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Outline for Persuasive Essay Writing

Persuasive Appeals I. Appeals to Reason Rational Thinking When you expect the reader to disagree with you use Logic and Intellect. a. Evidence: Facts / Statistics / Hard Data b. Opinions: Recognize opinions of (eminent) experts on the subject. c. Examples: Illustrating evidence II. Appeals to Emotions Aim for the heart; arouse feelings of instincts and biases. When the reader agrees with you: Validate and Reinforce their feelings and ideas. Complex beliefs, values and feelings embedded within us. Have a great force for arguments based on reasoning and evidence. a. Words Connotations b. Visual Details poignant III. Appeals to Sense of Ethics Sincere Honest tone a. Reputation: Reliable, well informed, knowledgeable person. b. Use with Logic and Emotion: Fosters verbal environment results in little resistance from readers. c. Conveys writers attitude toward reader through choice of words and sentence structure.

Counter arguing: Use one or more strategy in the same essay. This wins the readers respect, attention and even agreement. I. Acknowledging Readers Concerns a. Be aware of readers objections b. Take the readers viewpoint seriously even through not arguing with it. c. Explore issues thoughtfully II. Accommodating Readers Concerns a. Modify viewpoint to accept readers concerns that they think are legitimate. b. Take special care with readers: 1. objections 2. questions 3. alternative positions 4. causes 5. solutions III. Refuting Readers Concerns a. Explicitly show the readers objections are invalid or irrelevant. b. Requires a restraint tone Do not attack the reader. IV. Give reasons for Support Quality reasons are essential to effectiveness of writing. Why do you think so? Facts Statistics Authorities Anecdotes Scenarios Cases Textual Evidence

Pre-write the Persuasive Essay: (Flow Map)


Opening Paragraph #1: At least 3 sentences that address the prompt , takes a position on the topic and
defends it with three valid arguments. State why you are for or against the main idea in the prompt. Sentence 1: Attention Grabber (Begin with a quotation, proverb, anecdote, idiom, startling or interesting fact, an example, personal experience or by posing a question.)

Body of Introduction Paragraph


Sentence 2: Sentence 3:

Explain Attention Grabber Topic Sentence addresses the Prompt/Includes Main Idea.

Opinion Statement

(The issue + Viewpoint + reasons) A Thesis Statement predicts what will follow; it is something that remains to be proved. Sentence 4: Opinion Statement (Strong Verbs/Trigger Words/Generic possible reasons) Sentence 5: (3) Arguments/Reasons to support your opinion of the Main Idea (Strong

Verbs/Trigger Words/Generic possible reasons)


Sentence 6: Clincher

Body Paragraphs: (3 middle paragraphs-each has a topic sentence and 4 supporting sentences each.
Paragraph #2 Paragraph #3 Paragraph #4
Topic Sent.1 Transition: Most Important argument/reason to support your opinion Sent. 2: Transition: EXPLAIN your argument/reason on the Main Idea. Sent. 3: Transition countering: Predict audiences view point show audience respect. Sent. 4: Transition countering: Restate your argument/position on the Main Idea. Sent. 5: Transition example: Give a Specific Detailed EXAMPLE to support/prove your argument on the Main Idea. Sent. 6: Clincher Sentence Topic Sent.1 Transition: Least Important argument/reason to support your opinion Sent. 2: Transition: EXPLAIN your argument/reason on the Main Idea. Sent. 3: Transition countering: Predict audiences view point show audience respect. Sent. 4: Transition countering: Restate your argument/position on the Main Idea. Sent. 5: Transition example: Give a Specific Detailed EXAMPLE to support/prove your argument on the Main Idea. Sent. 6: Clincher Sentence Topic Sent.1 Transition: Another Important argument/reason to support your opinion Sent. 2: Transition: EXPLAIN your argument/reason on the Main Idea. Sent. 3: Transition countering: Predict audiences view point show audience respect. Sent. 4: Transition countering: Restate your argument/position on the Main Idea. Sent. 5: Transition example: Give a Specific Detailed EXAMPLE to support/prove your argument on the Main Idea. Sent. 6: Clincher Sentence

Closing Paragraph: At least 3 sentences that revisit the prompt, explains relevance, and demonstrates
a strong emotion about the topic. Sentence 1: Concluding/Repetition Transition: Topic Sentence Revisit Main Idea Sentence 2: Restate your position on the Main Idea Sentence 3: Explain the relevance/importance to life in general Sentence 4: Give the Benefits/ Emotional appeal/ state your feelings and make your audience have emotion toward the topic. Sentence 5: Attempt to answer any lingering questions (may be found in your 5 brainstorm reason for either your opinion or your audiences viewpoint). Sentence 6: Clincher Sentence: Final statement.

Steps for Writing Persuasive Flow Map and Essay: I. Choose your side if the argument. Do you agree with the issue? Do you disagree with the issue? II. Choose an audience Ask yourself these questions Which group of people would find my issue important? Which specific group do I want to convince? What type of people make up my audience? How does this group of people feel about the issue? What objections might this group have to my opinion? III. Write your View point = Opinion Statement IV. Write an opening sentence: Attention Grabber a. Startling fact or example b. Note a common misconception c. Quote from a famous (eminent) person d. Raise a Question e. Make a bold assertion f. Research fact g. Humorous or interesting anecdote V. Draw a Flow Map (Beginning with Opening Paragraph) VI. Select your three best reasons for support. a. Least important > Most important b. Select transition words for paragraphs see packet Examples: 1) I mean 2.) By this I mean 3.) This means that VII. Closing Paragraph a. Gives closure to argument b. Restate your position c. Summarize the argument d. Attempt to answer questions: So what? Why is the position important? You may choose to use an example to refute the opposite position. VIII. Orally Rehearse Essay Explain, Tell another person. a. Think about appeal: Reason, Emotion, Ethics. b. Acknowledge, Accommodate, Refute the other side of the argument. IX. Write the Five Paragraph Persuasive Essay a. Review and change outlawed words. b. Use synonyms to have a variety of each word. see packet c. Proofread for Conventions (Grammar) see packet

REMEMER To use Strong Verbs and Trigger Words along with the following Generic Possible Reason to use in writing: Teaches lifetime skills Provides a safe environment Promotes / prevents bad influences Deters crime / violence / negative behavior Improves student performance Enhances / builds family relationships Decreases / steals time from family or friends Creates better citizens Improves / harms health Equalizes the students / student body Builds school unity and pride Reduces / increases stress Takes away freedom Creates a united school environment Saves money / provides economical benefits Provides more opportunities for students Teaches teamwork and cooperation Strengthens family relationships Teaches responsibility Takes away imagination Deters discipline problems Provides a fun and relaxing break Educational New experience Hands-on experience Prevents stereotypes