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2011

Techno india Project Report

A LINE FOLLOWER ROBO WITH SECURITY SENSOR


Self-operating robot that detects and follows a line drawn on the floor.

PROJECT TITLE AUTOMATED LINE FOLLOWER ROBO WITH SECURITY SENSOR

Submitted by NameANURAG KUMAR SOHAN KUMAR JHA JAYANT KUMAR LUFNA KHATUN ISHITA DEY ANIRBAN ACHERJEE INDU GON MITHUN SHAW MANTOSH THAKUR 08130005031 -08130005006 08130005019 -08130005046 -08130005002 -08130005039 -08130005018 -09130005058 -08130005015

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the B.Tech degree in Electronics and Instrumentation stream. under West Bengal University of Technology year-2011-12

EM 4/1 Salt Lake City, Sector V Kolkata,700091


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Certificate

This is to certify that group ________has carried out his project work entitled Automated line follower with security sensor as a part of the curriculam for the B.tech degree in EIE stream under West Bengal University of Technology for the year 2011-12. this project report is approved by the undersigned only for te purpose for which it is submitted. The group is entirely responsible for the statement , opinion and conclusion contained herein.

______________________________________ Name and signature of internal guide with date.

__________________________________________ (Name and signature of external guide ,if any with date)

___________________________________________ (Name and signature of HOD,EIE Department,Techno india with date)

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Acknowledgement
Sincere gratitude is expressed to assistant prof. Santu guin of the Department of EIE ,Techno india for supervising the project and for his valuable advice and help with the books and reference materials.

Heartfelt thanks are also conveyed to all the member of the teaching and non teaching staff of the Department of EIE for their cordial support and help, whenever nedded.

________________ Techno india ,salt lake Date:signature _____________________ Name of the candidate/group)

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CONTENTS

Page No. Abstract 1.Introduction 2.Methodology 2.1 Problem Definition 2.2 Planning and Approach 2.3 Design Issue 3.Testing 4.Measurement, Result, and Discussion 5.Concluding Remarks References 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18

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Abstract
The project entitled the automated line following robo with security sensor is a classical introductory robot design require a basic digital and analog control circuitry system. It includes various design issue encountered at different phase of this project. Line following robot is a robo car that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a white line on the black surface (or vice-verse). As a result of this line following property, it has many applications in future and now itself. Line following robot with pick and placement capabilities are commonly used in manufacturing plants. These move on a specified path to pick the component from specified location and place them on desired locations.

Basically, a line-following robot is self-operating robot that detects and follows a line drawn on the floor. The path to be taken is indicated by a white line on a black surface. The control system used must sense the line and manoeuvre the robot to stay on course while constantly correcting the wrong moves using feedback mechanism, thus forming a simple yet effective closed-loop system. As a programmer we got an opportunity to teach the robot how to follow the line thus giving it a human-like property of responding to stimuli. The robot has two sensors installed underneath the front part of the body, and two DC motors drive wheels moving forward. A circuit inside takes an input signal from two sensors and controls the speed of wheels rotation. The control is done in such a way that when a sensor senses a white line, the motor slows down or even stops. Then the difference of rotation speed makes it possible to make turns. A security sensor senses the outer environment condition like temperature and sound and tells the robo to work accordingly. This report will outline the design, construction and testing of our line following robot.

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INTRODUCTION
The word "robot" originates from the Czech word for forced labor or serf. Robots, are electronic devices intended to perform a desired function. Many refer to them as "machines", however, a drill press is a machine, yet it requires an operator to perform its function, where robots can be programmed to do it themselves. Robots have the potential to change our economy, our health, our standard of living, our knowledge and the world in which we live. Robotics is not only a science, but it is also an art. Whatever you can dream, you can create. The level of expertise you want your robot to have and how much learning and research you want to do is up to you.

A ROBOT IS:
A virtual or a mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. The guiding force behind the robot is an Embedded System. At the core of every Embedded System there is either a microprocessor or a microcontroller or any other programmable intelligent unit. Basically a robot consists of: A mechanical device, such as a wheeled platform, arm, or other construction, capable of interacting with its environment Sensors on or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device Systems that process sensory input in the context of the device's current situation and instruct the device to perform actions in response to the situation Sensors: A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer and by an instrument. A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy to other. The conversion can be from electrical, electromechanical, electromagnetic, photonic or any other form of energy. Robots react according to a basic temporal measurement, requiring different kinds of sensors. The term transducer is often used interchangeably with sensors. A Transducer is the mechanism of the sensor that transforms the energy associated with what is being measured into another form of energy. A sensor receives energy and transmits a signal to display or computer. Sensors use transducers to change the input signal (sound, light, pressure, temperature etc,) into an analog or digital form capable of being used by a robot.

