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march 2012

Korean Oriental Medicine Reaches Out beyond Korea

march 2012

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Cornelian Cherry Blossoms Beckon


Where the bleak winter recedes, golden clouds of flowers blossom A traditional alternative to typical accommodations

Come and Stay in Hanok?

www.korea.net

Learn korean

Say Hello in Korean!

When you meet people for the first time, you say hello and introduce yourself. What are the formulaic expressions used to greet people in Korean? And how would do you respond to such greetings? Lets study how to introduce yourself in Korean.

? Hello.

Annyeonghaseyo?

(Annyeonghaseyo) is usually used when greeting elders or new people. When greeting them, it is polite to bow your head.

. // . My name is Michael. // I am Naoko.

Jeoneun Michael-ieyo. // Jeoneun Naoko-yeyo.

. Its nice to meet you.

These sentence patterns are used to give and ask ones personal information. - and - / are important key to make a sentence in Korean. - is attached to a noun either when there is connotation of contrast with another subject or to indicate the topic which the speaker is intending to talk about. - / are attached to a noun and functions like be in English. If the previous noun ends in a consonant, - follows, on the other hand if the previous noun ends in vowel, - follows.

Mannaseo bangawoyo.

Lets practice
Try to make a conversation as suggested by the following example. A : ? . B : ? . .

contents
march 2012 Vol.9 no.3
02

Korean Oriental Medicine Reaches Out beyond Korea

Cover Story

Section 1 Characteristics and Worldwide Reputation Section 2 Therapies of Korean Oriental Medicine Section 3 Korean Oriental Medicine Connecting with the World

12 Pen & brush Lee Dongi, a painter on the Vanguard of Korean art

16 People hwang byung-ki, a maestro in Classical Korean music

20 Great Korean nam-june paik, the Father of Video art

22 Seoul Garosugil, a trendsetters promenade

24 Travel Cornelian Cherry blossoms in Gurye

28 festival yeongdeok Snow Crab Festival

32 Now in Korea Come and Stay in hanok?

34 Entertainment Koreas Fusion Sageuk

36 Sports Shuttlecocks Flying high for Gold

38 Special Issue Seoul hosts the 2012 nuclear Security Summit

40 Global Korea park nuga, a medical Doctor Caring for Filipinos

42 Summit Diplomacy president Lee Visits turkey and three Gulf States

45 flavor hwajeon, Spring Flower Rice Cake

46 My Korea Little bottles of heaven

49 Learn Korean Say hello in Korean!

publisher Seo Kang-soo, Korean Culture and Information Service editing the booK Company e-mail webmaster@korea.net printing Jeonkwang printing&Information all rights reserved. no part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without permission from KOrea and the Korean Culture and Information Service. the articles published in KOrea do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. the publisher is not liable for errors or omissions. If you want to receive a free copy of KOrea or wish to cancel a subscription, please e-mail us. A downloadable PDF file of KOrea and a map and glossary with common Korean words appearing in our text are available by clicking on the thumbnail of KOrea on the homepage of www.korea.net.

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cover story

Korean Oriental Medicine Reaches Out Beyond Korea


Principle of yin and yang brings disease under control

Korean Oriental medicine (KOM) began to attract worldwide attention when Dongui bogam was inscribed on the Memory of the World Register by UNESCO in 2009. Korean Oriental medicine views the human body as a small universe in itself and attempts to cure disease by identifying and handling its fundamental causes. it is welcomed as a medicine of the future and is spreading quickly around the world. increasingly many foreigners visit South Korea to receive Korean Oriental medicine treatment, and KOM doctors travel to developing countries to provide voluntary medical services to those in need.
by Lee Jung-eun, Kim Min-seon, chung Da-young / photographs by Kim Jin-hee / cooperation from Kyung Hee University Oriental Hospital, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korean Oriental Medicine Service Team Abroad, Jaseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine, Baekdu clinic of Oriental Medicine, and Heo Jun Meuseum

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An Ancient Medical Tradition Unique to Korea


Around two thousand years ago, Korean medicine was grafted with traditional Chinese medicine and thereafter developed independently as Korean Oriental medicine. Lets have a brief look at Korean Oriental medicine, its worldwide status, and its treatment methods.
orean Oriental medicine (KOM) began to attract worldwide attention when Dongui bogam was inscribed on the Memory of the World Register by UNESCO in 2009. This was the first book of medicine to make its way onto the list. The book is an encyclopedia compiled over 15 years by HEO Jun, chief royal physician to King Seonjo of the Joseon Dynasty, around 1600. Korean Oriental medicine is a relatively new term. It refers to the medicine native to Korea developed over a period of nearly two thousand years after being grafted with traditional Chinese medicine. It had been called traditional Korean medicine since 1986 until recently. before that, it was simply referred to as traditional Oriental medicine. Korean Oriental medicine refers to a range of traditional medical practices based on Asian philosophy, which itself was

Section 1

Characteristics and Worldwide Reputation

deeply grounded on observation and study of natural phenomena. Korean Oriental medicine sees the human body as a small universe. It is based on the concept of yin and yang, which describes all the objects and phenomena in the universe according to a paradigm of two 1 opposing forces such as the sun and moon, summer and winter, north and south, and male and female. It studies o-haeng, or the five phases or

Cupping has long been a common folk therapy.

elements comprising the universe: geum (metal and rock), mok (wood), su (water), hwa (fire), and to (earth). It also studies the process of yuk-gi, or the Six Atmospheric Influences, in the realm of natural science, which are pung (wind), han (cold), yeol (heat), hwa (fire), seup (humidity), and jo (dryness). Western medicine focuses on the History of Korean oriental Medicine human bodys internal organs and is based on Chinese medicine was introduced in Korea anatomy and cytology. It values apparent during the Three Kingdoms period (57 b.C.phenomena and treats patients on a 668). It assumed its own unique nature as statistical basis. Korean Oriental medicine and has since 2 Korea n Or ienta l medici ne l i n ks developed substantially, through the Goryeo physiological changes in the human body to Dynasty (918-1392), the Joseon Dynasty (1392changes in natural phenomena and observes the 1910), and up to the present day. It advanced to phenomena on gi (gi in Chinese). For example, an especially marked extent during the Joseon in spring when everything springs up with new period. Such medical collections as Hyangyak 1 A model of the human form energy, regeneration functions become active. Jipseongbang (Compilation of Native Korean marked with acupuncture points. During summer, which is the season of torrential Prescriptions, 1433) and Uibang Yuchwi (Classified 2 Dongui bogam was the first book on medicine to make its rain, the body is influenced by humidity. In the dry Collection of Medical Prescriptions, 1445) were way onto the list. The book is an autumn, the body becomes lighter, while in the cold compiled at the instruction of King Sejong the encyclopedia compiled over 15 years by Heo Jun, chief royal winter, it rejuvenates itself due to the activation of Great, the fourth monarch of Joseon. These efforts physician to King Seonjo of the Joseon Dynasty, around 1600. the storage function, after having fallen into a state laid the foundation for Korean Oriental medicine of idleness. Western medicine tends to find the causes of these to advance based on more independent, in-depth, and extensive phenomena through observation of the structures and functions research. Later, during the reign of King Seonjo (r. 1567-1608), of specific organs, not by linking the causes to phenomena in HEO Jun eventually compiled Dongui bogam. In the compilation, nature. Dr. Heo classified diseases in a manner that was most appropriate Korean Oriental medicine treats a disease on the assumption for Koreans and listed practical prescriptions. The book also that the disease stems from discrepancies between the natural reported the findings of his research into folk remedies, including phenomena and the states of the human body, while Western acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and the health management medicine treats a disease by identifying the germ that caused the method called doin. Dongui bogam was eventually brought disease. to China and Japan. It made a tremendous contribution to the Korean Oriental medicine cures a patient by prescribing herbs development of traditional medicine in East Asia, and its influence

found in nature. These are chemically most similar to the human body, with the result that they change the condition of the human body and bolster immunity to the disease, preventing any possibility of germs harming the body. Some foreigners regard herbal medicine simply as health supplements, but this is a misconception arising from poor understanding of Oriental medicine. As explained so far, Korean Oriental medicine and Western medicine take very different approaches with regard to physiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Practitioners of Korean Oriental medicine and Western medicine should, therefore, strive to reconcile the different systems to pursue development in tandem by learning from and benefitting each other.

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sasang constitutional medi cine


Sasang constitutional medicine classifies human constitutions into the four types of taeeum (greater yin), tae-yang (greater yang), soeum (lesser yin), and so-yang (lesser yang). Ones constitution is inborn and fixed for life as it is determined by the size and functional power of ones internal organs. Each of the four constitutions is characterized by a different personality, behavior pattern, appetite, psychology, efficiency, adaptability, and the like. The efficacy of a treatment or drug for a disease can vary depending on the constitution.

Section 2
The number of foreigners visiting Korean Oriental medicine clinics and hospitals has risen 110.8 percent since 2009.

is still very strong today. Korean Oriental medicine was in its prime when Western medicine was wholly introduced in the waning years of the Joseon Dynasty (1885). It immediately began to fade virtually disappearing during the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945). Even in the mist of this decline, however, Lee Je-ma (1838-1900) produced notable research findings and put forward a new theory of sasang constitutional medicine, or medicine on the basis of the four types of constitutions. He defined the four constitutions, or chejil, based on peoples personalities, diseases they are prone to contract, the foods they like, and psychological traits, and he maintained that treatment should take into account the chejil of a patient for maximum benefit. After a near complete hiatus under Japanese colonial rule, Korean Oriental medicine experienced a renaissance following national liberation in 1945. In the 1970s, Korean Oriental medicine began to spread internationally and was even introduced in the US. The first international academic conferences on Korean Oriental medicine were held. Korean oriental Medicine reacHes out Beyond Korea In the US, some celebrities including former First Lady Nancy Reagan became loyal customers of the Uri Korean Oriental Medicine Clinic in New York, leading Korean Oriental medicine to spread quickly throughout American society. In 1997, the National Institute of Health of the US recognized acupuncture as a bona fide medical practice. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has sharply increased its financial
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support for research and development in complementary and alternative therapies. Rising interest in natural therapeutics in Europe has led to increased spending on such non-pharmacological therapies as acupuncture and yoga. In Germany, the government is leading an initiative to collect natural substances in order to develop natural drugs; already over 50,000 medical doctors practice both Western and Oriental medicine; and more notably, acupuncture has become popular and a range of Oriental medicine therapies are being practiced. In britain, the acupuncture association has thousands of members. The rising global interest in Korean Oriental medicine has naturally resulted in increased international exchange and cooperation. Colleges of Korean Oriental medicine in South Korea and foreign colleges are engaged in academic exchange and joint research, and the South Korean government supports Korean Oriental medicine hospitals in their efforts to establish their presence overseas. Some hospitals, in fact, are already cooperating with clinics and hospitals in Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Ostrov Sakhalin in Russia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and other countries, where patients are treated free of charge through medical service tours. As Korean Oriental medicine gains increasing recognition around the world, more and more foreign patients seek services at Korean Oriental medicine clinics and hospitals. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea, the number of foreigners visiting Korean Oriental medicine clinics and hospitals has risen 110.8 percent since 2009. The largest contingents of foreign patients are Russian and Japanese, and there are also considerable numbers of

Americans, Germans, Mongolians, and Chinese. These foreign patients are primarily drawn to Korean Oriental medicine because it does not require surgery: they can instead be healed or cured merely by means of acupuncture, Oriental drugs, and physical therapy. A friend of mine recommended this hospital. Its been two or three days, but the symptom has abated significantly already, says Russian patient George (), adding, If I receive this treatment long enough, I dont think Ill need surgery. He says that the Jaseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine, a Korean Oriental medicine hospital specialized in spinal conditions, was recommended by a friend for effective treatment of his spinal problem without surgery. As more foreigners seek services, more hospitals are opening international offices staffed by doctors, nurses, and interpreters to provide consultations and treatments exclusively for foreigners at any time. At Kyung Hee University Oriental Hospital, which is the oldest and largest Korean Oriental medicine hospital in Korea, doctors of Western and Oriental medicine work together in close cooperation to cure patients, so it is especially trusted by foreigners. Recently, the president and vice president of the Tuva Republic of Russia and the minister of environment of Cambodia visited the hospital for medical checkups. Understanding of and demand for Oriental medicines including Korean Oriental medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are increasing worldwide, and the South Korean government and academia are spurring the development of new drugs, equipment, and theories in Korean Oriental medicine in order to further advance Korean Oriental medicine and promote it worldwide.

