| oo bcm cst+| c n+ +,uo+ +os nossos ||mios oo ||+s||
|io |o|+ + ucm | sc||+ |on|oso o|zc| uc |+m|io +om||+oo c +ssomb|+oo oc|xou-nos su+
mcns+gcm oc +|+usos c+noo como c+|tio oc v|s|t+ su| gcnc||s oo |+m|gc|+oo b+no|oo +|cm
oc um+ csg+|+tu,+o+ c+|t+ oc +m|go +|ov+oo|+ c mcsmo cn+|tcccoo|+ go|o+ bo|+o+ oc not+s
|m+ bo+ som+ o|z|+ c|c |+|+ os ob|cs oo vosso c+m|n|o'
|+v|+ tcmo|+o+s cm uc + C|| sc x+v+ num cst+g|o m+|o| ,unto oc +uocs |m|ov|s+-
v+m-sc |+bo|+to||os |nc||vc|s n+ conccio oos c|cnt|st+s oos g|+nocs ccnt|os +costum+oos +o
con|o|to oc ++|c||+gcm mooc|n+ |nst|umcntos v+s|||+mcs tubos oc cns+|o cnm tuoo o
uc comoc um +mb|cntc c||c|to +|+ csu|s+s ^ +uc|||m+ ||sc|cu|tu|+ o|sun|+ +cn+s
oc um m|c|osco|o +|guns v|o|os cub+s |+uct+s b+|ocs mu|t+s |+t+s v+z|+s oc g+so||n+ como
c|+m vcno|o+s tcsou|+s u|ccs (cucn+s |+c+s) |+cocs c ouco m+|s |o |csto o+v+-sc um
,c|to |cs+s |ust|c+s c|+m com|+o+s n+ |c||+ m+|s |ox|m+ c+|xotcs c b+nu|n|os const|tu|+m
+ mob|||+ uc ossu|+mos |+s tuoo |sso o|sosto n+s m+|gcns co|cgos+s +ntc +s ||m|o+s
+gu+s o+v+ um+ cc|t+ |mo|tnc|+ v|sto oc |ongc |io c|+ to+ uc nos cognom|n+v+m o
C|uo oc C|g+nos ou O C||co
|+|+ +uc|c suosto |+bo|+to||o t|+z|+m os c|xcs v|vos uc t|n|+m +|| su+ gu|||ot|n+ Com um
go|c oc |+cio os sc|vcntcs occc+v+m ||cs +s c+bc+s c os o|sc|u|os oo || Von ||c||ng |ct||+-
v+m +s ||oscs +|+ +s cxc||cnc|+s Os ovu|os c|+m cont+oos |n|+mos |o||o| + css+ t+|c|+
|+st|o|os+' |cs+v+m c sc+|+v+m um+ +|tc o+s ov+s c |nt|c x|ngos |+-sc c|cg+noo +os .oe
sos +,o| o| +| + |o|+ ||o| uc cont+| c+|nc|||n|os |cm mcsmo + |o|+ oo |+nc|o o+ bo|+
|ntc||om|+ os cns+|os oc t|+b+||os oos cstuo|osos Obst|n+oos cntus|+sm+oos ocscsc|+oos
no +nco oc +|c+n+| + su+ mct+ n|ngucm os +||co+v+ oo |+b|t+t cm csu|s+s c os ocsv|+v+
oo scu ob,ct|vo |o| css+ |o|+ oc vont+oc cssc +bcno+oo |oos|to |mc uc os |cvou ocs-
cobc|t+ tio son|+o+ + |c|oouio |nouz|o+ nos c|xcs c|+ ||os+io'
u+nto + +|tc n+ncc||+ os comoncntcs o+ Com|ssio v|v|+m cm vc|o+oc||+ |ncoc|cnc|+ c
t|n|+mos o|n|c||o nio |+v|+ o uc com|+| n+s +uc|||m+s c|o+ocz|n|+s oo to|||oo sc|tio
C|uz+noo cc|t+ vcz o cst+oo +oo ||o C|+noc oo |o|tc o +c+m+mcnto sc |cz bc||+ oo +u-
