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NASA

Technical

Paper

1538

Simulator
Study
of
Stall Characteristics
Fighter

Airplane

Longitudinal

Luat

T.

Kemper

DECEMBER

Nguyen,
S.

Kibler,

1979

With

Static

Marilyn
Phillip

Stall/Postof a

E.
W.

Relaxed

Stability

Ogburn,
Brown,

William
and

P.
Perry

Gilbert,
L. Deal

NASA

Technical

Simulator
Stall

Paper

Study

T.

Kemper

S.

Langley

Research

Hampton,

Marilyn

Kibler,

Phillip
Center

Virginia

BJt A
National

With

Static

Nguyen,

Aeronautics

and Space Administration


Scientific and Technical
Information
Branch

Stall/Postof

Airplane

Longitudinal

1979

of

Characteristics

Fighter

Luat

1538

E.
W.

a
Relaxed

Stability

Ogburn,
Brown,

William
and

P.
Perry

Gilbert,
L. Deal

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS
1

oo.oooo_OO

SUMMARY

.........

1
ooO
oo

INTRODUCTION

......
2
oO
oo

SYMBOLS

.........
7
.....

DESCRIPTION

OF

AIRPLANE

...................
8

DESCRIPTION

OF

Coc

kpit
Visual

and

SIMULATOR

.......

Associated

Equipment

Display

Computer

...............
................

..........

Program

..........

.................
9

EVALUAT
Wind

PROCEDURES

I ON

-Up
Bank-to-Bank

Turn

Tracking

.............
...............

Tracking

Task

.................

....
i0

..............

Performance

I0

Task

of

......

Tracking

Task

Evaluation

i0

ACM

....

I0

"

"

"

............
ii
CHARACTERISTICS

DISCUSSION

OF

STABILITY

Longitudinal

AND

CONTROL

Characteristics

Lateral-Directional

DISCUSSION

OF

......

Characteristics

.NG

12

............

HIGH-ANGLE-OF-ATTACK

INERTIA-COUPLI

............

KINEMATIC-

PHENOMENA

AND

13

........

............
16

DEPARTUREBasic

AND

SPIN-RESISTANCE

Control

System

Control-System
Effect

SIMULATION

Aft

16

.............

18

.........................

Modifications

of

RESULTS

Center

of

24

....................
Gravity

............
25

DEEP-STALL

SIMULATION

RESULTS

25

............

Description

of

Methods

of

Problem

Recovery

.....

........

.......

27

.................
29
.

TRACKING
Results

RESULTS
of
Basic

Results

of

.......
Control

Control

System

Systems

(Control
and

System

A)

29
3O

.........

............
32
o

INTERPRETATION

OF

RESULTS

.................
32

SUMMARY

OF

RESULTS

...............
34

APPENDIX

DESCRIPTION

OF

CONTROL

SYSTEM

.............
36

APPENDIX

DESCRIPTION

APPENDIX

SPECIAL

OF

EQUATIONS

AND

DATA

EMPLOYED

IN

SIMULATION
41
.

EFFECTS

...................

iii

REFERENCES................................

42

TABLES ..................................

43

FIGURES..................................

94

iv

SUMMARY
A real-time piloted simulation has been conducted to evaluate the highangle-of-attack
characteristics
of a fighter
configuration
based on wind-tunnel
testing of the F-16, with particular
emphasis on the effects of various levels
of relaxed longitudinal
static stability.
The aerodynamic data used in the
simulation were based on low-speed wind-tunnel tests of subscale models. The
simulation was conducted on the Langley differential
maneuvering simulator,
and
the evaluation involved representative
low-speed combat maneuvering.
Results of the investigation
showed that the airplane with the basic control system was resistantto
the classical
yaw departure; however, it was susceptible to pitch departures induced by inertia
coupling
during
rapid,
largeamplitude
which

rolls
could

system

at

be

low

flown

modifications

ceptibility
means

to

for

the

airspeed.

The

into

and

from

were

developed

airplane

which
which

inertia-coupling

recovering

from

also

it

was

greatly

departure

the

deep

exhibited

difficult

a
to

decreased

and

deep-stall

the

which

trim

recover.

Control-

airplane

provided

sus-

reliable

stall.

INTRODUCTION

Rapid

advances

possible

the

aircraft.
ciple
to

In
of

low

even

sonic

operates

bility

are

at

Obviously,
factory
tem
pilot

to

The

have

use

of

angles

of

which

and
2)

inherent

trol
on

positive

attack

system

in

some

of

characteristics
the

low-speed

pitch
result

impose
that

F-16.

at

The
(DMS)

study
and

wind-tunnel

of

design
these

used

in

severe
the

the

higher

of

subscale

static

of

system

throughout

on

the

attained.

of

present

their

on

the

of

on

on

the

conducted

was
stability

areas
conducted
and

configuration

results
at

high

flight

maneuver-

differential
the

at

the

problem

fighter

Langley

based
models

systhe

investigation

investigation

effects

attack

of

maximum

earlier

satis-

envelope.

problems

design

An

to

flight

control

sub-

control

appears
the

demanding

low

insta-

provide

the

airplane

air-

which
at

to

Fundamentally,
the

an

pitch

high-angle-of-attack

data

and

F-16,

control

that

designed
regimes.

margin

levels

characteristics

of

i) ;
the

on

the

prin-

is

configurations-

The

aerodynamic

is

fighter

the

flight

fighter

are

and

conducted

(ref.

negative

to

future

potential

was

known
RSS

made
to

airframe

certain

requirements

concept.

angles

turned

basic

of

have

concepts

in

of

some

desired

problems

been

much

stability

high

tests

use

such

resistance

RSS

well

years

(CCV)

the

characteristics.

can

some

the

greatly

static

order

identified
with

for

stability

departure/spin

evaluate

simulator

rely

control

however,

ability
(ref.

and

are
makes

levels

considered

artificial

RSS,

control

to

designs

which

involving

recent

has

stability

which

moderate

CCV

in

pitch
concept

designs

being

provide

(RSS)

this

very

now

stability

must

of

in
vehicle

attention

static

development

Advanced
also

technology

configured

stability

negative

under

speeds.

avionic

control

considerable

benefits

currently

nominally

of

static

or

performance

plane

aircraft

particular,

relaxed

have

The

in

application

maneuvering
of

the

conbased

NASA

number
Langley

of

and Ames Research Centers.


The objectives
of the study were (i) to determine
the controllability
and departure resistance of the subject configuration
during
lg and accelerated stalls;
(2) to determine the departure susceptibility
of the
configuration
during demanding air-combat maneuvers; (3) to identify
high-angleof-attack problems inherent to the RSS design and assess their impact on maneuverability;
and (4) to develop and evaluate control schemes to circumvent or
alleviate
these shortcomings.
SYMBOLS
All aerodynamic data and flight
motions are referenced to the body system
of axes shown in figure i.
The units for physical quantities
used herein are
presented in the International
System of Units (SI) and U.S. Customary Units.
The measurements and calculations
were made in U.S. Customary Units.
Conversion
factors for the two systems are given in reference 3.
an

normal acceleration,
(ig : 9.8 m/sec 2)

ay

lateral

wing span, m (ft)

CL

lift

C_

rolling-moment

positive

acceleration,

coefficient,

Aerodynamic

along negative

positive

Z body axis,

along positive

Aerodynamic

lift

Y body axis,

force

9s
coefficient
rolling

about

body

axis,

moment

_Sb

total

rolling-moment

pitching-moment
Aerodynamic

coefficient

coefficient
pitching
w

about

body

axis,

moment

--

qSc

Cm,t

total

pitching-moment

Cn

yawing-moment
Aerodynamic

coefficient

coefficient
yawing

about

body

axis,

moment

_Sb

Cn,t

total

CX

X-axis

yawing-moment

force

Aerodynamic

CX,t

total

X-axis

coefficient

coefficient
X-axis

force

along
force

coefficient

positive

body

axis,

g units
g units

Y-axis

Cy

force

coefficient

Aerodynamic

Cy,t

total

Cz

Z-axis

Y-axis

Y-axis

force

force

total

wing

mean

along

force

aerodynamic

chord,

lateral

Flong

pilot

longitudinal

stick

Fped

pilot

pedal

positive

GARI

ARI

acceleration

gcom

pilot-commanded

He

engine

altitude,

IXz

stick

due

angular

moments

product

body

axis,

(ft)

positive

force,

for

right

positive

for

gravity,

roll,

for

right

yaw,

m/sec

aft

(ft/sec

acceleration,

momentum,

(ib)

force,

(ib)

(ib)

kg-m2/sec

2)

units

(slug-ft2/sec)

(ft)

of

of
2

to

normal

inertia

inertia

(slug-ft

Mach

Mic

pitching

moment

airplane

mass,

P1

force,

force,

positive

gain

kg-m

Ni c

axis,

coefficient

pilot

body

force

Flat

Ix,Iy,I

coefficient

Z-axis

Z-axis

positive

force

coefficient

Aerodynamic

Cz,t

along

about

with

X,

respect

Y,

and

to

body

and

axes,

body

kg-m

(slug-ft

axes,

2)

number

yawing

period,

engine

moment

due

kg

due

to

inertia

coupling,

(I Z

IX)Pr

, N-m

(ft-lb)

(slugs)

to

inertia

coupling,

(I x

Iy)pq,

N-m

(ft-lb)

sec

power

command

based

command

to

on

throttle

position,

percent

power

P2

engine

power

P3

engine

power,

percent

of

engine,

maximum

percent

power

of

maximum

power

of

maximum

2)

airplane

Pcom

pilot-commanded

(Pcom)max

roll

rate

roll

maximum

about

rate,

commandable

stability-axis

Ps

static

airplane

pitch

rate

airplane

pitch

acceleration

component

of

qa

roll

rate,

N/m

rate,

deg/sec

or

rad/sec

deg/sec

deg/sec

(ib/ft

or

rad/sec

2)

about

airplane

axis,

deg/sec

roll

Pstab

pressure,

body

body

axis,

about

pitch

deg/sec

body

acceleration

or

axis,

rad/sec

deg/sec

due

to

aerodynamic

due

to

inertia

or

rad/sec

moments,

or
< Iy]

qicl

m,t'

component

deg/sec2

of

rad/sec2

airplane

pitch

acceleration

coupling,

Iz
q

free-stream

range,
m

Ig_)pr,

dynamic

rf

filtered

rstab

stability-axis

rate

yaw

about

rad/sec

N/m

distance

yaw-rate

acceleration

component

of

component

(lb/ft

2)

between

subject

deg/sec

or

and

target

airplanes,

wing

Laplace

total

Tidle

idle

Iy)

area,

signal,

about

rad/sec

deg/sec
Z

airplane

rad/sec

deg/sec

rate,

body

yaw

or

rad/sec

axis,

acceleration

deg/sec2

deg/sec

or

due

to

aerodynamic

due

to

inertia

moments,

rad/sec2

airplane

qp,

yaw

deg/sec

m 2

acceleration

or

rad/sec

(ft 2)

variable,

i/sec

instantaneous

thrust,

axis,

or

of

I X IZ
-

body

yaw

(qSb_ C
<-_--y] n,t'

or

pressure,

straight-line

yaw

ricl

(ft)

ra

deg/sec

engine

(Ib)

thrust,

(lb)

coupling,

maximum

thrust,

(ib)

Tmax
military

thrust,

(ib)

Tmil
time,

time

sec
to

damp

to

one-half

amplitude,

sec

tl/2
components

UyVrW

of

m/sec

airplane

velocity

along

X,

y,

and

body

axes,

(ft/sec)

airplane

resultant

velocity,

airplane

acceleration

m/sec

along

(ft/sec)
body

axis,

m/sec2

(ft/sec2)

w
component

of

due

to

aerodynamic

force,

Q_mSlCz,t

'

_a
m/sec

(ft/sec2)

component

of

due

to

pitch

rate,

component

of

due

to

kinematic

airplane

body

qu,

m/sec2

(ft/sec2)

Wacl
coupling,

-pv,

m/sec2

(ft/sec2)

Wac2
axes

(see

fig.

i)

X,Y,Z
center-of-gravity

location,

fraction

Xcg

of

location
reference

for

aerodynamic

data

center-of-gravity

Xcg,ref
angle

of

attack,

filtered

deg

angle-of-attack

signal,

deg

@f
indicate

angle

angle

of

of

sideslip,

attack,

deg

deg

aileron

deflection,

positive

for

left

roll,

aileron

deflection

commanded

by

control

maximum

aileron

deg

6a
system,

deg

_a,c
deflection,

deg

6a,max
differential

horizontal-tail

deflection,

differential

horizontal-tail

deflection

positive

for

left

roll,

by

control

deg

6d
5d,c

control,
horizontal

_h,C

system

deg
horizontal

@h

commanded

stabilator

deflection,

positive

for

deflection

commanded

by

airplane

nose-down

deg
stabilator

control

system,

deg

@lef

leading-edge

6r

rudder

flap

deflection,

6sb

speed-brake

@tef

trailing-edge

tracking

rudder

flap

error,

horizontal

component

e,_,_

Euler

TT

engine-thrust

angles,

aircraft

p_bb
2V

CZ

Cm
36r

CXq

Cn_,dyn

CZq

axis

and

factor

sec

deg/sec

3c

r_bb
2V

=
_

3c
6a

Cnp

_@a

Cn_

Iz
--Cz
I X

3C n

pb
2-V

Cn r
3

_C n
sin

_
Cn_

_6 a

Cn6

_6 r

3Cy

q_
2V

Cyp

rb
2--_

3C n

3Cy

pb
2V

CYr

rb
2--_

Subscripts:

ds

deep

lef

increment

of

variable

produced

flaps;

for

example,

ACm,le

by

stall

retraction

of

leading-edge

by
f

full

retraction

indicates
flaps

of

increment
from

25

C_

3C n

q_
2V

_
_

3C Z

q_
2V

body

deg

deg

velocity,

3Cx

down,

deg

constant,

3C n
_

edge

airplane

Cn_

off),

trailing

3C m

_r

_,

for

C z
_

3C_

deg

deg

evaluation

Zr

down,

deg

effectiveness

angular

3c

edge

deg

total

(angle

of

time

3c_
-

leading

yaw,

positive

between

stabilator

lateral

left

deflection,

for

deg

angle

vector

for

deflection,

deflection,

range

positive

positive

pilot-commanded

r,com

C z

deflection,

to

leading-edge
in

Cm

produced

initial

value

sb

increment

in variable

produced by deflection

of speed brake

deflection
of control surface
i to value
j; for example, AC%,6a=20o
indicates increment of C_ produced by deflection
of ailerons to
6a : 20

6i=j

Abbreviations
._ACM

air-combat

maneuvering

ARI

aileron-rudder

interconnect

CAS

commandaugmentation

CCV

control

DL

deflection

DMS

Langley differential

IAS

indicated

LCDP

lateral

RL

rate

RSS

relaxed

rms

root mean square

SAS

stability

SM

static

configured
limit,

vehicle
deg

airspeed,
control

limit,

system

maneuvering simulator
knots

divergence

parameter

deg/sec

static

stability

augmentation

system

margin
DESCRIPTIONOF AIRPLANE

A three-view sketch of the simulated configuration


is shown in figure 2,
and the mass and geometric characteristics
used in the simulation are listed in
table I.
The airplane control system is described in detail
in appendix A.
The primary aerodynamic controls include symmetric deflection
of the horizontal
tail
(stabilator)
for pitch control,
deflection
of conventional wing-mounted
ailerons and differential
deflection
of the horizontal
stabilators
for roll
control,
and rudder deflection
for yaw control.
One special feature of the configuration
is the use of a normalacceleration-command longitudinal
control system which provides static stability,
normal-acceleration
limiting,
and angle-of-attack
limiting.
The airplane is balanced to minimize trim drag, with the effect that it has slightly

negative static longitudinal


stability
at low Mach numbers; the desired static
stability
is provided artificially
by the control system. Other features
include (i) wing leading-edge flaps which are automatically
deflected as a function of angle of attack and Mach number; (2) a roll-rate
commandsystem in the
roll axis; (3) an aileron-rudder
interconnect
and a stability-axis
yaw damper
in the yaw axis; and (4) a force-sensing
(minimum displacement) side-stick
controller
and force-sensing
rudder pedals.
The airplane engine characteristics
used in the present study are described in appendix B, and the buffet characteristics
are described in appendix C.
Most of the simulated flights
were made at a center-of-gravity
location
0.35_ although locations as far aft as 0.39_ were also investigated.
All
results shown in this report are for the 0.35_ center-of-gravity
location
unless otherwise stated.

of

DESCRIPTIONOF SIMULATOR
The Langley differential
maneuvering simulator
(DMS) is a fixed-base simulator which has the capability
of simultaneously simulating two airplanes as
they maneuver with respect to one another and of providing a wide-angle visual
display for each pilot.
A sketch of the general arrangement of the DMShardware
and control console is shown in figure 3. Two 12.2-m (40-ft) diameter projection spheres each enclose a cockpit, an airplane-image projection
system, and a
sky-Earth-Sun projection
system. A control console located between the spheres
is used for interfacing
the hardware and the computer, and it displays critical
parameters for monitoring hardware operation.
Each pilot is provided a projected image of his opponent's airplane, with the relative
range and attitude
of the target shown by a television
system which is controlled
by the computer
program.
Cockpit and Associated

Equipment

A photograph of one of the cockpits and the target visual display is shown
in figure 4. A cockpit is provided with an instrument display and a computerdriven gunsight representative
of current fighter aircraft
equipment.
However,
this study used a fixed gunsight for tracking.
Each cockpit is located to
position the pilot's
eyes near the center of the sphere so that he has a field
of view representative
of that obtained in current fighter
airplanes.
For the
present study, a special modification
was made to one cockpit to incorporate the
side-stick
controller
as shown in figure 5. The controller
was placed in the
same general cockpit location as the controller
in the F-16 airplane;
however,
no special armrest was provided (as is the case in the actual airplane)
other
than the regular seat armrest which provided more of an elbow rest than a support for the forearm.
The normal hydraulic control feel system was not employed
for this simulation since the side-stick
controller
and rudder pedals were force
sensitive,
with no deflection
required to activate the controls.
Although the
cockpits are not provided with attitude
motion, each cockpit incorporates
a
buffet system capable of providing programmable root-mean-square
(rms) buffet
accelerations
as high as 0.5g, with up to three primary structural
frequencies
simulated.

Visual

Display

The visual display in each sphere consists of a target image projected onto
a sky-Earth scene. The sky-Earth scene is generated by two point light sources
projecting
through two hemispherical transparencies,
one transparency of blue
sky and clouds and the other of terrain features;
the scene provides a welldefined horizon band for reference purposes.
No provision
is made to simulate
translational
motion with respect to the sky-Earth scene (such as altitude
variation);
however, spatial attitude
motions are simulated.
A flashing light
located in the cockpit behind the pilot is used as a cue when an altitude
of
less than 1524 m (5000 ft) is reached.
The
target-image
generation
system
uses
an

airplane

model

zoom

lens

to

F-16

size

airplane,

with
For

an

- (300

ft)

to

contrast

13

mounted

700

between

blackout
"anti-g"

cues

to

high

four-axis

000

can

the

sky-Earth

engine,

of

of

and
of

The

DMS

CYBER

lated

is

by

of

of

equations

(M

conducted

Mach

of

0.i

in

range

to

equations

of

Reynolds

to

and

in

history

results
records

maneuvers

test

current

fighter

test

pilot

also

flew

The

of

the

pilots

airplane

in

the

system
airplane

warning
4.

were

The

sec)

calcu-

numerical-

data

derived

data
from

were
the

as

from

not

force

included
-30

an

to

angle-

30 .

included

aerodynamic

func-

results

Effects

in

data

the

and

the

and

time-

B.

PROCEDURES

based

controls,

with
a

Control

(forced-oscillation)

U.S.

on
and

evaluations

familiar

a
were

aerodynamic

range

of

and

(1/32

data

sideslip

were

however,

inflat-

sound

Air

high-angle-of-attack

comments

tracking

were
the

pilot

performed

air-combat
Force

flight

the

various

by

two

NASA

maneuvers

test
tests

for

pilot
of

the

used

and

F-16

with

contractor
airplane

simulator.

evaluation

"open-loop"

were

airplanes;

involved
the

who

of

an

and

reference

simulation

dynamic

appendix

motions,

Most

of

artificial
in

evaluation

aeroelasticity

investigation

airplane

performed.

research

the

of

as

given

nonlinear

EVALUATION

The

well

facilities.

or

simulation

use

loads,

are

These

descriptions

given

as

range.

include
the

90

brightness

minimum

C),

fixed-interval

used

and

number,

are

the

form.

90

Complete

motion

with

wind-tunnel

-20

model.

of

static

10-to-i

hardware

sphere.

from

Program

equations

0.2)

DMS

digital

tabular

several

from

number,

mathematical

in

camera
the

range

at

appendix

facility

dynamics
motion

television
within

simulated
with

noise

DMS

real-time

The

and/or

low-speed

of-attack

a
The

technique.

of

tests

by

computer.

using

integration
tions

driven

175

normal-acceleration

Computer

Data

the

weapons

the

background

(see

simulation

and

projector

airplanes,

features

details

system

target

provide

accelerations

for

wind,

the

between

and

normal

Additional

to

system
ft)

target

gimbal

image

the

(45

garment

simulate

systems.

a
an

special-effects
at

able

m
the

Additional
of

in

provide

was

maneuvers
at

high

conducted
to

assess

angles

of

in
basic
attack,

two

phases.

stability
and

the

The
and
second

first
control
phase

phase

involved

characteristics
involved

tracking

of
a

simulated F-16 as a target airplane through a series of maneuvers representative


of those used in air combat in order to examine flying qualities
under these
conditions.
Maneuvers used in the first
phase included ig and accelerated
stalls,
with various control inputs applied at specific conditions.
Table II
lists the primary maneuvers used in this phase. In addition to documenting the
stability
and response to control characteristics
of the airplane and familiar E
izing the pilot with these characteristics,
this phase also provided an assessment of the departure and spin susceptibility
of the configuration.
Results
from the first
phase of the study were used to design the tracking task_ used in
the second phase. Several tasks were chosen for use during the second phase of
the study:
(i) a steady wind-up turn tracking task, (2) a bank-to-bank maneuvering task, and (3) a complex, vigorous air-combat maneuvering (ACM) task.
Wind-Up Turn Tracking

Task

A steady wind-up turn was flown, with the target airplane slowly increasing
angle of attack in order to provide a tracking situation
in which the pilot could
evaluate the fine tracking capability
of the evaluation airplane at high angles
of attack.
Initially,
both airplanes were at an altitude
of 9144 m (30 000 ft)
and M : 0.6, with the subject airplane 457.2 m (1500 ft) directly
behind the
target and at the same heading as the target.
Upon initiation
of the run, the
target established a left-bank attitude
which varied between -40 and -i00
during the maneuver. Angle of attack was gradually increased up to a maximumof
about 3g normal acceleration.
The evaluation pilot attempted to track the target
as closely as possible while maintaining a range of less than 609.6 m (2000 ft).
Time histories
of the target motions are shown in figure 6.
Bank-to-Bank Tracking

Task

As shown in figure 7, this task involved tracking the target airplane


through a series of bank-to-bank maneuvers (or horizontal
S's) at high angles
of attack.
These maneuvers enabled the pilot to evaluate his ability
to roll
the subject airplane rapidly,
to acquire the target,
and to stabilize
while at
high angle of attack.
ACMTracking

Task

The ACMtracking task was developed to be more representative


of the complex, nonrepetitive
maneuvers which may be encountered during air-to-air
combat.
The time histories
of the target motions are shown in figure 8. In general, the
task covered a speed range of 0.25 to 0.6 Mach and required the tracking airplane to perform several large-amplitude
rolling
maneuvers at low-speed, highangle-of-attack
conditions.
Evaluation

of Performance

In evaluating the simulated airplane,


numerous runs were made in each of
the tasks.
Sufficient
flights
were made to ensure that the pilot's
"learning
i0

curve" was reasonably well established before drawing any conclusions on evaluation results.
Evaluation of performance was based on pilot comments, the
ability
of the pilot to execute the tasks assigned, and the analysis of time
histories
of airplane motions and tracking.
DISCUSSIONOF STABILITY AND CONTROL
CHARACTERISTICS
To provide a foundation for the analysis and interpretation
results which follow,
selected aerodynamic stability
and

tion
istics

of

this

the

simulated

airplane

configuration

presented

and

character-

discussed

in

section.

Longitudinal

The
these

aerodynamic

data

characteristics

dynamic

but

the

highly

A
level

swept

as

at

attack

approximately

longitudinal

attack

feedback

that

figure

nose-up

-4

to

i0

stabilator

these

extreme

percent.

that

deflection

(6 h

angles

of

attack,

the

of-attack/normal-acceleration
attempt

to

complete

in

limit

limiting

the

angle

of

system

attack

control

Two

other

important

points

regarding

figure

i0.

The

is

marked

due

loss

in

to

stall

system
of

lators

deflected

stable

trim

point

important

is

the

of

is

shown

seen,
_h =
loss

there
0"
in

is

very

However,
stabilator

in

angles
is

available

qualities,

important
_

to

66

note

with

full

excursions

the

an

to

angle-

stabilator

in

discussion

stability

nose-down

of

of

attack

nose-down

greater

an
the

the

moment

that

airplane

in
even

noted

25 .

because

shown
Note

be

effectivethan

critical
control

point.

should

stabilator

particularly

control,

of

A.

characteristic
trim

is

further

longitudinal

important

to

prevent

figure
with

exhibits

The

the

i0
the

is
stabi-

weak

but

60

aerodynamic
of

characteristic

Cm

with

wind-tunnel
little

drives

modest

angle-of-

incorporates

25 .

angles

angles

inadvertent

which

20 ,

35 .

low

with

at

system

position

flying

trim

appendix

loss
for

nose-down

variation
by

in

deep-stall

full
_

the

other

stable

at

given

surfaces

on

The

for

airplane
which

the

below

effectiveness

relies
25 .

existence

Another

these

control

exceeding

the

of

nose-down

limiter
from

first

is

to

pitch

ness

system

control

exhibits

A)

inhibit

higher
d

at

It

will

To

pitch

it

margin

stability.

airplane

-250).

at

near

that

flow-

near

lift

appendix

aero-

wind-tunnel

satisfactory
(see

pitch

The

center-of-gravity

provide

the
=

is

of

B.

stalled

obtained

Static

equipped

artificial

during

produce

was

i0.

