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CONNECTIONS AND DIFERENCIES PHENOMENOLOGICAL METHOD PHENOMENOLOGY AS SCIENCE THEORY .

BETWEEN AND

HERMENEUTIC HERMENEUTIC

Hermeneutic phenomenology is a human science which studies persons. Phenomenology is the study of the life world, the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflective rather than as we conceptualize, categorize or reflect on it. Phenomenology does not offer us the possibility of effective theory with which we can now explain the world, but rather it offers us the possibility of plausible (verosmil) insights that bring us in more direct contact with the world. In HP research is not as the traditional experimental or behavioral science where research is effective investigative process that produces empirical generalizations which are then formulated or built into theories. Rather, research and theorizing are often seen to be interchangeable concepts for that process of reflecting on lived experience. Sometimes the emphasis would be on doing research, when for example, we are involved in the so-called data gathering practices of interviewing or hermeneutic analysis of texts, on other occasions we speak about theroizing when the main aim is to bring to speech (by talking or writing) our reflective understanding of something. As in the physical sciences new theories often allow technological advances (computer technology for example); human science allows the progress of humanizing human life and humanizing human institutions to help human beings to become better prepared to act tactfully in situations. Phenomenology does not problem solve. A research study states a certain problem is completed when the problem is solved. Phenomenological questions are meaning questions. They ask for the meaning and significance of certain phenomena. Phenomenology is not an empirical analytic science. Phenomenological knowledge is empirical, based on experience, Phenomenology cannot be used to show or prove, for example, that one reading method is more effective, and it does not allow for generalizations.

Phenomenological research is the study of essences Phenomenology is the systematic attempt to uncover (destapar) and describe the structures, the internal meaning structures, of lived experiece. A essence: Phenomenology is not to ask How do these children learn this particular material?, but it asks What is the nature or essence of the experience of learning (so that I can now better understand why this particular learning experience is like for these children)? Research metodology- it refears to the philosophical framework. It includes general orientation to life Research method- (interview?) There is not really a method understood as a set of investigative procedures that one can master relatively quickly. Indeed it has been said that the method of phenomenology and hermeneutics is that there is no method(Gadamer, 1975; Rorty, 1979). While it is true that the method of Phenomenology is that there is no method, yet there is tradition, a body of knowledge and insights, a history of lives of thinkers and authors, which, taken as an example, constitutes both a source an a methodological ground for present human science research practice. Techniques- Van Manen suggest some techniques, although we don not have to take them with the connotation of expertise in a professional or technical sense. Some of the Van Manen proposal of to obtain information collect lived experience material (methods) are: description of personal experiences (own experiences or other people experiences) This description of experiences do not answer to close and preestablished question. However, There are some suggestions for producing a livedexperience description: 1) Avoid as much as possible causal explanations (I think that this happened because.), abstract interpretations (as we all know), generalizations. 2) Describe the experience form the inside, as it were. 3)Focus on a particular example, etc(chapter 3, pag64 and 65) - Observation. The method of close observation requires that one be a participant and an observer at the same time, that one maintain a certain orientation of reflectivity while guarding against the more manipulative and artificial attitude. The observer has to recognize what parts of the situation are significant.

Conversational interview. The hermeneutic interview tends to turn the interviewees into participants or collaborators of the research project. The conversational interview is used to explore the whole experience to the fullest.

When doing an interview there are certain procedures for making sure that the interviewee will yield information that will be useful for preparing a research report) Experimental descriptions in literature Material collected from biographies, autobiographies or personal life stories. Diaries, journals, and logs as sources of Lived experiences Consulting Phenomenological Literature

These are examples of methods oriented to collect data. Moreover, Van Manen suggests other methods for reflection that are used to analyze and determine the main structures of the experiences collected , such us -thematic analysis - thematic reflection - linguistic reflection - interpretation through conversation (see chapter 4) Furthermore, Van Manen suggest some strategies that the research may use to reveal in a convincing way, through the phenomenological text, the nature and the importance of the phenomena studied. Therefore, we may say that Educational rearch and theorinzing should not be oriented to producing systems of decisin-making procedures or rules for-acting but also toward a continual clarification of the guiding pronciple which turns any kind of social situation or relation of adults and children into a pedatogic one. In an adult-child situation we should always ask what is pedagogically the responsible or right thing to do for the children. We should remind ourselves that, form a reflexive point of view, research and theorizing themselves are a pedagogic form of life an therefore inseparable form it.