oc oc C+|co c o cunz|n|c||o not|c+|+ + | |s+bc| sob|c + csc+sscz oos +||mcntos m+s cst+v+-
mos tio |ongc oc u+|uc| v||+|c,o ^ so|tc nos +,uo+||+ sc conscgu|sscmos c|o c+m|n|o um
,c||mum ou um uc|,o oo sc|tio oc||c|oso m+s |+|o n+uc|+ ob|cz+ +|gum+s |+sc+s oc c+|nc
oc so| ou mcsmo um+s |+|zcs oc m+c+xc||+ Os t|+b+||os sc +|ong+|+m no|tc + ocnt|o (o
|cmo||+
,+o
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
u+nt+s vczcs os c|cnt|st+s com +s g|+nocs bot+s oc bo||+c|+ sc mct|+m n+ |+go+ + ocnt|o cs-
ucc|oos o+s |o|+s') c c|+ m+n|i os com+n|c||os cst+v+m |+m|ntos on|+v+m com ovos
c |csunto uc|,o ||csco ||ut+s gc|+o|n|+s c um bc|o c+|c com |c|tc io ||csco c +|no+ ucntc
O C|c|c m+noou uc + ||+ su+ moto||st+ +|t|cu|+| (oc|x+noo os m+tutos +smos +o vc|cm-
-n+ o|||g|| cxc|+m+noo |nc|cou|os V|gc' | mu|c' |ossc +o ovo+oo m+|s |ox|mo com|+| +|go
+|+ o ocs,c,um |c|+-sc mcsmo +o |uxo oc cscc|c+| s+nou|c|cs ||ut+s |cv+noo o|n|c||o
c|+ vo|tou com +cn+s ou+s |+t|+s oc s+|o|n|+ um+ |osc+ bcm +m+n|cc|o+ t|cs ovos c um+
g+||+|+ oc cc|vc,+ c|oc+ |sso tuoo +|+ m+|s oc .o csso+s ^|' |cm mc|cc|+mos nos um m||+-
g|cz|n|o o+ mu|t|||c+io'
|+s cm gc|+| os bo|sos +no+v+m v+z|os Comumcntc +contcc|+ o tcsou|c||o |cccbc| o| cxcm-
|o cm +b||| o +o|+nt+mcnto oc vc|b+ oc ,+nc||o |cvc|c||o c m+|o |ob|c C|c|c ocscsc|+v+-
-sc scnt|noo-sc |csons+vc| c|o bcm cst+| oos scus ||ust|cs co|cg+s oos o|sc|u|os c oos cm|c-
g+oos c os tc|cg|+m+s sc succo|+m +|+ o ||o oc |+nc||o u+sc su||ccs c|o +g+mcnto ^ ||v|-
n+ ||ov|ocnc|+ o|cm nio o ocs+m+|+v+ |+zcnoc||os so||c|tos |cst+t|vos gc|cntcs oc b+ncos
+c|co|t+v+m n+ |ntcg||o+oc o+uc|+ c|cnt|st+ uc |ut+v+ o| um |oc+| c o g+uc|o cncont|+v+
nos scus ||mios oo |o|tc + mio bcno|t+ cstcno|o+ +|+ o cm|cst|mo |ovo |o|m|o+vc| +|t|u|s-
t+ c com|ccns|vo c|uz+v+ + noss+ cst|+o+ oc o|cu|o+ocs
cgu|o+mcntc +s v|+gcns c|+m oc cst||ocs |nno+vc|s cnt|c um+ c out|+ c|o+oc c cscu||oio su|-
|ccno|+ + c+|+v+n+ ||occo|+-sc cntio vot+io +|+ cont|nu+| m+|s uns ,o ;o|m | vcnc|+
scm|c + +|tc|n+t|v+ |o|m||cmos +u| mcsmo ^ occ|sio un+n|mc +|cc|+ |cnov+| os n|mos
+|+ m+|s um+ +vcntu|+ C+o+ um t||+v+ o+ b+g+gcm + su+ |coc c + cstcno|+ no |c|to +|cnoso o+