To

indicates

to

representation

appendix

panels

nominal

figure

is

noted

C L

the

the
in

configuration

at
in

and

wing

continued

the

system

provide

also

as

Maximum

shown

control

III,

discussed

outer

strake
9.

of

as

is

the

instability

speeds,

table

configuration
that

figure

pitch

low

is

the

such

characteristic

static

(0.35_)

in

in

simulation

wing-body

shown

notable
of

were

Characteristics

listed

the
of

tests

attack,

the

are

in

characteristics

visualization

of

are

of the simulacontrol

data

variation

the
data
for
effectiveness

_
for
of

exhibited

at
d

high
=

pitching

angles

25

in

moment

by
of

figure
with

the

simulated

attack,
ii.

an
As

sideslip

nose-down
stabilator
deflections
for
sideslip
magnitudes
greater

show
than

can

example
be

for
a sharp
about
i0 .
ii

Thus, if a departure involving large sideslip excursions should occur, the


effectiveness
of the angle-of-attack
limiter
system to maintain
_ at or below
25 will be further degraded by the reduction in available
nose-down control
moment.
Lateral-Directional
Static
bility

lateral-directional

characteristics

deflections
bility

are

directional
each

of

between
as

an

angles

of

tence
was

Cn_,

about

which

caused

less,

it

is

a directional
attack.

The
ration
by

ness

of

the

20

the

very
40

available

to

The

the

(_

the

These

proper

control

effectiveness

divergence
at

/Cn6a_
LCDP

Cn_

produced
become

CZ_C--_@a)

indicate

high

yaw

of

parameter
angles

and

35 .

to

by

for

the

the

and

configucaused

constant
effectiveup

surfaces

rudder.

Only

compared

to

yaw

the

to
above

with

configuration

up

and

of

sustained

these

the

minimize

attack.

40 ,

angles

significant

roll

increments

well

up

Neverthe-

high

by

that

(LCDP)
of

Roll-control

characteristics

and

attack
values,

essentially

25o).

produced

moments
data

at

and

of

through

moment

good

yaw

coordination

adverse

<

moments

control

roll-control

lateral

roll-control
as

12

with
yawing

high
(_

was

adverse

high

exis-

configuration

angles

at

of

at
the

(negative)

up

C_

slice)

characteristics

terms

attack
tails

the

compared

if

in
was

of

expected

control
13

for

Cn_,dy

be

the

unstable

positive

not

differential

moments.

25 )

of

and

indicate

that

laterally)

remained

angle

adverse

indicate

At

investigations

(nose

usually

large

effectiveness
of

whereas

small
do

12

value

past

dynamic

attack.

Cn_

in

sta-

the

of

sloping

used

parameter

and

figure

lateral-directional

limit

suppress

and

rudder

exhibitgood
attack

rudder

limit,

was
_

in

been

and

angle

divergence

reached

the

of

flap

directional

CZ_,

by

sta-

leading-edge

static

functions

has

this

aerodynamic

range

ailerons

therefore

shown

The

operational

angle-of-attack

above

in

the

computed

figure

Cn_

would

are

control.

of

parameter

lateral-directional

full
the

this

of

directional

of

30 ,

decrease

that

of

lateral-directional

scheduled

derivative

as

directionally

divergence

at

over

sharp

seen

Cn_,dy

data

(both

Above

n
were

values

The

terms

dihedral

C_

existence

Negative

stable

28 .

and

static

with

in

Cn_,dy

parameter

the

divergence.

statically

to

The
of

12

effective

Cn_

attack.

of

the

The

airplane

figure

parameter

-+4 .

indication

basic

in

attack,

the

presented

stability

angle

stability.-

of

derivative

Characteristics

should

angle-of-

controls

is

used

sideslip.

is

often

This

used

parameter

to

appraise
is

defined

the

for ailerons

only,

or by

I_
+ GARICn6r_
LCDP= Cn$ - CZ_k 6a@a
+ GARIC_6r]
where GARI is the ratio of rudder deflection
to aileron deflection
for an airplane with an aileron-rudder
interconnect
(ARI). Positive values of this parameter indicate normal roll response, and negative values indicate reversed
response.
When reversed response is encountered, a right roll-control
input by
the pilot will cause the airplane to roll to the left.
The variation
of LCDP
with angle of attack for the subject airplane is presented in figure 14. For
the airplane with the basic control system, the parameter becomes negative above
= 25 , which indicates reversed response if roll control alone was used in
this region.
Addition of the ARI provided a large positive
increment in LCDP
above _ : 15 such that the LCDPvalues remained positive
up through d = 40 .
This result indicates that the augmented airplane should exhibit
normal response
to roll-command inputs throughout the operational
angle-of-attack
range.
Dynamic

lateral-directional

directional
basis

stability

of

three

the

aerodynamic

SAS

on

and

i/tl/2
indicate
Dutch
for

off

roll,

three

are

and

are

roll

modes

yaw

roll

modes

in

values
to

A;

augmentation

aileron-rudder
activates
when

DISCUSSION

the

primary

and
29 .

OF

with

shown

in
the
(_

As

an

additional

kinematic-

aid
and

the
high-angle-of-attack
reviewed
in
this
section.

in

e,

whereas

of

the

features
(2)
(4)

a
an

of

15.

analyzing

characteristics

of

with

both

attack

that

opposite

Figure
of

is
the

15
the

all

the

Dutch

true

for

lateral-

shows

that

the

Dutch

roll

and

25o).

control

the

roll/yaw

stability-axis
automatic

system
SAS

yaw

are

damper,

spin-prevention

HIGH-ANGLE-OF-ATTACK

inertia-coupling

of

show

stability
the

stability

parameter

angle

SAS

airplane

figure

the

values
of
I/tl/2
for
the
classical
of

The

and

with

damping

without
30 .

the

equations

function

to

on

calculations
the

lateral-directional

INERTIA-COUPLING

several

lateral-

calculated

Positive
are
shown

as

up

the
of

airplane

envelope

system,

interconnect,
_
exceeds

of

enhanced

of

the

terms

motion
the

also

dynamic

were

of

modes.
Data

for

decrease

flight

discussion

in

characteristics
are

normal

results
15

of

data

significantly

appendix

rate-command

for

operative

detailed
in

modes

The

tends

the

figure

classical

airplane

lateral-directional

The

of
oscillatory
modes
of
motion.

Stability

SAS

B.

in

roll

stable

SAS

and

and

mode.

directional

tained

presented

period
P
or
stable

the

linearized

appendix

conditions.

spiral

roll

of

spiral,

trim
modes

roll
the

data

The

of

degree-of-freedom

and
the
damped

ig

stability.-

characteristics

KINEMATIC-

is

con-

(i)

(3)

an

system

roll-

which

AND

PHENOMENA

the

simulation

phenomena
of

the

results
which

F-16

which

significantly

airplane

are

follow,
influence
briefly

13

Figure 16 illustrates
the kinematic coupling between angle of attack and
sideslip that occurs when an airplane is rolled about its X-axis at high angles
of attack.
If the airplane is flying at angle of attack with the wings level
(fig. 16(a)) and the pilot initiates
a pure rolling
motion about its X-axis
(fig. 16(b)), all the initial
angle of attack will have been converted into
sideslip after 90 of roll.
Because it is undesirable to generate large amounts
of sideslip at high angles of attack from a roll-performance,
as well as a
departure-susceptibility,
viewpoint, most current fighters
(including the F-16)
are designed to roll more nearly about the velocity
vector than the body axis.
It

is

obvious

nates

the

system
and

that

coupling

shows
that

these

If

this

this

rates

control

damper

its

In
ure

the

16(b)

into

sin

(p

second
and

verse

90

effect
limit

kinematic
for

The
dynamics

14

into

rate

as

the

elimi-

body-axis

well

as

roll

rate

expression

in

with

ARI

and

about

will

be

generated

in

varying

as

velocity

yaw

vector

A.)

sideslip,

result

stability-axis

its

appendix

indicates

signs)

tends

having

important

it

the

that
to

opposite
in

substantial
the

an

initial

will

expression

and

if

sideslip

is

seen

initial

from
being

figconverted

tan

same

be

then

roll
(See

an

with

the

that

roll,
as

airplane

envelope.

roll,

cos

varying

incorporates

rolling

this

can
in

during

the

CCV

airplane

rolling

reduce

_,

signs)

is

in

rolled

with
whereas

tends

configurations

increases

second

form

of

the

F-16

configuration

the

inertial

about

be

F-16
make

flight

(p

of

its

from

the
problem

coupling

vector
a

resulting
for

CCV

that

is

is

pitching

velocity

roll

unfortunately,
can

the

of

type

Pstab
yaw

Pstab

to

can

with

be

sideslip

rolling

with

increase

requiring
_

adverse

_.

an

generated

proverse

pro-

This

angle-ofdue

(using

to
excessive

example).

illustrates
rolled

Resolving

by

cos

the

of

coupling

rudder,

this

sideslip

attack

rolling

having

latter

to

of

term
_

[indicated

body-axis

by

with

body-axis

---q

The

of

case

after

_.

satisfied

normal

that

not

attempt

throughout

and

motion

involves

related

coupling,

system

which

motion
are

is

kinematic

-- p

The

rotational

tan

equality

to

conical

between

that

due

this

due

moment
at

high

important
to
that

nose-up
configurations

is

angles

kinematic-coupling

to

inertial

of

that

moment
employ

high-angle-of-attack

effects.

produced

viewpoint
pitching

the

attack.
was
caused
relaxed

Figure

when
The

the

is

desirability

previously
by

17(a)

airplane

discussed;

inertia

static

of

pitch

coupling
sta-

bility.
As an aid in visualizing
this effect,
the fuselage-heavy mass distribution of the airplane is represented as a dumbbell, with the mass concentrated
at the two ends. If the airplane is flying at some angle of attack and rolls
about its velocity
vector, the dumbbell will tend to pitch up to align itself
perpendicular
to the rotation vector
Pstab" This nose-up pitching moment due
to inertial
coupling
Mic can be expressed as
Mic :
Substituting

(I Z - Ix)Pr

P = Pstab cos _

and r = Pstab sin d,

Mic = (i z - IX ) Pstab
2
1 Z - Ix)Pstab
2
cos _ sin _ = _(I

sin 2d

The preceding expression shows that the pitch inertia-coupling


moment resulting
from stability-axis
rolling
is always positive
(nose up) for positive
d and
varies as the square of the stability-axis
roll rate Pstab"
For CCV configurations
with relaxed static stability,
the nose-up moment
must be opposed by the available nose-down control moment. If this control
moment is less than the inertia-coupling
moment, the horizontal
tail can reach
a travel limit,
at which time the airplane will lose the stability
contribution
of the tail and the airplane will pitch up beyond the _ limiter
boundary,
which results in loss of control.
The inertia-coupling
moment which results from the combination of roll and
pitch rates is illustrated
in figure 17(b).
The airplane mass distribution
is
represented by the dumbbell, and the airplane is shown rolling
to the right and
pitching up. As can be seen, the dumbbell will tend to yaw nose left to align
itself
perpendicular
to the rotation vector
_. The expression for the inertiacoupling moment is given by
Nic :

(I x - Iy)pq

Consider the case q > 0 (nose-up pitch rate).


Because I x < Iy, the preceding
expression shows that the yaw inertia-coupling
moment will always be opposite in
sign to the roll rate.
Recalling that to minimize adverse _ generation due to
kinematic coupling,
r must be equal to p tan _, it is obvious that this form
of inertia
coupling will inhibit
stability-axis
rolling
that can lead to the
buildup of large amounts of adverse _ which, in turn, can result in loss of
control at high angles of attack.
This section has briefly
reviewed kinematic- and inertia-coupling
phenomena
that, in various degrees, are important to the high d flight
dynamics of all
modern fighter
aircraft.
In the section entitled
"Departure- and Spin-Resistance
Simulation Results,"
it will be seen how these phenomena interact
to significantly influence the characteristics
of the subject configuration.

15

DEPARTURE-ANDSPIN-RESISTANCESIMULATIONRESULTS
Basic Control

System

The first
portion of the simulation investigation
consisted of documenting
the normal stall-,
departure-,
and spin-resistance
characteristics
of the configuration
equipped with the basic flight
control system described in appendix A. For convenience, this system will be referred to as hontrol system A in
this report.
Figure 18 shows time histories
of a ig stall to the limit angle
of attack (_ = 25o).
Rudder doublets were applied at various angles of attack
to evaluate lateral-directional
stability
at these conditions.
The data show
that the motions were well damped and that the airplane exhibited no tendency
toward directional
divergence within its normal _ envelope, as predicted by
the Cn_,dyn criterion.
In addition,
application
of lateral
stick inputs at
: 25 resulted in rapid roll response in the commandeddirection,
as predicted by the LCDPvalues discussed previously.
Further evaluation of departure/spin
resistance was performed by applying
cross controls in ig and accelerated conditions.
Figure 19 shows time histories
of the motions resulting
from cross-control
application
from ig trim at _ = 25 .
The control traces show that although the pilot was holding full right stick and
full left pedal, the roll and yaw controls deflected in a coordinated sense,
primarily
due to the ARI and the _ fade-out of pilot rudder inputs.
As a
result,
the airplane rolled and yawed in the direction
of the stick input.
Note
that the roll and yaw rates were sufficiently
high to produce a significant
noseup pitching moment (see qicl
trace) caused by the inertia-coupling
phenomenon
previously discussed.
This effect caused the airplane to pitch up so that the
angle of attack continued to increase beyond 29 . At this point (t : 8.5 sec),
the automatic departure-/spin-prevention
system activated and applied roll and
yaw controls to oppose the yaw rate.
As a result,
r decreased, which reduced
the inertia-coupling
moment. Furthermore, the reduction in yaw rate increased
the _/_ kinematic coupling since the airplane was now rolling
more closely
about its body axis; the result was a trade-off
of angle of attack for sideslip,
as evidenced by the rapid grmwth in adverse _ and Wac2 becoming sharply more
negative.
The combination of increased kinematic coupling and reduced inertia
coupling reversed the growth of angle of attack and caused it to drop back
below 29 . Cross controls were held for an additional
9 sec but resulted in no
prolonged departure or loss of control.
The angle of attack varied between 20
and 36 , and the maximumyaw rate obtained was 48/sec.
The response to cross controls applied at the limit angle of attack in an
accelerated turn is shown in figure 20. As can be seen, the motions were very
similar to the ig case, with inertia
coupling causing a "pitch-out"
departure
in which _ increased to about 36o; however, there was no tendency for the
departure to develop into a spin.
These results indicated that (i) inertia
coupling could overpower the _ limiter
system to cause _ to increase far
above the 25 limit and (2) the airframe's
inherent lateral-directional
stability,
combined with the effectiveness
of the automatic spin-prevention
system,
minimized the possibility
of a departure progressing into a spin entry.

16

It
primary
tance

quickly became obvious that roll-pitch


cause of departures on this configuration.
is

illustrated

nose-up
the

high

varies
roll

control
ql

figure

inertial-coupling

moment

at

in

and

(ql

indicate

cient

control

increase

a
<

to

departure

susceptibility

to

this

type

that

departure

p2*)

it

<

P2*'

PI*
becomes

produced

nose-down

coupling-moment

which

is

there
If

very

is

suffi-

Pstab

likely

which

more

be

pressure,

moment.

then

the

that

can

the

at

of

note

available

dynamic

coupling

values,

the

imporrate

rolling;

with

and

nose-up

Note

of

of

its

roll

moments

intersection

these

occur.

axis

of

values

would be a
for

with

significant

(PI*

the

above

will

of

reason

variation

stability

two

rates

counter

sustained

at

points
roll

the

very

coupling

The

representations

The

highest

is
by

that

are

specified

moment
be

so

shown

q2 )"

the

and

pitch-out

Also

Shown
caused

2
Pstab

with

for

q2

curve

moment

rates.

moment

21.

inertial

should

that

indicates

acute

as

that

dynamic

the

pressure

decreases.

The

foregoing

attempted

360

lateral
30

stick

of

roll

observations
roll,

input.

yaw

Initially,

that

rudder

rates

to

dropped

to

in

was

began

apparent

from

Note

coordinating

and

are

starting

due

and
r
increased,
significant
nose-up

the
inertia-coupling
pitch
rate
to
build

point,

with

yaw

q
rate

hand,
a

coupled
(see

ricl

was

still

large

above

amount

this

the

aerodynamic
as

loss

of
_

rate

in

An

attempted

figure

applied

increased
and

to

held

tories
ig

in

270

that
of

the
A_.

enter

360

roll

from

this

case,

Again,

an

(_
stick

despite
the

25o).

input

in

at

of

increased

full

to

nose-down

shows

the

that,

at

nose-down

pitch-out

departure

During
a

the

other

generation

qa

this

maximum

period
of

tendency

the

in
170

attempting
quite

not

as

the

had

than

for

limit

airplane

the

in
up

about

41

the

roll.

yaw

as

The

applied

time

his-

obtained

at

completing
_

the

shown
and

pilot

those

and

and

is

-60

3.7g

upon
_

_
_

the

to

departure

build

to

knots,

similar

excursions
did

no

the

input.

opposed
on

to

was

result,

33/sac).

pitch-out

large
rate

stick

which

reached

resulted
At

are
a

the

the

which

of

kinematic

full

trace)
caused
a
increase.
At
this

roll.

turn

banked

motions

yaw

the

accelerated

experienced

period,

result,

of

As

applying

an

using

deflections,

sect;

qicl

there
r

greater

sac,

However,

command,

resulting

as
300

5.5

pilot

value

airplane

+25o;

(maximum

the

pitch

lateral

the

loss-of-control

25
entry

right

about

spin

system

much

to

time,

of

was

about

lasted

limiter

that

@h

maximum
the

full
show

by

between

In

moment

_
the

this

Comparison

25 ,

however

moment
(t

in

By

ARI.

qicl
began

coupling

resulted

shows

coupling;

growth

sac).

direction

(see
_

limiter

+25o).

completed

which

into

23.

produced

oscillated
diverge

which

at

the

the

kinematic

yaw

22,

roll-control

to

in

its

thus
_

coupling

airplane

control,

to

rapidly

nose-up

the

angle-of-attack
(6 h

moment

occurred

while

the

and
(t

due

to

halted

maximum

moment
up
and

create

and

increasing

deflection

point,

to

adverse

30 , despite

stabilator

of

of

trace)

to

rapidly

20

figure

condition

obtained
up

about

in

trim

addition

also

build

ig

about

during

airplane

the
did

not

spin.

Because
assessment

full
was

changes

(A_

lateral

stick

360

also

rolls

made

of

180).

Figure

inputs

starting

are
the

not

very

effects

24

shows

from

ig

useful
of

70
trim

from

rolling

through

bank-to-bank
at

tactical

smaller

reversals
25 .

viewpoint,

As

bank-angle
using

expected,

maximum
the

17

angle-of-attack
excursions due to inertia
coupling were less than that
encountered in the full 360 roll;
_ never exceeded 32 . Nevertheless,
the
stabilators
were very near saturation
(@h= +25o) during each reversal.
Furthermore, large adverse sideslip excursions occurred (reaching -18 at one
point),
caused by kinematic coupling resulting
from the high roll rates combined with insufficient
yaw rate (Irl < IPl tan _).
These results,
along with those obtained in the 360 rolls,
strongly indicated that the airplane roll-rate
capability
at high angles of attack could
result in (i) pitch-out
departures due to insufficient
nose-down pitch control
and (2) large adverse sideslip excursions due to insufficient
coordinating
yaw
control.
In summary, the airplane equipped with control system A was found to
be susceptible to inertia-coupling
departures during large-amplitude
roll maneuvers.
There was no tendency, however, for the departures to progress into spin
entries.
Control-System
Control
viating

system

the

trol

surfaces

roll-rate

or

system

pitch-out
was

(i)

0.35c,

roll

(3)
if

results

roll
(SM
below

results

is

for

SM

restricted
rate

may
with

only
their

future
face

very

sufficient

departures.

18

at

about

At
=
30

implications
CCV

designs
substantial
nose-down

13

due

percent
for

of

that

at

of
the

what

the

of

gravity

control

to

more

the

roll

fly

control

levels
penalties

to

prevent

the

as

is

rate

in

aft

had

allowable
capable

static

pitch

unless

they

inertia-coupling

to

at

0.35_,

by

the

to

be

providing.
indicate

instability
are

of

roll

of

results

the

maximum

airplane

these

of

gravity

to

indicated

maximum

configuration,

high

the

restricted

farther

roll

25.

of

penalty

the

25 , the

by

center

be

moved

would

figure

Comparison

severe,

instability,
d

to

30-percent

is

how

case;

inertia-

only

the

providing.

desire

the

indicate

airplane

an

limited

had

of

in

have

with

20

to

roll-performance
pitch

about

subject

incorporating

was

of

becomes

level

such

rate

departures

of

margin).

summarized
not

margin

extreme

the

a
roll

outside
to

this

static

did

capable

center

rapidly
this

that

roll

that

chosen

performance

above
is

25

the

penalty

rate

static

in

2-percent

coupled

control

As

-0.i0.

maximum

avoid

maximum

although
was

are

flight
If

investigated:
a

compromised

study

con-

alternate

were
in

alle-

airplane

investigated.

which,

configuration

indicates

-0.04.

above

was

Beyond
that

incurred

roll-performance

roll

the

the

airplane,

be

(positive

0.02)

roll

roll
0.29_

of

the

to

the

and

the

at

margin

To

the

of

limit
an

of

airplane

occurred,

results

0.41c

center-of-gravity
(SM

problem,

what

(2)

to

was

30 )

means
the

Therefore,

locations

have

RSS

was

limit

and

_;

indicate

the

-0.04),

attack.

obvious

resizing

envelope)

location
low

most

than

exceeding

range

control.
=

_
of

would

0.29c

obtained
rate

data

as

at

to

of

the

0.35_

static

angles

the

roll-rate-command

incorporate

pitch-out

values

the

percent

not

available

roll

chosen

did

its

nominal

performance

expected,

coupling

at

the

it

that
(other

center-of-gravity

is

0.29c,

The
As

high

lower

center-of-gravity

severely

have

Three

negative

evident
problem

(defined

which

operational

became

limiting

at

with

reduced.

and

further

departure

rate

It

departure

capability

control

about

B.-

pitch-out

Modifications

provided
pitch-out

Once an indication
of the maximumsustainable roll rates was obtained, a
roll-rate
limiting
scheme was implemented on the subject airplane.
As previously discussed, the basic control system includes a high-gain roll-ratecommandaugmentation system in which the pilot commandsa roll rate proportional

to

lateral

Obviously,

the

stick
most

rate

is

simply

lies

in

determining

should

be

were

to

at

force,

limit

the

which

any

up

to

straightforward
roll

rate

to

instant.

angle

of

maximum

of

the

use

(See

limiting

pilot

to

Three

attack,

308/sec.

for

that

parameters

particular

investigated:

technique

the

commands.

evaluate

appendix

The

what

the

pressure,

roll

difficulty

roll

roll-rate-scheduling

dynamic

A.)

airplane

limit

parameters

and

symmetric

stabilator

deflection.

There

were

parameter:
(2)

(I)

as

shown

in

counter

the

The

same

reasoning
control

roll

can

it

found

as

The

of

use

initial

roll

rolling

out

due

loss

by

the

as

combining

pitch

terms

of

control
system

roll

80/sec,

tion
<

with
i0

indicated

rate
based

N/m

pressure

4/sec/deg

of

stabilator

deflections

rate

of

angle

of
of

250

in

excess

that

and

degrees)

with

and

the

rate

q,

for

_
of

scheme
rate

was

>

15 .

caused

axes.

It

in

most

combined

by

found

N/m
with

reduction

that

be

308/sec

26.

nose-down
of

to

maximum
to

as

The_
z)

com-

little
varia-

for

corresponds
a

(The

referred

_n,c.
2

and

figure

reducing

and

Finally,
a

in

henceforth

500

manifest

satisfactory

(-0.55/sec/ib/ft

i0

influenced

can
was

the

increases

being

degradation

shown

of

of

also
is

coupling

_i'

2
of

minimizes

function

roll

value

of

pitch-

deflection
direct

achieved

normal

amplitude

preclude

this

is

will

value

This

to

the

in

large-amplitude

smaller

roll-response

-0.0115/sec/N/m
(The

pitch

was

values

and

duration

resulted

roll

degradation

between

as

modification

knots.)

attack

greatest

stabilator

initial

limit

from

was

in

inertia-

individually,

the

cross-axes

@h)

limiting

ib/ft2).

of

Symmetric

the

varying

because

roll

q,

instantaneous

(219.3

airspeed

the

this

(Pcom)max
on

dynamic

500

increased

Roll-rate

the

rates

parameter

(to

needed

operates

This

to

21,

lower

counter

Unfortunately,

both

developed

B.)

it

(_,

incorporating

system

mandable
as

law

is

versus

motions

minimizing

in

and

increases.

figure

evaluated

in

short

roll

both

2_,

available

attack

in

differentiate

limiting

because

about
parameters

coupling.

not

moment.

three

sin

occurs.

to

resulted
do

sufficiently

and

of

scheduling

were

scheduling

IV.

where

control.

oscillations

proper

inherent

Scheduling

pitch

angle

results

remaining
schemes

table

of

control

in

control

360 )
are

movement

illustrated

departure

are

they

"response

between

cross-axes

control

which

be

scheduling

coupling.

compromise

The

q
because

roll

all

in

and

restoring

itself

as

scheduling

(A_

primary

to

drawbacks

as

pitch-out

control

basic

inertia

coupling

which

three

initial

remaining
the

pitch

illustrated

120 )

q,

with

as
with

control

as

attack
varies

nose-down

q;

two

response

<

to

in

thought

the

of

decreases

before

of

moment

moment

decreases

was

angle

choosing

The

maneuvers
(A_

amount

in

sustained

that

scheme,

the

used

moment

be

considering

coupling

was

moment.

was

rolls

i0,

indicates

coupling

each

inertia-coupling

deflection

directly

it

for

nose-up

nose-up

nose-down

stabilator

reasons

the

figure

to

that

two

reduction

to

an

of

symmetric
commanded

roll

4/sec/deg.