Therapies of Korean Oriental Medicine

Western medicine generally deals with the diseased part of the body; Korean Oriental medicine seeks to find the fundamental cause of the disease to cure it. The basic principle of Korean Oriental medicine is to restore the harmony between yin and yang under natural law. Thus, Korean Oriental medicine not only looks at the symptoms but seeks to eliminate the fundamental cause of disease in accordance with the principle of yin and yang. For example, lets say you have a high temperature, feel tight in your chest, and have cold hands and feet. In such a case, Korean Oriental medicine deems that a lack of harmony in heat is the essential cause of those symptoms and chooses treatment accordingly. The therapies of Korean Oriental medicine are extremely varied. They include medicines, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, and chuna. All have been tested and their efficacy and safety proven over thousands of years. Medicines and PrescriPtions In a narrow sense, a prescription is a document specifying the drugs and doses thereof to be administered. From a broader prospective, it refers to all treatments of diseases. In addition to the medicines to be administered, the prescription in Korean Oriental
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the hot smoke from the burning material. The most often used material is dried mugwort. basically, moxibustion raises the body temperature, so it can be used for all diseases with a cold nature. While acupuncture temporarily makes you lose giun (energy), moxibustion raises your giun, making it effective for treatment of enervation due to a lack of jeonggi (vitality) and chronic diseases that consume your energy. There are two types of moxibustion: direct and indirect. In the direct method, dried mugwort is burned directly on the skin and the spot festers, which in turn improves your constitution and immunity. In the indirect method, the skin does not have direct contact with the burning mugwort, but is only exposed to the heat emitted from it. cuPPing Compared with acupuncture, cupping is rather simple. You place a suction cup on a gyeonghyeol (acupuncture point) of the skin with its mouth down and vacuum the cup using heat or a compression pump so that the cup will tightly adhere to the skin. The spot soon becomes congested with blood. This process can be used to change the blood composition or to remove bad blood from circulation. The process also activates gas exchanges in the body, which in turn facilitates metabolism and stimulates the autonomous nervous system. As a result, digestion, defecation, and sleep are improved. Cupping is basically either wet or dry. In wet cupping, the suction cup is larger than the blood-extraction area. Caution should be exercised to not extract more than 10 cc of blood per session. Dry cupping does not involve blood-letting, but only applies suction on the skin. This is used for patients who are feeble or when the purpose of treatment can be achieved by only a change in blood composition. Since it is easier to place a cup over a larger area that contains a gyeonghyeol than to stick a needle into such a point exactly, cupping has long been a common folk therapy. Many families in South Korea practice cupping by themselves even today to treat light pains such as a stiff shoulder. cHuna Manual tHeraPy Chuna is a therapy that prevents and cures disease by tapping or massaging gyeonghyeol and gyeongnak (meridians; pathways of gi) on the surface of the body with the power applied by the fingertips and palms. It helps to strike a balance of gi-hyeol (energy for the organs), facilitate the natural flow of gi through gyeongnak, and improve metabolism and the bodys resistance to germs. Chuna has also in recent years come into wide use to rectify spine and joint problems or to improve blood circulation.
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basically, moxibustion raises the body temperature, so it can be used for all diseases with cold nature.

Jujube, licorice, and ginger are the three most frequently used courier medicinal ingredients.

medicine specifies the therapeutic treatments to be rendered based on the diagnosis of the patients condition. These treatments include acupuncture, cupping, moxibustion, exercise, and dietary therapy as well as the doctors specific directions and advice to the patient based on the characteristics of the patient, including his or her constitution. In acupuncture therapy, the prescription specifies the acupuncture points that correspond to the patients specific ailments or symptoms, or sites to be treated such as legs, fingers, and toes. It is also used in the same manner in moxibustion, exercise therapy, dietary therapy, and other available therapies. According to this narrow definition of the prescription, the diagnosis determines which medicines are to be administered to the patient and how. It entails preparing a remedy by mixing a number of medicinal substances in precise dosages and administering them to the patient. Medicinal therapy generally involves what are called sovereign, minister, assistant, and courier medicinal ingredients. Sovereign ingredients signify the primary medicinal ingredients of the prescription. Minister ingredients refer to medicinal substances and supplements that help the administration of the primary medicinal ingredients, bolstering their effectiveness. Assistant
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ingredients neutralize any possible toxicity of the sovereign medicinal ingredients and relieve their side effects. Courier ingredients help the active ingredients work on the target sites of the body and temper the functions of the ingredient mixture. Jujube, licorice, and ginger are the three most frequently used courier medicinal ingredients. acuPuncture A needle can be used as a medical tool to treat diseases in humans and animals. Acupuncture is the treatment of illness or pain by sticking needles into the body. According to various historical accounts, acupuncture originated in the eastern part of China adjacent to the Korean Peninsula and spread throughout East Asia. It is believed that needles were first used for medical purposes in the Stone Age. The oldest acupuncture tool is a stone needle. It was made by grinding stone or jade into an awl or wedge. Such a stone needle was used to stimulate the skin, to cause bloodletting by shallow pricking, or to squeeze pus out. In primitive societies, people may have suffered from more various kinds of aches, pains, and wounds as they lived in hilly or dark and humid areas. This gives us clues as to how a stone needle must have come into use.

There are nine general types of classical acupuncture needles according to size, shape, and use: the shear needle, round-pointed needle, spoon needle, lance needle, stiletto needle, round-sharp needle, filiform needle, long needle, and big needle. Needles are typically used to prick the skin or muscle, deeply or shallow. Sometimes a knife-like needle is used to cut the skin and squeeze out blood or pus or to draw stagnant water out from a joint. Of these nine classical needles, filiform needles are used most widely in acupuncture. They are 2-17 centimeters long and relatively thin at 0.2-0.4 millimeters in thickness. Once stuck into the skin, they can be left for a while partially embedded in the skin without causing irritation. Acupuncture has been used to treat all kinds of diseases including internal, surgical, gynecologic, pediatric, otorhinolaryngologic, and ophthalmologic diseases by controlling the flow of gi. It has also been used for anesthesia, diagnosis, and the treatment of animals. In addition, acupuncture is used to help people quit smoking and even in plastic surgery. Acupuncture provides quick relief and recovery from sprains, indigestion, childrens convulsions, and acute diseases such as tonsillitis, conjunctivitis, and syncope. For chronic diseases such as neuralgia, and dysphasia, satisfactory results require longterm treatment. MoxiBustion Moxibustion treats diseases by heat stimulation. A drug material is burned on a certain spot of the skin, or such spot is exposed to

Section 3

Korean Oriental Medicine Connecting with the World


a new attraction for Korean tourisM More and more foreign tourists are visiting South Korea every year for the sole purpose of receiving treatments of Korean Oriental medicine. Last year alone, over a 100,000 visitors from Japan, Hong Kong, and Thailand came to South Korea for treatment, and this year, the number is forecast to exceed 150,000. Korean Oriental medicine has gained worldwide recognition and acclamation ever since the television drama Dae Jang Geum ( Jewel in the Palace) aired in 2003 and became a big hit with viewers in over 25 countries. The popular drama is based on the true story of a lady whose name is believed to have been SEO Jang-geum, the first female chief royal physician of the Joseon Dynasty. The drama captivated foreign viewers as the heroine solved medical mysteries and healed patients through the powers of Korean Oriental medicine as well as her wisdom, progressive spirit, and perseverance. Ardent fans soon began coming to South Korea in droves and knocked on the doors of Korean Oriental medicine clinics and hospitals for diagnosis and treatment. The South Korean government is focusing on Korean Oriental medicine as the next tourism theme and seeks to attract 500,000 foreigners a year by 2013. Hospitals are seeing patients from Japan and China and also from Russia and the Middle East. Korean Oriental medicine clinics specializing in dermatology and aesthetics are very popular among female visitors, but clinics and hospitals are searching for new ways to provide more extensive ser vices for long-ter m v isitor s by expa nd i ng treatment for diet, spine, and joint related illnesses.
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intervieW

Korean Oriental medicine, customized and forward-looking

Choi Do-young

(Deputy Director of Kyung Hee University Oriental Hospital)

good deeds froM KoM doctors Overseas volunteer work by Korean Oriental medicine practitioners is led by the Korean Oriental Medicine Service Team Abroad (KOMSTA). KOMSTA was conceived in 1993 when a group of Korean Oriental medicine doctors began to provide medical service in Nepal as volunteers. The group carried out volunteer work every year, and in 1998 KOMSTA was officially founded and registered as a nonprofit organization with the Ministry of Health and Welfare. KOMSTA doctors serve in developing countries all over the world to provide medical services to those who are most in need of medical help. So far, the organization has sent Korean Oriental medicine volunteer groups to 27 countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe, and they have treated over 130,000 patients. At present, eight Korean Oriental medicine doctors are stationed as long-term residents in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Smaller groups are sent abroad five to ten times annually to provide medical services and disease-prevention training. KOMSTA members not only treat patients but a l s o t r a i n loca l doctors so that they can continue to treat their patients once the Korean doctors leave the country. A good example of this effort is the Sri Lanka Acupuncture Medical Service Team (SAMST) organized by Sri Lankan traditional medicine doctors. Dr. Han Gyu-eon, who led the project, paved the way for Sri Lankan doctors to treat their patients with Korean Oriental medicine. Since 2000, KOMSTA has been promoting Korean Oriental medicine by treating over 20,000 locals and providing medical supplies to SAMST doctors.

Deputy Director Choi Do-young emphasizes that Korean Oriental medicine is full of wisdom accumulated over hundreds or even thousands of years. it is not simply alternative medicine, but modern, customized medicine.

rofessor Choi declares that the way gi works in your body is related to your health: you can become healthier, contract a disease, or recover from a disease. He stresses that this concerns not only your body but also your mind, so putting both the body and mind right is very important. Oriental medicine refers primarily to acupuncture and Oriental medicines that originated in China, but it developed differently in Korea, China, and Japan. Koreas Oriental medicine, or Korean Oriental medicine, does not only focus on the disease itself; it deeply considers the constitution of the patient. Unlike traditional Chinese medicine, which emphasizes tradition, Korean Oriental medicine upholds the importance of practicality. Furthermore, the originality of Korean Oriental medicine stands out. Sasang constitutional medicine, Saam acupuncture theory, and other treatment systems suitable for the Koreans have been developed. Traditional Chinese medicine suffered for some time after the founding of the Republic of China in 1912 as the government preferred Western medicine, but since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, traditional Chinese medicine has developed in tandem with Western medicine. In Japan, the government pursued Westernization abolishing traditional Oriental medicine following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, but traditional Japanese medicine is booming again. National health insurance covers 148 prescriptions of Oriental medicine today.

KoM goes gloBal tHrougH international standardization Oriental medicine originated in China, but it is Korea that has systemized it through independent research, says Professor Choi. Korea is playing the leading role in the international efforts to standardize Oriental medicine. He continues, Acupuncture, moxibustion, Oriental remedies, and other treatments of Oriental medicine have long been known to be effective to govern the body, but a lack of scientific substantiation has hindered its globalization. Professor Choi says that South Korea, China, and Japan have been leading the initiative to establish scientific evidence and explanations of Oriental medicine and to systemize it. Population aging has become a serious problem around the world, and despite the stellar development of Western medicine, chronic disease and degenerative disease are still rampant, notes Professor Choi. He adds, In that vein, Korean Oriental medicine is effective and has fewer side effects, and it is the medicine of the future. Medicine that focuses on the human body, not disease, and medicine that considers the constitution of each individualthat is Korean Oriental medicine, and that should be the medicine of and for the world. To this end, the South Korean government and those engaged in Korean Oriental medicine are doing their utmost, says Professor Choi in conclusion.