|oo+gcm nio oc|+| ou no so|o ob|c o+ c++t|ng+ c||oo sc|tio onoc uc| uc |ossc sob
+ +bob+o+ +vc|uo+o+ c |nn|t+ oo ccu
^ ||nc||o scnt|+mo-nos como num s+|io +|+bc |uxuoso +comoo+oos no c|io cm convc|s+s
+n|m+o+s c|os m+|s o|vc|sos c |ntc|css+ntcs +ssuntos com +uc|+ |c|+oc oc |omcns cu|tos |ntc-
||gcntcs c ||bc|tos oos +s-s+|+m-+|+|| (s+|+m+|cucs) o+ soc|co+oc Os mcncst|c|s oo sc|tio cnc+|-
|cg+v+m-sc oo |unoo mus|c+| cm |+ngcntcs to+o+s no|ocst|n+s (| |s+bc| mus|c|st+ +s +not+v+
|cv+noo-+s oco|s +|+ io |+u|o como |c|c|cnc|+ mus|c+ |o|c|o||c+ o+ |cg|io) |m no|tcs oc |c-
n||un|o + not+ oo |om+nt|smo toc+v+ c+o+ um nos ocv+nc|os ||||cos c o cnc+nt+mcnto oc|x+v+ +s
+|m+s cn|u+|+o+s c nio |+v|+ |u+ o cxt+sc to|n+v+-sc co|ct|vo +ntc o ccu |ntc||o ,unc+oo oc too+s
+s cst|c|+s oo cn|o| ^s oc + g|+nocz+ cno|mcs + co|usc+| |u|gu|+ntcs scmc+o+s o| cnt|c +s
mco|+s +s mcno|cs c + oc||+ o+s g+|+x|+s como o m+|s bc|o csct+cu|o n+ m+|o| tc|+ oo munoo
|+o+ m+|s |o|c|o +|+ + +u|+ oc +st|onom|+ c || |ooo||o |n|c|+v+-+ com + co|+bo|+io oc
out|os cntcno|oos no +ssunto cmo|g+noo o g|uo +v|oo oo s+bc| | ocscob||+-sc +s constc|+-
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
,++
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
ocs com su+s ^||+ |ct+ C+m+ |c|t+ ctc +oo|+noo o ocscnc+| oc mctco|os c ocsc,+noo +
+ss+gcm oc um comct+ t|o |+|y t+|vcz ||vc|t|o+ + tu|m+ +ont+v+ com o ocoo t+| ou t+|
+st|o uc o com+n|c||o nio c|ccb|+ c c+v+m + |cc|s+| o |oc+| +|| c|to o+uc|+s ou+s
,unt+s nio m+|s |+ c+ m+|s |+ c|m+ +tc uc o |utu|o +st|onomo s|nton|z+ssc + m||+ no
+g|u+mcnto cstc|+| cc|to |+ b|b||otcc+ vo|+ntc |+v|+ um ^t|+s Cc|cstc +|+ os |ntc|css+oo
c sc +costum+noo + css+ m+tc||+ n|ngucm t|n|+ co|+gcm oc |cc|+| os o||os +ntc t+m+n|o cs-
|cnoo| ^ no|t+o+ |+ |ongc com o|vc|s+s |oo+o+s oc c+|c ucnt|n|o uc com o c|g+||o oc +-
||+ oc m|||o +|| mcsmo +c|o||cnt+mcntc cn|o|+oo cont||bu|+ +|+ uc os c+ns+oos |omcns
oc c|cnc|+ sc scnt|sscm con|o|t+vc|s |c|+x+noo + tcnsio oos |ob|cm+s c cstuoos m+|s sc||os
V+||+noo o |og|+m+ notu|no ||g+v+-sc o gc|+oo| (|omc ||g|t) cm |cno c+mo c o sc|v|o oc
tooos const|tu|+ cm ++n|+| com |cocs cscc|+|s os |nsctos cnc+noc+oos c|+ |o|tc |uz |s+v+-