19

The resulting
limit on commandedroll rate is illustrated
in figure 27,
which shows (Pcom)max versus _ for ig trim flight
conditions.
With the
stabilator
deflected for trimmed flight,
(Pcom)max is reduced from 280/sec
at _ : 5 to 170/sec at _ = 25o; these values would be representative
of
the
(Pcom)max available at the initiation
of a roll.
Also shown are the
values that represent the situation
in which full control has been used to
counter the inertia-coupling
moment with the stabilators
deflected full nose
down (@h= +25o)" As shown in the figure,
this case results in a decrease of
80/sec in
(Pcom)max from the values obtained at trim
6h such that the maximum commandable roll rate is only about 90/sec at _ = 25 .
Control system B also incorporated a modification
to the pitch axis to
assure proper stabilator
response during rolling
maneuvers. This modification
is shown in figure 28 and involved creating an equivalent angle-of-attack
signal
A_p based on roll-rate
magnitude.
The variation
of h_p with
IPl
is plotted in figure 29; note that a 20/sec deadband was included so that the
system was inactive
during low-rate, precision maneuvers when it was not needed.
The pseudo angle-of-attack
signal was fed to the _ limiter,
which recognized
it as an increase in _ and therefore applied nose-down stabilator
deflection
to oppose it.
This system, therefore,
assured that the pitch control was
deflected in the proper direction
to oppose the nose-up coupling moment generated by rapid rolling
at high angles of attack.
The effectiveness
of control system B in preventing inertia-coupling
pitch-out
departures is illustrated
in figure 30, which shows a 360 roll
initiated
from Ig trim at _ = 25 using full lateral
stick input.
As previously discussed, this maneuver, when performed with the basic control system
(control system A), resulted in loss of control.
(See fig. 22.) For control
system B, figure 30 shows that although the pilot applied maximum lateral
stick
input, the resulting
commandedroll rate was limited
to only about 165/sec (as
opposed to 308/sec for control system A) so that the maximum roll rate achieved
was 70/sec.
The resulting
nose-up coupling moment was smaller, and there was
sufficient
aerodynamic nose-down control moment to essentially
cancel it, as can
be seen by comparing the qicl
and qa traces.
As a result,
_ never
exceeded 26 during the maneuver and the maximum _ generated was less than
3 . Thus, in this particular
situation
at least, roll-rate
limiting
eliminated
the two problems experienced with the basic airplane,
that is,
_ pitch-outs
due to excessive roll-pitch
coupling and large
_ excursions due to excessive
roll-yaw coupling.
Examination of the control traces shows that significantly
less than maximumroll-control
deflections
were used. Even in the initiation
of the roll when p is low and coupling is therefore not a problem, only -15
of the available
-21.5 of 6a was obtained.
The net result is a slower
initial
roll response compared with that of the basic airplane
(control system A); as discussed previously,
this response degradation is due mainly to the
use of q and _ in the limiting
scheme. One other point to note on the
control time histories
is that only about 60 percent of the available
rudder is
used for coordination
through most of the maneuver.

2O

A 360 roll initiated


from an accelerated turn at the d limit is shown
in figure 31. The results are very similar to the ig case in that the maneuver
was well controlled,
with the airplane never approaching an out-of-control
condition.
Time histories
of the 70 bank-to-bank reversals initiated
from ig trim
at e = 25 are shown in figure 32. Again the roll-rate
limiting
scheme of
control system B significantly
improved the controllability
of the airplane in
this maneuver. Angle of attack was maintained below 28 and sideslip
excursmons
below 4 . These results should be contrasted with those obtained with the basic
airplane
(fig. 24), which encountered momentary departures with
_ exceeding 32
and _ excursions above 15.
Classical
spin-susceptibility
testing was conducted by applying cross"controls in ig and accelerated conditions.
An example is shown in figure 33,
in which cross controls were applied from an accelerated turn at the limit
_.
As obtained with the basic control system, the inertia
coupling resulting
from
the generated roll and yaw rates caused _ to overshoot above the 25 limit;
however, _ never exceeded 30 , _ was maintained below ii , and the maximum
yaw rate encountered was only about 28/sec.
Recovery was obtained immediately
after the controls were neutralized.
The results to this point indicated that the control modifications
incorporated in control system B significantly
enhanced the departure resistance of
the subject airplane in high d maneuvers, during which lateral
stick alone or
cross controls were used. This improvement resulted primarily
from the fact
that the pilot was constrained to commandless rolland yaw-control deflections
through lateral
stick deflections
due to the roll-rate
limiting
scheme employed.
However, it was still
possible for the pilot to augment rudder deflection
by
applying pedal inputs in the direction
of the lateral
stick input.
Therefore,
an assessment was made to examine how the additional
rudder might affect the
departure-resistance
characteristics
of the configuration.
Figure 34 shows time histories
of a 360 roll initiated
from lg trim at
: 25 with maximumcoordinated stick and pedal inputs.
As previously discussed, performance of this maneuver with lateral
stick alone resulted
in
a
well-controlled
(See

fig.

different

that

tained

full

other

hand,

the

were

some

augment

by

the

moment
to

cause

of

larger
(see
an

the

very

proverse

roll
6r
qicl);

increase

rate,
to

in

same

large

detrimental
the

in

figure

as

34.
in

was

generated.

for

two

reasons:

(2)
angle

it

the

in

turn

control

in

it

coupled

-p_,

was

obtaining

amount
through

the

higher

nose-up

of

the
maneuver.

and
to

the

point

proverse

dihedral

effect

yaw

caused

rate

inertia-coupling

with
see

roll,

sus-

on

aileron
of

quite
traces

stick-only

reduced

acted

coupled
(_

control

large

with
the

kinematically
attack

earlier
and

This

in

the

deflections,

the

(i)

departure.

resulted

inputs

overcoordination

increase

of

pitch-out

of

roll-control

deflections
in

a
pedals

Examination

obtained

resulted

which

encountering

coordinating

the

rudder

substantially

and

of
of

deflection;

deflection

fear

difference

rudder

about
of

was

to

shown

primary

differential-tail

sideslip

little
application

as

(-30 )

combination

that

with

However,

situation,

indicates

The

roll,
30.)

the

Wac2)-

high
The

roll
result

rate
was

21

a rapid pitch-out
departure despite the application
of full nose-down stabilator
by the control system; angle of attack reached a maximumof 70 , whereas sideslip oscillated
30 during the departure.
Use of full coordinated inputs to
perform 360 rolls
at other ig and accelerated flight
conditions resulted in
similar loss of control situations.
In summary, control system B was found to significantly
enhance the departure resistance of the subject airplane as long as coordinating
pedal inputs
were not used during large-amplitude
roll maneuvers. Use of large amounts of
coordinating pedal in these maneuvers often resulted in severe pitch-out
departures.
It should be pointed out that there should be no need for the pilot to
apply coordinating
rudder inputs since this is automatically
done for him by the
ARI. However, it is felt that during air combat there would be a strong tendency by the pilot
to use rudder pedals in an attempt to obtain maximumroll
performance, particularly
in view of the fact that the roll-rate
limiting
scheme
of control system B resulted in noticeable degradation in the initial
roll
response of the airplane.
Control
correct
tem

system

the

B,

two

that
inputs

this

objective,

shown

in

the

At

ability

to

response,

was
that

magnitude

maximum

The

compared

control
this

and

to

(control

maximum

roll

of

to

the

roll

control

ig

in

that

in

were

obtained

maneuver,

system

A).
was

the
with
As

figure

the

during
control
the

basic

in
36,

the

as

from

initial

only

his

tracking

cor-

roll
limiting

the

roll-rate

eliminated

for

at

the

higher

departures;

resolving

at

capability

so

critical

roll-

the

which

shows

These

C,

initiation

the
as

the

to

only

about

maneuver

in

system

without

and

roll;

stick,
should

systems
roll-

control

system

lateral

histories

control

of

the

full

maximum

with

control

time

with

system

initiate

allowed
detract

until

roll

40/sec)

airplane.

25 .

motions

roll-rate

was

full

discussed,
to

the

limiting

maneuver

control

previously

available

same

with

to

and

pitch-out

such
degraded

command

(IPl

not

B,

of

20/sec

system

did

limiting

the

at

the

effective

allowed

from

flight

Note

obtained

was

rudder
of

rates

inertia-coupling

system

illustrated

fully

prevent

response

obtained

control

gain

become

pilot

30).

those

scheduled

imposed

needed

those

the

a
not

roll

are
these

rudder

inertia-coupling

system

therefore,

scheme,

from

deflections
phase

similar

22

with
22

control

accomplish

Alleviation

pilot

maneuvers

all

was

high

therefore

furthermore,

of

is

of

the

sys-

and

coordinating

magnitudes

however,
and

50/sec;

initial

initiated

20o)

To

C.

to

control

incorporating

of

in

made

coordinating

developed

system

the

precision

adding

however,

problem

roll

(figs.

by

at

of

20/sec),
_

amplitude,

deficiency

effectiveness

response

inputs

were

use
gain

did

it

rates,

(_i

with
when

system

roll-rate

aggravation
<IPl

control

limiting

This

where

roll

obtain

ing

the

control

between

was

degradation.

excessive

rudder

any

corrected

30/sec-

lower

pilot

equipped

system

as

attempt

departures

scheduled

inputs

rudders

second

to
to

airplane

control
the

using

smaller

the

an

roll-response

to

due

results,

pitch-out

initial

referred

rates

the

exceeded

rates

360

roll
of

The

such

of

perform

path

by

eliminate

low

use

rections.

IPl

be

pilot

Elimination

full

(2)

problem

out

to

of

convenience,

will

faded

problem.

roll

For

accomplished

designed

pilot

and

departure

which

40/sec.
was

35.

foregoing

to

modifications

features

was

path

the

deficiencies

used,

figure

on

susceptibility

two

pitch-out

pedals

(i)

are

additional

Based

primary

is,

pedal

C.-

and

in

were

roll-rate
75

when

percent
control

yaw-

fact,
C

be

Very
limit-

of

the

system B was used. In examining the response obtained with control system C, it
is seen that as the roll rate increased to values where inertia
coupling became
a factor,
roll-rate
limiting
was imposed and the rolland yaw-control deflections were reduced to essentially
the levels obtained with control system B; a
pitch-out
departure was avoided.
A quantitative
comparison of roll response obtained in this maneuver with
all three control systems is shown in table V. The figure of merit that was
used was time to bank to 90 and 180 . The data for
At_:90o
indicate that '
control system B suffered a 15-percent degradation in response when compared
with control system A, whereas there was no degradation with control system C.
For 180 of roll,
control system C was only 3 percent slower than A, as compared
with 13 percent slower for control system B. In summary, control system C was
successful in combining the desirable features of control system A (high initial
9oll response) and control system B (high resistance to inertia-coupling
departure) without incurring
the deficiencies
of either system.
The ability
of control system C to prevent pitch-out
departures due to
excessive pilot coordinating
rudder is illustrated
in figure 37. Shown are
time histories
of a 360 roll from ig trim at _ = 25 using full coordinated
stick and pedal inputs.
It is seen that fade-out of the pilot rudder commands
above IPl : 50o caused the resulting
airplane motions to be essentially
identical to those obtained using lateral
stick alone.
The maximumangle of attack
reached was 25 , and the airplane was not near a departure condition at any
point in the maneuver. These results should be contrasted with those obtained
with control system B, where a rapid pitch-out
departure to _ : 70 was
encountered (fig. 34).
Further evaluation of departure/spin
susceptibility
was accomplished
applying maximumcross controls at Ig and accelerated flight
conditions.
example is shown in "figure 38, in which the controls were applied from ig
at _ = 25 . The time histories
show that although full prospin controls
held for 14 sec, _ did not exceed 26 and yaw rate was maintained below
35/sec.

by
An
trim
were

Figure 39 shows cross controls applied from ig trim at d = i0 , followed


immediately by rapid full aft stick application.
The inertia-coupling
moment,
combined with the full nose-up pilot command, resulted in _ increasing to 28 .
Nevertheless, there was sufficient
aerodynamic control moment to prevent
further
d excursions such that although the prospin inputs were held for over
12 sec, angle of attack never exceeded the 25 limit.
A further evaluation of the resistance of control system C to inertiacoupling-induced
departures is shown in figure 40. The initial
conditions for
the maneuver were ig trim flight
at M : 0.6 and h = 9144 m. From this
starting point, full lateral
stick input was applied, followed in_nediately by
full nose-up pitch command. The large angular rates resulting
from these
inputs would be expected to maximize inertia-coupling
effects.
The data show
that very high rates, particularly
in roll,
were generated; however, the limiting features of the control system effectively
limited these rates to values
that could be handled by the available aerodynamic control moments. As a
23

result,
the maximum _ excursion
trols were held for approximately
Effect

was only 27 , despite


ii sec.

the fact

that the con-

of Aft Center of Gravity

It should be noted that all the maneuvers discussed up to this point were
conducted with the airplane center of gravity at its nominal'location
of 0.35_.
As previously
discussed, more aft center-of-gravity
locations
should aggravate
the inertia-coupling
departure problem because less nose-down aerodynamic control moments would be available.
Therefore, a brief investigation
was conducted to see what effect more aft center-of-gravity
locations might have on
the departure-prevention
ability
of the control system developed for a center
of gravity of 0.35_.
For this evaluation,
center-of-gravity
locations of
0.375c and 0.39_ were evaluated.
Figure 41 shows a maximum lateral
stick,
360
roll from ig trim at _ : 25 with a center of gravity of 0.375_. The data
show that more nose-down stabilator
was required to trim at this condition due
to the increased static instability
caused by the rearward center-of-gravity
shift.
Comparison of the time histories
of this maneuver with those obtained
with a center of gravity of 0.35_ (fig. 36) verifies
the loss in nose-down
aerodynamic pitching moment at 0.375_. This loss is reflected
in the @h
trace which shows that the stabilators
were at the full nose-down position
through most of the maneuver; nevertheless,
angle of attack increased to 27
(as compared with the 25 obtained with a center of gravity of 0.35_).
Although
a departure did not occur in this case, the fact that the pitch control remained
saturated for such an extended period of time and was still
unable to hold
below the limit value indicates that control was very marginal in this situation.
A more severe coupling maneuver would, therefore,
be expected to result
in a departure.
An example of loss of control is shown in figure 42, which
shows the high coupling maneuver previously
discussed, in which the pilot
applied full roll and pitch inputs from ig trim flight
at M : 0.6. As previously discussed, this maneuver performed with the center of gravity at 0.35_
did not result in loss of control.
However, figure 42 indicates that with the
center of gravity at 0.375_, the available nose-down control was overpowered by
the inertia-coupling
moment, and a rapid pitch-out
to _ : 76 ensued. Following the departure,
the airplane entered the deep-stall
trim condition previously
discussed; the deep-stall
problem is addressed in more detail in the section
entitled
"Deep-Stall Simulation Results."
These results indicated that rearward center-of-gravity
movement beyond
0.375_ would require further
limiting
of roll rate in order to obtain an acceptable level of departure resistance.
These indications
were verified
when control system C was flown with the center of gravity at 0.39_. An example is
shown in figure 43, which presents time histories
of an attempted 360 roll
using full lateral
stick input starting
from ig trim at _ : 25 . It is seen
that the aerodynamic nose-down control was easily overpowered by the inertiacoupling moment and resulted in a sharp pitch-out
departure to _ : 84 and
entry again into the deep-stall
trim condition.
Attempts at other roll maneuvers that were accomplished without incident with the center of gravity at 0.35c
resulted in a similar
loss of control.

24

It was found that the airplane equipped with control system C that was
flown with the center of gravity at 0.39_ was at least as prone to departures
as the basic airplane was at 0.35_.
It thus became clear that the roll-rate
limit would have to be reduced significantly
at a center of gravity of 0.39_ to
reestablish
a level of departure resistance comparable to that obtained at
0.35_.
However, as indicated in figure 25, this level of roll performance may
not be adequate from a tactical
viewpoint.
In summary, control system C was
found to provide a high level of departure resistance for the airplane with the
center of gravity at its nominal location.
Large-amplitude maneuvers at Ig'and
accelerated flight
conditions
involving
gross
application
of
adverse
controls
did

not

result

in

deteriorated

loss

of

departure

Operation

at

reductions

control.

resistance

to

center-of-gravity

in

However,

maximum

the

point

locations

allowable

roll

discussed

in

exhibit
the

stable

possible
described

nose

43)

was

possible

all

The

the

to

resulted

of

put

the
a

speeds

at

attack

the

top

of

maneuver

The

full

of

oscillation,

58 ,

limiter

caused

pendent

of

oppose

the

that,
to

angle

pitch

0 ,

from

any

yaw

0,

by

the
or

to

the

was

deep

with

low

low

air-

through

large

at

angle-of-

limiter
An

stall
very

maneuver

very

fall
a

42

condition.

from

climb,
reaching

of

it

(figs.

airspeed

pressure.

roll

For

the
=

top

0.2

the

system

example

of

at

and

yaw,

and

the

an

fighter

the

_
the

the
ig.

due
such

automatic

system

was

Note

that,

several

trim
at

In

point
this

pitch,

position,

the
inde-

spin-prevention

fuselage-heavy

the
appli-

After

stall

commanding
a

the

system.
deep

nose-down

the

airspeed
As

70 , despite

airplane.

full

having

the

respectively.

limiter

into

over

maneuver,

to

and

control
remain

the

0.1g,

increased

by

6 ,

of

and

stabilized

no

pilot,

rate.

at
M

control

to

In
the

into

low

airplane

opposed

attack

airplane

stabilators

away

of

absolutely

inputs.

such

generation

dynamic

if

trim

attack

of

the

effectively

show

the

had

pilot

control
to

pilot

allowing

decreased
the

nose-down

entry

intention

see

departures

deep-stall

of

One

with
com-

locations

this

angles

even
is

to
The

decelerating

the

60 ,

conducted

that

high

attack.

low

however,

point.

into

kinematic

at

Control

configuration

44.

44

through,

of

the

and

be

figure

figure

cycles

tions

not

in

cation

took

resulting

effectiveness

of

fell

climb

of
point,

was
trim

steep-attitude,

The

acceleration

airplane

0.375_.

further

and

subject

center-of-gravity

at

70 , with

the

could

shown

data

normal

into

at

require

Stability

the

trim

indicated

of

of

for

vicinity
The

aft

study

angles

of

control

is

present

about

the

flying

at

g.

excursion

for

maneuvers

of

in

airplane

high

data

therefore

rolling

airplane

maximum

zero

lack

point,

the

the

marginal

would

"Discussion

deep-stall

section

was

Problem

down.

investigation
stabilized

in

during

essentially

with

conditions

reaching

and

an

previous

results

airspeed
was

and
into

in

and

to

points

full

fly

of

entitled

trim

it

0.375c

shifts

RESULTS

pitching-moment

deflected

weak,
to

section

0.35_

of

SIMULATION

deep-stall

stabilators

paratively

the

the

that

aft

Description

As

center-of-gravity

rate.

DEEP-STALL

Characteristics,"

rearward

system

control

deflecmass

25

loading, the most effective


spin-recovery controls are obtained when the
rudders are applied to oppose yaw rate and the ailerons are applied in the
direction
of the yaw rate.
It should be recognized that these systems did successfully prevent any yaw-rate buildup and therefore eliminated the danger of
the motions progressing into a spin; nevertheless,
this was of little
consequence to the pilot since he was locked in the deep-stall
condition,
with no
way of recovering by using his normal controls.
It is important to note that all the maneuvers discussed to this point
were conducted with an aerodynamic model which did not include aerodynamic
asymmetries; that is, the aerodynamic coefficients
Cy, C_, and Cn were zero
for _ = 0 and neutral lateral-directional
controls.
In the normal angle-ofattack flight
envelope of current fighter aircraft,
this modeling assumption
has been found to be generally valid in that wind-tunnel measured asymmetries
are normally insignificantly
small.
However, experience has shown that, in
many configurations,
these asymmetries can reach significant
magnitudes at
post-stall
_. Figure 45 shows Cy, C_, and Cn asymmetries measured during
wind-tunnel tests on the subject configuration.
The data confirm that within
the normal _ flight
envelope, these asymmetries are small enough to be
ignored.
However, they rapidly increase in magnitude for _ > 30 . Of particular
significance
is the fact that the yawing-moment asymmetry reaches its
maximumvalue in the _ region of the deep-stall
trim point.
In order to
assess the importance of this characteristic,
the deep-stall
investigation
was
conducted with two aerodynamic models, one that included the wind-tunnel measured asymmetries of figure 45 and one that omitted them.
Figure 46 shows time histories
of a deep-stall
entry with the asymmetries
included.
Comparison with the results obtained without asymmetries (fig. 44)
indicates little
difference
in the initial
phase of the entry.
However, once
the airplane began to settle into the trim point, figure 44 shows that the
nose-left
yawing-moment asymmetry caused the yaw rate to build up to about
-20/sec, despite the application
of significant
amounts of opposing aileron
and rudder deflections
by the spin-prevention
system. The airplane also assumed
a left wing low (_ _ -16 ) and nose low attitude
(0 _ -23o).
Note that the
nose-up inertia-coupling
moment resulting
from the nonzero roll and the yaw
rates caused the airplane to trim at an angle of attack roughly 4 higher than
that obtained without the asymmetries.
Another important indication
from these
results is that the asymmetries would probably have driven the airplane into a
spin without the action of the automatic spin-prevention
feature of the control
system.
With regard to the ease of experiencing the deep-stall
trim, it was found
that the first
_ peak during the entry was critically
important in that an
overshoot to values of _ too much above the trim point resulted in the generation during the downswing of sufficient
nose-down pitch rate to drive the airplane nose down over the Cm > 0 hump and result in recovery.
Generally,
the
airplane did not consistently
drop into the deep-stall
trim point if the initial
peak in _ was greater than 75 . Control of the initial
_ excursion was
difficult,
and the pilots were therefore not able to obtain the deep-stall
trim
on every attempt.

26

stick in phase with the airplane motions, with the hope that sufficient
angular
momentumwould be created during a downswing cycle to drive the airplane over
the positive
Cm hump and back down within the normal _ envelope of the
airplane.
A recovery attempt using this technique is shown in figure 50. Starting
from a stabilized
trim at _ _ 62 , the pilot activated the pitch rocker system
and rapidly applied full aft stick at t : 71.3 sec. In response, the stabilators moved from the full nose-down position commandedby the _ limi[er
to
full nose up. The resulting
nose-up moment caused _ to increase to 75 , at
which point the pilot reversed his controls and applied full forward stick to
obtain
@h: +25o- This action generated a large nose-down moment, indicated
by the qa trace at t : 74, and _ decreased rapidly.
As expected,
qa
became positive
(t : 75 sec) for a brief time as _ traversed the hump in the
Cm curve; however, there was sufficient
momentumto cause the airplane to continue to pitch downward until a recovery was obtained at t : 78 sec. It
should be noted that in this particular
case, the pilot very accurately kept
his inputs in phase with the motions and therefore obtained a recovery within
1 cycle of the oscillation.
However, it was found that in situations
where the
pilot was somewhat out of phase with the oscillation,
recoveries were delayed
significantly
so that as many as three to four pumping cycles were required for
recovery.
Further assessment of the deep-stall
and recovery characteristics
were
obtained by moving the center of gravity aft to 0.375_.
Figure 51 shows an
entry and recovery attempt using the speed brakes and flaps; aerodynamic asymmetries were not modeled in this case. As can be seen, trim was achieved at
= 60 with
r = 0, _ = -13 , and G : 0. At t : 67.5, the speed brakes
were deployed and the flaps reconfigured,
and a rapid recovery was obtained in
4.5 sec. A quite different
result was obtained with asymmetry modeling; an
example is shown in figure 52. The data indicate that the airplane tri_ed
at
a mean angle of attack of about 65, with the asymmetries causing a yaw rate of
-16/sec.
At t = 65 sec, recovery was attempted using the speed brake and
flaps.
As can be seen, the resulting
nose-down pitching-moment increment
caused _ to decrease by about 4o; however, it was not sufficient
to effect
recovery and the airplane established another trim condition with
_ _ 63 and
r = -20/sec.
Generally, it was found that recovery to normal flight
conditions
could
not be attained with this technique unless the pilot made the speed-brake and
flap change early in the entry while there were still
large oscillations
in the
motion and unless the inputs were made during a downswing in _ so that they
reinforced
the downward motion.
Obviously this is very difficult
to do, and in
the majority of cases, recovery was not obtained.
The primary reason for the
difference
in the results obtained with and without asymmetry modeling was the
existence of the yaw rate with modeling.
Apparently,
the additional
nose-up
inertia-coupling
moment caused by the angular rate was sufficient
to negate the
relatively
small amount of nose-down moment generated by the speed-brake and
flap changes.