11

pen & brush

LEE Dongi

a Painter on the Vanguard of Korean art


Painter Lee Dongi pioneered the genre of pop art in Korea with the character Atomaus. Lets explore the truly original works of Lee. by Kim Min-seon / photographs by Lee Min-hee

Atomaus Eating Noodles is one of the most well known images of the Atomaus series.

ainter Lee Dongi created Atomaus by combining two famous characters: Atom, an old Japanese comic character also known as Astro Boy, and Mickey Mouse, Walt Disneys most iconic creation. This new character has the hairstyle of Atom and the face of Mickey Mouse, hence the name Atomaus. Looking chummy and cuddly, Atomaus flies through outer space, eats noodles, and sings in a rock band. However, he occasionally smokes cigars and attempts suicide. Atomaus is the active protagonist in the world of Lees works. The character is Lees alter ego. In fact, they even resemble each other. Atomaus as I conceive it has no fixed identity. Its personality constantly changes. Atomaus is very much like any actor or actress who plays different roles in different works. As a kid, Lee grew up with Japans Atom and Americas Mickey Mouse. Their cartoons had a nearly ubiquitous presence in the boys life. As a college student majoring in painting, Lee persistently tried to introduce cartoonistic images into art, and this endeavor finally bore fruit with the creation of Atomaus in 1993. However, when the new character was unveiled to the public in an exhibition the following year, the response was not exactly fervent. His audience was phlegmatic toward his brainchild. In that day, my work was extremely experimental. It was an unfamiliar, stupendous thing to audiences and critics alike because what I exhibited in an art gallery looked like cartoons, which were back then considered to be products of mass culture and subculture, says this adventurous artist, adding, It was taboo to deal with cartoon images in fine art, but I wanted to smash the taboo and stride into a new genre. Lee Dongi was strongly influenced by American

post-modernism of the 1980s. He was fascinated especially by the works of Cindy Sherman, an American photographer and filmmaker. In the process, he naturally gained a deep understanding of Andy Warhol, a prominent pop artist. Lee wanted to tear down the boundaries between the fine arts and the popular arts as Warhol had done. Cartoons and comics were daubed with images that represent mass culture and subculture, while abstract art had the labels of fine art and high culture, but Lee sought balance between and coexistence of contrasting thingsabstractionism and representationalism, spirit and matter, and mass and high culture. Until the 1980s, Korean contemporar y art was classified as abstract art and what is called minjung art, or the peoples art, which called for democratization and national reunification. Early in the 1990s, new artists who belonged to neither of the two camps began to appear, and Lees pop art made a big splash in the South Korean art world. Creation of atomaus as an alter ego Atomaus Eating Noodles is one of the most well known images of the Atomaus series. Since it made its first appearance in 2002, about 20 pieces have come out. The way Atomaus eats long, curvy noodles looks simple and vigorous. Lee says he wanted to show a glimpse of Oriental culture where chopsticks are used. He finds it intriguing that a mere pair of chopsticks can be used as freely as if they were part of the body. The reddish backgroundnot all backgrounds are red, though strikes a stark contrast with the yellow noodles and evokes an Oriental mood. In Asia, noodles are
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was shared by other boys and girls of his generation. Put differently, the experience may be seen as nonsubjective. Pop art does not interest me today. When I work, I am not conscious of a genre that has already become an entrenched form. I simply do something new that I want to do, says the artist, bluntly adding, So, its meaningless to categorize what I do into a certain genre. In recent years, he has put forth works that combine abstract images with Atomaus. A case in point is Wind Power Generators, unveiled in 2008. The big canvas of this painting is divided in two horizontal sections. In the lower half, Atomaus is
1
1 Bubbles, acrylic on canvas, 2009 2 Like the ever changing Atomaus in his works, Lee Dongi hopes to express himself through all genres of art. 3 Lee Dongis studio in Pyeongchangdong Jongno-gu.

symbolic of longevity, so they are closely associated with the act of making wishes. More works of the Atomaus Eating Noodles series will come out. Lee undertook the current piece in 2008, over three years ago, and is still working on it, which shows how much love and energy he has poured into it. In the Flower Garden series, Atomaus looks out over a landscape bespeckled with flowers. This setting is borrowed from an Oriental painting called Gosa Gwansudo: A Seonbi Overlooking Water by Kang Hui-an, a Korean painter of the 15th century, in which a seonbi (scholar)some say he is a Taoist hermitis lying on his stomach on high rocks overlooking the water below. Likewise, Atomaus also contemplates nature as a Taoist hermit would. The motif of flowers is taken from Andy Warhols Flower series. Though he is recognized as a pop artist, Lee is wary of limiting his endeavors to the realm of pop art. He always transcends barriers among different genres and pursues works that straddle diverse genres. He has never ceased to create works of different styles, both before and after he created the character, Atomaus. He copies a bank check in detail with his own hand (Check 2002) and creates paintings based on photo images, showing tremendous interest in photorealism. He revived, on the canvas, photo images of such celebrities as Jo Yong-pil, one of

South Koreas best pop singers ( Jo Yong-pil 1988). He gave photo images of Franz Kafka, Sigmund Freud, and Madonna new life with the touch of his brush. An examination of his life as an artist reveals that Lee pursues abstractionism and even surrealism and at the same time is eager to show a variety of images that art may express. Regardless of the genre, there is a common thread that runs through all of his works, and that is non-subjectivity. The title of his masters thesis submitted to Hongik University unequivocally communicates his interest in non-subjectivity: Research on Formation and Communication of Non-subjective Paintings. As regarded in contemporary art, the inner and outer worlds of an artist exist separately. Today, when the artist delves deep inside himself or herself, the work becomes extremely subjective, explains Lee, adding, What I seek to do through my works is not locked in my inner world or my subjective perspectives. I seek to communicate with the outer world, so I call what I pursue non-subjectivity as opposed to objectivity. From this viewpoint, the character Atomaus has a tinge of a non-subjective nature. The animated cartoons Lee watched on TV as a kid became the material from which Atomaus came to life. The experience of watching animations featuring Atom and Mickey Mouse was not unique to Lee Dongi; it

flying as if in a cartoon, but in the upper half, thick textures of paint express a fantastic, irregular world of abstractionism. Breaking Barriers without letup One major trend around the world today is collaboration between, e.g., artists and product brands. Lee Dongi also enjoys collaborating with people from other fields. How befitting collaboration must be to an artist who pioneers a new genre and pushes forward and mingles the boundaries of different genres! He was involved in ten collaboration projects in 2011 alone, which means his works are sensuous and appealing to the public. Some view this negatively, criticizing his works as being tainted by commercialism. This assessment may damage his image as an artist, but he does not care.

I am now as intent on breaking boundaries as I was to using cartoon images in my painting when I made my first step as a professional artist, professes the artist. He continues, I hope my boundary breaking will help attract many more people from varied walks of life to art, which is now being enjoyed by too few people. To Lee Dongi, anything he encounters in his life may become the subject of his workphilosophical or social discourse, political or social issues, or whatever it be. He does not draw lines between genres and conceives a range of works in his mind. Among other things, he will continue to give Atomaus new appearances. He plans to develop his Flower Garden series even further. He will come up with an Atomaus that graduated from its cartoonistic image. He hints at his desire to put the clothing of realism on Atomaus, which has given feelings of fantasy. Like Atomaus, which appears differently from one work to another, its creator, Lee Dongi, will also make efforts and attempts in different ways, refusing to remain or to draw lines between different areas. He will have an exhibition at an art fair in Seoul in April.
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PEOPLE

A Maestro in Korean Traditional Music

Hwang Byung-ki

The gayageum is a representative string instrument of Korean traditional music. Hwang Byung-ki has played the gayageum every day for about the last 61 years. This is his story of music and the gayageum, his alter ego. By Lee Jeong-eun / photographs by Lee Min-hee

Gayageum has been with him like a lover for 61 years. There are over 20 gayageums at his practice room, some of them over 100 years old.

ixty-one! That is how many years Hwang Byung-ki, the incomparable maestro of Korean traditional music, has been working together with the gayageum, a traditional Korean string instrument. He has played it every single day for the last 61 years, for no day would be fun and exciting for him without it. He is more than a player; he is a composer. He has been composing music for the gayageum for half a century. He lives in an old, two-story house. When our reporter and her crew went upstairs, the wooden staircases creaked in a way that sounds like the twangs of the gayageum. The house not only sounds like the gayageum, but even has a scent of it. The scent of Paulownia coreana is everywhere. In spirit at the very least, the house itself seems to have become a veritable gayageum after being steeped in Hwangs performances for all those many years. The gayageum, also called the gayatgo, is a representative string instrument in Korean traditional music. As its name suggests, the instrument dates back to the Gaya confederacy on the south of the Korean Peninsula, in the 6th century. Its soundboard is made of Paulownia coreana, and its 12 strings are of twisted silk. The soundboard is perhaps the most critical

part of a gayageum. It must be made of Paulownia coreana from Korea if it is to produce just the right sound. There are similar instruments from china and Japan. The koto of Japan is made of Paulownia tomentosa, while the guzheng of china is of Paulownia wood from china. These woods are all similar, but sound different because of the different soils and conditions they grow in. Sound So Beautiful aS to Be intoxicating I encountered the gayageum in 1951 when I was 15 years old. One year before, the Korean War had broken out and we had fled Seoul. I was studying at a temporary school in tents in Busan, starts the maestro, bringing back memories of old days. Lost in reminiscence, he continues, And one day I met this old man. He was playing the gayageum at a Korean traditional dance institute near the school. I was totally fascinated the moment I heard it and made up my mind to master it, come what may. After a pause, he recalls the first time he heard the instrument, saying, The tone of the gayageum penetrated deeply into my heart, and my mind became delirious with delight. It was as if I had met the love of my life.
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1 Even these days, he plays his gayageum for more than 2 hours every day. 2 He has always shown a strong spirit of experimentation to stage a performance that only he can do and to compose like nobody else in the world. 3 He has produced five albums so far, starting with Chimhyangmoo in 1974. The other four are The Silk Road (1977), The Labyrinth (1979), Spring Snow (1997), and Darha Nopigom (2007). The most popular is Chimhyang-moo.

After the war came to an end with the cease-fire agreement, he returned to Seoul and resumed his learning of the gayageum at the National center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts (todays National Gugak center). He was so devoted to it that even the essential act of having a meal seemed to him to be a waste of valuable time. He soon found himself in the limelight of the world of gugak, or Korean traditional music, when he won the grand prize in a nationwide gugak competition. He was only in his third year of high school at the time. Hwang Byung-ki entered the Department of Law at Seoul National University because there was no department of gugak at that time, and pursuing studies of the gayageum would almost certainly mean a life of grinding penury. He had mastered the gayageum merely because it was a labor of love; the idea of making a profession of it was the farthest thing from his mind. He worked a number of different jobs after graduation to earn a living. Theater manager, filmmaker, publisher, and planning manager of a chemical plant were some of the positions he held, but busy as he was with his jobs, he did not let the gayageum out of his fingers. He wrapped up each and every day by playing the instrument. Plucking the strings, it was his reason for being, like a loved one whom one is anxious to see every day. His passion was noted by the great Korean
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composer Hyeon Je-myeong (1902-1960). Hyeon suggested that Hwang teach the gayageum at the Department of Korean Traditional Music of Seoul National University, which had just been established. This made him feel he had become a professional musician, and at last the gayageum assumed the permanent place of a life-long companion. He taught students at the Department of Korean Traditional Music at Ewha Womans University from 1974 to 2001 as a professor. In 1985 and 1986, he taught as a visiting scholar at Harvard University. Hwang also gave numerous performances at home and abroad. In the National Gugak centers first performance abroad in Japan in 1964, he was a soloist. In 1986, he had a gayageum solo at carnegie Hall. In 1990, he even played the gayageum in Pyeongyang, the capital of North Korea. good MuSic WinS HeartS Hwang Byung-ki had been the art director of the National Orchestra of Korea until the end of last year. He is not a prolific composer; he composes only when he has something truly compelling to express. He may require years of creative pain to write even only one piece of music. He also has no intention of being exoteric or to necessarily produce something popular. It has never for a moment crossed my mind to ever popularize my music, says the old musician, adding, If music is authentic, if its

good, people will like it and listen to it. He cites the music of Beethoven and Bach. Many of their works were not popular when the composers were alive, but resonated deeply with later generations. Maybe thats why Hwangs first album chimhyangmoo (1974) is still counted among the bestsellers in gugak. The album has stood the test of 30 years to become a time-honored classic. In 2009, the 10th anniversary edition of the UK magazine Songlines featured his fifth album, Darha Nopigom, on its list of the Ten Songs that Shook the World. Chimh yang- moo expresses dance of the Silla Kingdom (57 B.c.-935 A.D.), and the name literally means dancing in the scent of a noble and expensive perfume, which during the Silla Kingdom was aloe perfume. Today, gugak is mainly music from the Joseon Kingdom (1392-1910), and Hwang attempted to create a new type of music outside the framework of Joseon-style gugak. In a spiritual sense, he assumed that a client from Silla had requested him to compose a dance piece. Of markedly different character from other gugak music, the work became popular not only at home but also overseas. Hwang does not mimic Western music but pursues pure, authentic Korean music. This does not mean he blindly imitates Korean traditional music. He has always shown a strong spirit of experimentation to stage a performance that only he can do and to compose like nobody else in the world. The world has noted and appreciated this philosophy. good MuSic SuBliMateS tHe Soul There is no doubt that Hwang Byung-ki marked a new era in the history of gugak, but he also played a critical role in making gugak known worldwide.

