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Principle of Communication 1) Clarity Clarity of thought: communicator must be clear about these 3 pts. What is the objective of communication?

? What is to be communicated? Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose? Clarity of expression: Most of the messages are transmitted with the help of words, the transmitter should be careful about the meanings & organization of words for this. * Use Simple words: Example: Avoid them use them Demonstrate show Utilize use Visualize see. * Use single words for long phrases: Avoid them use them At all times always At a later date later Will you be kind enough please * Use verbs for nouns: Difficult simple Come to a Conclusion conclude Make a decision decide Make the announcement announce * Avoid double entry: Double Entry simple 11 a.m. in the morning 11 a.m.

Previous Experience experience * Prefer active constructions for they are easier to understand Passive active Your efforts are appreciated all of use appreciate By all of us. Your efforts. * Avoid ambiguity GO SLOW, WORK IN PROGRESS GO, SLOW WORK IN PROGRESS Completeness - Incomplete communication irritates the reader - If wrong actions follow an incomplete message they may also prove expensive You should organize your message in such a way than the receiver has no doubts about anything contained in it While answering a letter make it sure that you have answered all the questions. Checking for the five W question: who, what, when & why & any other essential points like how also helps to make your message complete Conciseness Brevity (Shortness) in expression effectively wins the attention of the reader. The 4 simple rules will help you to achieve shortness in your msg. 1) Include only relevant facts 2) Avoids repetition. 3) Avoids trite & wordy expression. 4) Organize your message. Well.

Consideration: In our letters we must show consideration for the reader. This can be done in following ways; * Adopt the you-attitude Eg. : We (attitude) You (attitude) I want to express my SINCERE thanks Thank you for your kind for the good words word * Avoids Gender bias : -Use words free from gender bias: The chairperson handled the situation tactfully (& not chairman) -Use a slash to include both the alternatives Dear Sir/Madam -Use plural/forms inclusive of both the genders Do: All the members cast their votes. Dont: Each member cast his vote. It is often possible to use the for his/her: Do: The manger: talked to the customer Dont: The manger: talked to his customer. * Emphasize Positive pleasant facts: Eg. N: - We regret to inform you that we will not be able to execute your order until. +Ve: - Thank you for your order. The goods will be sent to you as soon as Try to avoid these ve words: fear, mistake, wrong, damage, disagree. Please; thank; you; welcome; you are right. Present days examples. Instead of complaint dept. now a days customer service dept. is used Cheap Economical * Write only what you feel to be correct

COURTESY Courtesy means politeness, decency. * Answer the letters promptly * Omit irritating expressions : like you forgot, you failed, your irresponsible approach are bound to irrigate or HURT the reader. * Apologies sincerely for an omission/thank generously for a favor Generously for a favour * Courtesy in various types of communication -Horizontal communication (Neutral level of communication) -Up word communication (to your superiors) -Downward communication (to your subordinate) CORRECTNESS 1) Give correct facts 2) Send your message at the correct time. 3) Send your message in he correct style. THE LISTENING PROCESS AND ITS BARRIERS Perception interpretation evaluation action (Process) Listening Barriers Mental barriers Physical and other barriers Inattention Hearing impairment Prejudgment Noisy surroundings Close mindedness Speakers appearance

PSEUDO listening

1) Perception: {Process of selection, organization, and interpretation}. CONSCIOUS act of listening begins when you touch on the sounds around you and select those you choose to hear, you tune in when you: Sense that the massage is important Are interested in the topic Are in a mood to listen Perception is reduced by impasred hearing, noisy surroundings, in attention, and pseudo listening. {Psendo listening occurs when listeners FAKE it. They look as if they are listening, but their mind are wondering FAR off.} 2) Interpretation: Once you have to FOCUSED YOUR attention on a sound OR message, you begin to interpret OR DECODE IT. NOTE: YOUR interpretation of the speakers messaging may be quite different from what the speaker intended because your frame of reference is different. 3) Evaluation: After inter prating the meaning of message the analyze its merits and draw CONCLUSIONS. {Good listeners try to be objective and they avoid prejudging the message.} NOTE: Closed mindedness & opinionated attitude function as major barriers to liquating. 4) Action: Responding to a message may involve storing the message in memory for future in reacting with a physical response.( a frown, a smile, a laugh), or supplying feed back to the speaker. Listener f/ back is essential because it helps clarify the message so that it can be decoded a accurately. LISTENING: A COMMUNICATION TOOL

Definition: Listening is defined as the ability to under stand and respond effectively to oral communication Listening involves far move than sitting passing and absorbing other words. Thus, we can state that hearing is not listening it requires understanding of the communication received. Hearing is with the ears: Listening is with them The most effective method by which executive can tap an idea of subordinate is SYM PATHETIC LISTENING in the many day-to-day informal contacts within and outside the work place. Common Faults of listening: 1) Prejudice against the speaker 2) Rehearsing: You whole attention is on designing and preparing your next comment. You look interested but your mind is not there. 3) Judging negatively: If you prejudge some body as incompetent or un informed, you dont pay much attention to that person. 4) Identifying: You take every thing people tell you and refer it back to your own experience. 5) Advising: You are great problem solver. You do have to hear more than a few sentences before you begin searching for the right advise. 6) Derailing: Suddenly changing the subject. You derail the train of conversation when you get uncomfortable or bored with a topic. 7) Being right: You twist the facts, start to show or make excuses to avoid being wrong. {You cant listen to criticism; you cant be corrected and you cant take suggestions to change}.

FPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=" Placating: You want to be nice, pleasant, supportive. You want people to like you. So you agree with everything.

{Absolutely, oh! really, right I know-------} 9) Dreaming: Listening with ears and not with the mind. 10) Sparring: Arguing and debating with people who never feel heard because you are so quick to disagree. 11) Delivery: Monotonous delivery can cause listener to loose interest 12) External distractions: Noisy fans poor or glaring lights distracting background music etc. 13) Premature conclusions: we conclude before the speaker has finished. 14) Semantic stereo type: {Semantic: Relating to meaning (esp. of word) stereotypes: A fixed conventionalized representation}. When certain words are repeated time and again they cause annoyance is the mind and effective listening may get impaired.

REPORT & PROPOSAL WRITING Report Writing: A report is a message to the mgmt. It travels from an employee to supervisor, from a supervisor to an executive from the executive to the mgmt. Some reports might present the actual solution to solve a business problem; other reports might record historical information that will be useful in making decisions. Thus the term report can be defined as a orderly and objective presentation of information that helps in decision making and problem solving. The report must be well ordered (organized) so that the reader can easily find information. {Different steps in preparing the report.} It must be subjective because the readers will read the report to make decisions that affect the organization. It must present information-facts and data. When subjective information is required as on drawing conclusions and making recommendations they must be presented ethically and be based on the information contained in the report. It must aid in decision-making and problem solving.

REPOT & PROPOSAL WRITING The managing director of ABC limited, Avinash Saini, came across a proposal submitted to him by the Efficient Products Limited to replace his current filing system with the efficient filling system of the proposing company. After going through this proposal, Avinash Saini found it an impressive proposition that could increase filling efficiency and save lot of space in his office. He called up his junior Sandeep and told him to prepare a report comparing the different filling products available in the market including the products of Efficient Products Ltd. Sandeep made a thorough study of market, and came out with a detailed comparison of the filling products of the three prime companies in the market. Sandeep presented this report to his boss Avinash Sainin after seeing the report he called Sandeep and appreciated him for the efforts he had put in to collect the whole lot of data and analyzing it. But since the report was 10-page long document, Avinash didnt have time to go through each and every aspect of report. He told Sandeep to make a prcis of the report with all the important contents, which Avinash should consider to take a decision. Sandeep further worked on the report he replaced detailed analysis with important findings the whole report got converted into 3page document. Now Avinash was able to see a concise picture of comparative advantages and cost of different filing systems available in the market. The decision-making was a much easier job with this information. Note that proposal is a persuasive letter convincing the other erson that what you are proposing should be worthy of granting a report is a document containing information and a prcis is summary of any text in such a way that the message of original text is well conveyed in a much precise manner. On the basis of the frequency of issue report can be periodic or special. 1) Periodic or routine reports are prepared and presented at regular prescribed intervals in usual routine of business. They may be submitted annually, semi: - annually, quarterly, monthly fortnightly, weekly or even

daily. Generally such reports certain a mere statement of facts in detail or is summarized form (with / without an opinion or recommendation) e.g. (Branch Managers submitting periodic reports to the Head office on the quantum of buss transacted.) 2) Special reports are related to a single occasion or situation. E.g. A reports on the opening of a new branch office at Ludhiana. 3) On the basis of function a report can be informative (if the report Merely presents facts pertinent to an issue or situation) or Interpretative (if the report analyzes the fact draws conclusions and Makes recommendation it may be described as analytical inter Portative or investigative report) E.g.: If a report presents the sales figures in a particular period, it is Informative. But if it goes into the causes of lower sales in that period, it became analytical report. Type of Business Reports: On the basis of legal formalities: 1. Informal & Formal Reports: An informal is usually in the form of person to person common. It may range form a short statement of facts on a single page to a presentation taking several pages. An informal report is usually submitted in the form of a memorandum. A formal report is one which is prepared in prescribed form and is presented according to an established procedure to the prescribed authority another. Formal reports can be statutory or non-statutory a) A report prepared and presented according to the form and procedure laid down by law is called statutory report. Report submitted at the statutory meeting of shareholders. Directorial reports to Annual General meeting (AGM) are statutory reports. b) Formal reports which are not required under any law but which are prepared to help the management in framing policies or taking other important decision are called non-statutory report. c) On the basis of the number of persons entrusted with the drafting of reports, we can have reports by in divinely or reports by committee.