28

Methods of Recovery
Once it was determined that the airplane could be flown into the deepstall trim point, techniques were developed to recover from it.
As previously
discussed, the primary controls could not be used because the pilot had no
control over them in this situation.
Consequently, other schemes for obtaining
the needed nose-down pitching moment were investigated
in the wind tunnel, and
two potentially
useful concepts were identified.
The first method involved
reconfiguring
the flaps by retracting
the leading-edge flaps and deploying _he
trailing-edge
flaps (61ef = 0,
6te f : 20o), whereas the second involved
speed-brake extension to maximumdeflection
(@sb= 60o)" The locations of these
surfaces are shown in figure 2. Note that the speed brakes are located on the
upper and lower surfaces of the aft fuselage shelf next to the stabilators,
and
their deployment therefore would be expected to provide a nose-down moment in
, the deep-stall
region.
Figure 47 compares the resulting
pitching moments with those for the normal
configuration
(61ef : 25o' 6tef : 0'
@sb: 0); note that all data are for
the full nose-down stabilator
deflection
that would be maintained by the
limiter
system. The data show that reconfiguring
the flaps provides an increment of about -0.018 in Cm in the angle-of-attack
range of interest
(55 to
60o), whereas speed-brake deployment results in about -0.025.
Note that neither
scheme clearly eliminates
the trim point with the center of gravity at 0.35_,
and therefore they would not be expected to be always effective,
particularly
for center-of-gravity
locations aft of 0.35_. However, as shown in figure 47,
combining the two schemes results in a pitching-moment-coefficient
increment of
about -0.05, which eliminates the deep-stall
trim point.
Figures 48 and 49 show time histories
of recovery attempts using the combination of speed-brake deployment and flap reconfiguration.
The results obtained
without asymmetry modeling are shown in figure 48. The recovery attempt was
initiated
at t : 78 sec, with the airplane stabilized
in the deep-stall
trim,
and, as can be seen, a rapid, positive
recovery was obtained within 4 sec. The
results with asymmetry modeling are shown in figure 49. Although a positive
recovery was also attained,
the recovery was not as rapid, taking some 8 sec to
occur.
The reason for the slower recovery was the existence of the yaw rate
which created an additional
nose-up moment due to inertia
coupling that had to
be overcome by the nose-down recovery moment.
One additional
recovery technique that was investigated
consisted of
reconfiguring
the pitch control law to reestablish
pilot
control over the stabilators in the deep-stall
region.
The reconfiguration
involved deactivating
all
feedbacks, including the d limiter
system, so that the only signal that
remained was the pilot stick command. With this system (henceforth to be
referred to as the pitch rocker),
the deflection
of pitch control was directly
proportional
to pilot inputs.
The reason for doing this can be seen by reviewing the pitching-moment data for maximum stabilator
deflections
shown in figure I0.
The data show that at the deep-stall
trim point (_ _ 60), a large
pitching-moment increment results in going from full nose-down to full nose-up
control deflection
(ACm _ 0.i).
Thus, a possibility
exists to use this available control moment to initiate
and build up a pitch oscillation
by moving the
27

The effectiveness
of the "pitch-rocking"
technique in providing recoveries with the center of gravity at 0.375c is illustrated
in figure 53. In this
particular
case, pitch rocking was initiated
early in the entry (t = 52 sec)
while the motions were still
quite oscillatory;
in addition,
the pilot did a
very good job of phasing his inputs in that the initial
aft stick applications
were made just as the airplane was beginning a nose-up cycle.
As a result,
was driven up to 84 and sufficient
momentumwas generated in the following
downswing to reestablish
normal flight.
The recovery was obtained within 8 sec
after the pilot
initiated
recovery action.
Figure 54 illustrates
the results,
that were obtained when the pilot did not optimally phase hi_;rocking
inputs
with the ai,rplane motions.
In this case, recovery was not obtained until the
pilot had completed five rocking cycles, and the time interval
between initiation of recovery action and actual attainment of recovery was some 30 sec.
These results emphasize the criticality
of proper pilot usage of the pitchrocking technique; nevertheless,
this technique was found to%e effective
in
providing deep-stall
recovery for all the conditions
(center-of-gravity
location
and asymmetry modeling) investigated
in this study.
TRACKINGRESULTS
Following completion of the departure, deep-stall,
and spin-susceptibility
investigation,
the tracking evaluation phase of the study was conducted to determine how these characteristics
and the control-system
changes affected the
ability
to track a target airplane through maneuvers representative
of air combat.
The evaluation was conducted at the nominal 0.35_ center-of-gravity
location and included an assessment of the three control-system
configurations
studied in the first
phase.
Results

of Basic Control

System (Control

System A)

Time histories
of the airplane motions during the wind-up turn tracking
task are shown in figure 55; included are the range between the two airplanes R, the total angular tracking error
g, and the lateral
component
of g I.
The data indicate that the pilot had little
difficulty
in tracking
the target airplane through the task.
Note that the design of the lateraldirectional
control
system
allowed
him
to
track
using
only
the
stick,
and
no
pedal

inputs

expected,

were
none

encountered

required.

of

the

The

airplane

inertia-coupling

in

this

task

Figure

56

illustrates

system

(control

due

to

motions
problems

the

absence

were

well

previously
of

any

damped

and,

discussed

as

were

large-amplitude

rolling

maneuvering.

trol
by

the

wind-up
pull-ups
nature

system

pilot-input
turn
to
of

simultaneously

the

the

in

that

high

performance

A)

time

histories,

combination

task
tended

was
requiring
to

in

required
rapid
accentuate

the

the

airplane

bank-toT_9nk

this
of
to

of

was

tracking

a much

bank-to-bank
maintain

and
any

accurate

with

more

the

basic

_ask.

demanding

As

tracking.
control

handling-quality

The
in

than
by

very
all

indicated

task

reversals-followed

con-

dynamic

three

deficiencies.

the

rapid

axes
Note

29

that the pilot used very large lateral


stick inputs to make the reversals,
and
the inertia-coupling
moments resulting
from the high roll and yaw rates
required large countering nose-down stabilator
deflections.
Maximum _ and
excursions were 30 and i0 , respectively.
The and _ data show that the
pilot had difficulty
in maintaining tracking during the reversals;
however, once
the reversal was completed, he was able to reacquire the target within about 5
to i0 sec. It should be pointed out that the pilot was aware of the potential
pitch-out
tendency if too much coordinating
rudder was used, and he therefore
flew the task essentially
without pedal inputs.
Furthermore, by using_only the
stick, the amplitude of the bank-angle changes that were required
(IA_I
_ 180 )
was

insufficient

departures

The

57.

As

amplitude
the
show

during
1

that

the

sec

to

basic

rolls

to
this

the

Note

that,

at

to

Effects

on

incorporated

plane

equipped

in

the

were

compared

system

A)

airplane.

are

essentially

The

pilot

was

58

system

with

figure

less
As

in
a

coupling
lator
slip
The
3O

the

control

result,

the

use

the

fact

Control

and

the

since

the

assessed

three

systems

this

with

task

this

tracking

did

No

the

factor

cer-

modifica-

flying

system

the

tactical

and

not

29 .
of

in

the

tasks.

schemes

the

for

departures

by

control

obtained

reached

control-system

limiting

degraded

held

from

basic

occurred

pitch-out

and

The

remainder

inputs;
no

therefore

was

_
the

were

the

roll-rate

control

condition

that

and

stabilator

pedal

in

situations.

maximum

no

large-

airspeeds

during

Systems

with

those

the

shows

roll

and

are

due
yaw

reflected
Comparison

seen

commented

basic

roll-

system

earlier
that

airplane

and

to

the

air-

The

results

(control
used

to

enhance

effectiveness

the

basic

wind-up

require

any

of

turn

control

This
flying

task

system.
rapid,

the

large-

rate

limiting
lower,

in

the
_

noticed

decreased
traces
the

use
also

departure
a

scheme
and

definite

the
of
shows

the

task.
inputs

in

discussed.
inertia-

nose-down
reduction

susceptibility
degradation

compared

significantly

previously
reduced

the

con-

be
same

stick
were

large

with

should

lateral

deflections

were

of

equipped
figure

against

amplitude

yaw-control

rates

airplane

task.

similar

during
they

of

tracking

applied

resulting

moments

performance

the

generally

the

excursions

not

bank-to-bank

which

deflections.

pilots

result

illustrates
in

pilot

cases,

moment;

significantly

to

low

result,

illustrated

rapid,

departure

occurred

for

is

two

nose-down

did

the

for

and

task.

task

near-departure

against

obtained

had

ACM

As

this

required

resulting

systems

obtained

56,
the

full

on

maneuvers.

Figure

Although

that

systems

whether

expected

roll

trol

both

those

the

run,

capability

identical

an

amplitude

of

control

determine

results

limit

coupling.

made

task

coupling

extent,

these

resistance

the

This

in

with

to

departure

tracking

with

in

situations

some

inertia

runs

inertia-coupling

Results

tions

the

nose-up

again,

accounted,
encountered.

to

the

this

potential

maneuver

oppose

of

airplane

particular

roll

due

any

discussed,

180 )

in

first

departure

near-loss-of-control

run.
tainly
were

of

airplane

the

further

during

previously

(IA_I

exposed

over

cause

observed

performance

figure

data

to

were

stabiin

side_

evaluation.
in

initial

roll

response in going from control system A to control system B. They indicated


that this was mildly bothersome since they felt that they had to hold large
lateral
stick forces longer in order to obtain the same net roll response.
small
it

positive

reduced

can

be

were

the

seen

did

An

that

the

example

of

show

that

except

the

the

obtained

with

and

was

the

improved

the

proper

the

accurately

this

only

was

able

to

59

control

and

56

system

than

with

could

than

with

either

When

the

airplane

task,

the

comparative

in

the

for

track

roll

due

In

the

initial

slightly
sized

of

tions

the

0.35_.

farther
rate

to

aft,

roll-performance

it

should

tracking
pitch-out
extreme

be

while
was

than

This

departures
low-speed

from

control;
with

minimum

input

in

trace

pilots

with

stated

control

reducing

aft

would

out

that

was

not

no
an

of

be

that

system

the

C)

workload.

60

and

the

61

degraded
their

two

control

determined

the

to

It

to

to

provide

should

be

reempha-

degrade

the

to

occurred

tracking

view

loca-

further

tracking

regard

in

loca-

center-of-gravity

require

entries

the

features
found

limiting

ability

deep-stall

tasks

the
did

of

resulting

during
of

the

resulted

contrary,

departures;

With

that

departures

center-of-gravity

at
will

the

was

nominal

result
and

the

affect
other

study

On

system

expected

unexpected

in

obtained

noted

incorporating

pitch-out

deep-stall

flown
those

figures

pitch-out

also

indicated.

encountered,

the

the

prevent

0.375_,

to

in
pilots

over

operation

of

was
as

significantly

pilot
at

same

capability.

conducted

previously

were
zero

Moreover,

stick

and

shown

(control

susceptibility

pointed

discussed.

but

discussed,

degradation

runs.

tracking

loss

particularly

more

to

the

not

phase

used

limiting

previously

minimize

significantly

was
in

tracking

did

preferred

evaluation

that

evaluation

are

previously

roll-rate

As

system

resulting

with

the

Again,
it

mildly

roll-response

improved
that

tracking

using

response

control

oscillatory

systems

runs

that

they

degradation

system

reversals

cleanly

the

air-

histories

bank-angle

workload

essentially

respectively.

commented

scheme

significant

minimize

C,

characteristics

the

control

were

Representative

and

but

limiting

control

roll

to

the

lateral

Overall,

less

the

time

airplane.

and
of

less

A.

with

with

results

Again,

summary,

roll-rate
no

rapidly

histories

system

for

excursions)
improved

B
'

observation.

roll
of

basic

much

smoother,

and

equipped

task.

of

time

system
this

B.

ability.

systems

tion

or

systems

response

tracking

in

the

sideslip
in

markedly

better

of

that

the

through

The
all

inputs

control

task
59.

One

that

Overall,

this

initial

than

reversals

the

control

slightly

bank-to-bank

control

that

confirm

the

the

A.

target

through

that

smaller

roll

that

with

figure

target

resulted

of

indicates

they

ACM

the

Comparison

characteristic

of

the

was

show

bank-to-bank

better

than

(much
rate

make

the

pilots

This

than

to

in

commented

slower

roll

the

shown

noticeably

control
of

oscillations.

figures

was

slightly

limiting

is

track

tends

in

pilots

system

very

traces

tracked

The

sideslip

pilot

system

the

characteristic
to

performance

control

one.

which

system

ability

and

by

tracking.

roll-response

noted

traces,

control

their

tracking

pilot

final

input

with

reduced

the

with

response
during

lateral

affect
of

roll

overcontrol

oscillatory

equipped

slower

the

less

Comparison

plane

to

significantly

task.

the

comparing

stated
not

of

tendency

by

somewhat

pilots

of

aspect

any
fact
not

trim,
of
that

the
no

entail

maneuvers.

31

INTERPRETATION
OF RESULTS
The fidelity
of the simulation in representing
the actual F-16 airplane
was evaluated by comparing simulation results with actual airplane flight
test
data and by having pilots with F-16 experience fly the simulator.
Throughout
the present study, close coordination
was maintained with the flight
testing Of
the full-scale
airplane to ensure correlation
between simulation and flight
and
to expedite development of airplane modifications
for testin@ in flight
when
problems were encountered.
As a result,
the major characteristics
an@results
derived from this investigation
have also been encountered in flight.
Flight
test results have confirmed that the airplane can experience pitch departures
during rolling
maneuvers and/or low-airspeed maneuvers at high angles of
attack.
Flight results have also shown that the airplane can enter the deepstall trim condition from the flight
conditions described herein.
Moreover,
the various control-system
modifications
and deep-stall
recovery methods
studied in the present simulation have been flight
tested and were found to be
as effective
as the simulation predicted.
It should be recognized, however, that the present study was limited in
scope, and these limitations
should be kept in mind when applying the results
and conclusions of this study.
A primary limitation
is that the aerodynamic
data were measured at low values of Mach number and did not incorporate any
compressibility
effect;
consequently, the results can only be considered valid
for Mach numbers less than about 0.6.
It should also be kept in mind that only
the clean configuration
was investigated
and that it is likely
that certain
store configurations
(particularly
asymmetrical stores) can degrade the
departure/spin
resistance of the airplane.
SUMMARY
OF RESULTS
A piloted
simulator investigation
has been conducted to evaluate the highangle-of-attack
characteristics
of an F-16-based fighter
configuration
incorporating relaxed longitudinal
static stability.
The following major results
were derived from this study:
1. The airplane with the basic control system was found to be resistant
to the classical
yaw or nose slice departure; however, it was susceptible to
pitch departures caused by having insufficient
nose-down control
to
counter
inertia-coupling
In

addition,

very

low

the

2.

at

Pitch-out
the

high

roll

during

rapid,

susceptible

angles

of

by

at

pitch

roll

departures

when

the

maneuvers.
flown

to

attack.

produced
rates

to

large-amplitude

the

inertial

lower

coupling

speeds

and

were
higher

prevented

by

angle-of-attack

conditions.

3.

without

modified

control

be

flown

system

features

significantly

airspeeds.
32

was

departures

maximum

departure-prevention

still

generated

airplane

airspeeds

limiting
flight

moment

to

degrading
angles

of

incorporating

made
roll
attack

the

airplane

performance.
above

the

roll-rate

limiting

extremely

departure

However,
angle-of-attack

the

and

other

resistant
airplane

limit

at

could
very

low

4. Although the airplane with the nominal center-of-gravity


location could
be made more departure resistant
without sacrificing
maneuverability,
it
appeared that center-of-gravity
locations
significantly
farther aft would
require more drastic roll-performance
penalties that could compromise tactical
effectiveness.
5. The simulated airplane could be flown into a deep-stall
trim condition,
from which recovery was not possible with the basic control system using the
primary pilot controls.
The roll-rate
limiting
control concept developed in
this study could not prevent very low airspeed entries into the deep stall.
6. It was not possible to define reasonable control laws (short of limiting
minimum airspeed) whichcould
prevent departure and entry into the deep stall
at very low airspeeds.
Changes to the airframe to increase high-angle-of-attack
10ngitudinal
stability
and/or control would probably be necessary to eliminate
these problems.
7. Reconfiguring the wing leading- and trailing-edge
flaps and deploying
the speed brakes generated a sufficient
nose-down moment increment to recover
the airplane from the deep-stall
trim point, provided that the rotation
rate
_was very small.
However, steady yaw rates as low as 15/sec could negate the
effectiveness
of this recovery technique, particularly
at the more aft center-ofgravity locations.
8. It was possible for the pilot to oscillate
the airplane out of the deepstall trim point by applying maximumpitch-control
inputs in phase with the
airplane motions.
The effectiveness
of this technique was found to be a direct
function of proper input timing by the pilot;
with correct pilot action, this
technique successfully
recovered the airplane,
even at the aft center-of-gravity
locations investigated.
Use of this procedure, however, required a modification
to the control system to enable reestablishment
of pilot control over the
stabilators
above the limit angle of attack.
Langley Research Center
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Hampton, VA 23665
September 20, 1979

33

APPENDIXA
DESCRIPTIONOF CONTROLSYSTEM
Longitudinal
A block diagram of the longitudinal
control system used in the .simulation
is presented in figure 62. The implementation was a fly-by-wire,
commandaugmentation system (CAS) whereby the pilot commandednormal acceleration
through
a minimum deflection,
force-sensing
side-stick
controller.
Washed-out pitch
rate and filtered
normal acceleration
were fed back to give the desired
response.
A forward-loop
integration
was used in an attempt to make the
steady-state
acceleration
response match the commandedacceleration.
The!air plane had slightly
negative static longitudinal
stability
at low Mach number;
the desired static stability
was provided artificially
by the control system b_
means of angle-of-attack
feedback.
The longitudinal
control system also incorporated an angle-of-attack
limiting
system which functioned by using an _ feedback to modify the pilotcommandednormal acceleration.
The angle-of-attack
feedback reduced the commanded normal-acceleration
limit by 0.322g/deg between _ = 15 and 20.4 and
by

1.322g/deg

limit

in

manded

above

ig

flight

normal

of

20.4

acceleration

modeled

as

surface

deflection

is

first-order
limit

Leading-edge
according
to
the

The

flap

limit

lag

of

was

25 .

in

1.38

sec,

9.05

63.
with

The
a

angle-of-attack
positive

stabilator

rate

with

i+

an

allowable

limit

angle

of

of

com-

actuator

was

60/sec.

attack

The

and

q/Ps

1.45

Ps

modeled

Maximum

in

maximum

scheduled

S+7.25

was

25/sec.

resulted

The

figure

0.0495

flap
deflection
was
following
relationship:

actuator

of

feature
25 .

shown

2S+7.25
61e f

This

approximately

as
flap

first-order

deflection

lag
was

of

0.136

sec,

with

rate

25 .

Lateral

The
ure

lateral

64.

The

commanded

vated
oppose
that

34

system

roll

stick.

Above
which
any
the

control

yaw-rate

pilot

has

is

incorporated

rates

uses

system

up

to

29 , an

yaw-rate
buildup.
no

control

shown

block

command

308/sec

automatic

diagram
feature

through

the

given

to

this
the

drive

mode,

the
the

airplane

whereby

system

roll-control
roll-rate
laterally.

in

fig-

the

pilot

force-sensing

departure-/spin-prevention

feedback

over

the

roll-rate

maximum

In

by

control
is

surfaces
CAS

is

disengaged

acti-

to
so

APPENDIXA
The roll-control
system uses both aileron and differential-tail
deflections
at a ratio of 4 of @a per 1 of @d" The surface actuators were modeled as
0.0495-sec first-order
lags, with rate limits of 60/sec for the differential
tail and 80/sec for the ailerons.
The surface deflection
limits were 5.38
and 21.5 for the differential
tail and ailerons,
respectively.
Directional
A block diagram of the directional
control system used in the simulation
is presented in figure 65. The pilot rudder input was computed directly
from
pedal force and was limited to 30 . Furthermore, this commandsignal was
reduced to zero between 20 and 30 angle of attack in an attempt to prevent
departures resulting
from excessive pilot rudder usage at high angles of attack.
,Yaw stability
augmentation consisted of feedbacks of r - p_ (mrstab)
and ay.
The stability-axis
yaw damper provided increased lateral-directional
damping in
addition to reducing sideslip during high _ rolling
maneuvers. The lateral
acceleration
feedback had little
effect at the low-speed flight
conditions of
the present investigation.
The directional
control system also incorporated an
aileron-rudder
interconnect
(ARI) for improved coordination
and roll performance. At low speeds, the ARI gain was scheduled as a linear function of angle
of attack with a slope of 0.075/deg.
As in the roll axis, above _ = 29 , a
departure-/spin-prevention
mode is activated which drives the rudder at a gain
of 0.75 deg/deg/sec to oppose any yaw-rate buildup.
The rudder actuator was
modeled as a 0.0495-sec first-order
lag with a rate limit of 120/sec.
The
total rudder travel was limited to 30 .

35

APPENDIXB
DESCRIPTIONOF EQUATIONSANDDATAEMPLOYED
IN SIMULATION
Equations of Motion
The equations used to describe the motions of the airplanes were nonlinear,
six-degree-of-freedom,
rigid-body
equations referenced to a body-fixed Axis
system shown in figure 1 and are given as follows:
Forces:
: rv - qw - g sin 0 + q__S
m Cx,t + m
% : pw - ru + g cos 0 sin _ + qS
_--Cy,t
6 : qu - pv + g cos G cos % + --_--Cz,t
qS
Moments:
Iy

IZ
qr

Ix

IXZ
IX

(r

pq)

C Z
IX

I z

IX

Iy

IX
-

where
and

the
CZ,

total
are

quaternions

to

IZ

pr

IXZ(r
Iy

Pq

IX----_Z(pIZ

Iy

aerodynamic
defined
allow

36

tan

Qu 2

-I

the

continuity

(uw-]

v 2

p2)

qr)

coefficients
in

included

w 2

next
of

,t

qSc
__
Iy

Cm,

qS__bb
I Z
Cn,t

CX,

t,

CZ,

section.

Euler

attitude

motions.

Her

Heq

t,

Cm,

angles

t,
were

Auxiliary

Cy,

t,

computed
equations

Cn,

t,
by

using

APPENDIXB
qu

pv

cos

an =
-pw
ay

cos

ru

cos

sin

Aerodynamic

The

aerodynamic

static

and

models

of

the

Research

data

dynamic

(force

F-16

in

Centers.

tions

of

and

-30

over

the

various

both

same

of

30 .
_

the

simulation

were

wind-tunnel
facilities

at

the

NASA

aerodynamics

were

input

attack

and

over

the

The

sideslip

dynamic

data

Total

were

input

coefficient

contributions

to

derived

tests

static

range.

aerodynamic

in

oscillation)

wind-tunnel

The

angle

used

Data

in

given

in

force

Ames

tabular
were

or

low-speed

moment

with

and

tabular

ranges

equations

from

conducted

-20

form
_

form
used

subscale

Langley

as
_

for
to

sum

coefficient

func-

90
_

the
as

follows.

For

the

X-axis

force

coefficient:

CX(_,_,6

CX,t

h)

ACx,lef(

25

-jj

(_)(i
+

_[CXq(_)

,sb

6 le f_7

ACXq,lef

where

ACx,Ie

For

the

Z-axis

force

CX,lef(_,_)

CX(d,_,@

0 )

coefficient:

/
CZ,

Cz(_,8,6h)

_q[c Z
(_)
2V [
q

ACz,lefkl

ACz,sb(_)

\ 60/

hCZq
, lef

where

ACz,lef

CZ,lef

(_' _)

CZ(_'

_'6h

0)

37

APPENDIXB
For the pitching-moment

coefficient:

Cm,t : Cm(d,8,@h)_@h(@h)+

Cz,t(Xcg,ref

Xcg)

ACm,lef<l

( sq
+

ACm,

sb (_) \-_--]

ACm(_)

[C
__q
mq

ACm,ds(_,@

(_)

ACmq

, lef

(_) ( 1

h)

where
ACm,le

For

the

Y-axis

Cy,

Cm,

force

lef(_,8

Cm(d,8,@

0 )

coefficient:

Cy(d,8

ACy

ACy,lef(1

,@a=20

ACY,@r:30

ICyp

ACy

(_)

61ef-]
25
/

(1

,6a=20O,lef

-2V

ACyp,lef

Yr

(_)

(_) (1

61e_f)]

ACy,

Cy,lef(_,8)

@a:20o

CY,@a:20o(_

(a, 8)
F
Ic

38

Cy(_,8)

'@a=20,lef

,@r:30

: cy

ACy,@a=20O,lef

ACy

Cy(d,8)

8)

CY,@r:30o

(_, 8)
Y,@a:20

ACYr,lef

2s ]P)

where

ACy,le

(_,B) - Cy (_,8)

(_) (i

61ef_]
25
/J

APPENDIXB
For the yawing-moment coefficient:
Cn, t = Cn(_,_,6h)

+ ACn,lef(l

@lef) - Cy,t(Xcg,ref

Xcg)b

+ IACn,6a=20o + ACn,@a=20O,lef( 1
r

ACn,

@r=30

I Cnp

(_)

nr

(_)

ACnp,lef(_)(l

ACnr

61ef-_]p]
ACn_(_)__
II

(_)

,lef

where

ACn,le

Cn,lef(d,_)

=
ACn,

@a:20

C n

Cn(_,_,@

(_,_)

0 O)

Cn(_,_,@

ACn,6a:2OO,lef

Cn

,6a=20O,lef

(_'_)

-[Cn,6a:20o(C_,[{)-

ACn,

For

the

6r=300

rolling-moment

0 O)

,6a:20o

Cn,lef(d,_)

Cn(Ct,[_,6h

Cn,6r=30o(_,_)

Cn(_,8,6

0) -]

0 O)

coefficient:

_,t

_(_,_,@h

Ct,@a:20o

hCt,le

ACt,

61ef
25

@a:20O,lef

(1

25

ACtr,le

r
+

hCt,@r:30o.

(@r)
_

E c tp

ACtp,le

(_) +

_b

(E

c t r (_)

(_) ( i

61ef_
_g

P]

f (_)(i

+ Ac t

(_)B

39

APPENDIX

where

hCZ,

le f

CZ,lef(d,_)

AC_,@a:20o

CZ(_,_,@

C_,@a:20o(_,_)

ACl,@a=20O,lef

The
tions

aerodynamic

are

variables.

The

in

table

aerodynamic

gravity

location

of

0.35_

gravity

position

in

the

o(_,8)

The

F-16

is

to

as

moment
and

cated

in

figure

The

response

ure

66(c).

by

inputs

66(a).
was

modeled

Presented

an

table

maximum

thrust

levels.

Engine

ing

engine

angular

momentum

(160

4O

the

slug-ft2/sec).

in

functions

to

0)]

preceding
the

coefficient

indicated

are

referenced

the

desired

equa-

independent
to

flight

center-ofcenter-of-

equations.

