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Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin EN 1993-1-1 Mladen Lukic Alain Bureau
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Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin


This example gives the details of the verification according to EN 1993-1-1 of a simply supported purlin under a uniform loading. The purlin is an Isection rolled profile which is laterally restrained by the steel sheeting. Scope The example covers the design of a hot rolled profile beam used as purlin, under bending about the strong axis. The purlin is laterally restrained by the steel sheeting. The example includes:
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the classification of the cross-section, the calculation of the bending resistance, including the exact calculation of the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling, the calculation of the shear resistance, the calculation of the deflections at serviceability limit state.

The verification of the steel sheeting is out of the scope of this worked example. Partial safety factors

Gmax = 1,35 Gmin = 1,00 Q M0 M1


= 1,50 = 1,0 = 1,0

(permanent loads) (permanent loads) (variable loads)

EN 1990

EN 1993-1-1 6.1 (1)

Loading The uniformly distributed loading includes: self-weight of the beam roofing Snow load : Wind load (uplift) : 0,240 kN/m2 0,618 kN/m2 0,730 kN/m2

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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Basic geometrical data Purlin Span length: Spacing: L = 7,20 m s = 3,00 m


tf z

Try IPE 180 Steel grade S275 Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Fillet
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Euronorm 19-57
tw

h = 180 mm b = 91 mm tw = 5,3 mm tf = 8 mm r = 9 mm 18,8 kg/m A = 23,9 cm2


z b y

y h

Mass Section area

Second moment of area /yy Iy = 1317 cm4 Second moment of area /zz Iz = 100,9 cm4 Torsion constant Warping constant Elastic modulus /yy Plastic modulus /yy Sheeting Steel grade S350
25 100 50 25 1000 40

It = 4,79 cm4 Iw = 7430 cm6 Wel,y = 146,3 cm3 Wpl.y = 166,4 cm3

Thickness of the sheeting t = 0,7 mm

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin EN 1993-1-1 Mladen Lukic Alain Bureau
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It is possible to calculate the shear stiffness of trapezoidal sheeting connected EN 1993-1-3 to the purlin at each rib and connected in every side overlap according to the 10.1.1(10) EN 1993-1-3. The formula is:
S = 1000 t 3 50 + 103 broof

) hs

The following expressions are calculated:


t 3 = 0,7 3 = 0,586 mm 3 2

50 + 103 broof = 50 + 10 3 7200 = 243 mm 2 3

s 3000 = = 75 hw 40
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Then the shear stiffness is:

S = 1000 0,586 243 75 10-3 = 10680 kNm / m

Capacity of the sheeting to restrain the purlin Continuous lateral restraint If the following requirement is met, the purlin may be regarded as being laterally restrained in the plane of the sheeting:

EN 1993-1-1 BB.2.1 EN 1993-1-3 10.1.1 (6)

2 EI w 2 EI z (h 2)2 70 2 + GI t + S S min = L2 h L2 One calculates:

2 E Iw
L2

2 210000 7430 106


7200 2

10-9 = 0,2971 kNm 2

GI t = 80770 4,79 10 4 10 -9 = 3,869 kNm 2

2 E I z (h 2)2
L2

2 210000 100,9 10 4 902


7200 2

10-9 = 0,3268 kNm 2

Then the minimum stiffness is:


S min = (0,2971 + 3,869 + 0,3265) 70 = 9706 kNm/m 0,182

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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Therefore: S = 10680 kNm/m > Smin = 9706 kNm/m The condition is thus met and the steel sheeting can be considered as sufficiently stiff to restrain the purlin. Note that requirements regarding the resistance and the stability of the steel sheeting are given in the EN 1993-1-3, these verifications are out of the scope of this worked example.
Loads


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Purlins: Roofing: Permanent load: Snow: Wind (uplift):

G1 = (18,8 9,81) 10-3 = 0,184 kN/m G2 = 0,240 3,00 G = G1 + G2 QS = 0,618 3,00 QW = 0,730 3,00 = 0,720 kN/m = 0,904 kN/m = 1,854 kN/m = 2,190 kN/m

Note:

It is assumed that the roof slope is so low that the decomposition of the vertical loads into two components, one parallel to the web and the other one parallel to the plane of the roof, is not needed here.