mos cntio c|+c|ocs oc +||+ com |o ocsccnoo +tc o busto |otcgcnoo-nos o+uc|c |nco-
mooo cnx+mc + csvo++| ocs+t|n+oo Co|oc+v+-sc o m+tc||+| co|||oo +|+ os b|o|ogos +m|gos
oc io |+u|o c oo ||o cm c+|x+s |o||+s uc c+v+m +b+||ot+o+s ocss+ cont||bu|io cntomo-
|og|c+ u+noo |sso sc o+v+ nos v||+|c,os o cnx+mc oc gcntc cm+t+v+ com o o+s m+||os+s
bcsou|os c m|| out|os cscc|mcs +|+oos +t|+|oos c cstontc+oos ||+ um+ |cst+ |nco|t+ +|+ os
sc|t+nc,os o |oo|g|o o+ |uz ||ct||c+
|+v|+ t+mbcm os sc|ocs oc t+x|oc|m|+ o+s +vcs c +n|m+|s +b+t|oos c|o c+m|n|o |nu+nto +s
mios t|+b+||+v+m n+ +|tc uc |cuc| oc||c+ocz+ +s ||ngu+s nio +|+v+m c sc||+ um o|vc|t|mcn-
to cstucnoo +|+ +|gum obsc|v+oo| +|guto o csct+cu|o oc c|cnt|st+s c scn|o|+s m+nusc+noo
|+b||mcntc os b|stu||s n+ o|sscc+io +ntc cscct+oo|cs +ton|tos uc +com+n|+v+m o sc|v|o
c|gunt+noo n+ su+ |gno|nc|+ c |ncom|ccnsio o o|uc o+uc|c csc+|c|+| os b|c|os mo|tos
|io nos +t|n|+mos |+n+t|c+mcntc +o t|+b+||o no scu ob,ct|vo + |sc|cu|tu|+ |c |+to n|ngucm
c|o|+ um m|nuto oo tcmo |cc|osos cm |c|+to||os cstuoos obsc|v+ocs csu|s+s c+o+ um
no scu mctt|c| consc|o oc scu ocvc| ^om||+v+mos t+mbcm +s +u+|c|+s oo |+moso |nto|
|o|n| + ucm c+||n|os+mcntc +c||o+mos oc Ccnc|+| ||onto|on| (|cc|+m+oo|) o|s ,+ oc
|o+oc +v+n+o+ v|v|+ + |csmung+| |otcst+noo ou c||t|c+noo scm uc o |cv+sscmos + sc||o
m+s tooos o |csc|t+v+m c +m+v+m |+z|+ ocscn|os c|cnt|cos uc scm|c |couno+v+m cm
o|cm|c+s com o C|c|c o|s +c|+v+ uc c+||+m m+|s +|t|st|cos com mcnos um +| oc c|n+s
ou o|c+v+ c co|o||+-os +o scu bc| |+zc| |+z|+ csboos oc tuoo u+nto oc o||c|cntc c|+m+ssc
+ +tcnio +|+ o oocumcnt+||o oo t|+b+||o +|cm oc c|xcs oc||nc+v+ +s o|vc|s+s moo+||o+ocs
oos |nst|umcntos oc csc+ o+s cc|c+s oo |o|ocstc |c|t+s oc co|+s oc g|+vctos sccos c +tc oc
|+nt+ ^vc|os |coo oo Cio t|o oc |u|o|b|+cc+ +|busto cscss+ const|tu|oo oc |+stcs |o||+s
contcnoo |c|tc cg+,oso uc o|zcm sc| vcncnoso c|+s t||c+s +oos v+uc||os c +|+ os ,cgucs no
t|+nso|tc oc c+|g+ O +|t|st+ cstucnoo num |nst+ntc t|+nso|t+v+ +|+ + tc|+ +s +|s+gcns v+-
||+o+s ooccs +||o+s t||stcs ou u,+ntcs con|o|mc + zon+ onoc cst|vcsscmos ^ntc + +om||+io
|cmo||+
,+.
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
oc tooos um o|+ co|u-nos num m|sto oc o|gu||o c mcoo o+ ocsv+|o||z+io |o| |+vo| nio
contcm + n|ngucm uc cm +, m|nutos cu |nto um u+o|o' t+| + |+|ocz n+ bc|cz+ c +cu|o+-
oc uc |m||m|+ +os scus +|nc|s
^|||coo |o|n| |t+||+no oc n+sc|mcnto +||+|g+oo |+ mu|tos +nos no ||+s|| cscc|+||zou-sc cm
+u+|c|+s c to|nou-sc con|cc|oo ||nc|+|mcntc cm io |+u|o como |o|csso| c o| su+s cxo-
s|ocs +|cm oc ||ust|+ocs cm ||v|os ^|t|st+ bocm|o o |con+smo bcm sc +,ust+v+ +uc|+ gu|+
|moncntc ^|to |o|tc occ+bc|os c v+sto b|gooc b|+ncos gu+|o+v+ no o|tc c n+ s|onom|+ os
t|+os oo bc|o |omcm uc nos cont+v+ tc| s|oo |o|oo o| |ng|css+| n+ Com|ssio |cvcnoo +n-
o+n+s c +vcntu|+s c|cgou + |+|s|c+| su+ |o+oc nos oocumcntos oc e; +|+ ,, +nos || Von
||c||ng sc |cocu+|+ cm |cv+-|o + um c||m+ o||c|cntc c c|+s c||cc|+s oc+s|on+|s m+s |cv|-
s|vc|s V|o+ |ncc|t+ cm cont|nu+s muo+n+s | como |c+g|+ bcm t+| u+| um ,ovcm + cn||cnt+|
b|+vu|+s' ^t||+v+-sc t+mbcm s +vcntu|+s +mo|os+s com u+|uc| |+bo-oc-s+|+ | v|v|+mos
+ ocs|+zc| os com|om|ssos oc c+s+mcnto uc sc|+v+ com |cg|os |cscntcs |u|to bcm osto
scm|c nos scus |mcc+vc|s tc|nos oc b||m oc|c com bot+s c c|+c|io |+z|+ mcsmo um |u|o|
^s oo|tun|o+ocs oc o|st|+io t+mbcm su|g|+m +n|m+noo c +|cg|+noo +uc|c g|uo un|oo c
|omogcnco cm|c conv|o+oos g|++s con|cc|o+ |os|t+||o+oc oo no|ocst|no o| csso-
+s oc ocst+uc u+noo n+s C+|t+|s o|+|os ,+nt+|cs const|tu|+m |omcn+gcns C|| cm
|+|+c|os oc Covc|n+oo|cs gcntc |mo|t+ntc oos |st+oos ou n+s zon+s m+|s |c|tc|s como +s o+
|+t+ oo b|c,o o+s |+|+s o| |o||t|cos |ntc|css+oos n+ +g||cu|tu|+ us|nc||os +b+st+oos
|cnos ostcns|vos c|+ ob|cz+ oo so|o c oo c||m+ +cc|t+v+mos |gu+|mcntc +g|+occ|oos c con-
tcntcs os conv|tcs oos |osc|os |+zcnoc||os oo sc|tio c t|n|+mos +|moos t|o b+nuctcs com
oczcn+s oc |+tos moo+ t||c+ g+||n|+ oc c+b|oc|+ buc|+o+s c+|nc oc c+|nc||o oc o|co
oc |n+mbu c oc out|+s c++s o um |+nt+g|uc| +gucnt+||+ os +t+ucs o+ u+nt|o+oc oc |gu+||+s
cx|b|o+s cm t|+vcss+s uc v|n|+m |umcg+noo c |csccnocnoo o s+bo| oc||c|oso
|o| vczcs |+ nos c+|unoos cncont|+v+mos tu|m+s o+s cnt|o+ocs |oc||c||c| Ob|+s Cont|+ +s
cc+s c|o|o+s n+uc|cs c|mos c +v|o+s o| um bo+ |os+ c nos |oo|c|on+v+m |c|c|ocs |m-
|ov|s+o+s com o uc uocsscm conscgu|| |osso |+zc| t+mbcm c|+ |mcnso ncsscs cncont|os
com gcntc oo u| ou cst|+ngc||os uc como nos v|v|+m +|+st+oos o+ c|v|||z+io |ncont|+v+mos
t+mbcm com out|os g|uos cm cxcu|sio c|o |o|ocstc como +|uco|ogos |otog|+|os o+ |+mos+
|cv|st+ +mc||c+n+ |+st|on+| Ccog|+||c |+g+z|nc gcntc oo c|v|o oc |ctco|o|og|+ c c|+ + vcz
o+ ||sc|cu|tu|+ o|c|ccc|-||cs +|go oo uc ossu|+mos como num convcscotc u|t|+ ocscont|+|oo
|+s os sc|t+nc,os oonos oc g|+nocs tc||+s com |+nt+ocs oc +|gooio ou oc C+|n+ub+|s co-
uc||+|s ou mcsmo oc c||+io oc g+oo s|m|cs c bon+c|c||ocs nos conv|o+v+m o| cxcm|o
+|+ um+ |mbuz+o+ t||c+ |gu+||+ |c+|+o+ com o umbu coz|oo +ss+oo n+ cnc||+ c m|stu-
|ooo||o von ||c||ng o +| o+ |sc|cu|tu|+'
,+,
|+|c |st|+t ||+s|||+-|| v +e n ,, .,;-,+| ,u|-ocz .o++
|+oo +o |c|tc c +uc+| |m+ oc||c|+ + uc|,+o+ uc|,o mo|c c ucntc uc c com|oo com co||c| c
+com+n|+oo oc ooccs oc +bobo|+ (,c||mum) oc |c|tc oc ,+c+ oc s+bo|osos gos oc m+no+c+-
|u oc coco vc|oc cm c+|o+ cm comotc||+s + nos |nst|g+| + gu|+ |m u+sc too+s css+s c||cuns-
tnc|+s scgu|+m-sc os |o||os ou +||+st+-cs nos tc||c||os com s+n|on+ c o|ucst|+ oc +u c
co|o+ ||+ + |o|+ oos |++zcs mco|cos so|tc||os uns +. + +| sc cs+||+|cm o| cnt|c +s c+b|o-
c|+s ||no+s sc|t+nc,+s c no n+mo|o |ug+z +||mcnt+|cm son|os o|||cc|s ou |moss|vc|s c|t+n-
oo +u| c +|| o |ntc|css+ntc c uc + m+|o||+ oc|cs c+sou-sc com bon|t+s c n+s mo+s oo Cc+|+
|um+ o+s +|+o+s +|+ ocsc+nso |o| csco|||oo um |cc+nto somb||o c ||csco c+su+|mcntc c|to
oc um oos u|t|mos os o+gu+ + co||c| ^os o +|moo t|o |c-n|c +| c ||+ cn|++oos scgu||+m
com m+|s t|cs com+n|c||os +tc o bcno|to ||+c|o + m oc |+v+|cm su+s u|ccs c c|xc||+s Con-
vc|s+noo cnt|ct|oos +cn+s c|ccbc|+m uc +|go sc mov|mcnt+|+ n+ out|+ m+|gcm o| cnt|c +
|o||+gcm c v|mos ++|ccc|cm gu|+s oc c+bc|os |ongos c ocsg|cn|+oos cobc|tos c|o t||co
c|+cu oc cou|o b+t|oo n+ ||cntc c c|c|os oc mct+|s b||||+noo |o|t+v+m ||cs c t|+z|+m scus
c+nt|s n+s mios Ccn+ t|+g|com|c+ sc ocu Os oo|s g|uos +o sc oc||ont+|cm su||csos +cn+s sc
t+|+m o| scgunoos c +mbos |ug||+m cs+vo||oos c+o+ u+| +|+ scu |+oo |os cc|tos oc sc|cm
c+ng+cc||os c c|cs cns+noo cst+|mos csco|t+oos |o| o nosso cncont|o c+|+ + c+|+ com Co||sco
|u+ ||+nc+ Vo|t+ cc+ c m+|s oo|s b+noo|c||os ^||+s t|cs moto||st+s o+ cxco|io cvc||no
^b|||o c Oo||on |+v|+m c|tcnc|oo +o b+noo oc |+m|io C+|mos |csc|tosos c cc|cntcs |ogo
sc cnt|os+|+m com os mcmb|os o+ C|| o mu|to tcmo m+|s t+|oc num+ cst+|+gcm c|cs |o-
|+m |ccon|cc|oos c|o oono o+ csc|unc+ con|cc|oo co|tc||o oo c+ng+o
^os +|guns +nos oc c|m+ncnc|+ nos |st+oos oo |o|ocstc cm tc||cnos oc toog|++ v+||+-
o+ c oc +c|ocntcs gcog|+cos c ,+ +b+||z+oos u+nto s |+un+s oos scus ||os c +uocs o C|c|c
|cso|vcu +m||+| os con|cc|mcntos c cstuoos cm +gu+s o+ ^m+zon|+ +|cm oc sono+| +s oss|-
b|||o+ocs oc t|+zc| oc |+ c|xcs c+|nuoos c s+bo|osos como o ||+|ucu tucun+|c su|ub|m +|+
c|uz+mcnto ou +o+t+io n+s |c|cs+s no|ocst|n+s