Proximity sensors: A proximity sensor measures the relative distance between sensor and
objects in the environment.

Infrared (IR) sensors: Another type of active proximity sensor is IR sensor. It emits near
infrared energy and measures whether any significant amount of IR light is returned. Infrared radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes radiowaves, microwaves, visible light, and ultraviolet light, as well as gamma rays and X-rays. The IR range falls between the visible portion of the spectrum and the radio waves. IR wavelengths are usually expressed in
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microns, with IR spectrum extending from 0.7 to 1000 microns. Because every object (except black body) emits an optimum amount of IR energy at a specific point along IR band, the emitted energy comes from an object and reaches the IR sensor through its optical system, which focuses the energy onto one or more photosensitive detectors. The detector then converts the IR energy into an electrical signal Programming intelligence into a robot (or computer) is a difficult task and one that has not been very successful to date even when supercomputers are used. This is not to say that robots cannot be programmed to perform very useful, detailed, and difficult tasks; they are. Some tasks are impossible for humans to perform quickly and productively.

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METHODOLOGY A line follower is an autonomous line follower that can follow a specific coloured line painted on a surface of different contrast, such as white on black. To start with first of all I will be discussing a small concept of light. I believe you all know that the light that strikes any platform is reflected. The reflection and absorption coefficient of light depend upon material, colour of platform and other factors. In simple words the black surface absorbs the light and the white surface reflects it, this is the basic concept behind making a line follower.

So the line follower has an emitter and a reflector. The reflector receives the light and generates a voltage proportional to the intensity of the light, if this voltage is above a threshold it means SIGNAL=1 (logic one) else SIGNAL= 0 (logic zero). Lets take up an example where we have to move our line follower on black surface having white line. Suppose I have two Infra Red (IR) sensor pairs that are on different halves of a line follower with respect to geometrical central axis of the line follower. The sensors are placed in such a way that the white line lies in between both the sensors when the line follower is placed on the white track painted on black surface to move. Now if the white line is between both the sensors while moving forward both the sensors will be on black surface and the detectors/receivers will receive less amount of light since black absorbs light and hence signal provided by both the infra-red receivers will be low.
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Now if the heading/direction of the white line changes one of the sensors will move in the region of white line and will start giving output signal as high. This information can be used to turn the line follower and orient itself in the right direction. For example in the above figure if the line follower is located in position 1, then line follower will move forward and if the line follower is in position 2 it will have to turn left .

Components
Power Supply Micro controller Comparator IC LM 339D. DC motors(12V DC) DC motor driver (L293D) LED IR transmitter and IR receiver. Switch Voltage regulator sound sensor LM 335 Line follower is made-up of following components: 1.) 2.) 3.) Chassis of robot Electronics/Hardware Designing Programming/Software Designing :5V/12V DC :Atmel 32

CHASSIS OF ROBOT
1.) Base of robot: The base or the material of the platform of robot can be made with any easily available material like switch board, wood, acrylic sheet or steel sheet. As our robot will be very light, you dont have to think a lot on strength and other such factors. We will just recommend you to make a small size and light weight line follower. Here we are using, steel base:
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2.) Motors and Driving Mechanism:

We will need a set of two motors that have same rpm (revolution per minute). We will be using differential drive for maneuvering our line follower i.e. we will have three wheels for our line follower, the front two will be powered and the rear will be free wheel. When the line follower is moving straight both the motors should have equal speed. For turning, one of the motor is switched off. If we switch off the left motor, the line follower will turn left and vice versa. 3.) Coupling wheels & clamping motors: For clamping the motors you can use pipe clamps or make right angled clamps. The right angle clamps ensure more rigidness. To couple the motor ensure that the shaft of motor and hole of wheel have equal diameter (if you cant find one check the tutorial on wheels).

Op-Amplifier (LM324): If the rays received by the IR- LED receiver are above a particular threshold then an amplified signal is generated by the amplifier (LM324). Note that the sensors cannot directly send a signal to the microcontroller as the signal voltage generated by them is too low and even when sensors are on white surface signal generated by them will interpreted low by the microcontroller.

Microcontroller (ATMEGA 32 ) The microcontroller receives the signal and responds accordingly. It takes the decision based on input signal received by both the receiver LEDs. It will give command to motors through H-bridge to move forward, or take a left turn or a right turn.

H-bridge (L293B) The microcontroller sends a signal to the H-bride that acts as a switch. If the signal received by the H-bridge is high it will rotate the motor or else it wont do so. Note that microcontroller only sends a signal to a switch which gives the voltage required by the motor to rotate. Here we are using L293B which can be used to control two motors.

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PROBLEM DEFINITIONIn the industry carriers are required to carry products from one manufacturing plant to another which are usually in different buildings or separate blocks. Conventionally, carts or trucks were used with human drivers. Unreliability and inefficiency in this part of the assembly line formed the weakest link. The project is to automate this sector, using carts to follow a line instead of laying railway tracks which are both costly and an inconvenience.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The robot must be capable of following a line. It should be capable of taking various degrees of turns. It must be prepared of a situation that it runs into a territory which has no line to follow. The robot must also be capable of following a line even if it has breaks. The robot must be insensitive to environmental factors such as lighting and noise. It must allow calibration of the lines darkness threshold. The robot must be reliable. Scalability must be a primary concern in the design. The color of the line must not be a factor as long as it is darker than the surroundings.

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PLANNIG AND APPROACHA ROBOT

_____________________

MOTION

SENSORS ____________________ CONTROL _____________________ INTERFACING MECHANISM ____________________

A line follower is an autonomous robot that can follow a specific colored line painted on a surface of different contrast, such as white on black. When Light rays strikes any surface they reflected by that surface and reflection coefficient of light depends upon material, color of platform and other factors. Black surface absorbs the light and the white surface reflects it, this is the basic concept behind making a line follower. So the line follower has an emitter and a reflector. The reflector receives the light and generates a voltage proportional to the intensity of the light, if this voltage is above a threshold it means SIGNAL=1 (logic one) else SIGNAL= 0 (logic zero). Lets take up an example where we have to move our robot on black surface having white line. Suppose I have two Infra-Red (IR) sensor pairs that are on different halves of a robot with respect to geometrical central axis of the robot. The sensors are placed in such a way that the white line lies in between both the sensors when the robot is placed on the white track painted on black surface to move. Now if the white line is between both the sensors while moving forward both the sensors will be on black surface and the detectors/receivers will receive less amount of light since black absorbs light and hence signal provided by both the infra-red receivers will be low.

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DESIGN ISSUETo design the bot , we have to correctly scaling of chassis around four sides and correctly installing of motion mechanism i. e D.C motor driver and motor. If it is not happen correctly, then motion of bot is not going to be successfully operative and difficult to achieve straight line motion. Straight line motion requires both motor to rotate at the same rpm.

sensorsLED-LDR SENSORS used for detecting surfaces that reflect light at intensity different from the adjoining surfaces. Basically, an led (light emitting Diode) is a small elongated bulb like object that emits light. An LDR (Light Depenent Resistor) is a small resistor,the resistance of which depends upon the intensity of light incident on it.More the intensity of light falling on it, lesser is its resistance.

workingLM339D shown in above figure is a comparator chip. A comparator is an electronic ckt that has two input terminal .It compares the voltage at the 2 terminal and returns a high as output. If voltage at + terminal is more than that at () terminal ,
Else it gives a low output.

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For the present problem statement we need to make a differential drive for controlling the motion of autonomous bots. For autonomous bots we can control a DC motor easily with microcontrollers. We can start it, stop it or make it go either in clockwise or anti clockwise direction. DC motors has two wires or pins. When connected with power supply the shaft rotates. You can reverse the direction of rotation by reversing the polarity of input. To drive DC motors we need some kind of drivers. A very easy and safe is to use popular L293D chips. It is a 16 PIN chip. Its pin configuration along with the connections is shown below.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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LIMITATIONS
Choice of line is made in the hardware abstraction and cannot be changed by software. Calibration is difficult, and it is not easy to set a perfect value. The steering mechanism is not easily implemented in huge vehicles and impossible for non-electric vehicles (petrol powered). Few curves are not made efficiently, and must be avoided. Lack of a four wheel drive, makes it not suitable for a rough terrain Use of IR even though solves a lot of problems pertaining to interference, makes it hard to debug a faulty sensor. Lack of speed control makes the robot unstable at times.

APPLICATION
Industrial automated equipment carriers Entertainment and small household applications. Automated cars. Tour guides in museums and other similar applications.

Conclusion:
From this project we have studied how to interface micro controller with other devices. We also acknowledged about how to dump program in the controller. Our soldering skill is also improved. We learn many things from this project.

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REFERENCES

1.)From DATASHEET of LDR,LED,LM339D ,AT MEGA 32 2.)From wikkipedia 3.)From electrical and electronics books

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