Andrew Killick, a senior lecturer of ethnomusicology at the Department of Music at the University of Sheffield in the UK, lauded him by saying that if any one individual could represent the music of a nation, it would definitely be HWANG Byung-ki to represent Korea. Hwang is unique as a gugak musician in that he has not only taught his students, but also founded his own ryu (lineage) in music of sanjo (a genre of Korean traditional solo music for the gayageum). Other sanjo players unwaveringly uphold ryu of great musicians of the past. He created a unique style of sanjo called Hwang Byeong-ki-ryu gayageum sanjo and published scores for it. This was truly revolutionary in the Korean music world at the time. Today, the repertoires of all gayageum players include at least one of his compositions. This old musician, whose nickname is Old Man, is now writing his autobiography. A young Belgian composer heard me perform and said that he felt the same sublime artistic texture that he feels when he listens to Bachs partitas for unaccompanied violin. The gayageum and violin have their own unique sounds and are played to different rhythms, but he was moved the same way, says Hwang with a mischievous grin. Does that mean Bach and I are on the same plane, of the same caliber? Then he bursts out laughing. Ha-ha, of course Im joking. Hwang Byung-ki declares that all good music touches the heart, whether it is Western classical music or a gayageum performance. The music of Japan and china is well known to the West whereas Koreas gugak is hardly at all, especially gayageum music. Westerners are, nonetheless, moved by his music, perhaps because he plays the gayageum with both his fingers and his heart. Music as I espouse it is not music sweet to the ear, but music that sublimates the human soul. Music is mentally and spiritually cathartic. It relaxes and soothes our souls. Today, he plays the gayageum in his small room, still considering it to be such a worthwhile and precious thing to do. The delicate, soul-purifying melodies of sorrowful beauty fill the old house. His fingers dance to the music sung by the 60-year love of his life.

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GREAT KOREAN

Nam-juNe PaIK
the Father of Video Art
Nam-june Paik, the pioneer of the novel genre of video art, was an artist who made videos out of all the pictures of the world as well as a prophet who lived ahead of his time. The US magazine TIME dubbed him one of Asias heroes in 2006, the year he passed away.Videos in his works are still on the air around the world.
by Kim Min-seon / photographs provided by Joongang Photo

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1 The More the Better at the National Museum of Contemporary Art is an 18-meter tower of 1003 television sets. 2 Nam-june Paik is happily giving a piano performance at his studio in Manhattan, New York on October 2004.

he More the Betterthis is not a saying, but the title of an artwork that is an 18-meter tower of 1003 television sets (1988, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Korea). Here, the number 1003 represents Koreas national holiday that falls on the third day (03) of the tenth month (10) of the year and thus signifies the day when the heavens opened. This is the literal meaning of the name of the holiday called Gaecheonjeol, when the first kingdom of the Korean nation was founded in 2333 B.C., according to legend. paik was a free spirit with tremendous passion and courage. His spirit of experimentation led him to pioneer a new genre called video art. His audacious action music performances such as Etude for Pianoforte (1960), video art pieces including Magnet TV (1965), such Fluxus pieces as Opera Sextronique (1967), a shamanistic performance in memory of the late Joseph Beuys (1990), and the international satellite installation work Good Morning Mr. Orwell (1984), above any of his other artistic works, clearly point to his voracious urge to create through tireless challenges as an artist in such realms as music, fine arts, and performance art, to name a few. To call him simply the founding father of video art is a woefully inadequate description of paik, and in fact, many more titles tag along with him. He was dubbed one of Asias heroes by the US magazine TIME in 2006. His name also made it onto the list of the 20th centurys 25 most influential artists by the American magazine ARTnews in 1999.

AvAnt-gArde Art thAt BreAthes Life into MAchines Nam-june paik was born in Seoul in 1932, when the Korean peninsula was under Japanese colonial rule. He studied aesthetics and art history at the University of Tokyo. It was in 1956 that he became fully involved in the world of art when he was studying music and art history in Munich, Germany. A f ter meeting John Cage, an avant-garde composer, in 1958, he started pushing forward the horizons of music and religion into the territory of avant-garde art. His performances afterwards threw his audiences into utter shock. paik smashed the piano and scissored off John Cages tie. He expressed resistance and attack against bourgeois culture in his performances, and in the 1960s, he started collaborating with members of Fluxus, an international avant-garde art movement. In 1964, paik crossed the Atlantic and staged performances with cellist Charlotte Moorman in the US. Noting American societys taboo against sex, he performed Opera Sextronique with her. His idea of musical visualization, which amalgamates music,

electronic media, and the human body, gave birth to video art, an exclusively new genre of art. Later, paik pushed the boundaries of video art further by tapping into the structural principles of TV monitors, which had been simple means to assemble sculptures and paintings, with the help of Shuya Abe, a Japanese electrical engineer. He cautioned against TV becoming a public idol and, therefore, a tool to control the public. As the Creator breathed life into the body formed with dirt, paik attempted to imbue life into machines. paik lived all his life like a young man in persistent pursuit of dreams and visions. When he suffered a stroke in 1996, he accepted the condition with complete equanimity. However, his retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum in New York in 2000 became his final exhibition while he was alive. He passed away in Miami in 2006. He stated in an interview held in celebration of his receipt of the prestigious Kyoto prize in 1998 that expression signifies human freedom and that art functions as a safety belt for society as acts of excretion. This remark well speaks for his works and spirit. Nam-june paik was an artist who attempted to breathe life into hard, angular TV sets. He seemed to foretell the rise of todays heartless society. He was also a pioneer who lived ahead of his time, charged up with creativity and a challenging spirit. Isnt it only natural that he is one of the artists Koreans are most proud of?

INfO. ThE NJP ART CENTER


The NJP Art Center opened in October 2008 and has since researched the philosophy and art of Namjune Paik. The center seeks to live up to the artists ideal and be a house where the spirit of Nam-june Paik lives on, the identity of such an institution that he envisioned when he was alive. In the art center, you can enjoy 2,285 pieces of his artwork including such video artworks as TV Garden (1974) and Nixon TV (1965) as well as his drawings and paintings. The center holds a memorial event in January every year as he passed away on January 29 and a summer festival around July 20, his birthday. Address 10 Paiknamjunero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Tel 82-31-201-8500 Official website www. paikstudios.co.kr

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21

SEOUL

GarosuGil
by Chung Da-young / photographs by Kim Jin-hee

A trendsetters promenade
Garosugil, that quaint street in Sinsa-dong, is the place to be and the place to be seen for Seouls trendsetters and fashion gurus. Now, its gaining global recognition as international fashion brands are competing to secure spaces along the trendiest promenade in Seoul.

movement back when the still underdeveloped. Art galleries and antique shops started to open in this quiet neighborhood, giving it an artistic edge. By the late 1990s, many art galleries had moved to the now famous Insadong in Gangbuk, and design agencies and studios came in to take their place. Pretty soon, many young artists opened their own studios, and fashion designers launched their brands. In time, the neighborhood became known as Designers Street. Bohemian Charm These days, Garosugil is home to an array of open cafes, restaurants, bars, and fashion shops blended together to create a chic venue for young people. While other areas in Gangnam are said to be fancy and modern, Garosugil presents a bohemian charm with the alfresco eateries and boutiques. Building exteriors here are unlike those of other shopping districts in Seoul. Many of the closely knit shops have an uncommon architectural flarestylish boutiques with bright red doors and French-style shop windows line the street along with open-air brunch cafes, rendering a feeling of Paris or New Yorks SoHo. Shops purvey clothes and bags that are of the latest trends, and for more fashion savvy shoppers there are designer boutiques that boast a range of one-of-a-kind dresses and shoes that can be custommade. Street vendors set up their tables along the sidewalks to display items of vintage clothes or handmade accessories. Together with shopping, many visitors come to Garosugil for the unique cafs, incomparable any where else in Seoul. Popular desserts in

Garosugil are delicate pastel colored cupcakes, fruity tarts, and a dessert of Korean red beans on ice shavings called patbingsu. The interiors are equally quaint and unique, in keeping with the areas reputation, but customers prefer the small tables on the pavement outside, where they can see and be seen. Even in chilly weather, young men and women sit outdoors with warm blankets amid the gas heaters. antenna Street for GloBal faShion BrandS Garosugil is a relatively young part of Seoul. It has only become popular in recent years among Seouls trendsetters, but it has quickly developed as the trendiest locale in all of Seoul. The fashion industry, both domestic and international, has begun to acknowledge this. For global fashion brands, domestic fashion conglomerates, and cosmetic brands, Garosugil is synonymous with antenna street, a street where consumer trends can be tested. Last December, American fashion and watch brand Fossil opened its first Asian street shop in Garosugil. Korea is popularly promoted as the trend-setting country in Asia, and Garosugil is the place where all fashion-conscious consumers come, says Lee Soyeong, the brand manager of Fossil Korea, hinting, A shop on this street has tremendous symbolic value in the industry. Global brands like Massimo Dutti and Forever21 opened stores on the main street last year, and Zara and Lacoste are getting ready to add Garosugil to their lines of shops.

ust as fashion changes through the years, the most popular and trendiest area in Seoul shifts to different parts of the city. During the 1960s and 1970s, young people flocked to Jongno and Myeongdong in Gangbuk (north of Hangang (Han River)). Those areas were then the center of guitar music, retro fashion, and free literary minds. In the 1990s, Apgujeong in Gangnam (south of Hangang) reigned as the place to be for night life, high-end shopping, and trendy restaurants. But, in todays Seoul, there can be no denying that the location that is in vogue for youth culture is Garosugil in Gangnams Sinsadong neighborhood. Garosugil means tree-lined street and stretches between Sinsa Station and Apgujeong Station. The official street address is Dosan-daero buk 5-gil, but it is more popularly known as Garosugil for the ginkgo trees that neatly adorn the 700-meter street, one of the most salient features of the most fashionable promenade in Seoul. The ginkgo trees were planted in the early 1980s as part of Saemaeul Undong, a redevelopment

ShOpping in garOSUgiL
Katie Stevens from America (left) and Eva Dranias from Greece (right) are students at the Korean Language Institute of Yonsei University. A Korean friend introduced this area as the must go place for shopping. There are so many pretty clothes and shoes that I would like to buy, says Katie.

hOw tO gEt thErE


Subway 800m from Exit 8 of Sinsa Station on Subway Line 3 (15-minute walk) Airport Limousine Bus The bus stop for Airport Limousine Bus No. 6009 is near Exit 6 of Sinsa Station.

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23

Travel

Where the bleak winter recedes, golden clouds of flowers blossom


By the middle of March, the south of the country emerges from the last vestiges of winter, breaking the monotony of weeks and weeks of successive cold snaps and thaws. This month, your traveler visits Gurye, Jeollanam-do, where blossoms of sansuyu, or cornelian cherries, are coming into yellow bloom after a long battle between the seasons. Come and join your traveler in greeting the new spring unfolding with cornelian cherry blossoms. by Lee Jeong-eun / photographs by Moon Duk-gwan

his month your traveler sets foot in Gurye, Jeonnam-do, where yellow cornelian cherry blossoms are proudly showing themselves after weeks of last-ditch winter cold spells and heralding the long-awaited arrival of spring. There are a number of villages in Gurye, including Sangwi Maeul, or Sangwi Village. This is the first destination of your travelers trip to Gur ye. The village commands the most magnificent view of cornelian cherry blossoms in Gurye as it stands at the highest elevation in the entire county. Another attraction of Sangwi Village is a narrow path lined with stone walls called Saranggil, or Path of Love. Here, lovers whisper words of their budding love while walking along this romantic path amid delicate, classical beauty. Sangwi Village is naturally dubbed Sansuyu Maeul, or Village of Cornelian Cherry Blossoms, and hosts a festival of cornelian cherry blossoms every year. Other villages in the country bear the same nickname, including Bonghwa and uiseong in Gyeongsanbuk-do and Icheon in Gyeonggi-do, but none of them matches Sangwi Village. It is not only that Sangwi Village has more cornelian cherries; it is also because Sangwi is the first every year to
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become shrouded under the golden, fresh clouds of cornelian cherry blossoms. Now that you r tr aveler has ta ken i n the breathtaking scenery of golden clouds of blossoms, she demands her due portion of culinary delight. What fare is best in this beautiful mountain village? Sanchae jeongsik, or a full course meal of wild herbs and vegetables with rice and soup, is the obvious choice. There are many restaurants in Gurye that are renowned for this special meal. The restaurant Geuyennal Sanchae Sikdang is especially well recommended. After your traveler sits on the warm floor of one of the rooms, two elderly ladies come in bearing a table full of dishes. The dishes are prepared from a variety of seasonal wild herbs and vegetables. They are picked and dried in a manner that retains their unique tastes and flavors, and then blanched, fried, or grilled. For example, deodeok, a variety of bonnet bellflowers (Codonopsis lanceolata), is grilled, but only slightly to retain a crispy taste. With blanched herbs, grilled deodeok, pickled vegetables, salted fish, and other delicious side dishes, your traveler devoured her entire bowl of rice, leaving not a single grain. Hence,
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rice was being cooked in the kitchen. Your traveler feels humbled at her ancestors heart-warming consideration of their needy neighbors. The Seomjingang (Seomjin RiveR) FlowS wiTh BeauTiFul SToRieS To Tell The final destination of this trip to Gurye is Hwagae Jangteo, or Hwagae Market. This street market crosses the border between Gyeongsangnam-do and Jeollanam-do. It was one of the five largest markets in Korea before the national liberation from Japanese colonial rule, and was always thronged with buyers, sellers, and spectators. Today, the marketplace bears a faade of modernity, but still exudes all of the vitality and human touch of a traditional country market of old with many attractions such as dotori muk (acorn jelly), jaecheop guk (small clam soup), wild edible greens, green tea, traditional inns called jumak, and taffy sellers. You can also see a traditional blacksmith where hoes, sickles, and other implements are still made in the traditional ways. What a sight to enjoy! From Sangwi Village to Hwaeomsa to unjoru Pavilion and finally to Hwagae Market, these fascinating tourist destinations are all along the Seomjingang. The river springs in Jinan, Jeollabukdo and runs more than 200 kilometers before it empties into the sea. It passes through Imsil, Gokseong, Gurye, and Osan; flows between Jirisan (Jiri Mountain) and Baegunsan (Baegun Mountain) and runs through Hadong and Gwangyang. The river must have a great deal of beautiful stories to tell to spring travelers.

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1 Sangwi Village in Gurye has more cornelian cherries than other towns and the flowers are first to bloom every year. 2 Dried cornelian cherry berries. 3 The blacksmith at Hwagae Jangteo. Hoes, sickles, and other implements are still made in the traditional ways. 4 Hwaeomsa is the largest and most majestic in Gurye.

the reason the Koreans call tasty side dishes robbers of your rice. Reaching ouT To ThoSe in need Having eaten delectable food to her hearts content, your traveler made her way up the near mountain to Hwaeomsa (Hwaeom Temple). Gurye is home to a number of Buddhist temples besides Hwaeomsa: Cheoneunsa (Cheoneun Temple), Yeongoksa (Yeongok Temple), and Munsusa (Munsu Temple), to name a few. Hwaeomsa is the largest and most majestic. Here and there on the grounds of Hwaeomsa are important cultural assets including Gakhwangjeon Hall (Koreas largest extant wooden structure), a stone lantern in front of Gakhwangjeon

Hall, and Sa Saja Samcheung Seoktap (a three-story stone pagoda with four pillars in the shape of lions). Perhaps, the best time of year to visit the temple is spring, when the apricot blossoms are out. They are a strong red with a hint of black and are so sensually fragrant that they are emotionally moving even to the ascetic monks. These bewitching darkreddish blossoms called heungmae come into bloom only after the bright yellow blossoms of cornelian cherries wither and fall down to the ground, so your traveler was not able to experience them on this trip. She now turns toward unjoru Pavilion. unjoru Pavilion is a traditional Korean house built in 1776 by Ryu I-ju, a local official during the reign of King Yeongjo (1724~1776) of the Joseon Dynasty. It was originally 99 kan (approximately 327m2), but just about one-third remains. Back then, only royal palaces could be as big as 100 kan. The name of the house, unjoru Pavilion, literally means house of clouds and birds. It may be interpreted either as a secluded house like a bird in the clouds or as an outstanding house where birds that fly over the clouds dwell. Noteworthy at unjoru Pavilion is a wooden rice chest placed in front of the storeroom. The stopper of the rice chest bears four Chinese characters pronounced as tain neunghae ( ), which means Other people can open the chest. Anyone in need of food could come, pull out the rectangular stopper, and get some rice from the wooden chest. The house is also notable for its short chimney. It was built not even one meter high in order to not show the smoke to hungry neighbors when

Travel DaTalogue How To geT THere 4 Car Take Honam Expressway. Get off at the Jeonju

Interchange and take Route No. 17, which leads to Namwon. After passing through Chunhyang Tunnel, take Route No. 19 to Gurye, and then drive through Bamjae Tunnel. When you see a road sign for Jirisan Spa Land, take a left turn. Sangwi Village is two kilometers straight ahead.

Seoul

Train and Bus A non-stop bus runs from Seoul Nambu Bus Terminal six times a day. It takes four hours from Seoul to Gurye. Trains run 14 times a day from Seoul Station to Gurye Station. A bus runs once an hour from Gurye Bus Terminal to Sangwi Village.

Gurye

wHaT To eaT
Geuyennal Sanchae Sikdang The dishes are prepared from a variety of seasonal wild herbs and vegetables. They are picked and dried in a manner that retains their unique tastes and flavors, and then blanched, fried, or grilled. A tableful of slightly grilled deodeok (a variety of bonnet bellflowers), salty pickled vegetables seasoned with sesame oil shortly before being served, salted fish, and other side dishes are served. The owner of the restaurant is an elderly lady, and she has prepared all the food for over 20 years without using any artificial seasoning; only traditional spices and wild herbs and vegetables. Other mouthwatering menu items are godeulppaegi kimchi (a kind of lettuce kimchi), gim bugak (a kind of seaweed covered with glutinous rice paste and then fried), and bamboo shoots. (Tel. +82-61-782-4439)

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festival

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1 Various events are held at the Yeongdeok Snow Crab Festival. 2 Many foreigners come to enjoy the festival. 3 A giant snow crab sculpture on top of the Ganggu Bridge.

G
Yeongdeok Snow Crab Festival
The 15th Yeongdeok Daege Chukje, or Yeongdeok Snow Crab Festival, is slated for this month. On March 8-12, the seashore of Yeongdeok, Gyeongsanbuk-do will attract throngs of crowds with swarms of crabs. Come and enjoy exciting activities including catching snow crabs that wear gold rings and snow crab auctions.
by Lee Jeong-eun / photographs by Moon Duk-gwan, Yeongdeok County Office

anggu is where the most Yeongdeok snow crabs are bought and sold. This is readily apparent when one visits the port. A gigantic model of a reddish crab greets you like a billboard from high above Ganggu Bridge, and the main road of the seaport is lined with hundreds of snow crab restaurants for about three kilometers. The iron pots standing before the restaurants emit muggy steam from snow crabs being cooked, along with their palatable scent that mingles with the salty sea winds to stimulate your olfactory sense. A snow crab is called daege in Korean, and its Korean name frequently misleads people into believing that the crabs are very large since dae usually means big. Here, dae signifies daenamu, which is bamboo, and indicates that the legs of

daege are as long and straight as bamboo. One cannot simply say that the larger a snow crab the better. All else being equal, the heavier the better. Experts add that the best crabs are the ones that are alive with all their legs still attached intact. The crabbers of Yeongdeok start catching snow crabs in December, one month later than in other areas, in order to protect marine resources. Around 8:30 in the morning, when the sun shines bright red over the seaport, the crabbing boats come in with seagulls eagerly in hot pursuit. A tiny band is put around one of the legs of every quality snow crab when crabs are unloaded from the decks to label it as a Yeongdeok snow crab of high quality, and the crab auction space is covered with countless snow crabs. The Yeongdeok snow crab season runs from December to April. Snow crabs caught during this time are completely packed with sweet flesh. The best variety of snow crabs in Korea is bakdal daege. This name requires some more explanation. Bakdal is a kind of birch. In other words, bakdal daege has dense flesh like bakdal trees and the most delectable fragrance and taste. So precious are they that one single bakdal daege weighing two kilograms usually sells at auction for over KRW 100,000, or approximately USD 91. A festivAl for everyone Yeongdeok holds the Yeongdeok Snow Crab Festival every March in order to give as many people as

possible the opportunity of enjoying and tasting Yeongdeok snow crabs. This year, the festival will take place in and around Samsa Marine Park, Ganggu, and a village dubbed Daege Wonjo Maeul, or Origin Village of Snow Crabs. This is the 15th festival to be held, and it will run from March 8 to 12. The theme this year is Stories of Yeongdeok Snow Crabs. A play will be staged on this theme to show the life and history of Yeongdeok snow crabs as well as the lives and the joys and sorrows of crabbers of the east coast of Korea. There will be hands-on activities, too, for everyone to enjoy. The most representative of them is the Golden Yeongdeok Snow Crab Catching Game. Visitors can try their hands at catching Yeongdeok snow crabs from a large water tank. One person may catch two to five crabs, and if you are lucky, you will catch a snow crab wearing a gold ring. This catching game is for everyoneyoung or old, male or female, Korean or foreignand your five senses will all be stimulated with fun and good taste. The surprise auction of bakdal daege is another event you should not miss. Lets not forget that a good bakdal daege goes for over KRW 100,000 at a standard auction, but this auction is your chance to get such a crab at a deep discount. It will be a steal! The Ganggu marina allows you to ride water cycles and catch Yeongdeok snow crabs, while looking out over the beautiful East Sea. Besides water cycling, visitors are also invited to try other water sports and leisure equipment.

How to get tHere


Car If you depart from Seoul or Busan by the Gyeongbu Expressway, take Route No. 7 after passing the Gyeongju Tollgate and drive northward through Pohang. If you come from Jeonnamdo or Jeonbuk-do, take the 88 Olympic Expressway, drive through Daegu, and get on the Gyeongbu Expressway. On the way, you will pass Gyeongju and Pohang. Those coming from Gangwon Province may use Route No. 7. It runs through Donghae and Samcheok (Gangwon-do) and Uljin (Gyeongbuk-do) and ends in Yeongdeok. Bus A bus runs between the East Seoul Intercity Bus Terminal and the Yeongdeok Intercity Bus Terminal eight times a day. A one-way trip takes four and a half hours. Activity Prices Catching Game: KRW 15,000 (app. USD 14) Sea Catching Competition: KRW 30,000 (app. USD 28)

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29

NOW IN KOREA

Come and Stay in Hanok?


A traditional alternative to typical accommodations
Last year alone nearly ten million tourists came to South Korea. This months NOW IN KOREA surveys special accommodations that give visitors opportunities to better experience Korean culture, including homestay Hanok, as well as general accommodations for comfortable and meaningful stays. by Kim Min-seon / photographs by Lee Jae-hee

ow, its beautiful! exclaims Ms. ShiauPei after putting on a Hanbok (Joseon Dynasty-style Korean costume), marveling at the delicate, mysterious colors. She assays the challenge of tying the goreum (ornamental strings of the upper garment) and starts pacing to and fro with an air of a top model on an imaginary runway straddling the daecheong maru (wooden floored hall) and the anbang (main room for the host). She does not forget to pose for the camera to keep herself in this traditional costume of elegant textures and lines. Hanbok and Dado is a popular program for foreign travelers staying at Hanok in which foreigners try Hanbok and the Korean traditional way of drinking tea. Ms. Shiau-Pei and her group of friends and family came from Malaysia on vacation. This being their first visit to Korea, they had thoroughly planned their trip and especially considered where to stay. The website of the Korea Tourism Organization said we could stay at a Hanok, and after discussion, we decided to stay at a Hanok to exper-ience Korean culture more intimately, explains Ms. Shiau-Pei, adding, But it wasnt easy to get enough information on Hanok, so I exchanged more than 30 emails with an owner of Hanok. How does she rate her two-day stay at a Hanok? She appreciates that she was able to have a deeper

experience with Korean culture than she would have if she had stayed at a hotel. In particular, sleeping on the ondol (the floor of a room heated from below) rather than in a bed was totally novel. She also appreciates the layout of the Hanok as the rooms were connected to the daecheong maru (wooden floored hall and front porch), which allows for closure of small spaces for privacy or their opening into a single big shared space. Stay at Hanok, Sleep on ondol, and Savor HanSik Seoul is an international tourist city that welcomes millions of foreigners every year. Some 9.8 million tourists visited South Korea in 2011 alone. More different types of accommodations are offered every year as tourism thrives. Some of them provide experiences that are very unique to Korea. For example, you can stay at a traditional Buddhist temple (temple stay) or at a Hanok (Hanok stay). Both are strongly preferred options by those foreigners who want a more unique and deeper experience of Korean culture. Most homestay Hanok in Seoul are downtown in Bukchon. This area is called Bukchon Hanok Village and is one of the hottest destinations for foreigners visiting Seoul, but few foreigners know that they can stay at one of the quaint Hanok there. A Hanok
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jeong, then Hanok stay is the best option for you. Each Hanok stay host has their own activities. Some play traditional games like yut; some teach their guests how to write Korean in Hangeul, the Korean alphabet; and others make such Korean foods as Kimchi and tteokbokki together with their guests. Your host may also want to drink makgeolli (Korean-style rice wine) with you. Not only is staying at a Hanok fun, but it is cheaper than a hotel. The charge per day ranges from KRW 30,000 to KRW 70,000 per person (app. USD 27-64 per person). For more details, please visit the website of the Hanok Homestay program at homestay.jongno.go.kr. korea Stay iS HomeStay to Feel Jeong and Family Culture Ms. Itoki, a Japanese lady, stayed in the house of Ms. Lee Sun-yeong with her family during the lunar New Year holiday. Knowing that Ms. Lees family was going to administer the traditional ritual called charye on Lunar New Years Day, Ms. Itoki requested to stay at her home specifically to see the ritual. She left a comment about her homestay with Ms. Lees family on the website of the Korea Tourism Organization. The traditional ritual was impressive. In particular, the way they cherish and respect their ancestors was amazing. I hope this beautiful tradition will remain for a long time. Thank you for the kindness you showed me when I was there. The Korea Stay program of the Korea Tourism Organization is intended to plant a positive image of Korea in the minds of foreign tourists by arranging for them homestays marked with kindness and comfort and thereby helping them feel at home in this foreign land. The program certifies qualified homestay providers and lets them use Korea Stay as a brand. It is a sort of Korean version of the Western bed and breakfast. Korea Stay-certified households are quite evenly distributed throughout the country. The host families can speak foreign languages and, therefore, tell you about Korea and guide you to tourism destinations. They all passed tough

screening by the Korea Tourism Organization, so you can be assured of a quality experience. Through the amendment to the Enforcement Decree of the Tourism Promotion Act on December 30, 2011, households that provide homestay services became eligible for government support. This change is expected to raise the quality of homestays in South Korea even further. For more information on homestay, please visit the website of the Korea Tourism Organization at www.visitkorea. or.kr. apartmentS, HoStelS, and otHer typeS oF aCCommodationS If you prefer to exchange information with other travelers in a natural setting and save money, hostels and guest houses may be the answer. The options for accommodations used to be relatively limited in South Korea: besides hotels and motels, other options were far and few between. Today, the situation is rather different. More and more hostels and guest houses are opening. Cheap, clean, and cozy with services offered with the greatest kindness, guest houses are popular among young travelers. In Seoul, two areas in particular are home

to many guest houses and other places to go and enjoy: Garosugil in Sinsa-dong, Gangnam and the Hongdae area in Gangbuk. Wimdu Korea (www.wimdu.co.kr) provides information on individuals who operate detached houses and apartments as guest houses and other small accommodation operators and receives reservations on their behalf. We recommend that you click on the link above if you are planning to visit South Korea, as there are over 100 members.

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1 Ondol keeps Hanok warm, and the rooms are separated by daecheong maru. 2 Apart from Hanok, there are various types of accomodation such as a guesthouse for women.

is beautiful to see, but you need to stay at one in order to realize its true value. The Jongno-gu Office of Seoul devised the Hanok homestay program called Hanok Homestay in 2010 in order to centralize and rationalize the management of Hanok stays. A total of 48 Hanok households including those in Bukchon Hanok Village are members of this program. They are not professional accommodation facilities, but a type of homestay, as the name suggests. During a Hanok stay, you can enjoy what a traditional Hanok looks like and live with a real Korean family. Then, you will hear, feel, and understand the concept of jeong, which is the way the Koreans feel and express their warm and generous affection toward others. So, if you would like to know how Koreans live at home, closely experience their lifestyle and culture, and feel their

popular recoMMeNdaTioNs
a member of the hanok Stay Program Moon Guesthouse
The Hanok comprises the main building called Unhyeon Dang and an outbuilding called Unhyeon Dang Byeolchae. Such palaces as Gyeongbokgung and Changgyeongung and Jongmyo Shrine are nearby, and Insadong and Bukchon Hanok Village are only five minutes away by foot. If you book in advance, you may participate in the Korean culture activities, which include wearing Hanbok, learning the traditional Korean manner of drinking tea, making Kimchi, and learning to play traditional instruments. Tel 82-2-745-8008 Website www.moonguesthouse.com

an inexpensive choice Hostel Korea


At a hostel, you can easily exchange information with other travelers and save money, too. Hostel Korea is close to Dongdaemun Market, Cheonggyecheon, and Daehangno. If you stay at least two weeks, you will get a ten-percent discount, so Hostel Korea is recommended for those who plan to stay for a long time in South Korea. Internet access and international calling are offered free of charge. A simple breakfast is provided, and you can even cook in the kitchen if you want. Tel 82-2-762-7406 Website www.hostelkorea.com

a guesthouse for women The-Zip


The-Zip is a boutique-style guesthouse for women that opened in November last year. One of its merits is that it is located on Garosugil, Sinsa-dong, one of the hottest areas in Seoul. Guests especially appreciate the modern, neat interior. The languages used are Korean, Japanese, and Chinese, and there is laundry service and mobile phone leasing service. Its website provides information on excellent restaurants, clothing shops, and other shops in Garosugil. Tel 82-2-545-3352 Website www.the-zip.co.kr

a guesthouse near hongdae Namu Guesthouse


Namu Guesthouse is located near Hongdae, a center of youth clustered with art galleries and clubs. Those on staff at the guesthouse who have traveled throughout the country and the world can give you information on every corner not only of Seoul but of South Korea. It has a mini library with books from around the globe and a lounge where you can listen to CDs and LPs. It exhibits paintings and photos of new artists every month, so you can enjoy the vibrant, novel youth culture there. Tel 070-8291-4878 Website www.namugh.co.kr

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ENTERTAINMENT

Koreas Fusion sageuK

South Korean historical dramas with a modern twist


South Korean fusion sageuk, or period dramas with a modern touch, have all the elements needed to attract national and international viewers alikecaptivating plots, mesmerizing characters, fascinating costumes, and sweet romance. by Chung Da-young

he MBC drama The Sun and the Moon is now all the rage throughout the country. The drama is based on the best-selling novel of the same title. It tells a love story set during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) of a fictional king, played by Kim Suhyeon, and the heroine, played by Han Ga-in. The drama immediately won over viewers and critics with its first airing in January for its tantalizing plot, lively characters, and well structured story. The last viewing ratings by AGB Nielson and TNMS, two major audience measurement firms, reached 40 percent and are still rising, and The Sun and the Moon is on its way to becoming one of the most popular fusion sageuk dramas in Korean television. Sageuk vS. FuSion Sageuk So, what is sageuk, and what is fusion sageuk? Sageuk dramas are period dramas with historical background. The settings are usually elaborate, and the characters use language that is stylized and laced with archaic vocabulary and expressions. Most stories depict actual historical events or the lives of great men in history such as kings or generals. The Koreans have always been ardent fans of sageuk dramas ever since they first appeared on black and white television decades ago. Many sageuk stories were about political conflict and intrigue within the royal court or during war. This naturally made the dramas very masculine and rough, and they were especially interesting to the older generations for that reason. Sageuk dramas werent particularly popular among young television viewers until a sageuk called Damo aired in the summer of 2003, marking the advent of fusion sageuk.

Damo is a fictional drama about the tragic love and actions of a police woman. Set in the Joseon period, it is a mixture of creative imagination, elaborate settings, and real martial stunt action. This new genre of sageuk, which was soon to be called fusion sageuk as it was sageuk infused with a modern touch, was very different from the previous sageuk dramas, which very much had the character of history text-books. Damo sparked a sensation among Korean viewers and was especially a big hit among the younger generation. After the airing of Damo, more fusion sageuk were produced with wider themes with touches of romance, action, fantasy, and the like. Why is fusion sageuk so popular? We can find several major reasons. Young viewers can easily relate to the contemporary story line that is melted into the colorful historical backd rop, creati ng a u n ique blend of old and new. The main characters are young, good looking pin-up actors who are celebrated stars in the entertainment industry. Actors who performed in modern dramas and movies are featured to bring freshness to fusion sageuk. And the melodramatic storylines of love, friendship, and sweet romance brings new charm to the settings. international Fame As fusion sageuk has gained nationwide popularity in recent years, they are being licensed to foreign broadcasters and have attracted a large foreign following. The first fusion sageuk that became popular in Asia was Dae Jang Geum, or Jewel in the Palace, featuring the actress Lee Young-ae as a talented palace chef who later became the firstever female chief physician to the king. The drama first aired in Southeast Asian countries and spread across the world to Europe, the Americas, and even to the Middle East, where Korean culture was not yet well known, to become a big part of Hallyu, or

the so-called Korean wave. Countless foreign fans of Dae Jang Geum have travelled to South Korea to experience Korean cuisine and palace culture. In effect, the drama established a new line of cultural tourism themed on traditional royal cuisine and culture. Soon afterwards, major broadcasting stations began investing much more in the creation of fusion sageuk. They were given incredible casting, scenes of cinematic proportions, lush costumes, and amazing soundtracks. Due to the international popularity of fusion sageuk, the main actors and actresses have become a new generation of Hallyu stars in countries where they have been seen. The

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1 Han Ga-in and Kim Su-hyeon at the production announcement ceremony of The Sun and the Moon. 2 Lee Young-ae of Dae Jang Geum. 3 Poster image for KBS drama Hwang Jin Yi. 4 Jang Hyuk of the 2011 drama Chuno.

actress Han Hyo-ju, the leading lady in Dong Yi, another fusion sageuk of MBC, was hailed as the next Lee Young-ae in China, and the actor Kang Jihwan joined the line of beloved Hallyu stars in Japan after the success of the KBS fusion sageuk Hong Gil Dong in 2008. Well made fusion sageuk dramas have received overseas recognition and favorable reviews. The KBS miniseries Hwang Jin Yi starring the actress Ha Ji-won advanced to the main competition of the 2007 Monte Carlo TV Festival. Last year, the actor Jang Hyuk was nominated for the 2011 International Emmy Award for his performance in Chuno. The drama also won the Best Drama Series award in the 2010 Asian TV Awards and was nominated for the 2011 Monte Carlo TV Festival.

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SPORTS

Badminton
by Chung Da-young / photographs by Kim Jin-hee

Shuttlecocks Flying High for Gold


The Olympic training for the South Korean national badminton team is in full swing.

1 LEE Yong-dae trains to compete in the mens doubles division. 2 The South Korean national team is ready to compete in international matches. 3 Olympic training at the Taeneung Training Center is in full swing.

he badminton training court at the Taeneung Training Center in February was filled with the sounds of shuttlecocks swishing back and forth over the nets. The South Korean national badminton team of 25 men and 23 women paired off and practiced powerful rallies along about a dozen nets on the court. The team began its official Olympics training in January, with the goal of winning a third consecutive Olympic gold medal this summer in London.

BAdminton gold The Korean mens doubles team of Lee Yong-dae and Jung Jae-sung currently ranks number two in the world. The South Korean national team has players in the mens singles, womens doubles, and mixed doubles all ranking in the worlds top ten. The national team has also marked records in past Olympic Games. With the exception of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, the Korean badminton team has won a gold medal in every Olympics since the sport became an official medal event at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. The team boasts a proud record of six gold, seven silver, and four bronze medals from five Olympics. The world of badminton is dominated by China, Southeast Asia, and Europe. Each region has its strong points for winning matches inside the court. It is well known that China has the largest pool of highlyskilled athletes; players from Southeast Asia are very flexible and have high reflexes; and European athletes have the physical advantages of strength and height. How does the Korean national team rank among the worlds top players? Coach Sung Han-kuk says, To tell you the truth, the Korean players have average physical strength compared to foreign players, but we have the skill, tactics, and perseverance to be top players. As well as tough physical training, we focus on speed, predictive thinking, and reflex. I train my team to read the game before it even happens. Badminton is a sport that requires synchronized eye, foot, and wrist coordination. A keen eye can see the blind spots of the opponent; smart thinking can predict the next move; quick feet can catch the bullet-fast shuttlecocks; and a strong and flexible wrist can send the shuttlecock back across the net only inches before it hits the ground. Speed, agility, power, and endurance are also

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key ingredients, but the ability to anticipate the opponents next move and get ahead of the shuttlecock is the essence of being the numberone player. You are already too late if you follow the opponents shuttlecock with your eyes first and move your feet second. Only a great player can predict the trajectory of the shuttlecock after endless image training and analysis. A Rising stAR Lee Yong-dae of the South Korean national team is considered one player who has this ability. As a 2008 Beijing Olympics gold medalist in mixed doubles with Lee Hyo-jeong, Lee Yong-dae is a rising star in Korean badminton. Only 20 years old, he is the badminton genius that the country has been looking for since South Koreas golden days of the 1990s when Park Joo-bong, dubbed the Emperor of Shuttlecock, ruled the international arena. Lees quick thinking enables him to change his tactics as needed. All of his lightning fast smashes, soft drop shots, and changes in direction come when his opponent least expects them. Lee became famous when he won gold at the Beijing Olympics, the youngest-ever gold medalist in Olympic badminton. He will be fighting for his second Olympic gold medal this year with his partner Jung Jae-sung in the mens doubles.

TRaining fOR gOld


Coach Sung Han-kuk of the South Korean national badminton team
The team is scheduled to compete in numerous international competitions right before the London Olympics. The competitions will be a great way for the players to keep in shape and get used to international matches.

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Special iSSue

Seoul Hosts the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit


On March 26 and 27, 2012, Seoul is going to host the second Nuclear Security Summit where the top leaders of major countries around the world will gather together to discuss specific measures to prevent nuclear terror attacks based on their shared understanding on the utmost significance of nuclear security. by Lee Sun-min

he 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, or the 2012 Seoul NSS, to discuss ways to better cooperate in international security is only a month away. The summit will primarily address nuclear security and nuclear safety on March 26 and 27. The summit will be the largest foreign affairs event ever hosted in South Korea. More than 10,000 representatives from some 50 countries are expected to participate. The first Nuclear Security Summit, which had been proposed by US President Barak Obama and took place in Washington DC, on April 12, 2010, was attended by the top leaders of 47 countries. To ensure the success of the Seoul summit, the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit Preparatory

Secretariat, which is led by South Korean Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister Kim Sung-hwan, closely consulted with the governments of the roughly 50 countries and four international organizations including the United Nations that are going to attend the summit. The secretariat also focuses on publicity and public diplomacy as the chair country of the summit in order to help raise awareness of the importance of nuclear security and publicize the expected outcome of the summit at home and abroad. The Seoul Communiqu, which is to be adopted as an outcome of the summit, has been almost completely hammered out through consultation. At the third Sherpa meeting, a preparatory meeting

held in New Delhi, India on January 16 and 17 this year, the Sherpas reached agreement on almost all thorny issues of the text of the communiqu with a view to finalizing the text before the Seoul summit. The final Sherpa meeting is slated to take place in Seoul on Friday March 23. The Seoul Communiqu will include specific actions to prevent nuclear terror attacks, including efforts to minimize the holding and use of such dangerous nuclear substances as highly enriched uranium and plutonium, to better protect nuclear facilities, and to forestall illegal trafficking of nuclear materials. The communiqu will also address such emerging issues as the interrelation between nuclear security and nuclear safety as well as management of radioactive materials, which have become of increasing interest since the first Nuclear Security Summit in Washington DC, in 2010. The preparatory secretariat has proceeded with a range of publicity activities to forge a consensus on the summit and the issues and to elicit wider response and cooperation from the public. Among these, it held special events at Seoul Station and the Seoul Express Bus Terminal on January 20 and 21 for those who left Seoul for their hometowns on the occasion of Seollal, or the lunar New Years holiday. It will continue with these efforts to make the summit a summit with the public. A Stepping-Stone from DeclArAtionS to Action The 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit is seen as a stepping-stone through which the international community will proceed from declarations to

action. The summit also aims to present a future direction in which future gatherings of the Nuclear Security Summit will move on. The first Nuclear Security Summit in Washington declared an initial political vision on nuclear security by the heads of more than 50 countries and the representatives of the UN, IAEA, and EU, and the second Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul will offer action-oriented visions and specific measures to take on nuclear security in order to set the world free from the risk of nuclear and radioactive terror attacks. To this end, the upcoming summit aims to make progress on agreements reached at the first Nuclear Security Summit, to identify new agenda items of significance, and to further clarify the key objectives of nuclear security and provide specific actions to take for their achievement. Seouls hosting of the second Nuclear Security Summit is meaningful as it indicates that South Korea is now actively participating in major discussions on international security in the postCold War era, which set into another phase in the wake of the 9/11 terror attack. Nuclear security is emerging as one of the most critical international security issues in this post-Cold War era, an essential prerequisite for nuclear arms reduction, nuclear non-proliferation, peaceful use of nuclear power, and ultimately a world without nuclear arms. South Korea is ready to play a crucial role in shaping the new international security order as the chair country of the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit.

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Global Korea

PARK NugA

A Medical Doctor Caring for Filipinos


Dr. Park Nuga has treaded the backwoods and shantytowns of the Philippines for about 25 years to provide free medical service. Having himself been terminally ill with cancer, his true colors shine through his good deeds even more. today he again sets out toward a remote village with his stethoscope around his neck. by Kim Min-seon
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ome call him the Pestalozzi of the Philippines. Park Nuga, a South Korean surgeon, has provided free medical service in the Philippines for nearly a quarter century. He has visited more than 50 remote villages and slums as a volunteer medical doctor. Some of the villages require over a nine-hour drive, and some are inaccessible by car, requiring him to walk the rest of the way. Some are separated by cliffs and connected by only the most rudimentary rope foot bridge. Some even require him to climb a mountain barefoot with a backpack full of medicine. A long cue of villagers forms upon his arrival villagers waiting to see him for their illnesses, light as a simple cold or serious enough to require

emergency care. A temporary operating room may be set up for an emergency patient, or the patient is immediately sent to a hospital in Manila, the nations capital. A lack of proper medical equipment and an absence of nurses make his job even more challenging. When hes lucky enough to afford the help of South Korean students studying in the Philippines or other volunteers, he can usually see all those waiting in the long cue, and the day ends on a blissful note. Sometimes, Dr. Park receives very bad news. A few months ago, he received heart-breaking news on a medical trip to a shantytown named Tondo, Manilas garbage dump. He had been there before and treated a seriously malnourished baby boy. He visited the village again sometime later with electrolyte and nutritional supplements to give him only to hear he had passed away about a month earlier. Most of the people here have never been to a clinic or hospital in their entire lives. A minor disease that could easily be cured in South Korea becomes serious here without timely treatment. That breaks my heart, deplores Dr. Park, adding, I cant help but blame myself that I should have come earlier to take care of them. Close to the Pains and agonies of the siCk It wasnt his dream to volunteer for medical services when he entered medical college. It was simply by chance that he went to the Philippines on a medical volunteer trip during a vacation. It was a

life-changing experience during which he applied his skills and gave his time to save precious lives. He decided to forego his dream of becoming a surgeon and leading a comfortable life and instead made up his mind to devote his life to the mission of providing medical services in remote areas. He even risked his life to serve in a region under the control of Muslim rebels on the island of Mindanao. After graduating from medical school, he studied theology to become a missionary-medical doctor. In fact, his Korean name, Nuga, is a transliteration of the name of the Apostle Luke, who himself was a missionarymedical doctor about 2,000 years ago. After graduation and marriage, he returned to the Philippines, now with a wife and a one-year-old son. After years of living in the Southeast Asian country, his wife suggested that they go back to Korea for such reasons as their childrens education, but he remained as determined as ever to stay. He could not leave the sick people who might need him, and so it came to be that he decided to remain in the Philippines alone. Yes, he is lonesome, living separately from his family in a foreign country, but the greater challenge he faces is his own failing health. In 1992, he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in the early stages and underwent surgery, but in 2004, he had to go through two more surgeries to treat stomach cancer. To make matters worse, he was consequently diagnosed in 2009 with liver cirrhosis and diabetes. The doctors did not think he had more than two months to live. At that time, I prayed to God and experienced Him personally. With a servants heart, I begged

Him to give me just three more months to live and treat the sick, and that new life of three months has lasted this long, confesses Dr. Park. Because I know the pain of being sick, I understand the pains of the sick better and care about them even more. His illness brought him nearer to the pains and agonies of his patients. Standing on the verge of death several times, he decided to walk his life path as a missionary-medical doctor more faithfully. He himself grew up as a poor boy in a rural area and suffered from disease. That is why he thinks he has been molded and shaped for this mission better than anybody else. Some seven years have passed since he was diagnosed with multiple conditions, but he still reaches out to those in remote areas. He finds himself healthier and more energetic treating villagers of poor areas. In 2004, he renovated a bus as a medical service vehicle. It is very old, so he frequently has breakdowns and has to stop on the road to make repairs, but that does not stop him from reaching out. Two years ago, he opened a small clinic on the outskirts of Manila. He named the clinic Nuga Mission Medical Center, and sick people who cannot afford paid medical care come to the clinic to see him. Patients he meets on medical trips are hospitalized and receive operations here, too. Both his treatment and medicines are free of charge. His clinic and his volunteer activities are mostly funded by donations from churches and his acquaintances in South Korea. Dr. Park Nuga believes that he needs to be wherever the patients need him. That is why he is in the Philippines.

1 In early February of 2012, KBS filmed a documentary series about the story of Dr. Park Nuga titled Love as much as it hurts. 2 Dr. Park transformed a bus into a medical vehicle to drive to remote villages. But there are more places that are inaccessible by bus.

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Summit Diplomacy

he international oil markets have been rocked by expectations that Western countries will impose sanctions on Iranian oil exports at any time. In response, countries around the world have moved quickly to secure reliable alternative sources of crude oil. For instance, Chinese Premier WEN Jiabao visited Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Qatar earlier this year. Japan has been acting likewise in a bid to gain access to additional supplies of crude oil, if needed. South Korea is no exception. The country is the tenth largest energy consumer in the world, but its energy industry is not very competitive. It also lacks an adequate pool of professional human resources. Clearly, South Korea is in a very precarious state and must secure stable supplies in order to effectively compete in the global arena. This is why there were such high expectations of President Lees visit to the Middle East that it would enable reliable supplies of additional crude oil in the international oil markets. Was the bid successful? Yes. The Big Three Pledge SuBSTanTial CooPeraTion The three Gulf countries of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the UAE, which President Lee recently visited, account for about half of South Koreas total crude imports, with shares of 31.4 percent, 10.0 percent, and 9.4 percent respectively. Iran accounts for another 9.7 percent, but likely faces sanctions by the international community for its on going drive to develop nuclear weapons. In the event that sanctions are imposed and South Korea cannot
South Korea and Turkey agreed to conclude FTA negotiations by the first half of this year.

President Lee Visits Turkey and Three Gulf States


Breakthrough in responding to the global economic crisis
South Korean President Lee Myung-bak visited Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from February 4 to 11. The trip yielded a range of outcomes including pledges for emergency supplies of oil in the event of imposition of sanctions on Tehran and a better position for South Korean companies to participate in government projects. by Lee Sun-min

import crude oil from Iran, it will necessarily have to increase oil imports from other oil producers to minimize the adverse impact on the domestic industry. President Lee received assurances from Saudi Arabia that the kingdom would accommodate any request for more oil from the South Korean government or companies. To this end, the two countries will have the fifth South Korea-Saudi Arabia meeting on petroleum and mineral resources early in the first half of this year to discuss specific measures to ensure stable energy supply for South Korea. Qatar also pledged that it would extend its full cooperation. The two countries signed a memorandum of understanding to explore further cooperation opportunities in energy and natural resources as well as in industry. On the final leg of this four-day tour, President Lee had talks with Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammad bin Zayed al-Nahayan of Abu Dhabi of the United Arab Emirates, in which the Crown Prince assured President Lee that the UAE would provide additional crude oil if necessary. Notably, the two leaders reconfirmed that South Korea would have first priority rights to purchase up to 300,000 barrels of crude oila a day out of emergency increases in production. They also agreed to ink a main agreement for the development of three oil fields in the UAE by early next month. The signing of the main agreement had originally been slated for the second half of this year, but the progress accelerated significantly before the visit. The proposal has already passed the Technical

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43

FlaVoR

Committee of the Supreme Petroleum Council and awaits the Councils final decision. large ConSTruCTion ProjeCTS oPen doorS To Korean ComPanieS The outcome of President Lees recent visit to the Middle East was well received at home as it has opened up many more opportunities for South Korean companies to make forays into the region, in addition to securing reliable supplies of resources. Oil producing countries in the Middle East have thrived amid the global financial crisis and are planning enormous construction and infrastructure projects to improve public welfare. If South Korean companies clinch opportunities to participate in some of these projects, the country will enjoy a second Middle East boom in construction, following the first boom in the 1970s and 1980s. Naturally, South Korean companies are closely monitoring the situation today. The Saudi A rabian government requested the participation of South Korean companies in government projects including a USD 14 billion project of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco), the kingdoms state-owned national oil company, and a pilot project to build 500,000 homes. Qatar expressed its hope that South Korean companies would take part in the development of Lusail City and construction of infrastructure for the 2022 FIFA World Cup finals to be held in Qatar. Furthermore, the two countries signed a 21year liquefied natural gas supply agreement and a memorandum of understanding on USD 70 billion in cooperation in energy and industry. Evaluating the outcomes of the tour, President Lee reportedly said that doors to investment opened wider, not only in construction but in other areas, and the scope of mutual cooperation expanded to include high technology. Korea-TurKey FTa Seen aS SPringBoard For ForayS inTo euroPe President Lees visit to Turkey, the gateway between Europe and the Middle East, as also seen as a success. President Lee and President Abdullah Gl of Turkey recalled that, despite the great physical distance between them, the two countries, they have a special
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Hwajeon, Spring Flower Rice Cake


Hwajeon, or flower rice cake, is a traditional fried tteok (rice cake) with a sweet taste that is decorated with petals of edible flowers. Dating back to 12th centurythe Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392)hwajeon was a delicacy especially enjoyed by noble ladies and young girls on a spring picnic. Ladies would pick bright pink azaleas to decorate the round rice cakes to celebrate the onset of spring. Nowadays, hwajeon is also garnished with pear blossom petals in spring, rose petals in summer, and chrysanthemum petals in fall.
by chung Da-young photographs by Moon Duk-gwan food & styling by kiM Young-bin assistant noh Shin-young

relationship that began when Turkey fought for South Korea in the Korean War. The leaders consider the strategic partnership that has been established to be very important and understand that it points to more comprehensive cooperation going forward. The t wo leaders agreed to conclude FTA negotiations, which had been moving slowly, and also agreed to resume the stalled negotiations for South Korean companies participation in the construction of a nuclear power plant in Turkey. If an FTA is entered between the two countries, South Koreas automobiles and steel products will enter the large domestic market of Turkey, whose population numbers 74 million, second in Europe only to Germany, and will gain easier access to Europe by virtue of the customs union between Europe and Turkey. A customs union goes one step further than a free trade agreement in terms of market opening. The leaders also saw eye to eye on the need to combine South Koreas technology and Turkeys regional networks for joint participation in infrastructure projects in the Middle East, Africa, and other third country markets. Of particular interest are Iraq and Libya in light of their enormous demands for reconstruction. The two sides made a joint statement on the establishment of a strategic partnership. It details the aforementioned and clarifies their intention to seek greater cooperation in political affairs, the economy, culture, education, international issues, and national security, among other areas. President Lees successful tour of Turkey and the three Gulf State countries is widely considered a breakthrough in the midst of the global economic crisis.

South Korea and Saudi Arabia will have the fifth meeting on petroleum and mineral resources early in the first half of 2012 to discuss specific measures to ensure stable energy supply for South Korea.

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MY KOREA

Little Bottles of Heaven


Cosmetics shops in Korea are full of surprises. There are endless selections of rosy lipsticks, mini packages of fruity facial masks, and even goodie bags filled with complimentary gifts. Luciana from Argentina calls it a dreamland.
by Luciana DAbramo / illustration by Kim Yong-mi

ll women around the world share at least one thing in common: they want to feel beautiful and special. When we were little girls, we anxiously waited to become full-grown women and wear makeup and use all kinds of beauty products. I remember as a little girl spending hours sitting next to my mother, watching her with fascination as she applied her makeup every morning. Of course I would sneak around with my friends trying on everything we could get our hands on and pretend to be princesses and actresses. I knew that I was no longer that little girl when I was faced with the challenge of having to buy my own makeup. I couldnt resist buying an item in every cosmetics shop I encountered. In my country, Argentina, women love to make themselves look beautiful and spend a lot of time and money on the latest beauty and fashion products. My friends and I enjoyed an occasional cosmetics shopping spree, and I thought I knew everything there was to know about cosmetics. That was before I came to South Korea. every womans dream When I first came to Seoul in 2009, I was unfamiliar with the surroundings. I decided to tour the city, and my first stop was a popular department store in Myeong-dong. The sheer volume and extensive selection of products available were quite overwhelming, but I thought it was similar to any other department store abroad. I was about to leave when I finally realized that an entire level was filled with cosmetic shops. It was huge and full of so many different brands, many of which I had never seen or heard of before. I was also surprised by
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the different varieties of the same type of product all neatly subdivided on the bright counters. I spent more than an hour walking from one booth to another admiring the bottles of eye creams, lipsticks, and eye shadows. I could see that the shop employees were smiling and ready to assist me, but I was still overwhelmed and wasnt sure what I wanted to buy. That was when I was reminded that I was still on a tour, and I left the department store. I left the department store thinking that a whole floor lined with fancy beauty boutiques was every womans dream. It was probably the place where every Korean woman went to find products to pamper herself. I merely assumed that this was the only such place, but I quickly realized how wrong I was when I walked along the main street of Myeongdong. Between the sea of people and neon lights, I could spot more than a dozen cosmetics shops at a glance. The shops were all decorated in different colors and styles, and they were crowded with customers. Each of them offered thousands of new options. I couldnt believe my eyes! And even before I could remind myself once more that I needed to explore other places, I was drawn helplessly into one of the shops by a lady who put a small basket in my hand. The basket already filled with small bottles and packets of makeup to give away. The lady smiled and said Service, a Konglish word meaning give-away goods or services. I understood then that she was giving me those products just because I was entering the shop. I didnt have to buy anything. Just looking around was enough. I then realized that I had entered another dreamland. Once more, every shelf was full of new products, in various shapes and sizes, flavors, scents, and
47

enjoying this experience together. It occurred to me at this point that buying makeup in Korea was not just a commercial interaction like the ones I studied in marketing courses where a consumer had a need and went to a shop to satisfy it by purchasing goods. No, this was much more than that. It was about having fun and relaxing and immersing yourself in a world of fantasy and grooming. endless surprises I took my time trying on different shades of blush and eye shadow. I finally stuffed all my new toys inside a small basket and headed towards the cashier, but not before quickly grabbing one more jojoba and green tea mask from a nearby shelf. The cashier scanned all my products and packed them neatly inside a pretty bag made of recycled paper. I paid, said thank you, and turned around. But when I was about to reach the door, voices rang out from all over the shop saying Jam-kkan-man-yo! I had no clue what that meant, but I went back to the cashier thinking that they may have forgotten to scan one of the products I had in my basket. That wasnt it. The cashier took out a new paper bag and started to put in little products that she pulled from the counter drawers while explaining to me in Korean what each of them was. I was astonished and didnt understand what was going on. I had purchased a number of products, but still I was getting so many other things just for free! The service concept was coming out again. All of a sudden it was like Christmas. When the shower of free samples was over, she closed my goodie bag and handed it to me with a smile. Now, I was ready to go. But the girl who helped me during my shopping trip hurried over and slipped even more samples into my bag. It was a BB cream with a whitening function. It was already dark when I finally made it out of the shop carrying two full bags, but the street was bright from the shop lights and filled with shoppers. I had a big smile on my overly moisturized face. I was impressed, surprised, and happy. I knew that Korea would never stop surprising me, and I was finally right about something. After nearly three years, I still find myself saying Wow! every once in a while over a new experience.

AbOut thE WRitER LuciAnA DAbRAMO


Luciana came from Argentina to South Korea in 2009 to study at Sungkyunkwan Global School of Business. After receiving her MBA, she joined Samsung Electronics and worked as marketing coordinator for the South American region. She enjoys exploring Seoul and trying Korean cuisine with her friends.

colors. I discovered not only that Korean shops offered huge selections but that the Koreans had reinvented ways of applying and using conventional products. I had to let go of all my preconceptions of how cosmetics should look. After playing hide and seek with the employees for some minutes I decided to turn myself in and go for the whole package. I approached one of the girls and she showed me all the shops products, and tried them all on me. I couldnt help laughing when seeing her worried face when she realized that even though they had dozens of different foundation colors there was not a single one dark enough that would match my Latina skin tone. In a country where porcelain skin is considered the mark of beauty, there are few options for darker skin. And my laugh made her smile when she understood that it was not a big deal for me and that I was already raring to try the entire lipstick palette. Here, she could help me. While the girl was running around looking for other things to show me, I noticed other customers in the store. There were many groups of friends having fun, taking pictures of each other to see how their different styles looked. Mothers and daughters were trying to figure out which mascara would be perfect to make their eyes look bigger and brighter. There were also couples choosing eye shadows, perfumes, and moisturizing creams. That is when I noticed that there was even a whole section for mens care in the shop, and couples were there

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