ULS Combinations:

Sagging:

Gmax G + Q QS = 1,35 0,904 + 1,50 1,854 = 4,00 kN/m


Hogging:

EN 1990 6.4.3.2

Gmin G + Q QS = 1,00 0,904 1,50 2,190 = -2,38 kN/m


Moment diagram

Maximum sagging moment at mid span: My,Ed = 0,125 4,00 7,202 = 25,92 kNm
M My,Ed

Maximum hogging moment at mid span: My,Ed = 0,125 (2,38) 7,202 = 15,42 kNm
My,Ed M

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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Shear force diagram

Maximum shear force at supports for sagging: Vz,Ed = 0,5 4,00 7,20 = 14,4 kN Maximum shear force at supports for hogging: Vz,Ed = 0,5 2,38 7,20 = 8,57 kN

SLS Combination

Sagging: G + Q = 0,905 + 1,854 = 2,759 kN/m Hogging: G + Q = 0,905 2,190 = 1,285 kN/m

EN 1990 6.5.3

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Yield strength

Steel grade S275 The maximum thickness is 8 mm < 40 mm, so: fy = 275 N/mm2
Note:

The National Annex may impose either the values of fy from the Table 3.1 or the values from the product standard.

EN 1993-1-1 Table 3.1

Section classification:

The parameter is derived from the yield strength: =


Outstand flange: flange under uniform compression

235 = 0,92 f y [N/mm 2 ]

EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2 (sheet 2 of 3)

c = (b tw 2 r) / 2 = (91 5,3 2 9)/2 = 33,85 mm c/tf = 33,85 / 8,0 = 4,23 9 = 8,28 Class 1 EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2 (sheet 1 of 3)

Internal compression part: web under pure bending

c = h 2 tf 2 r = 180 2 8 2 9 = 146 mm c / tw = 146 / 5,3 = 27,5 < 72 = 66,24 Class 1


The class of the cross-section is the least favourable class between the flange and the web, here: Class 1

So the ULS verifications should be based on the plastic resistance of the cross-section.

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin EN 1993-1-1 Mladen Lukic Alain Bureau
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Moment resistance Sagging

The design resistance for bending of a cross section is given by: Mc,Rd = Mpl,Rd = Wpl,y fy / M0 = (166,4 275 / 1,0) 10-3 Mc.Rd = 45,76 kNm My,Ed / Mc,Rd = 25,92 / 45,76 = 0,566 < 1 OK No verification against lateral torsional buckling is needed since the compressed flange is considered as fully restrained laterally.
Moment resistance Hogging

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.5

The bending resistance criterion is: My,Ed / Mc,Rd = 15,42 / 45,76 = 0,337 < 1 OK
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EN 1993-1-1 6.2.5

However, resistance to lateral torsional buckling should be checked since the compressed flange is now unrestrained laterally.
Reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling

To determine the design buckling resistance moment of the purlin, the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling is determined on the basis of the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling taking into account the lateral restraint of the tension flange.
Note:

The torsional restraint due to sheeting is also physically present and could be taken into account. In this spreadsheet, it will be supposed as insignificant and wont be considered.