Simulation

afterburning
computed

the
of

corrected

throttle

with
in

0 )

CZ,lef(_,@)

coefficients

were

was

The

-C_(d,_,@h

contained
III

coefficient

powered

throttle

- cl( ,B,6h )

Engine

response

0 )

(_,@)

C_,@r:30o

coefficients

presented

C_(_,8,@

CZ,6a=20O,lef

-[CZ,6a:20

AC_,@r:30o

turbofan
by

command

are

at

lag

thrust

gyroscopic
fixed

jet
the

is

which

values

effects
value

engine.

shown

varied
for

were
of

The

mathematical

gearing

first-order
VI

using

in
as

idle,

kg-m2/sec

indi-

figure
shown

military,

simulated

216.9

thrust

model

by

66(b).
in

figand

represent-

APPENDIXC
SPECIAL EFFECTS
Buffet

Characteristics

Aerodynamic buffeting
of the airframe at high angles of attack was simulated by shaking the cockpit with a hydraulic mechanism. The buffet intensgty
and frequency content were controlled
by the computer, with the buffet amplitude varying with angle of attack, as shown in figure 67. Buffet onset
occurred near _ = 15 , and the level
of
buffet
increased
fairly
linearly
thereafter

with

trolled

to

_ primary

increasing

represent

structural

angle

the

of

relative

modes

of

the

attack.

buffet

Pilot

blackout

was

cockpit

by

instruments

factors.

At

the

the

in

order

scene

maneuvers.

it

suit,
the

if
when

tion

between

time

to

to

the

9g,

to

flew

with

the

than

of

of

simulation
simulated

5g

this
the

load
used

tunnel

image

operation

con-

the

three

was

cue,

in
high

unrealistically

normal

The

factor

vision

acceleration

level.

300

that

sec

an

and
blackout

during

the

relative

of
will

normal

tend

direct

logarithm

interim

the

experience

will

5g

to

acceleration,

values

at

the

load

to

normal

pilot

and

tracking

addition

used
the

accelera-

high

delayed

and

algorithm

to

at

steady

high

assumed

normal
scene

spent

for

at

of

projected

vision

provided

at

values

the
time

target
tunnel

representation

below

high
of

cumulative

blackout
extent

logarithm
the

the
of

who

greater

returning

of

the

blackout

exposed

blackout;
at

of

pilot

was
of

Blackout

brightness

simulate
of

content

contributions

sustained

the

dimming

partially

of

under

function

simulation

The

recover

time,

to

anti-g

grayout

blackout

same

penalized

acceleration.

"grayout"
decreasing

as

This

inflatable
and

or

simulated

frequency

airframe.

Simulation

tion

The
amplitude

and

of
i0

to
relathe
sec

to

period.

41

REFERENCES
1. Impact of Active
Oct. 1974.

Control

Technology on Airplane

Design.

AGARD-CP-157,

2. Gilbert,
William P.; Nguyen, Luat T.; and Van Gunst, Roger W. : Simulator
Study of the Effectiveness
of an Automatic Control System Designed to
Improve the High-Angle-of-Attack
Characteristics
of a Fighter Airplane.
NASATN D-8176, 1976.
,q

3.

Mechtly,

E.

Conversion

4.

Ashworth,
of

42

the

A.:

The

Factors

B.

R.;

Langley

and

International
(Second

Kahlbaum,

Differential

System

of

Revision).

William
Maneuvering

Units

NASA

M.,

SP-7012,

Jr.:
Simulator.

Physical

Constants

and

1973.

Description
NASA

and
TN

Performance

D-7304,

1973.

TABLE I.Weight, N (ib)

MASSANDDIMENSIONALCHARACTERISTICS
USEDIN SIMULATION
........................

91 188 (20 500)

Moments of inertia,
kg-m2 (slug-ft2)
IX .............................
Iy .............................
IZ .............................
IX z ...............................
Wing dimensions:
Span, m (ft)
..........................
Area, m2 (ft 2) .......................
Mean aerodynamic chord, m (ft)
Reference center-of-gravity

:
12 875 (9496)
75 674 (55 814)
85 552 (63 I00)
1331 (982)
9.144 (30)
27.87 (300)
3.45 (11.32)

.................

location

.................

Surface deflection
limits:
Horizontal tail Symmetric (@h), deg ........................
Differential
(6d), per surface, deg ................
Ailerons (flaperons),
deg ......................
Rudder, deg .............................
Leading-edge flap, deg ..................
Speed brake, deg ..........................

0.35_

. ....

25
5.375
21.5
30
25
60

43

TABLEII.-

Initial

DEPARTURE-/SPIN-SUSCEPTIBILITY
MANEUVERS

condition

Maneuver

ig trim;
_ = 10;
h = 9144 m
ig trim;
_ = i0;
h = 9144 m
lg trim;
_ = i0;
h = 9144 m

Zilot

360

roll

Maximum

lateral

360

roll

Maximum

coordinated

stick

Response

to

cross

controls

and

Maximum

Inertia

coupling

Maximumg decelerating
turn;
h = 9144 m
Maximumg decelerating
turn;
h = 9144 m
Maximumg decelerating
turn;
h = 9144 m

roll

170

360

roll

170

Ig

trim;
h

9144

9144

25o;

25o;

44

9144

to

by

and
abrupt

stick,
abrupt

full

stick

Maximum

lateral

stick

Maximum

coordinated

stick

and

Maximum

opposite

stick

and

lateral

pedal

lateral

pedal

IAS

360

roll

Maximum

lateral

360

roll

Maximum

coordinated

to

cross

and

Maximum

stick

and

Maximum

lateral

pedal

opposite

stick

bank-to-bank

Deep-stall
climb;
m

cross
at

knots

Response

by

stick

lateral

stick

70

stick

lateral

pedal

lateral

stick

reversals

Steep-aCtitude,

IAS

controls

decelerating

at

controls

lg trim;
_ = 25o;
h = 9144 m

pedal

IAS

knots

Response

ig trim;
_ = 25o;
h = 9144 m

at

knots

170

lg trim;

aft

followed

360

lateral

followed

Maximum

aft

stick

opposite

pedal,
full

ig trim;
M = 0.6;
h = 9144 m

input

entry

Stick

neutral

forward

or

full

TABLEIII.-

AERODYNAMIC
DATAUSEDIN SIMULATION
CX(<_,_,@
h = -25)

R[TA

-25.0

ALPHA
-PO.O
-.1R680
-]_.0
-10,0

0.0
+5.0

,fo.n
*}5,0
*PO.O

,30.0
+35.0

.!o7_0

*_0,0

.I_630
.1_060

,450
*KO,O

.t4710

*_5.0

.l_56n

*_0,0

.i_o6n
.Y_nin

$70.0

.I_010

*RO,O

.i_9_n
*qO.O
.1_600

t_

- 6.n
+15.n

- 6,0
*_0,0

-.15690
-.1R960
-.IPI60

-.191_0
-.18A30

-.187_O
-.lP_O

-.18480

-,18410
-16930
-.16980
-.14150
-.13720
-.i1150
-,t0_0
-.06610
-.06490
-,00700
-.00800
.05030

-.18r',_O
-.17n_0
-.17_I0
-.14_00
-,1P_oO
-.11_0
-ilO_O
-.06_0
-.06_10
-,007_0
-.01070
.0_0

-.18600
-.18380
-.18530
-.18170
-.17350
-.16950
-,1_250
-,t_580
-.11240
-.10tS0
-.06750
-.05960
-00900
-.01050

,08880
,OlPiO
,IIPIO
,10750

,O@PSO
,070PO
,IilAo
,I0410

_05530
,0_380
i03960---,0-3660
,09410
,09480
.07030
,07130
,11290
.11230
.10760
.lOqflO

.13330
.13230
.14250
.14600
.15850
.15670
.16710
.15730
.17120
.17300
.17690
.17610
.16620
.16880
.15950
16860
.15210
.15720
.16600
.1_770

.13000

,16220

,1_430

,15700
.12560
.16820
.13430
,16390
,15_10.

.t6230
,11950
.17260
.14300
.16740
.1-53g0

16440
.1_570
.17_90
.13_70
.17100
1_620.17150
.15670

.16560
.16350
17620
.16680
.17190
._1860
.17380
.15570

,15850
o16100
.16670
.11930

.15660
.1_670
.16690
.156.9_L_

-,1RPTO
-.1R6RO
-,r171RO
-.17110
-.13170

-,14P_O
-,I0430
-,111_0
-06n30

-.14100
-, I0C)30
--,11100
-.06400

-.06_00
-.OOqqO
-.01 n_,O

-. 06F,40
-,01010
-. n 0_,._
0

..03qRO
, e_330
.07B60
.09750
.11_40
.ll_PO
,10i00

,03_PO
.05360
.07460
.093q0

'. n4OPO
.05;_70
.07450
,09130

,!IOPO
,IIP50
.09750

.]0670
.I1360
, I07110

.1t010
.111q0

.14q10
.11370
.16_.70
.14_70
17110
16030
164g0
.15_#+0
.171_.0
16150
.17430
.15(_90
.17_80
.15960
,1710n
.16150
.15730
.16510
.167_0

14070,11 qRO
.16640
13500
.16QQO
.16050

,t37q0
,127@0
.16ml70
..
.14410
.16550
,16040

.16KO0
.I_460

. "167_0
.16710

.17PRO
15680
16_60

.1.74_0
.16_10
16770

.16670
.17300
,15690
.171_0
.15590
.15630

.15P50
.17.';160
,16PO0
,173n0
.15_00
,15R60

.16080
.166_0

.'166R0
.16_60

.t3500
.16020
._600
.15740
.16110
.16370
.1_970
.171_0
17250
.17780
.17240
.16640
.1721_
.15730
.17200
.15210
.15580
.1676n
17110

.-.06P60
-,01080
-.0];30

.0q15o

- 8,0
*10.0

-,179_0
-.')8760
-.t6qPO
-. 17;_90
-.1_760

-.nn7qo
L_nl_no

.11110

;10,0
+ R,O

.._ Rqc)O
-,'19000

-. !_750
-.lq_ln
..1787n
-.tlSln
-.143P0
-.OqO?O
-.113_0
-.0_160

.o_560
.nq3?o
.07400
.09510

-15.0
* 6.0

-,19o40
-, 19ftPO

-.1RqgO
-.17_bO
-. lRO_qO
-.16_70
-.17690
-.1P'_PO
-, 16_S0
-oOq_50
-.1 l;_90
-.05_70

-.17160

-?0:. 0
* 4.0

-.17060
-.1_90n
-.13970
-.11200
-.110P0
-.06530
-.06500
-.00760
-.00830
0_770
.OqO_O-.
0R670
0R670

._i_o

,l_?mO
.13_0
.16nlo
,t4_aO
.16_40
,15_00
.16_0
.15_0
.176_0
.17PPO
,17n40
.-,16710 ....
.1TRIO
.14740
.15q_O
.141nO
.16R_O
.15_10

- 2,0
*25,0

,30,0

-.18600
-.17870
-.17710
-.18770
-.1_900-,17390-.17720
-.16300
-,t-53_0
-.1#370
-.12t_0
-,11330
-.11300
--_00570
-.0_790
-.06900
-.0_580
-.05050
-01160
-.011_0
-.00850
.... -14i_J6LiO -.....
.........
,069T0
-.t0660
....

.1t370
,129g0
..... ,l_'lO.
.13620
,16420
..... _._600.i_450
.15380
.16P-._O-

TABLE

III.-

Continued

c @,B,6h: -10o)
BETA
00

ALPHA
-PO.O
-{SO

;io,o

..]OlAO
-.1147_
-.OA9_O
-.04830

00
50

-.01IRO
-.017_0
oO:6fiO
e97-_0

.._gaTo
*POO

.1_0

_p_'.O

.1_740
.14070

_300

lo_o

_00
.179A0
*4SO

*,o,o

-.[_710

*_5.0
.14RAO
*60'0
_70,0

........ _s_n
.T_7_o

+RO,O
*QO.O

.lP110
.1_870
.... .17470

+ 4.0

-.13_10
-17460
-17450

-.14190
-1P470
-1P350
-t1_70

-,10660
-1o950
-07060
-08PSO
-0_090
-,061t0
-01060
-01780
O_P80
,03q90

-_o_o

08000
.,t0_]0
17750
1_?0
t4740
.14i80
IP_tO

08a70
.I0970
,17580
,13380
,14660
144_0
lP_70

16400.
11_40
17_30
,14170
,18100
,14R60
.,1.6_0
14100

107g0
.179K0

P.O

15490
.13670
,14_30
.13_nO
o13_60
.11740
130! 0
.116.10
.llq_O
,1_410

-1OR60
-07_60
-OAT_O
-o.O_3PO
-,060_0
-,OOq60
-01670
03670

1_4_OlPqqO
18040
13650
,17710
1_170
,16530,14_0
15470
,l?SlO
,13610
.13_0
13200
,11850
o1_630
11360
.119_0
.1_140

60

-i3_6o
-1_?0
-1POLO
-llRPO
-,10710
-10770
-.07710
-05440
-,0_950
-OlOPO
-.o1_60
039_0
041_0
o9340
,I01_0
1 ?4qO
1 _430
.14K40
.14A70
14370
,13770
,t7870
17100
.!5_oo
.1A_O0
.14860
._5600
,13_60
.13700
._15_0
.13870
.11080
,_27n0
.1_50

._]o

RoO

+lOO

-.1_740
-.17570
-.11760
-.ltTAO
-.10610
-o10630
-.00360

-.13_00
-,128?0
-,11760
-,11840
-,10680
-,10_0
-,08640

-eOp4?o
-.0_780

-,081PO
-,05890

-_0_770
-.0t470
-.0t410
.041PO
,04140
.0q830
.t0080
.13260
.1_100
.146_0
.14470
,ISO00
,16t50
.1_230
.174_0
.15970
,170_0
.16080
._A970
.I_610
.1_38N
.14670
.14050

-,056t0
-,0t480
-,01330
.04170
,04120
,10060
..,0(;t830--.
.13470
,tSORO
,14860
14390
,161_0
,15030
,15810
,16750
,16220
,16590
,16130
.15&9.0
.15700
,15440
,14720
,14310

,1_850
.13230
.11610
'I_81.0

,12890
,13100
.i1870
.12680

e11580
.19040
.1_650
_1_0_o

,I1480
,I1770
,12560
,lzsTo

- 6_
*ls,n
-,l?_RO
-.12_aO

- 4,0
.,_0,0

.... 2,,0
2_,0

-,12490
-13270

-,12P?O
-.17590

-,t1_00
-,11770
--,1Pt_0-,12_30
-,10_=0
-,10830
-,107_0
-,10760
-,OA_O
-,08870
-,07_70
-,07220
-,O_OVO
-,06060
-,OF_=_O
-,0_i50
-.Ol:_O
-.01610
-,00_0
-,00870
,04naO
.0130
,03QOO
.03670
10_0
,10340
,0_40
...... ,08870
13_O0
,13490
12=t0
,12300
t4_KO
,14530
14_aO
.14400
,lkKK0
.t6600
_t_=O0-.t3900
,17==0
,t7890
,t_=00
,14510
,I7=KO
,17620
t51_0
,14270
,t5o70
.16710
,_4a.10
ol&780 15_a0
,15110
14_0
,14050
,14_0
,14650
,13nn0
,12150
,13_60
,11790
13760

.13510
,13800
,13120

,I_I_0
]14_0
,lla_0
,12_70
.1_I_0

,12920
.I1940
,11550
,12360
,12060

+300

-,12700

-.11840
-.17530---,1_240
-.10940
-.10740
-,10260
-,08890
-,06820
-06310
-,06130
-.04g?O.--.o_r,,s/_O-.
-,01770
-,01060
-,OIP70
,04060
,03_80
,0_680
10330
-. ,08000..
._7350-.13250
.I_470
,i1940
.14_90
.14480
,13480
,16630
.,1_50--,t-t_0
.18010
13060
,17270
,17980
.14740
.13970
,16670
_.14_70.1_820--.
.15150
.13930
.13290
,14620
,13310
,13390
,13720
,13850.
,13#10.
13530
,1281_
.11770
,11800
.12480
.12330

,12780
.12200
,12790

0o8_0"
00_80"
OBg60"
OLEUI
090I

O?LUi
06_I"
OIS[I

OL_UI'
09[ul'
Oi_i
OgSlI

O0_LO"

0I_o0"OB_O

0_0

019_0

O0_bO'"

00_*

OILLO*

08S80

01980

OLoLO*
0_80"

09teO*
0_80"

OZgUO
U_80*

OL[UO"
0_0"

OSeO"
08080"
06SbO
ObSO[

OS9ZO"
09t80

OBS60*
OLSO["

O_LO
O_uSO* ,
OZb_O*
OUst[

060L O
OEbLO
0_60"
08160"

UOUUO
OlbLO"
U_b60
O[S_O"

09_OO"
O_LLU
O_[Ot"
OVbLU

006U[
OOZ[I

0_60I"
09_I["

Oo_O[
Oiu[I"

06U_I"
O[_II"

Ub_L["
U6OLL"

Ob_[L"
O090t"

O[_[l"
OEBIL
O_2[t
OLS2I
OBSlI"
09LI
0822I
02SSI"
09[[[
0[[9l
062l"
O0_SI

Oi_(i

022[1

OOO_I
0_0
O_LOI

06SEO

09IOI'-

098L0"

06190"
OLb_O"
O00OO'O
OILO0""
099_0""
OSO_O .
OELSO'O0OLO 06000
06200
0_0l'O_4bO'"
06900""
O_O0
0'_2"
02

O_LOI
0S6I["
O[?ii
08S2l"
ObSII
02_l
OIOI["
09ISI"
O[9EI"
066SI
OSL_I*
OS_SI"

OEEEI
09_I

OI6I[*
O_E60"
ObLO(
OBS_O

ObOSO
06100

OSSO0"OL_[O'"
OOL_O OEI90"08LLO 0[I60
00160
OEOI'04960""
04_0['"
ObSbO'"
0"0_*
O't
=

O_Ot"
OLLd["
O_u[l

OoL_I
O_o[["
O_u_I"
0__I"
0o_9["
Ought"
O_bSi
O_lgl"
OOVSI"

OS_II
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TABLE

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-.62_80

-.42310

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-5_7R0

-.57020

-.57RO0

TABLE

III.-

Cm(G,B,6

BETA
ALPHA
-PO,O

-PO#O
* 4.0

-i_.o
+ 6.0

-10.0
+ R.o

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.oo33o
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.0_4_0

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._lO_AO
-.0_400
-.074_0
-.0_500

-.07q30
-.07400
-.07740
-.04600

-.067_0
-.03q00
-.07P_O
-.05000

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+ 5.0

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2_0,070
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-.04500

-.0_90
-.ORPO0
-.06010
-.10KO0

-.036_0
-.07700
-.0_060
-.09_00

-.04_60
-.06700
-.0_60
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-_045_0
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_,
..060KO

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-,06_AO

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+40,0

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-.n6100
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+_5.0

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-.05_00
-.09750
-.01_00

-.06000
-.lORO0
-.01700

-.Qq_no
-.116RO
-.03500

-_OAPkO
._Og100
-.073A0

-,ORO80
-.01800
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-.10_00
+,

-.1_00 ..
-.I_1_0
-.3R300

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-.14_60
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-.17300
-.14_70
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-.15_10
.-._RTO0

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-._RO0
-.46_00

-.ml_30
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-A74_0

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-.61630

-.61600
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50

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Continued

-.o41oo
-.o6ooo
-.0758n
-.078Po
-.06600
-.06170
-.0_140
-.Og3PO
-.04_50
-.04@00
-.0_360
-.04470
-.04780
-.Oq370
-.06480
-.O_3qO
-,078_0
-.O&IPO
-.073R0
-.0747O
-.066_0
-.ln710
-.0o_70
-.1_090
-.0780_
-.I_770
-.o477n
-.o98Ro
-.1_170
-.145q0
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0 O)

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-.051no
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-.07730
-07700
-.06600
-.06_10
-.05070
-,0_370
-,04R40
-.04980
-.05140
-.04840
-.05180

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-.047_0
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.00620
.07400
-.06900
.02200
-.07000
.01800
-.08020
-.04000
-.06150
-.06870
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.08600
-.06740
.03100
-.08130
,01400
-.07740
-.OPS]O
-.06050
-.04840
-,04ggo
-.06190
-.06440
-.06190
-.0619O
-.07180
-,03840
-.08000
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-.04710
-.Oq?tO
-.06670
-.0775O
-.08200
-.04020
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-.08200
-.09130
-.06480
-.OR300
-,06800
-.17660
-.1_750
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-.35930
-.46050
-.51450
-.62170
-.63_10

-.0_60
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-,05600
-.06080
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-,080_0
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-.11160
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-.12_30
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-.153no
-.36370
-.3487o
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-.48P10
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-.61150

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-.060_0
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-.0_0
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-.I0_70
-.10_0
-.077_0
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-.50_0
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-.04570
-.05550
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-.09740
-.07890
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-.09660
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-.08900
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-.06630
-.11520
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-.34450
-.48690
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-.0_00
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-.0_790
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..02940
-.06240
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-.1B_lO
-.34440
..47880
-.63810

bo
TABLE

III.-

Cm(_,8,@

8ETA

-90.0

-25.0
+

P.O

-20.0
+ 6.0

-15.0
+

Continued

-10.0
+ P.O

6.0

i0 )

8.0
+10.0

6.n
+l_.n

4.0
*?0.0

2.0
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ALPHA
-70.n

rnTnno

-]5.n
-.171qn

-.oom6n

-.01n70

l,Oq_SO

-.09300

-.03m50

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-.16_30
-.07q20

-.lS6_O
-,Oq_?O

-.n3_40
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-.08550

-.02_g0

-.00400

-.14_0
-.07_aO

-.15510
-.05890

-.]6630
-,04450

-.0?_t0

-.16_0
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-.17740
-.09310

-.18800
-.12760

-.05480
-.11200

-.l_71n
-.1_210
-.1594n

-.16000
-.15P50

-.IPqgn

-,]7q_O

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5.0

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-.12400
-.19000

-.15_00
-.Ig300

-.16Rnq

0.0

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-.1_00

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--.15Q00

-.iAioo

-.16_00

-.16300

-.105n0

-.19_00

-.16400

-.1_0_0
-.oq7no

-.16100
-.11;00

1.1_48o
-.00700
-.145_O
70.n

-.O0_O

-.07430
-,1_760
-.12950

-.0_4q0

15.0

-.09640

-,n7430
-.14070

-10.0

+10.0

-.07780
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-.OR150
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-o1_300
-.19100

-.18R00
--.18_00

-.191n0
-,16Rn6

--.19200
-.15200

--.18900
-.12500

-.16000

-.15_n0

-.1570o

-.16200

-.1_700

-.IAO00
-.16POrt

-.16PO0

-,t6_nO

-.15300

-.IP600

-o1_500

-,lg50n

-.15_o0

-,l_no

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-.15800

-.16_00
-.17_00

-.!870o
-.13500

-1_700
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-.15600
-.14_00

-,I5_no
-.151n0

-.1_500
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-.13300
-.15700

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-,15700

-.15300

-14500

-.10400

-.11R00

-ol_O0

-.15100

-.14_00

-.IS_O0

-.n_pno

-.14600

-.14nno

-.12600

-.11700

-15_00

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-.15500

-.15_00

-.t1700

-15700

".15_00

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-.13600

-.11800

-.09700

-.10600

-.I_400

-.16P00

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-.13400

-.13000

-.1_600
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-.16100

-.16_00

-.l_no

-.]2600

-.11500

-.00600

-.I_700
-.16O00

-.14400
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-.I5_no
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-.15600
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-.15400
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-.0o000

-,00600

-.I_640

-.12_on

+75.0

,,075n0
-.I_300

-.10_00

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-.10_00
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+30.0

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-,16800

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-017900

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-.14700

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-otS300

-.15700

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--.07_00

-_!09n0

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0_000"
00_0"

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09L_O*

06_io"
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OtO_O'.
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0"0

Oe_O
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'
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o0_=_
(_'_)

p_nuT_uoD

-" III

0"9
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0"08"
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o
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00_0"0_0"OOL_O

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000_0"
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00900"
00900"
00900
_

0"_I+
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0"_
*
0"0
O'S--0"010"_I0"0_-

(_)

_I_

dto

O00_i'oO00i'O00ff['O00_('O000i'0o00('O00_i'OOO[_'OO0_'00_'006_t00_'-

O000_'.
O0_'OOL&'O0_tgo.
0099_
"o

C_)dZO

VNdgV

p_pnIouoD

0"06
0"08
O'OL*
0"09
O'S_
O'OS
0"S#
0"0_

-" III

Z_I_I_f
,_,

0"9
0"0_
0"_
0"0_
0_(*
0"01
0"_
0"0
0o_
O'Oi"
0"_(0"0_"
VNdTV

TABLE

IV.-

AND

LEVELS

OF

ROLL-RESPONSE

CROSS-AXES

COUPLING

ROLL-RATE

LIMITING

DEGRADATION

FOR

VARIOUS

TECHNIQUES

Initial
Scheduling

Cross-axes
roll-response

parameter

coupling
degradation

Low

High

Moderate

6h

TABLE

Low

V.-

COMPARISON

FULL

92

Moderate

LATERAL

Control

a, max

system

deg

'

High

OF

ROLL

STICK

RESPONSE

TO

INPUT

At_:90o

At@:180o

-21.5

2.6

3.8

-16.1

4.3

-21.5

2.6

3.9

TABLE

VI.-

THRUST

vALUES

(a)

ThruSt

SI

uSED

IN

sIMULATION

units

values

at

an

altitude,

m,

of

15
12

9
6
m

240

192

144

096

048

0
Tidle

0.2

824
267

.4
.6

-4

537

.8

-12

010

-16

013

890
iii

-3

158

-8
-6

451
227

3i
-l

069
535
334

-5

782

-2

647

i. 0

43
i
-i

492
358
557
099

-i

521

916

5
4
2

026
048
669
-890

562

6
6
4

783
049
893

Tmil

i14

0.2
.4

56
56

401
089

40
41

699
420

28
29

080
401

.6

56

223

43

764

31

536

55

ill

45
43

34
35

472
806

51

263
804

17

970

19

082
663
728
133

20
27
23

i0

987

12
II

632
565

14

456

16

902

227

939

384

585

i0

275

953

1.0
Tmax

0.2

834
993

iI

565

32

573

19

727

12

610

95

276

69
74

49
54

929
488

36
41

269
300

22
25

240
354

14
17

300
570

.4

i00

970

84

112

61

204

49

440

30

51B

22

494

.6

107

820

9B

742

71

057

977

38

440

.8

115
128

959
485

81

398

103

723

59

1.0

(b)

U.S-

__y
m

customary

values

at

Uni%S

an

altitude,

ft,

of

oooo

130
910
600

i loo

360

-200

'

12
0.2

00

680

150

560

610

312

660

950

_o

\
\
\
\

\
\
\
\

Figure

i.-

Body

system

of

axes.

T
L
5.Ol

15.09

Figure

2.-

Three-view
sketch
of airplane
configuration.
All
dimensions
given
in meters.

95

<o
O_

Figure

3.-

General

arrangement
simulator

of

Langley

(DMS)

differential

facility.

maneuvering

.................................................
Figure

4.-

View

of

cockpit

and

visual

L-73d6831
display

within

one

sphere

of

DMS.

97

GO

Figure 5.- View of side-stick

installation

in simulator

cockpit.

an,

g units

deg

deg

_too

-200 L_l

2001

\
\

lO0
0

deg
-100

\\

-200

!=_,__

1SO00

h,

10000

---_

__fl I

/'

....

=--_=

....
i

O0

I0

15

20

25

30

35

_0

_5

50

55

Time,
Figure

6.-

Time

histories

of

target

60

65

70

75

80

85

80

95

itl_8.

sec

motions

in

wind-up

turn

task.

99

.3
.6

.3
0

_0
2O

deg

i00
L
_

--_-_
_-_ b--- _

-_-

._._

___

._----

_ _

.__/

-lO0

lO0

(o,

deg

_ Ioo

i00
f

_'

_._

aeg

_ loo

i0000

h,

sooo

o
o

10

1S

2S

20

30

35

u_o

Time,
Figure

i00

7.-

Time

histories

of

target

motions

qS

SO

55

60

65

sec
in

bank-to-bank

task.

70

Id

deg

-9

-_-000

0
m

histor-'es_

L
%

Figure
\\
L

'\

8.-

Time

of

target

motions

in

ACM

task.

2.0

1.6

1.2

CL

.8

.4

I0

15

20
_,

Figure

9.-

Untrimmed

lift

configuration.

102

25

30

35

deg

characteristics
_

of
0 .

simulated

40

6h
0

[]

+25

<_

-25

.4

C
m

-.6

20

40

60

80

c_, deg
Figure

i0.-

Variation

of

deflections.

pitching

moment
Center

of

with
gravity

for
at

various

stabilator

0.35_.

103

24
.20
.16

.12

, O8
.04
m

-.04

-. 08

(S
h
h

[_]_6

-.12
_-.16

-.20
_.24

-.28
-30

_25

Figure

420

-15

-lO

ii.-

Variation

various

104

-5

of

stabilator

0
B
pitching

lO

15

20

25

30

moment

deflections.

with
_

sideslip
25 "

for

+25
+I0

.016

.012

.008
Cn{3' CIB'
CnB,dyn
per

.004

deg

0
-. 004

- .008

-.012

-.016
_

I0

15

20

25

30

35

40

c_, deg

Figure
of
edge

12.basic
flap

Variation
configuration
deflections.

of

lateral-directional
with
angle
of
6h

attack

stability
characteristics
for
scheduled
leading-

0"

105

.06

.05

.04
(_

--

.03

_C n

6_ = _5
-.02

06 -

.o_
aa = -20

004

ACl
.03

.02

.Ol

lO

15

20

25

30

35
_,

Figure

13.-

Variation
with

106

of

of

attack.

45

50

deg

lateral-directional

angle

40

control
_

0 .

derivatives

55

60

.020 Augmented
.016

.012

LCDP,
per

008 -

degree

Normal
response
0040 1

_-_Reve.rsed
response
Basic

-.004

-. 008
0

l0

15

20

25

30

35

40

c_, deg
Figure

14.with

Variation
angle

of
of

lateral

attack

control
for

simulated

divergence

parameter

(LCDP)

configuration.

107

1.5

SAS on
SAS off

1.0
i

ti12
sec-I

.5

I0

15

20

25

30

a, deg

5
4
P

3
11

sec

2
I

i0

15

20

25

30

a, deg
(a)

Figure
with
(30

108

15.-

Variation

angle
000

ft);

of

attack
velocity

of

Dutch

roll

airplane
for
for

dynamic

airplane
ig;

mode.

level

lateral-directional

with

and

flight.

without

SAS.

stability
h

9144

6
SAS on
SAS off
4
1

10

15

20

25

30

a, dog
(b)

Roll

mode.

.41
t1/2

()

.3.2

.1

sec -1

I0 15
el,deg
(c)

Figure

Spiral

15.-

20

25

30

mode.

Concluded.

109

(a)

_ = o.

(b)

Figure

16.-

Illustration
angle

ii0

of

of
attack

90 .

kinematic
and

coupling

sideslip.

between

P stab

(a)

_i

Pitching

moment

created

by

roll

and

yaw

rates.

x.

(b)
Figure

Yawing
17.-

moment

created

illustration

of

by

roll

and

inertia-coupling

pitch

rates.
phenomena.

iii

_0
EZ,

20

deg

10
13,

_eg

- 1o

/%

_,_\] ,_. v

80

_o
P'
deg/sec

M/

-q@
-[30

qO
r,
deg/sec

/"

_-x

/
,f

-_-o

qO
q'
deg/sec

0
-_o

100
O
deg

-10o

_00
200
Pcom,
deg/sec

-200
-LIO0

i00
Flat'
N

o
-I00
0

Figure

18.-

10

Time

15

20

histories
Control

112

25

30

35

of
system

_0

ig
A;

u,5 50
55
Time,
sec
stall
ho

to
=

60

65

limit

9144

70

angle
m.

75

of

80

85

attack.

9O

95

.6

_,

i000

deg

-loo

_,

deg

6a

-too_

'

300

deg

-30

5d,

i
o

deg

- 10

6r,
deg

300
-30

6h,

200

deg

-20

g units

Yped,

_00
.

-_oo

10

15

20

25

Figure

30

35

18.-

q0

q5
50
Time,

55
sec

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Concluded.

113
\
\
\
\\

\
\

_0
Q:,

2O

deg

3O
2O
\

10

/_'J

deg

/f

,.j

_\

/'_
_/

-]0

120

8o i
p,

j_..

_0

deg/sec

/\

\/

80
40
r_

deg/sec

. r-

_L_._

-40

q_

deg/sec
200
tO0

_/

deg

/---

-100

//

-200

qO0

Pcom,
deg/sec

200
o

'o I
0

/
L_

10

12

1u,

Time,
Figure

19.-

Response
Control

114

to

full
system

18

18

cross-control
A;

ho

20

22

2q

28

28

sec

input
9144

m.

at

25 .

an,

g units

o
.6

.3

ioo
Ol

w,
deg

_1oo
loo
o

Op

deg

-tO0

6a,

deg

:\

-3o:
lO

6d,

deg

-10
30

6r,

deg

1
\/

-30

I/

"\

u,o
2o

5h,

\.___ /

deg

-20

gcom

g units

':

II

I/

o
Fped,
N

IL

_u,oo
-800
0

Figure

10

19.-

12 1_
Time,

16 18
sec

20

22

2_

26

28

Continued.

ll5

t_0
Cl,

_---

deg/sec2 __

V7

J---A

B@

/\

40

Cticl,

....
_j

deg/sec

2
-_@

40
qa,

deg/sec 2-4o
80
4O

i',

deg/sec2

iFf

"_

4o
40

i.icl,

deg/sec

2 -40

-80
q@
0

/'a,
deg/sec2-_o

f_

---

--I

40

w'
m/sec

F\

2 -4@

VCacl_
rfl/SeC

.I,/

\ _'

4O

--,_Wac
'

---_

/ -- _" _-

-80

Wa,
m/sec_

o[_[5._I I ___J
qol0 I 2i I qI I 6I I 8I

I 1 I I I I LJ I I I I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
TT59-TTI
I 24
I I 28I I 2B
I
10 12 14
18 18 20
22
Time,

Figure

116

19.-

sec

Concluded.

20
deg

2!_
10

i\ /

/-",._,.._

deg
0--

-10

\.,

qO
p,

0
deg/sec

-8[
-12_

qO
r,

deg'/sec.

-_to

qo
q'

-_o

deg/sec

2o01
lO0

],/
/

deg
-iO0

-200

qO0
200
Pcom,

II

deg/see
-200

-qOO

/ ,

I00

Flat,
N

-100

i '

V;
,

10

12

1u,

18
Time,

Figure

20.-

turn
h o

at
=

9144

Response
limit

to
angle

cross
of

attack.

18

/'
20

22

2q

26

I
28

30

32.

_u,

sec

controls

applied
Control

in
system

accelerated
A;

m.

117

an,
/

g units

,9
M

.6
.3
0

o
_'

-tO0

deg

-2oo

O)
_J

deg

-tOO

30
5a'
deg

/\r

-30
1O.

5d'

deg

- 1o

1t

\j

30.
0

6r'
deg

/,_z"

\/

=so

Li0
2O

5h'
deg

/.,.

-20

lO
8

gcom,
g units

o.

I</I'

FP ed'
N

-_oo
-800
0

10

t2

I_

16

18

Time,
Figure

118

20.-

2D

sec

Continued.

22

2q

26

28

30

32

3q

deg/sec2

-_0

/ticl,

_o

deg/sec'

^11

! !

/:
/-"

I i

"-"

--''t

-_S.

F_
q&'

\,

--J

%.

deg/sec__L_O

"- ..- _

deg/seC

_u_O

ricl'
0
deg/sec2k_o _

_"-

f J

"-_

m/sec2-__o

/- -_

Li

Wacl,
mlsec

"

\,

//

\,

_J

_'---J'

\_j_

-L}O

Wae2,
m/see

o.

-,.

O. ' ' '


m/sec2

"

2 -qO.

o:

-J-4-_1
Lt

10

12

l_

tb

t_

Time,
Figure

20.-

20

22

see

Concluded.

119

Nose-up inertialcoupling moment


Available nose- down
control moment

70

60

q2 = 3556 Nlm 2

50

40
Pitchingmoment
magnitude,
30

kN-m

ql = 1778N/m 2

20

,o
0

20

'

40

Pl

60

I)2

80

,1_

100

Pstab, degI sec


Figure
roll
of

120

21.rate
dynamic

Comparison
with

of

inertial-coupling

available

pressure.

pitch
_

25 .

control

moment
moment

for
at

two

increasing
values

6O
qO
_p

deg

20--

Rn,

3O
20

,\

/,

/\

10

oFU4+-1_,, ,-444-K_

g units

deg

-10

1oo[<

-20
-30
deg

-1oo

120
80

F
f

_0
deg/sec

P*

-80

40 _
0

deg/sec

0 _-

deg

-too -

6a'
deg

0
-30

k)

-YO

r'

@,

-qo

K -f

_ /

\/

_
_

/ -I

_1

2_

qO
q'

deg/sec

-40deg

-ao

200
tO0
/

deg

,,'- \

-tO0
I

-200

\/"

6 h,

1"/

deg

,/

_-

O_2o

r
f

"_

qoo
Peom,

200

]Ylat,
N

deg/sec

'o//tt_

Figure

22.from

/
6

A
ig

10
Time,

360
flight

[
16

12 lq
sec

roll
at

18

attempt
_

'_,_.'o[I I
UO

using

25 .

full

Control

lateral
system

1/
6

stick
A;

ho

10
Time,

input
=

9144

14
12 lq
see

16

18

uO

applied
m.

121

qo

el,

\i

,J--..

deg/sec_-qo

8O

_licl,
deg/sec

40
_

-qo
qO
qa,

deg/sect_4

IX_

F__

4o

i"/k

deg/_-_c'_40
qO

i'iel,
0
a._,_,._lw
_c t -40

_.

_f

"" "

rio
ra,

@'

s_'"

/\ it

-_--

..,i

\, \s

m/see* -40

_/

qO

wa_o,

_.__-_

I/"_
'-

*"

m/sec2-q

of
0

_\
_

10
Time,

Figure

122

22.-

/\__
I

\/

12
see

Concluded.

lq

16

18

20

'i'll
11
l

60
C[,

qO

deg

'

2
I

4 I

30

/li/
I

20
10
B,
deg

o
-10

-20

titt"
III'f
l,
I

/I /

-30

120
80

'
t

tt0

P,

deg/sec

,Y

-tJ0

-80

-120

8O

1_'
L[I
lillT_

1",
deg/sec

0
-40
8O

q,

qO

deg/sec

,I, t_
+t_',
, , ,

0
-q0

2001
$,

i0_

1 ll! _

deg
-loo
-200

Pcom,
deg/sec

200
0
-200

-+

1/
I

_,_,,
1o
_l ,[
IL
rI
N -1o_
I
I' I -1
0

10

12'

lq

16

Time,

Figure

23.-

stick

input

limit

2.

360

applied
Control

roll

system

an

20

22

2q

1I
26

28

30

sec

attempt
in

/1![I
18

using

full

accelerated
A;

h o

lateral
turn

9144

at

m.

123

an,

g units

,9

M
,3
0

0
W,

deg

-lO0

_J

_oo
100

_'
deg

0 -----i00
3O

5a'
deg

-3o
IO

6d'

deg

-_o

3o
r_

5r'

"_-

/_

dog

I_

ILl

_0

deg

--_..._,_

-20

10
/

gcom,

g units

O.

/-

-5

F,ped,
N

L_O_
O.

L_

10

12

tLt

Time,
Figure

124

23.-

16

18

.sec

Concluded.

20.

22

2LI

28

28

30

EtO
j--

--,_

....

2O

deg

20
]0
0

deg
-10

-20

120
80.
qO.
p)

./

O.

deg/sec

-qO
-80
-120

8O
f
1_ ,

/"-"

qO
/ /_

deg/sec

q)

_o

\_

_-,.

/
\

//
"-.

\
\

/-

\\,

Illlllllillillllllilllllll

llilllIllllll

III

deg/sec

'

deg

tO0
0

_-_

""

-10o

t:

.j

/--...,

_\
X

-,i

/ "/

\,

I"

_.

\\

\/

\ /

,
---* '--'--'

EtO0
200

Pcom,
deg/sec

-200

-EtO0.

Flat,
N

,o:, j]
....

-100

.......
LI
6

10

12

-t
let

16

18

20

22

2Et

Time,
Figure

24.-

Bank-to-bank

inputs

applied

system

A;

reversals

from
h o

9144

ig

flight

26

28

32

3q

36

Et2

EtEt Et6

sec
using

at

30.

maximum
:

25 .

lateral

stick

Control

m.

125

an,
g units

.6

,3
0

100
fl

-..

_.

deg

-100

i00
0

deg

-I00

3O
(--

--

____

6a,
Lf

deg

L____J

-30

10

6d,
deg

\_j

\/

"\

10

30
6r,

deg

-30

/
/
1

\I\_

N0

6h,
deg

2O
//

_f

\/

-20

,:

I / \ J
vi/

10
gcom,
g units

Fped '
N

5
0

_00
00

Li

8.

10

12

1F!

16

18

20

22

24

Time,
Figure

126

24.-

26

sec

Continued.

28

30

32

3u_

36

38

L_0_ u_2

u,u, _6

'[L

',

/-.

'4'

,__

deg/sec2

__o

I I"

\]

,4

+o
_iei.,
__

-,,

,,_

/\

"'

\ /\

G
)

-q0

\ /'., //\ ,-, t-'\j

i-,

/-

/-_-

x,--,,.,

deg/sec2_tio

v,/

I I

I I

,,..

,....

_/

i%

\\_/

+,. Oo t

m/see

'::'-_t

O.

14

10

12

lq

16

18

20

22

Time,
Figure

24.-

26I

2.

llllTllVI
28
30

32

3q

36

x_

38

qO

q2

qq

q6

.sec

Concluded.

127

Roll-control
limited
Pitch-out
limited

200 '""--'-'_
180 \

160 -

Maximum
roll
rate t
deg I sec

140 -

\
\
\

120 -

,.

100 -

SM =0.02

80

_'_t_,

60

_m =-0. 04
II

40
SM =-0. I0
20

.5

I0

1.5

20

2.5

a, deg
Figure

25.-

various
360

128

Variation
levels

roll;

h o

of
of
=

maximum

static
9144

m.

margin,

roll

rate
ig

with

flight;

for

+<b+

-- ( Pcom) max

8h ,c
l

E,]
Figure

50
UD

26.-

Roll-rate

limiting

scheme

used

in

control

system

B.

320
Control

system A

280
240
200
( Pcom ) max, 160

Control

system B; 5h : trim

Control

system B; 5h : +25

deg/ sec
120
8O
4O
I

Figure

27.-

10
15
a, deg

Variation
with

130

20

25

of

maximum

for

ig

commandable
trim.

roll

rate

0.67
s+ 0.67

Ipl

(toa

Z_ap
limiter)

38.4

Figure

28.-

Pitch-axis

modification

used

in

control

system

B.

Aap, deg
2 I

I0

20

30

40

50

60

I p I, deg/ sec
Figure

29.Variation
magnitude
for

of
A_p
control

with
system

roll-rate
B.

131

21111111_1
ol I I I Iq-I

an,
g units

I I I I I I I I I I
$

.6

M
o

_J"

qO
deg

2O
deg

io0
Ol

k_

_J--_

_lOOi

o
too
I0

O,

deg

0 ---"--.
_tOO

-Io
3O
6a,

8O
p_

f_

_0

deg/sec

--/"

deg

0
-3o

/_

11

____

10
0

A,,.5d'

r_

"ee'

deg/sec
_0
q'
deg/sec

.--,----

30
f

6r"
deg

-Lm

200

0
-30

i,-_I"I-

qo

1O0
_'
deg

- 10

///

//
/

-loo

20
0

6h,
deg

_ /

"

-20

-200
10
Pcom,
deg/sec

2001

gcom,
g units

ol I/I I I I I_

8
Time,

Figure

30.-

A
lateral

132

360

roll
stick

I0

12

lq

Fped,
N

16

s
o

_00

sec

initiated
input.

8
Time,

from
Control

lg

trim

system

at

B;

ho

25
:

9144

using
m.

io

t2

sec
maximum

{_

t6

deg/sec2-_o

/lid,

deg/sec2

deg/sec'

40

-40

-40

40

a,
deg/sec:

o
-40
40

w,
m/sec2

0
-40
4O

wacl,
m/sec2

Wac2,
m/sec

m/see2

o
-4o

__J

o
2 -qO

-400

Time,
Figure

30.-

IO

12

14

16

sec

Concluded.

133

_o
f

2o
deg

/
/

,/

lO
o
deg

-10
120
8O

/
/

qO
P,
deg/sec

\
\

o
-_0
-8o
-120

r,

,_._L

deg/sec

""_

-qo

qo

q_

deg/sec
200

loo

deg

, / --- --

- 1O0
-200

/i

200
Pcom,

--'-_

deg/sec-20o

-_

\/v

too
0

Flat'

N- oo

\/
o

Figure

31.-

turn
input.

134

at

'4

360

limit
Control

roll
d

10

initiated

using
system

lq
:1.8 18
sec

12
Time,

full
B;

ho

from
lateral
:

9144

20

22

2q

accelerated
stick
m.

an,

g units

----

.3

O-

_JJ_

deg

loo

deg

_ioo

deg

-3o

6 d,

deg

- 1o

5r'

6h,

20

-, _

-/

j-_-_

\ JF_-

_-/

-2o -

g units

-J

_o_
l
0
""_
-3o

gcom,

"

deg

deg

lO

50

'_o_'
_oI
N

ill
'4

1
8

10.

12

Time,
Figure

31.-

1_4

16

18

20

t
22

2'4

.sec

Continued.

135

qo

4,

deg/sec2

qO

8O

_ticl,

_o

deg/sec'

@j

qO

qa,

deg/sec2_4

0
:'40

r,

0
_ffl

deg/seC

-qo
qO

ricl,
J

_/

ueg/sec

_L_O

qO
ra,

deg/sec2u

qO
W,

/\

ITI/SeC 2 -qO

Wac

1 ,

m/sec 2

_,

140

\.

qO
Wac2'
m/see2

0
-qO

Wa_,

14

10

12

Time,
Figure

136

31.-

lq

see

Concluded.

18

18

20

11
22

2q

4O
(_,

2O

deg

10
/S,

-Io

aeg

8O
'40
P'
deg/sec

/\
/

/
-40

xJ

-80
'4O
r,

i-

_\

"\_

..-4

/_\

..-4\

\
\

f_

/
x_+

_LiO

deg/sec

'40
0

q'

_u,O

deg/sec

_oo
I
'

deg

I
1

"\

/
\

i/

_ioo

'4OO
2OO

Pcom,
deg/sec

' <

\\ i

-200

_f

\_

\..._ /

_
\

-qO0

Flat,
N

'- ,
o

-ioo

10

12

-1'4

C-16

18

20

Time,
Figure
32.initiated
ho =

9144

Bank-to-bank
reversals
from
ig trim
at
d :

using
25 .

l-22

2'4

t /
__F_
26
28

30

L__J
32 3 u,

36

38

'40,

sec
full
lateral
Control
system

stick
B;

inputs

m.

137

an,
____

g units

_._+-_+....__f

_j_f-_j

.6
M

.3

1o0
o
deg

-i0o
ioo
O_

(9,
deg

_ ioo

3o
6a'

\
deg

\._J

-3o

I0
6d'
deg

0
-lOi

\_

30
6r'

t/

deg

-3o

_o
6h

f_

'

20

deg

\
\

/i\

.-\

k/

K/

"
/'\I

\/

/
j

-20

1o
gcom,

g units

Fped
N

'

_o_[
0

i0

12

lq

18

18

_0

Time,
Figure

138

32.-

Continued.

22

sec

2q

28

28

30

32

3q

38

38

qo

6EI

"p_pnI_uoD

-'Z[

_an6T

o_
_

__

0_- :oa@/ui
_'_--/--

O_

0t7- _ODll/lll
0
'Ill

-_

f"

_J
0tl

, IaT_

0t7

JJ- rJ

_J
iOh

,m

08-

I
\\

0t_- pas/_ap
0

\/,'I"_<z

O_

11

"/

I_

, \..

/'\

/"

--._/

- o
Oh

,ia!b

50

I
j/-\

deg

/.f

/-

20
/3,

I0

deg

/ \
"._

_1_f\
/

f._.4-.
\

/1\

-i0

80
YO

P,

.I i

"x

//_ _

k_

deg/sec
-50
-80i

50
r,

deg/sec

-YO
50

q'

deg/sec

-_0 -

_/

200

I00

qb,
0

deg

,/

/f

./

-too

-2001

'

500
Pcom,

200

f
/

deg/sec

""

\l

0
-200

_'v

tOO
Flat'

//////

N
-100
0

v v v
2
Y

10

12

lY

16

18

Time,
Figure

33.turn

140

Response
at

limit

to

full
_.

cross
Control

20

22

controls
system

25

26

28

30

32

35

in

accelerated

sec
applied
B;

h o

9144

m.

an,

g units

.g

30
_,
deg

_11

-too

I I I I_F--LII I t_---4_ I II

I I I I I I I_

I I'_

deg

I I t t i

looI

0,

I I I I I _

I I 1_

- ---+--- _

-. _._7

_t oo

30
0

5a,

.A

,-,

_[

-30

deg

^',

.....

10
,,z

6d,
deg

-lo

-_

t,

_.[__

3O
6r'

/_

"

_\_

I_

-30

deg

u_o
20

6h,

deg

",-,_

-20

gcom

g units

loI

Fped,
N

-_oo

-800
0

i0

12

lq

16

18

Time,
Figure

33.-

20

22

2q

26

28

30

32

3q

sec

Continued.

141

_0

el,

de'g/_c2

/',.1

-40
qO

f_

.)\

/ticl,

_um

deg/sec2

_0
qa,

F_

deg/sec240
4o

r,

_v

40

deg/sec*

40
o

{'ict,
40

deg/sec2

40

ra,

deg/sec2_4

o
40

w,
m/see

_,

"

-__

2 _40
80

Wacl,

40

m/see

/
x,

"

\/r--

-u_o
40
_rac2'
m/sec _ -_o0

_.

_r a,
o_
I I I I I I_IA._I
I I I I I I
m/sec_-4ol 0 I 2I I qI I 6I _ 8
I
I
I
I
1
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I 32
1 I 34
I
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 I 30
Time, sec
Figure

142

33.-

Concluded.

8O
60
[_,

\
\

qo

deg

2o
o

an,

_o

g units

II

I
io-

-_

O.

deg

!
/

-io

-2o

\v

-3o

120
0,

80

deg
P,

_o

deg/sec

i \
I/

-80

qO

"/f

\v

_"d

deg

6d'
deg

-_0

q'

deg/sec

_o

--

//

_._

f_

deg/sec

io:.
-too

I,

-qO

r,

IIIAIII

1;

J/

5r,
deg

-3o

i -

IO
0

-lo

,\

o
_o
I\

-3o

_/,\ _"/_. \,,--.

200
,/

i00

5h '

20

deg

L_O"

-_

./

$,

deg

o
-i00

f -

' F---_

l/

Pcom,
20_J_--t4
0

_oofl
-1oo
0

Figure
using
system

L1

g units

I_

FP ed'
N

34.-

full
B;

i0 12 lq
Time, sec

360

roll

18

18

attempt

coordinated
h o

9144

20

stick

applied
and

pedal

_oo. /
o
0
2

in

ig

I
8

gcm"
li L

deg/sec

@--i_

-20

-200

Ylat,

flight

inputs.

[
8

I0
Time,

at

12 ILl
sec

iS

18 20

25

Control

m.

143

4O
q'

deg/sec2-qO

60
_ticl,
deg/sec

_o
2

o
-qo

qo
qa,
deg/sec2

-.../

-_0

rio
i_,

0
\

deg/seC

r"

_x4

-_0
-80

40
i'icl,
deg/sec2

o
-40

_0
a,
deg/sec2

-"_-

it...

40

_ _--'-_--,

'--/

80

_r,
m/sec'

40
0

/ \
- -----"

-40

ffacl,

m/sec

2 -4o

Wac2,
m/sec

0
i -40

_ra,

_ /

_1

-_

' v l/\j

\/

-...

\i/

\/

/
4

\/

oH__+___l

m/sec =-4ol0 I 2I I qI I 8I I 8I I i0
I I 12
I I lq
I I 18I I 18
I I 20I
Time,
Figure

144

34.-

sec

Concluded.

Scheduled
gain

Command
gradient

I Scheduledgain
I

ii

-30
Fped

-F
0

_/_._ 489.

. 0

I _ 6r,co m
I

Figure

35.control

Modifications
system

to
to

yaw

and

(modifications

201p140

I
i

Yaw-axis

lpl--]

axes

incorporated

enclosed

in

dashed

in

going

lines).

I
I

modification.

roll

(a)

-I

from

Oh

I
I

Scheduled gain

i
I

ai
0
30 Ip1.50
I
I
I
I

6h'c

(b)

Roll-axis

Figure

35.-

modification.

Concluded.

an,

g units
.6!

M
0

tO0

deg

B,
deg

oeg

_too

1O0 [__...

"-.._jdeg

-io
80

_too

3O

1-x
/

P'
deg/sec

_o
o

/J

a_6a'

"b---___

'_ee

j._./"-+'_

-30

10

deg/sec
ue_

-i0

_0

q'
deg/sec

30

-_o

6r'

deg

-3o

_'--+_b_

/ _

200!
tO0
(_,

cto

/
./

,....._

I
/

deg

-tO0

6h,

20

deg

,/

deg/see

200
0

Flat,
N

i0

_00

Pcom,

10

12

gcom,
g units

Fped,

_000

tq

36.full

360
lateral

roll

initiated
stick.

Time,

Time, sec
Figure

i\

-20

-200

-'_

/
""
"_

from
Control

ig
system

trim

flight
C;

ho

at
=

9144

10

12

lq

sec
25

using

m.

147

_0

ct,

deg/sec_

deg/sec

__

2
_0

qa,
deg/sec2-_o

---.

/
"_

r,

deg/sec

2__01

rio

i'icl'

deg/sec2

-_o

i'a,
deg/sec

ol
2- _ o !
qO

w'
m/sec

0
2 __o
qO

Wacl,
m/sec2

j/

__

_0
W at2,
m/sec

m/sec2

0
2 -btO

-_o

6
Time,

Figure

148

36.-

Io
sec

Concluded.

12

lq

an

g units

,3

,oo
1IC.

deg

_1oo

deg

_too

CI,

deg

B,

deg

P'
deg/sec

I/

ioo

io
/"

- Io

_io
0

6a,

deg

-30

fJ
<

_-_

\
\

'II

6d'

deg

-Io

--_

_'_

deg/sec

q'

deg/sec

-_0 -

(51"'

_--

deg

-30

200
100

6 h,

_
20

deg

if _

.t"_

J,\

/
i

../

deg
-tOO

-20

('_I I

-200

gcom,
g units
Pcom,
deg/sec

</

,o
5

o-

i/

200
<''/_
I --..._._
0

_oo_
Flat,
N

tol-I1
0

Figure
using
h
=

I
q

37."

I/
I.
I
6
8
10
Time,
sec
360

roll

full
coordinated
9144 m.

1
12

Fped'N

t
lq

_'o_- ]
o
2

[9

Time,

initiated
stick

from
and

ig

pedal.

flight
at
Control

=
system

i0

12

lq

sec
25
C;

149

it,

deg/sec2

-_o

deg/sec

o
_0

qa,

deg/sec2

_o
qO

r,

\- _ _______- _--

deg/sec2

_o,
_0

ricl'

deg/sec2

-_0

_0
ra,

deg/sec_

_o

w,

_'01
0i

1TI/Sec 2 -El0

Wacl,
m

/SeC

_qO

_0

ffac2,

m/sec 2 _ _ 0

m/see2-_

Time,
Figure

150

37.-

i0

sec

Concluded.

12

iN

u_o
_'

20

deg

o
lO

0
deg

/'_'-

'--

- 1o

12_0
8O

P,

f--_

j*

deg/sec

qo

rt

deg/sec

q'

deg/sec

_._.--

_._

.._._.I"--"_-----

_'-"__

-qo

2OO

/1

LO0
/

deg

....

/
/

-lO0

/'/

I'

-200

'_00

Pcom,

200

deg/see

oltLLILL
0 " 2

u,

133 L2

Time,
Figure

38.-

in

ig

h o

trim
9144

Response
flight

to

full

at

Lq

16

18

20

11

99

2.q

sec

cross

controls

25 .

Control

applied
system

C;

m.

151

q
J

an '

g units

.6

.3

i00
_'

aeg

__oo
100

deg

_ 100

3O
6a'

deg

-30

__J

kO
6d'

deg

-lo
30

6 r,

deg

-3a

_0

6h,

20

/
/

deg

-20

10

gcom,
g units

o
0

FP ed'

-_00

N
-800
0

2.

10

12

kq

16

Time, sec
Figure

152

38.-

Continued.

18

20

22

2q

_J

qO

ct,
deg/sec_

o
-LiO

8O

Cticl,
deg/sec

_
I
0
LiO

qa,

deg/sec

2_0
-80

b'
deg/sec_

_o
I
o'

f_
//

-u,O

u_O

ricl_,
deg/sec2

, i'a'
deg/sec_

o
_u,o

0
-_o
_0
f

m/see

_ _LtO

u_O!

_'acl,

m/sec

2 -qO

m/sec2

-qo

I_,

o
m/sec2

l
2

IA--J

f_

ti

kO

k2.

kq

Time,
Figure

38.-

L "
L6

18

20

22_

sec

Concluded.

153

riO

deg

20

.._-

I0
/

deg

/\

-i0
120
80

/\f

_j

_0

\
0
-qO

qO
J

r,

deg/sec

-_o

qO

q'

deg/sec

-_o

200

/'1

i00

/
,

deg

-i00

-200

qO0
Pcom,

200

deg/see

x A
0

t
L_

10

12

Time,
Figure
ig

39.Response
to
trim
at
_ : i0 ,

stick

is4

application.

lq

16

18

20

22

sec

full
cross
controls
applied
followed
by rapid
full
aft
Control

system

C;

ho

9144

in
m.

q
an'

g units

6 I
M

.3
0

i00
_'

aeg

_1oo

IooI
G,

.i

aeg

-I00

30
6a,

deg

-3o

6d',_
_,e_

100
- Io

30
6r'

deg

-3o

_O
6h,

20
/

deg

-20

10
5

gcom,
g units

0
-5

I_ped,
N

__oo
-800
8

i0
Time,

Figure

39.-

12

lq

16

18

20

22

sec

Continued.

155

8O

q,

_iO .....

deg/sec 2 0

\_/"<_._'_"

v_

8O

qicl,

_0

deg/seC

.1

-qo

qa,
deg/sec

l
\

2-qO

---

-80

qO

/,

r,

/-,

I
_

-_io

deg/seC

L/I

u,o
ricl'

deg/sec_ -_iO
u_o

,%

deg/sec_ -_o

v'

-LiO

mlsec2

8O

Wacl,
m/sec

_0
2

-"\

0
-qO
qO

Wac2'

ITl/Sec

2 -qO

_'a,

H--4--LI

I I.J_4_-44-1

I _

m/sec_-_ol0 I 2I I Li
VI_I8 I 8I I i0
I I 12
I I lq
I I 18
I I 18
I I 20I I 22]
Time,
Figure

156

39.-

Concluded.

sec

.6

yo
c(,

20
f/

deg

B,

IO
o

deg

""

.3

o
lOOl

r
/ _--_-_

_fp

deg

-1o

120

P'

_0

deg/sec

_J

tO0

/-x

@'

8o

-too

[
J

f-x

_ too

deg
\

30

-_o

6a'

-3o

deg
80

lO
deg/sec

q'

. j4

0i

deg/sec

"x

"

---

-_o'

6d'

deg

- 1o

30
Oi

6r'
deg

2o0111

-3o

h III.
_o

i_),

deg

_,oo!/i)tll 11
Ill

Ylll I/I

-2oo

II

I I I I 1'1/

I I

6h,

20

deg

/ I

200

deg/sec

Flat,
N

0
0

f,

-20
lO

t{oo
Pcom,

f /

f"-.

"_"

/
2

u,

Figure

40.-

10
Time,

12 t u,
sec

Response
Control

16

t8

to

20

maximum

system

gcom,
g units

sf
o

Fped,
N

_0Oo
0

inertia-coupling
C;

ho

9144

ti

10
Time,

12 lq
sec

16

18

20

maneuver.
m.

157

8O
q,

_0

deg/sec 2

8O

/licl,
deg/sec2

_o
o

I
/

80
rio

o i\

qa,

deg/sec 2

-LiO
-8O

qO
0

rf%_

deg/sec2__ 0

i'icl,
o
deg/sec 2-LtO

-80

8O

ra,
qO
deg/sec 2 0

m/$ec

qO

)<

f_

_qo

120
80

Wacl,
m/sec

y "_' \\,
_0

o)

-utO

qO

Wac2,
0
m/sec I -_o
-80

Wa,
ot-+q, I I I I I I I I I i_
m/sec_-<iol 0 I 2I_ ti
I FI12 I lqI I 16I I 18I I 20I
6
8
lO
Time,
Figure

158

40.-

sec

Concluded.

an ,

g units
.6

qO
E3,

deg

20 _-_

100!

B,
,,, deg

lo
Ol
-lo

Up

_J

deg

-I00

100

80
J
P,

u,O

deg/sec

r_,

so
o

deg/sec

deg

._

-I00

30

I 1_4--b--LJ I I I I I I I I
_

6a,

deg

__<

qO
q'
deg/sec

/f

Jf

-30

I0

6d,

-_0

deg

-i0

20O
/

100

d),

3O

/
6r,

deg

deg

=3o

-i00
-200

Pcom,
deg/sec

qO

qO0

6h,

200

deg

20
0

__

_ /

,F

-20

10

q00
3OO

Flat,
N

x, I/

200

gcom,
g units

Fped,
N

_oo
o

100
0
0

i0

12

lq

18

Figure

41.-

full
0.375_.

lateral

360

roll

stick

Control

I0

12

lq

16

Time, sec

Time, sec
from
input
system

ig
at
C;

trim
a
ho

flight

at

center-of-gravity
:

9144

25
location

using
of

m.

159

q0

ct,

j_-_

f,..,

deg/sec2__@

deg/sec

2
Li0

deg/sec2

__@

_0

i',

deg/sec2

_Li0

Li0

/'icl,

deg/sec2

_Li@

Lio

i'a,

deg/sec2

-_io

Li0

w,
m/sec

0
2 -Li@

qO

Wacl,
IIl/$ec

0
2

_J
v

-qO

_0

Wac2'
1

m/see

-Li0

m/sec

2 -LlO0

Time,
Figure

160

41.-

I0

sec

Concluded.

12

I_

16

!1i .

60

1/

Lt0
deg

_t'!

li

_ 1.1"

lo

I III!

II/1/

deg
-lo

/, \

-20

_'

-30

16o:1

'

I
I

t20

[_

80

XI

r,

i
i

P_

deg/sec

LtO
0

-80

r,

8o

ii

_i
-_o

.r-[II

q'

f,\

//

, VlJ_

-_0

deg/sec

'

/\
\

\
\1/

I\'J

I
i

Li

_-_

deg/,ec-,o
I IIIIIII/HIGH

I_11

Too!_/ h
o. -looo,l_I lll_'
i]/
I/
-2oo,

Pcom,
deg/sec

II

200
_OOl
0

I[

"II
IL

P\I/1\
I "I-IT It

3ooI
Flat,
N

:oil
I

-100/
0

Figure

42.-

I
2

'{

Response

maneuver

at

0.375_.

Control

10

ll2

to

lY

16
Time,

maximum

18
20
sec

22

2lu, 26 ' 28

location
C;

32

inertia-coupling

center-of-gravity
system

30

ho

9144

of
m.

161

an,

g units

.6

.3
0

100
_,

deg

_J

-loo
-200

100
f

deg

"----4.._

-1oo
30

6 a,

deg

I/\

-3o
I0

6d'
deg

0
-10

3o

deg

-30

--

"

__/

x.

___
6h ,
deg

2o
o ---

F r--_

--I

-20
-q0

10
1

f
gcom,

g units

-S

l_ped,
N

_0o
O0

10

12

lq

16

Time,
Figure

162

42.-

18

sec

Continued.

20

22

2q

26

28

30

32

deg/sec

4a,

4_

deg/seC

m/sec_ -qo

_racZ,
ITI / $ C C _

Time, scc
Figure

42.-

Concluded.

163

deg

_-t

"

,o.......

8,

Y_%...F

deg

--

_ ;
i

-j -<1---

lo

_.o

t/

-30

80
qO
P,

deg/sec

I\

\/

-q0
-80

qo
r,

deg/sec

-qO

qo
q'

deg/sec

-_o

0,

deg

qoo
Pcom,

200

deg/sec

\-

qoo
300
Flat,

200 --

tO0
o
0

10

lq

12
Time,

Figure
flight
input
Control

164

43.-

A
at

at

360
_

roll
25

attempt
using

C;

h o

18

lateral
location

20

initiated
full

center-of-gravity

system

16

9144

22

2q

26

sec

m.

in

ig

stick
of

0.39_.

trim

an,

g units

oI_

I I I I I I 1-11 1 IT-] I IT-I I I I

.6

II

I00

deg

-Ioo
-200

I00
i

__

deg

-i00

30
6a,

deg

-30

I0

6d,

deg

"-tO

c_/,,

deg

\N. J/

LiO
J

6h,

2O

//
J
mJ

deg

I/

o
-20

gcom,
g units

Fped,
N

,o

_.

L_O0
0
o

10

12

Figure

43.-

16

tq

Time,

1.8

20

22

2q

26

sec

Continued.

165

qO

j,
deg/sec

\/
\J

\ /

2-_0
-80
qO

qicl,

deg/sec2 -_0
qO
qa,
deg/sec

0
,/

2 -qo

-8o
qO

r'

-_iO

deg/sec2

_0

tic1,

oi

aeg/sec_

_io]

/\r

LtO

ra,

deg/sec2

-qO

tlO

//_

In/$ec

/",

/ !c'

F,.

-qo

qO

Wacl'

m/sec

2 -q-O

_0
_kac2'
mi$8c2

m/sec2-q

_+-_

-"\J

k
/!\

!'_

rk''

L_

I0

12

Figure

43.-

16

lq

Time,

166

\\/'\-_\l

_,_... --.,j \

-_0

sec

Concluded.

18

20

22

2q

26

80
60

\/'-.._.

k_.,

\/

_t

\i

L_O

deg

_J

2O
r.e. _I
l

_01

I
P,
deg/sec

o
-_0

_\
------.;

f\
L/

I1\
V l_'

xJ

_-

] V

_0
0

r,

aeg/sec

-_o

q'

deg/se

_-

-qo

-_

deg

""

__I"

\x\

----- -'-"

_ 1oo

Pcom,
deg/sec
Flat,
N

....

200

_ ool

10

15

20

25

30

35

_0

_5

S0

Time,
Figure

44.-

Deep-stall

entry

Asymmetries

at
not

55

60

65

75

80

/.
85

90

95

sec

center-of-gravity

modeled;

70

ho

location
9144

of

0.35_.

m.

167

q
an,

g units

.9
,6

.3
0

i00
W,

,,%

0
-too

deg

"--4-.--4---

__

--..-

--

-200

100
If
0_

deg

"-,-

-100

30
63.,

deg

-30

10
6d'

deg

-1.0

30
(_r,

deg

"k

j/'_

--

-30
_0

6h,

20

deg

-2o

S
gcom,

g units

Fped

'

_"

_S

_00
Uo

10

15

20

25

30

35

u,o

q5
Time,

Figure

168

44.-

50

55
sec

Continued.

60

65

70

75

80.

85

90

95

_0
q"

deg#ec2-_o

_0
o

qicl,
deg/sec2-_{o

_Ol
6_

qa,

_./"

-'_

...-"

"..-4

--

deg/sec2-_,o
_0
"r,

deg/see2

-qo

ricl:

O.

deg/sec2-_o
qO
0

ra,
deg/scc2_Lio

RO
J_

m/_':_:: 2 -qO
_0.
Wacl:
m/sec

O.

_/

-_-

2 -'4o.

_0.
_rac2'
m/_c

O.
_ -qO_

0
m/secz

I I I IJ_I'--F-_
5

tO

15

20

I I
25

30

Figure

,
35

u,O u_5 50 55
Time,
.sec

44.-

i i
60

65

7[3

75

80

85

90

35

Concluded.

169

]3
00" _0"

u3

'k3

0 1700"800"- ZO" I0"


I

09
OL

>

- 06
C)
{-.

80
60
qO

deg

_J
20
0

2O

_o
,.,e_

/,

/\ r

-lo

-3[

deg/sec

-_0

_/

-80

deg/se _u,o

_0

deglsec

-qO

J--

100.

m,
deg

0
_ tOO

,...

_-_"

"\L I
I

\ / _-',,i

_':<, oil vv LV"""i


N

-lo

10

15

Ill

20

25

L ILl

30

35

_0

u_5

Time,
Figure

46.-

Deep-stall

entry

Asymmetries

at

50

55

60

"70

75

80

85

sec

center-of-gravity

modeled;

L II
65

location
9144

of

0.35c.

m.

171

g units

- -_

.3

2O0
100
W,

/
0

"'_-_

deg
-i00

\
\\

"1'4

-200

i00
9,

___

0_._

deg

\'

-tOO

30
0

6a'
deg

-30

I0
6d,

deg

-I0

30
(51",

0
/k_/\

deg

-30

qO
6h

'

deg

20.o
-20

5
gcom,
g units

Fped,
N

0
s i

_io_
o

to

is

20

2s

30

35

qo
Time,

Figure

172

46.-

_
5o

qs

sec

Continued.

5s

6o

ss

20

vs

8o

8s

qo
q'
deg/sec2

_'4-

_ _ _I-" -" _'_-

_io
_0

Clicl,

deg/sec2

_u,o
LiO

qa,
deg/sec2

r'
deg/sec2

7icl,
deg/sec_

__

_o

...,-

,_

'....,_Lf

_ -'- ._,-,.

o!
-_o

o
-_o
LiO

i'a'
deg/sec_

o
-_o
u,o

m/sec

o
2 -rio
LiO

Wacl'
m/sec

0
t -qO

_o
_rac2'
m/see

0
2 -qO

m/sec 2-_Io

io 15 2o 2s 30

Figure

3s

46.-

_o _s 5o s5
Time, sec

6o 8s

7o 75 8o 8s

Concluded.

173

IX. 81ef =25;6tef


0

=O;Sh

81ef = 0: 8tef = 20;8h

=25,8sb
= 25; 8sb

E] 81ef = 25; 8te f = O;Sh = 25; 8sb

=0
= O
-----60

<_ 81ef = 0; 8tef = 20; 8h = 25; 8sb = 60

m
-o ].

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

a, deg
Figure

47.-

variation
location

174

Effect

of

with

angle

of

0.35_.

flaps

and

of
6 h

attack
:

25 .

speed
at

brake
a

on

pitching-moment

center-of-gravity

80

/%

50
4O
deg

\J

/_\

_"

_J

2O

0
-20

20
10

f,

deg

.-Ii I

i/

0
-10

k/

-20
-30
40
P,

deg/sec

\P

A
vd

/ ,/',:

-40

Vv

/',"

40
0

r,
deg/sec

-40

4O
q'

deg/sec

-40

Pcom,

200

deg/sec

Flat'
N

_ioo

60
6sb,

40

deg

20

o
o

Figure

48.-

10

Deep-stall

center-of-gravity
ho

9144

15

20

25

30

35

40

recovery
location

45
50
Time,
using

of

0.35_.

55
sec

60

speed

65

70

brake

Asymmetries

75

and

80

85

flaps
not

90

g5

at

modeled;

m.

175

an,

f__

-_
f_

g units

.Jt

,,

.5
/

.3

1oo
_y,

deg

-too
-200
ioo

deg

-too

0_

3O
6

a ,

deg

-30
Io

6d'

deg

-1o

6r,

deg

30

"--/ '-J \/^'v\''_"

-30
_0

20
5h,

deg
-20
-_o
lO
5

gcom,

g units

_ i

-s
Fped
N

'

_oo
O0

tO

15

20

25

30

35

qO

u,5

50

Time,
Figure

176

48.-

55
sec

Continued.

60

6S

70

75

80

8S

_0.

9S

4O
O!

q'

4O

qicl,
deg/sec_-4o

4O
qa,

deg/_c2_q

0
4O

deg/_c240

ricl,

4:

deg/_c24o!
qO.
i

ra'

deg/_c_

m/sec

O_

_0

2 -40

Wac2,
m/sec

"1
2 -Lio

40
Wa,
m/sec

0
_ -qO
O.

_10

----

15

20

25

---_-_
30

Figure

35

_0

48.-

_
45
50
55
Time,
scc

60

85

70.

75

80

85

90

35

Concluded.

177

8@
60

LtO
J

20

20

_f

>

deg

lO

deg

\\

"/

-lO

IV1'

" J/,'
_'

\hi

\/_,

20
-3O

qO
"x

P,

f_/\_

\/

-_0

deg/sec

-80

r,

-u_o

deg/sec

qo
q'

--_.

\j

-_,0

deg/sec

100

/_

--_.
%/

deg

iDcorrI,
deg/sec-2OO

Flat,
N

-_f--

_ioo

-loo

v
"

15

20

6o
6 sb,

_o

deg

20
o
O

10

25

30

35

q0

LIS

Time,
Figure
flaps

49.at

Asymmetries

178

Deep-stall
a

recovery

center-of-gravity
modeled;

SO

85

using
location

ho

60

65

70

75

80

sec

9144

m.

speed
of

brake
0.35_.

and

85

q
an,

g units

-J.

.6

.3
_-4__/

lOOI
_p

\\
\

deg
\

-100

-200

deg

-100

__r_

6a,

deg

5d,
deg

O'

_ ' ^'

"_

-30

lo

-'10

"

6r,

deg

6h,
deg

-3

2o

0
-20
-u_o

gcom

g units

Fped,
N

o "

l_

[,

_o_
0

I0

15

20

25

30

35

40

u_5

Time,
Figure

49.-

SO

55

80

65

70

75

80

85

sec

Continued.

179

80
Cl,

deg/sec

40

/\

./,-,

iX

-,

/,

7,
,.^'-^ .sl V
.#

-40
4O

qicl,
deg/sec2

-4o

qa,
deg/sec2

0 -_

"" -v_v'-",/

l""

"

-4o
4O

r,
deg/sec2

-40
4O

ricl'
deg/sec2

0
-40
4O

_'a,

deg/sec_

-4o
4O

m/see _ _q o

4O
Wac2 '
m/sec

0
2 -40

m/sec 2-4

I0

15

20

25

30. 35

qO

45

Time,
Figure

180

49.-

50

sec

Concluded.

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

8O
60

1\/>, )\s,.l"; ." _

_0

deg

_J

2O

ff
/
f

2o

_1

lo

/_

%!1
/
/ A [
t/
]/_jt

_l
/3,

-lo
-2o

deg

/ i/

-30

tsI t

_ A A

,I_/,

//_/"_j'_
/

r\ it

deg/sec

-_o

r_

_,

_/--J

deg/sec

-_0

_0

q'
deg/sec

0
-_io

d_,

100
O

k j

/eft\

\,

_1oo

deg

"\J

"-'

"

--

L -C

"

/_J

_"

'

....

i- _

J_

"

pcom,

-2

_"

,v 1

deg/sec

- 2o vlJ "

Flat,
N

10

15

20

25

30

35

L_O '45

Time,
Figure
50.Deep-stall
center-of-gravity
ho

9144

50

85

80

BS

70

7S

80

_5

sec

recovery
using
pitch-rocking
location
of 0.35_.
Asymmetries

technique
modeled;

at

m.

181

an,

g units

.9
M
r-

200
I

100

I, \

0
\

deg

\
x

100

x\

2O0

"_
4

ioo

deg

-too

30
6 a,

deg

-3o
lo

6d,
deg

3o
5r,

_\_

-30

deg

20
0

6h'

-"

/_"

"" _J

vr._ .........
P r

_ _

P/t

l/

-20
-qO
10

g units

"

Fped
N

'

_o_
0

lo

15

20

25

30

35

qo

q5

Time,
Figure

182

50.-

So
sec

Continued.

5s

80

65

70

7S

80

85

q0

/t,

deg/sec2

-_0

_0

_licl,

deg/sec2

-I

-_o
uiO

qa,

deg/sec2

_Lio
qO

"i',
deg/sec2

o
-_io

_./_w

=+_'-xt_ t_'-

AJv

uiO

i'icl,

deg/sec2

'

_--,'T'...'

-_

-qo

qo
'x.J

i'a'

-_io

deg/sec_

_ .

v-

40_

w,
m/$ec

--....

--

2 -qO

Wacl,

ITI/$ec

2 _q0

m/see

m/sec2

_Ol
2 -qO

io

15

20

25

30

35

Time,
Figure

50.-

sec

Concluded.

183

8O
,\

8O

k_

_p

_0

deg

/
2O

--

0_

3O
2O
A
]0
0

II

f_

II

deg
II
I

-10
-20

...............

II

I1

I1!11 "\

IV\/
V

A_
/

_
.....

--

-30

qO

_1

P'

aeg/sec-'_o

qO
r,

deg/sec-q0

l
_0

deg/sec

-qO
lO0

'

_--'--

deg

-i00

deg/sec

Flat '
N

lo__

_t+H

.....

_t-t-Tq

6O
I

6 sb,

qO

deg

20 --

_.[

0
0

lO

18

20

25

30

35

qO

q8

Time,
Figure
a

51.-

modeled;

184

Deep-stall

center-of-gravity
h o

9144

recovery

using

location

of

m.

50

SS

60

65

70

78

80

88

sec
speed
0.375_.

brake

and

Asymmetries

flaps
not

at

4
an,

g units

2
0

/-

.9
M
/

.3

fl

o
2ool
loo
/

o
deg
-I00
-200
too
Op

deg

io_
0

5d'
dog

-io
30

6r,

deg

\^,x/k,

-_ ^

-30
40
20

5h,

/x

deg
-20
-40

lOl
gcom,
g units

5
0

_,

-5

Fped,
N

_
o

10

15

20

25

30

:
Figure

51.-

35

40 45 50
Time,
sec

55

60

65

70

"75 80

85

Continued.

185

_0

Cl,

deg/sec2

-_o

ti0

Clicl,

deg/sec2-_o

YO

qa,

deg/see2__io

t
II

i.,

-_o

deg/sec2

_0

i'icl'
deg/sec2-qo

_0

i'a'
deg/sec2

0
-_0

_0

m/sec

2 -u,o

_j

_0

m/sec

2 -rio

qo

Wac2,

0
,.,

m/$ec

2 -LtO

m/sec

2 -u, OI .I I I I I I
0
S
i0
15

20

25

Figure

186

30

3S

51.-

t{O q5 50
Time,
sec
Concluded.

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

8O

/,'_

/ \ ,\j\,, k fL

6O
I

u,O

deg

2O

2O

10

iv _J\,'_'"

_<\<

deg

f[
d

-10
-20
-30

P,
deg/sec

o
-40

deg/sec

-qO

Cv

'

\/

' I

q'
deg/sec

-"

,,,/5

/ \,

<
.....

--

---_

-qO

-._.,

_,

,-.,

.."

,o ,I

deg

_1oo0

Pcom,
deg/sec

-20

' I"

I]

" _

_/-

++
'_"_-

-,o_1 iv v I!,_I_

6O
u,O

6 sb,
deg

20
0
0

Figure
and

tO

t5

20

52.-

Deep-stall

flap

at

Asymmetries

25

30

35

u,O u,5
Time,

recovery

attempt

center-of-gravity

modeled;

h o

50
55
sec

60

using

location
:

9144

65

70

75

speed
of

80

85

9O

brake

0.375_.

m.

187

.9
M

.6

-'--_

.3
o

200

tO0

\
Up
\\

deg

\
-i00

\\

-200

lO0
_'
deg

o_
_1oo
30
0

6a'
deg

-30
IO

6d,
deg

-IO
30

6r'
deg

0
-3o
qo

5h'

20

deg

_--

J t

5
gcom,
g units

-I

L
I

Fped'N

u'_
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

u_o.

'45

Time,
Figure

188

52.-

SO

sec

Continued.

55

60

65

?0

'75

80

85

90

_0

cl,
deg/sec2

-40

_,

\_/

t/

--i

I
_licl,
deg/sec2

0
-4o

ti0
(]a,
deg/sec2

-40

_0
i',

0
/

deg/sec2

-_0

_0
i'a,
deg/sec2

0
-4o

ti0

w,

0
i

m/sec

2 -40

_0
Gad'
m/$ec

_./-_

/_

_ ...._

_--'-,.

/--,.

,-"'-._

2 -40

40
_rac2'
mlsec

0
_ -40

_ra,
op-_l
I I I_L_I
I I
m/sec2-4ol 0 I SI I i0
I I 15
I I 20I I 25
I I 30
I I 35
I I 40
I I 45
I I 50
I I 55
I I 80
I I 65
I I 70
I I 75
I I 80
I I 85
I I _0I
Time,
Figure

52.-

sec

Concluded.

189

100

80

f
/

\ /_\./\
u,O

deg

/
/

/"

30

2o

lo
o

deg

//
IIII

/
l

20

_/

-30

8O

_o

P,

---

/\

_ All

-80

LtO
P_

deg/sec

-qo
qO

A
k/-

-u,o

deg/sec

100
'
de_

//_"

---

r,

\/k/.._,

-10o

P corn,

tool
1 I I II//IV
I

Flat,
N

i0

15

20

25

30

35

Time,
Figure

53.-

technique
0.375_.

190

." i_ \/

Deep-stall
at

recovery

rio u_5

using

center-of-gravity

Asymmetries

modeled;

50

55

60

sec
pitch-rocking
location
h o

9144

of
m.

65

an, _

__

_+_

g units

,6

--_
jJ

I--_

deg

O,
deg

6a'

0
-10o

301
0

deg

-so

6d'
deg

lo
-10

6r,
deg

0
-30

I I

6h,
deg

O-J

1/

3o,II"
.........

_.,/'-,
A
'
-

]'

o
20

-L----

_0

]._=_

L_

gcom,

g units

Fped,
N

'
O

I0

Figure

15

20

53.-

25

'

30 35 LiO qS
Time,
sec

1
50

I ! i '
ba

68

Wb

Continued.

191

40

Cl,
deg/sec

'L.-_

vj

2 -40
-80

tt0
Clicl,

\i?,p

deg/sec2

-40

4O

deg/sec

2-40
8O

40

deg/Sec2

-4o

tto
ricl,
d/-eg-sec

....

6,

.......

r
v-

40
ra'

deg/seC

40

40:

/
m/sec

2 -t{O

4O
Wacl,
m/see2

-"

--'_---

--"--'/_/\/\V

-4o

40

Wac2,
m/seE

w&,
m/see2

_ " _', _"_',, ^ _ _ _A

v/

2 -40

0
-[{0

10

15

20

25

30
Time,

Figure

192

,, _

53.-

35

40
see

Concluded.

45

50

55

GO

G5

IOO
80
60
deg

k.,

\/\
,-, _

,_

_o
2o

__j

L.

I-

o
30
2O
I0
B,

II /,j\,

deg

/^ I I

t/ Ill II

-IO
-20
-30

A
0

P'

....."--

--

,.

.,\

,,

A
I

I
(

I%/
v

-_0
-80

A'\ F

_0
r,
deg/sec

0
-_0

deg/sec

_L_O

deg

-too

Fiat,

o
too

_f

_ \_J J

__L

VIVI/II I IV_I/I
I I I I I t-I

Figure
at

-_'

ioo

54.a

10

15

20

25

Deep-stall

30

ho

9144

riO

q5

recovery

center-of-gravity

modeled;

35

location

50
Time,

using
of

55 60
sec

65

70

75

pitch-rocking
0.375c.

80

85

90

95

1UO

techniques

Asymmetries

m.

193

2E_
o/I

I I I I,

---q,

3
0

_1

.......

I I I I I I I I_ L_.4_-dJ_L_4_J_4_4,_A
I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I FIN I

"

b _-_.

1_-q

F"

2OO
I00
qs

deg
-lOO

\\

_\

-200
tO0
0

G,
deg

_;oo

30
0

6a'
deg

30

lo
0

6d'
deg

-;o

6r,

deg

I/\l

2
dh,
deg
-20
-YO

10 .... l__
_com,

g units

o
5
5

'1

I '

'_Io
i_ i.l-t-H--F
-I_-I0

I0

!5

20

25

30

Figure

194

35

u,o

54.-

Y5

SO 55 60
Time,
sec

Continued.

65

"70 75

80

85

90

95

100

o .........

,ale1,
deg/seC

- .........

"1

v -

-qo

_o

I
"

deg/seC-_io

"

-80

80

i,,

_o
_ "

_"

W _

-<io

i'icl,
,
o
deg/sec2 -_iO

deg/sec2

""1 V tc

"

....
__ _

_v u

17 "

_io
8o

_.,

<io
-qO

m/sec

Wac2'
1Ti/SCC

2 -qO

-,. ....

-..-_-v ......

--

I^../,

2 -q 0

_btq_
m/see2

IO

15

20

25

30

Figure

35

qo

54.-

q5

5o
Time,

55
sec

Concluded.

195

.9
M

.6
.3
0

qO
0,

20
0 _,.

deg

Lr

\f

f_jf

10
0

deg

-Io
qO
0

P'
deg/sec

-_0

qO
r,

deg/sec

-_0
qO

q'

Ov

deg/sec

-_,0

i00
'

deg

-loo

20o
Pcom,

deg/sec_200

I00

Flat'
N

-i00

qO0

FP ed'
N

o
-

-q@@
0

Figure

10

55.--

15

20

Performance
wind-up

196

25

30

35

qO

q5

of

airplane

turn

task.

50
Time,

55
60
sec

with
ho

65

70

control
9144

m.

75

80

system

85

30

in

95

100

6
/

an,
n,

g units

t, ,,,

</

_._

_..z _

_ r

200
100
"L[.[I

V"

0
\

deg
-100

"F

-200
I00
@'

deg

-I00

6a'

3o I
0

deg

-30

30
_

6r'
deg

....

_L'x,

_-.-

_/'_

n,

_k_

200

o v-"_,

-'-'-_

_'_"

_'_

-200

range,
m

/'k,

-30

_oo
_long,

_oo ....
0

_ _

___

--

deg

deg

-20
0

10

15

20

25

30

Figure

35

q0

55.-

q5

50
Time,

55 60
sec

65

70

75

80

85

g0

gS

100

Concluded.

197

:11
l_LII

deg

LILLI_J_L

:o_ lilllll}llll

-_SJ

I0

deg

-lo

I I I I ]-Wq-

/V
]

7
]

v
_f'11

FI

VLq/yVlViY-[
I_l//
I I/I

]T\/I_I
I/q
I

oolll/l J, /k J,,_
J,_tiJ

160

deg/sec

T_

80

IX

_U!/I illllVl,
V
' G I l/'l
IkV I

:7_f!,,kLL]_!_J,.,LA
!,J7_il

deg/sec

q, oLI,,I.L-'I,-,VLIX_I.,I,
k'-+,,,_,-,,-_
+J-I,kJq+t-<,o,,i:_<:_.o
[lllllll
[/'-I-'1
II
II II1111]
[to

II

LI

IAI

o1-11<_
Jr '/I_ivxi_,Jllm

deg

::: IIIIIIA,

,,

I_, !_lllllq

I /r
I I I _ IIIII.
L I I _1111111111111
71 J-]l_
nl k,-!,A[ I IAl
/
tI,K
I llllllSlllllklil
frillY,,/
_111
I_AII I/IV III/_l_'k/ll_lll
tlll_Vl I
_"

Pom,
deg/sec

__oo_llll,iii _
Flat,
N

o,,u_,.,'!',J,d. /

_,_! ,'!, 7 !_!!! v! iff/4,,._.,,[_

::::i_'
'Ti'<'_'7
'''_''_'_''
7_"0i
It_1_?_
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

[t0

Time,
Figure
control

198

56.-

Performance
system

of
in

LIS

SO

55

60

65

70

sec
airplane

bank-to-bank

with
task.

ant

g units

"q/)

deg

0,

deg

-lo@

deg

I II

o-_'_'_V,

LA1-.\.^-^y

_(

__oi I

_,L&,4

_1 __

....

_---_

x....

_/

,A
_
V _

( _ ,A

d<kf

Flng'

t4

..

i i

q i

-200

range,

_001 I I I I
Q_l--_rd-_[

I I L_L I
i I

I 1_ I I I I 1__14
i I i i I I_I-TI
i i i

i l/

deg

20

"h

'\G-

d_

<_r" _

"_ _-,

"_

deg
qo

i
0

10

15

Figure

20

25

56.-

30

-- +
38 qO q5
Time,
sec

50

55

60

65

"70

Concluded.

199

'o 1

B_

deg

P,

IIIH I_LL/ALJ_IA_I
I LA/t
_1A,
LLLA /

:: / 7iii_rllTG
711-77_7G_IIx
% /
oKi

lim

IA_i.l A_LL^/]

r I I I/-r-I'+lAVll_Jt,

i_lM

r,ih_rt/tl,k

_.._oI
IIIJlllA_li_.
_I?4.M_
_I I_LKI>K[
A_
deg/sec

I\1 ,(1
V

-_o

I I I

W
I

_/_7
IV/

II
VII
I I _/

v \/
I I 71

%
I I

_1:_-,o_ I I I I I I _11"11I I I I I I rl I _11 71111

deg

_oLdllll/I_IIIIL
, IIIII ^I,I I,I J_// IAII
kl_l
I I i I_1//I I_1 i/ill
I/ll_l
Ill I I

7 : ,llrl

_;7:7<;
_oo . ,I l_I/IfT;_ll:It,Vl,,,,,_,.i
"_/l/ll'_-f_/ ,1_.

Flat,
N
-1OO

FP ed'
N

-_ioo
0

10

15

20

25

30

38

qO

Time,

Figure

57.control

200

Performance
system

q5

50

of
A

in

55

60

68

70

75

sec

ACM

airplane
task.

with

80

an,

_7

/" ' _ "_

o A

g units

\_-___

/_"

,f

h"l

200
tOO
*gl'p

deg
-tO0
-200

100

L_

_J

0,
J

deg

-tO0

6a,

deg

6 r ,

deg

_, .IJ I/l^
.k.
,r,
/,,
.,

.o ,_l.I i,A,J,.'11,,,
; _"
'AII
_'"
qo

5h,
deg

v'_

_ _v'"_ _

--

v_

"b_V

-20
I
200
u'O0!--

.,_

,/ "_'- "" ''\ '

r, A

I'v",/

0 _'_

-200
qO0

800

range,
m

u,oo
o
qo
2O

deg

_\

O_

'v \

.,ix '

\_j\./'-_..,v

qO
20

deg

r'-

o -:_

:....

\l ,.__\;i,
-

-2o
0

d
S

10

t5

Figure

20

25

30

57.-

35

qO qS 50
Time,
sec

__55

60

65

70

75

80

Concluded.

201

,,,, __-1-111_1

III

-Jq---f-__ ['VII-1[_IV//I_l"l_t[] I-IVl

p,
de

IIII

ol IAI,J,,II_,lIJl \l_u I/_ I_'_,_u l//I

J2 II

see

vv

V I I/A/l_/

I ,i,,,,,YI
] r I F_/I

uo

I J. Iol

"

I I I

cleg/sec

q. "ol
L]_X_I
_,_/__1,_1
de_/sec-.oI_IVI
II II II II_1_1
I II I1I II IIIYl,I
iooI

,,

I DRI

/1_--kl

::ol-

Pcom,

oL_1/\],441

fll.JJI/IMil

I I

I,DI-QI

_II I/III

I ] 1 2.4-421

1 1

I_i/Ih,,

I/[

LolLlI,1/11111,

li'/

35
Time,

_{0 u_5 50
sec

'

Fped,
O

Figure
control

202

58.-

[O

15

20

2S

30

Performance
system

of
in

58

airplane

bank-to-bank

60

65

?0

with
task.

_,
deg

z"

-lOOE

++

deg

-30

deg

-30

_o!
deg
o
k,._.,
oh,20
/_ ^
-e _

/"In

&_4,

,_,

I_

_j//_

-_

....

__'

,_

\f'

-_-^v

_v

1.

600
'400

%V_4 '

-200

range,
m

j'-^_

I_I
_ng,' 200

8o0
q0o
0_

__
_--_

'
/. i
dog2o-L/_,,
o .... /'
_'

60
qO

.....

L_

I
fL

20

deg

0
20

I,

-qO
5

10

1S

20

25

30

35

Time,

Figure

58.-

riO

qlS

50

55

60

65

/0

sec

Concluded.

203

.9

.6

T-

,3--

F_

--

deg

/f_7"'-

<J

lo
0
deg

L
v

-,'A]'

-10

160
80
P,

/,A

deg/sec
]V'_J

-8o
-160

40
O,

r,
deg/sec

4/

-40[

q'

deg/sec

-_0

_f

\/

/_,A_,

_'.

_A-/_,

/_

._--,

/"'_---_--_

'_'

'

_/v

'_

200
100

(_,

fx_

deg

_--_

_J \J

1 y

-100

_00
2OO
Pcom,

p_

deg/sec
-200
-_oo

ioO
Flat,

_p.pf^

/I

/,[I
/

_.

10o

HO0
Fped,
N

I
-uool
o

Figure
control

204

59.-

lO

15

20

25

30

Performance
system

35
Time,

u_o u_5 5o
sec

of
in

airplane

bank-to-bank

55

60

6s

with
task.

7o

\
an

g units

_.

\ _ ^ <

/
/

deg

-10O

deg

-ioo

3o
da,
deg

0
-30

6r,
deg

o
-30

_,

I _
_.-_

u,

\,'

.^ A,p ,-.r',.
-20

f"

\l\i
]

l,_v

V"'

V'

A _,

/'_

'\

L. A ]

v/"-V'

.... _,_

6 h,
deg

-v

_I
' IJl

I_
'J

I
1

IJ

ik]" tl "'/I

X, t,

.....

.N\],
V

v,,-

qO0

Plong,

200

/_

,A_

;"

X,_/i_'X/V

/_-_,

_/_f

-2oo

range,

_o_

___

_.

q_'-J_

In

E,

61

deg

20

qo

f_

'v

.-_ /

O--_b'-J'r_

_-/_J

_"

_/k__,_

qO
20

/--

deg

-20
-qO
-60
0

I0

15

20

28

30

35

Time,

Figure

59.-

qo

q5

50

55

60

65

/0

sec

Concluded.

205

-_

2o ....
deg

--

<

r_\

_\

/\

io
\J

deg

\
_J

-lo

160

P,
deg/sec

80
tl/t

'--

-_

_.

vV q

",,

-80

_/

YO
T,

deg/sec

-qo

_J

"\/

,.j

40

q'
deg/sec

o
-YO

_ZZ_l.
III li_-lqlll Jl /

/dl

II 111

LJ-ZIY
FIll

deg

400
200
P corn

deg/sec

ks

,./

-200

,,wI

200
IOO

Fiat,
N

!1 \/"

_,\,s\

-i00
-200

400

Fped,
N
L400

I
0

10

1S

20.

25

30

35

40

46

Time,
Figure

60.control

206

Performance
system

of
B

in

SO

5S

60

6S

sec

ACM

airplane
task.

with

70

7S

8o

an,
g units

.o!
lO

/if,
deg

-2001

I I I I I I I I I I I I i i _ _

.,..
_eg-3
Oh,

range,
m

I_

Il-l?I_Y
I-

v-

:o 1/ 1tll .I1_

deg

l_1ong,
N

"

::ooflI/_1//I'lq_////_:_
qo

qO
deg

deg

Time,

Figure

60.-

sec

Concluded.

207

deg

deg

\ J

V-

-1o

160

r,

--

-_I

"_,

-v

\ jl

deg/sec

-qO ]

200

_oo
\

___

-zoo-2OOl

----

_"

---

7 -

_,

_oo I
20O

-_oo
Flat ,

0---

-ioo

FP ed'
N

. o
-uoo

Figure

....

"_ J

:[

-2oo,LLL_ _

'

- .... t_ -

\
S

tO

61.control

2O8

_//_

15

20

25

30

38

qO q5 50
Time,
sec

Performance
system

of
C

in

ACM

55

airplane
task.

60

65

70

with

75

80

q _,EI

deg

6a,

ol I I I I _/ h

I_1 IAL I LI

I I 4/IA

h/I

IAIA

- v\_
'
7 N_I/I
_og__olfl-I
I-vi I ItrlYZ]_]
I I I l_h_,-,','_I_Yl
IV_,
,,'d
I1%1 I I I I I
Ifkllll_l
I
_,, 3oo_IIh,,,,_,L_IAL]LLIIIII_I.IIAIt,_,,,,,,.

6h,
deg

60O

'long,

QI I _r_

II--'l I P\ I

"
range,
ITI

I'L) j

V 11{_[_4V_ I_]I

I ]

]I4

] II//Ill4

\ 'I$'IIIt

_"

_F-t-Gq_l
I I I _
I 15-4_LI
I I I I I Jr-tq--L I t_ I
ol I I I I]"PUI
I I I I IT]
I i I_H-tfi_[I
I I I-FI
I I

deg

_I0
20
0

deg

IIILI

111/
L 1/t

20
_t0
60
5

15

10

20

25

30

35

_lO

Time,

Figure

61.-

_15

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

sec

Concluded.

209

negative
"g" limit

Pitch

_ schedule

gradient

See
figure
62(e)

Flng

Qi
__

af

20.2
s + 20.2
DL =25; RL=60

6d, C

20.2
s + 20.2
DL =25; RL =60

(a) Schematic

Figure

62.-

Simulated

basic

pitch

of

overall

control

system.

system

(control

system

A).

0
-2

Negative
"g" limit

-4
,

10

q, kNlm 2
(b)

Schedule

of

1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2

Pitch-rate
gain

negative

"g"

q.

12

16

2O

_,
Schedule

with

(c)

limit

of

kN/m 2

pitch-rate

gain

with

q.

1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2

Pitch-loop
gain

16

24

32

40

48

56

(],
(d)

Schedule

Figure

of

kN/m 2

pitch-loop

62.-

gain

with

q.

Continued.

211

III

10

Pitch
command, g
4

-2

-4
-80

-60

-40

-20

I,,

, I

,I

20

40

60

Flong,
(e)

Pitch

Figure

212

command

62.-

N
gradient.

Concluded.

80

I00

120

140

160

180

6
Incremental
commanded normal
acceleration
available, g units 4

I,

Figure

63.normal

Variation
acceleration

of

maximum
with

I0 15
a, deg
commandable
angle

of

20

25

30

incremental
attack.

213

Roll trim <

4__40

Roll
command
gradient

See figure
64(b)

Flat_

_.___.

20.2
s+20.2

(If >_29

rt-x

[+
[

DL=21.5;RL=80

L222
_
6a,c

4s2 +64s+6400
s2+80s
+6400

(a)

Figure

64.-

Schematic

of

_6d,

Schematic

roll

axis

of

of

overall

basic

control

system.

system

(control

system

A).

50
Oh

Rudder
command
gradient

See figure
65(b)

-i

afJ
3s + 15

_-_29

s_

s+

>

20.2

DL-_Oi
20.2_ =120l--4"

of > 29

ay

o.1.871.129_
_Ips
__i
Ps
(a)

Figure

65.-

Schematic

of

Schematic

yaw

axis

of

of

overall

basic

system.

control

system

(control

system

A).

_r

300

200

i00

Roll command,
deg/sec

-100

-200

-300
i

-60

-40

-20

2'0

'

40

60

Fla t, N
(b)

Roll

Figure

command

64.-

gradient.

Concluded.

215

[-j
0"_

Yaw
trim

Rudder
command
gradient

Fped ___

See figure
65(b)

s +6060

"_--

o,I
s-TTg-3s+15

s + 20.2
+

DLT=3--_;
af> 29 r--_--]

(a)

Figure

65.-

Schematic

of

Schematic

yaw

axis

of

of

overall

basic

--12or

+ l

system.

control

system

(control

system

-_

A).

6r

-3O

-2O

-11
Rudder command,
deg
0

11

2O

3O
I

-400

-200

2OO

4OO

Fped, N
(b)

Rudder

Figure

command

65.-

gradient.

Concluded.

217

P1

1,

P2 = P1

P2 = 60

_T = 5.0

1
T T - f (P2
See figure

P2 = 40

- P3 )

=Tidl

Figure

218

- P3 )

See figure

1_3 = _

Logic

66.-

(P2

P3 = fP3

diagram

Simulated

- P3 )

66(c)

]_

dt

T = Tmil + (Tmax-Tmil)(P

e + (Tmii-Tidle)(P3/50)

(a)

TT

-- =f(P2
TT

66(c)

]" = 5.0

for

thrust

powerplant

dynamic

model.

characteristics.

3 - 50)/50

P2 = P1

loo
80

P1,
r 60
percent powe
4O

2O
Id

tmum
,
20

I
40
Percent

(b)

Power

variation

Figure

with

66.-

l,
80

,
60

I
100.

th rottle travel
throttle

position.

Continued.

219

_0
0

1.0

.8

.6

TT
i
sec

.4

.2

0
-100

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

( P2 - P3), percent power


(c)

Variation

of

inverse

of

thrust

Figure

time

66.-

constant

Concluded.

with

incremental

power

command.

8O

100

12 -

I0

O8

rms
buffet

. O6

intensity,
g units
O4

02

i0

15

20

25

30

35

a, deg
Figure

67.-

Variation

of

buffet

intensity

with

angle

of

attack.

4O

1. Report

No.

NASA
'"4.

Title

2. Government

Accession

No.

and Subtitle

SIMULATOR
OF

3.

Recipient's

5.

Report

STUDY

FIGHTER

STATIC

OF

STALL/POST-STALL

No.

AIRPLANE

WITH

RELAXED

LONGITUDINAL

Ogburn,

William

Date

December

CHARACTERISTICS

1979

6. Performing

Organization

Code

8. Performing

Organization

Report

STABILITY

7. Author(s)
Luat

T.

Kemper

Nguyen,
S.

Marilyn

Kibler,

E.

Phillip

W.

Brown,

and

P.

Gilbert,

Perry

L.

NASA

Langley

Hampton,

Deal

S_nsoring

Agency

Work

Addre_

Research

VA

Unit

No.

505-06-63-03

Center

11.

Contract

or Grant

13.

Type

Report

Name

of

and Period

Washington,

Covered

and Address

Aeronautics
DC

15. Supplementary

No.

23665

Technical
National

No.

L-12854
10.

9. PerformingOrganizationNameand

12.

Catalog

TP-1538

and

Space

Administration

14.

Sponsoring

Paper
Agency

Code

20546

Notes

16. Abstract

real-time

piloted

attack

characteristics

of

F-16,

the

on

ducted

on

involved
tion

inertia

airplane
which

it

which

greatly

departure

17.

coupling

Key Words

exhibited

was

difficult
decreased

and

(Sugg_ted

which

S_urity

the
provided

was

recover.

trim

and

the

Results
system

susceptible

to

could

means

stability

at
be

low

for

to

airspeed.
into

and

were

the

induced
The
from
developed

inertia-coupling

recovering

Distribution

con-

investiga-

departures

flown

the

the

resistant

modifications
to

were
was

evaluation

of
was

pitch

rolls

which

18.
static

simulator,

control

relaxed

simulation

simulation

susceptibility

reliable

the

of

The

Control-system

airplane

in

testing

levels

models.

large-amplitude

deep-stall

basic

high-angle-of-

wind-tunnel

various

used

maneuvering.

the
it

of

data

the

on

from

the

deep

stall.

Statement

Unclassified

Unlimited

stall

Departure

19.

to

effects

subscale

combat
with

rapid,
a

of

by Authoris))

Relaxed
longitudinal
High
angle
of
attack
Deep

during

the

evaluate

based

maneuvering

however,

to

aerodynamic

tests

airplane

departure;

also

on

The

low-speed

the

conducted

configuration

differential

representative

yaw

been

emphasis

wind-tunnel

Langley

that

has
fighter

stability.

low-speed
the

particular

static

showed

classical
by

of

with

longitudinal
based

simulation

prevention

Cla_if.(ofthisreport)

Unclassified

Subject
20.

SecurityClassif.(of
Unclassified

this

pege)

21.

No.

Category

08

of Pages
223

* For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161
NASA-Langley,

1979

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Penalty

for

Private

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