Critical moment for lateral torsional buckling

The critical moment may be calculated using the software LTBeam developed SN011 by the CTICM. This software allows the designer to take into account special restraint conditions such as a continuous lateral restraint along the tension flange and its position from the shear centre. Note : LTBeam is free and can be downloaded on the web site www.cticm.com

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

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The continuous lateral restraint is assumed to be located at 90 mm above the shear centre. The critical moment calculated by LTBeam is: Mcr = 27,20 kNm
Non-dimensional slenderness

The non-dimensional slenderness is obtained from: LT = Wpl,y f y M cr = 166400 275 10-6 = 1,297 27,20

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.2 (1)

For rolled profiles, LT,0 = 0,4


Note:
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the value of LT,0 may be given in the National Annex. The recommended value is 0,4.
LT = 1,297 > LT,0

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.3(1)

So

Reduction factor

For rolled sections, the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling is calculated by:

LT =

LT +

2 LT

2 LT

but

LT 1.0 1 LT 2 LT

2 where: LT = 0,5 1 + LT LT LT,0 + LT

EN 1993-1-1 the method for rolled profiles, the LTB curve has to be selected from the table Table 6.5 6.5: Table 6.3 For h/b = 180 / 91 = 1,97 2
Curve b (LT = 0,34)

LT is the imperfection factor for lateral torsional buckling. When applying

LT,0 = 0,4 and = 0,75


Note: the values of LT,0 and may be given in the National Annex. The recommended values are 0,4 and 0,75 respectively.

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We obtain: and:

LT = 0,5 1 + 0,34 (1,297 0,4 ) + 0,75 1,297 2 = 1,283


LT = 1 1,283 + 1,2832 0,75 1,297 2 = 0,525

Then, we check: LT = 0,525 < 1,0 OK and:

LT = 0,525 < 1 / LT = 0,594

Design buckling resistance moment

Mb,Rd = LT Wpl,y fy / M1 Mb,Rd = (0,525 166400 275 / 1,0) 10-6 = 24,02 kNm My,Ed / Mb,Rd = 15,42 / 24,02 = 0,642 < 1 OK
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EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.1

Shear Resistance

In the absence of torsion, the shear plastic resistance depends on the shear area, which is given by: Av,z = A 2 b tf + (tw + 2 r) tf Av,z = 2390 2 91 8 + (5,3 + 2 9) 8 = 1120 mm2
Shear plastic resistance

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (3)

Vpl,z,Rd =

Av,z ( f y / 3 )

M0

1120 (275 / 3 ) 10-3 = 177,8 kN 1,0

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (2)

Vz,Ed / Vpl,z,Rd = 14,4 / 177,8 = 0,081 < 1 OK


Note:

No M-V interaction has to be considered since the maximum moment EN1993-1-1 is obtained at mid-span and the maximum shear force is obtained at 6.2.8 supports.

Note that the verification to shear buckling is not required when: hw / tw 72 /

may be conservatively taken as 1.0


hw / tw = (180 2 8) / 5,3 = 30,9 < 72 0,92 / 1,0 = 66,24

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (6)

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Deflection Sagging

Deflection under G

w=

5 G L4 5 0,904 (7200) 4 = = 11,4 mm = L/632 384 E I y 384 210000 1317 10 4

EN 1993-1-1 7.2.1

Deflection under Q
w= 5 1,854 (7200) 4 5 Q L4 = 23,5 mm = L/306 = 384 E I y 384 210000 1317 104

a s

The deflection under (G+Q) is L/206


d i

Deflection Hogging

Deflection under G w=
l

5 0,904 (7200) 4 5 G L4 = 11,4 mm = L/632 = 384 E I y 384 210000 1317 10 4

EN 1993-1-1 7.2.1

Deflection under Q w= 5 ( 2,190 ) (7200) 4 5 Q L4 = 27,7 mm = L/260 = 384 E I y 384 210000 1317 10 4

M a

The deflection under (G+Q) is L/442


Note:

n r

the limits of deflection should be specified by the client. The National Annex may specify some limits. Here the result may be considered as satisfactory.

C T

r h

e i

a s

e m

d a

o e

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin SX021a-EN-EU

Quality Record
RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France 3. Sweden
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Example: Simply supported IPE profile purlin

Company CTICM CTICM

Date 08/12/05 08/12/05

Mladen Lukic Alain Bureau

G W Owens A Bureau B Uppfeldt C Mller J Chica G W Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI

7/04/06 7/04/06 7/04/06 7/04/06 7/04/06 17/07/06

4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: