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Faculty of computer science

Researcher Methodology
Lecturer: Mahmud Hussein
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Hargeisa waste management system especially the garbage

Class: year three Name: Hamse Ali Yusuf Deadline: 16/02/2012
Hargeisa waste management system especially the garbage

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Special thanks
First Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate, the Master of the Day of Judgement. I bear witness that there is no god but He, the Lord of the earlier and later generations and Sustainer of heaven and earth. Peace and blessings be upon the one who was sent as a Mercy to the worlds. I bear witness that he is the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Peace and blessings be upon him, upon all his Family and Companions, and upon those who believe in his guidance and follow in his footsteps until the Day of Judgment. Secondly thanks to dear teacher who to reach me this way of prepping a research

Copyright 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a Retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, Mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Hamse Ali Yusuf except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews

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The waste management system in everywhere at the world it is fundamental work for public service issue and national health security that depend to do first the responsibility of local government and the who work collective garbage as business under legal provision, and attain efficiency of garbage trucks or compaction trucks also transfer locations recycled points and land fill including incineration although dumpsites we can say that is waste management system required for anywhere can, but particularly Ill try to look most theme of my this article how is Hargeisa waste management is like? Demonstrate area our assignment research about is as below


The amount of waste production in Hargeisa per day or per month Kind of waste Hargeisa: Solid Waste How the local government mange all these waste Looking and Investigating - Waste disposal system - Cost of money - Waste distribution in the city 6- Conclusion and recommended idea

This is the question we need to answer

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What does garbage cause and what causes us to have garbage?

Garbage is things that people do not want anymore, cannot find a use for, or have agreed with society that it is worthless. For example a pen without ink. Dont think and to the garbage it goes. But it is plastic (most times) and can be reused because man made it, they can use it again for something else. Most people throw away things that can be used so many more times like that soup bottle made out of metal. They throw it in the trash when it should be recycled. People in olden day didnt have garbage really. Nowadays man has made more things that are disposable which means more garbage and more pollution as a result. People should care about what they throw away and what they recycle because it could mean life or death one day in the near future if nothing is done. According to the all these we mentioned above to keep all current routine activities consistently where to make better method of work in Hargeisa there is local government and two residual companies those who work together the cleaning of city and collect the garbage mostly the five subdistrict of Hargeisa city individually and separately,

1- Local government (municipality ) 2- Sabawanaag Hargeisa sanitation service company 3- Dhis The municipal or local government have signed legal contract both two company we mentioned above to collect the garbage in the city and all solid west management and give the budget for certain area they are demarcated them such like where habitant of IDPS and public intuitions and government central office although the last seven years the municipal wasnt work this field but only these two companies were cooperate
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1- The amount of waste production in Hargeisa per month and per day or per year in some district of Hargeisa southern parts and central market sub division that the sabowang group or( team ) always work they told me the sum of production Operation manager and two district supervisors and market also community police they said 14 homes to react per day where 7 homes pursuit each the day and enter agreement of garbage collection and disposal to designated national dumpsite where is it necessary to obtain suitable collection point nearest by each sub district from the two main districts, but briefly the amount of waste in average mostly are as below
No. of loads/Day No. of Tones/day No. of L/month No. of T/m No. of L/year No. of T/year 13-15Lds 78-90T 390-450 2,340-2,700T 4,680-5,400 28,080-32,400

The collection plan is 300 homes collect one donkey or motorcycle where the donkey car collects the garbage each of 100 homes by a day and it collect each home the garbage two times per a week, and donkey car driver makes punch hole the punch hole can at the each home the collection schedule as monitory evaluation measure once. Source (sabowanag officer interview). In addition top of that sabowanag and Dhis always have specific garbage or waste they permanently clean up the city individually, and item these garbage might be plastic bags or paper garbage including the food wastes which generates for business centers such like restaurants and hotels, and they manage by the process of collection to the transfer points or stations until they carry out to the landfill and legal dumpsites those who remarked by the local government planning , in order the main sources of house hold might generate mostly are plastic bags food remains and use charcoal deposits (danbas), and the business centers produces organic matter and spoil food including the system they take the service charge is obviously daily and billing system they charge 700-100 per daily and 10000-30000 for each group but they didnt specify us how about the business.
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The amount of west production per day that the Dhis campany always have collect in certain area of their field work they collect 18 loads at northern parts of the city such like Gacanlibaax and 26june including kodbuur mostly kind of waste they collect is plastic bags and organic waste comes from household and businesses liquid wests and spoil food remains at

2- The kind of waste

Somaliland country entirely there is specific kind of waste but particularly in Hargeisa has 30% is plastic bags and 10% of Qat remains leaves (garabo) ,plastic bottles 20% those who generates soft drinks and water small bottles The sources of garbage in urban centers are the
households, commercial centers/market areas, industries, institutions street waste and those resulting from demolition and construction works etc. residential and commercially waste constitute the largest source of both solid and liquid waste, problems related to poorly managed garbage is unsightliness, vector and rodents which transition during the per capital production of waste in Somaliland is estimated at 0.45kg per person/day. Collection, storage, transport and disposal of solid are highly rudimentary due to set of factors including lack of qualified personnel and inadequate unskilled crews to lead sanitation disposal procedures, transport, temporary garbage at collection points and inadequate or poorly used terminal dumpsites and in most instance open dumping, is practiced due to low level of public education and information and law-enforcement. No land fill operations or incineration system is used in almost all urban centers., the situation is favorably better than it was before ten years ago, given that the country is peaceful and stable and authorities and citizens at least mind to take responsibility to the tasks that are ascribed to them. The most pressing priorities include the following but not limited to

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Hargeisa: Solid Waste

Hargeisa city population is 700,000 persons per capita production of garbage in city (all inclusive street, household, commercial and industrial wastes).0.45kg per person/ day (Hargeisa city health profile assessments survey document healthy city initiative 2008). People with access to sanitary facilities is 42% (M, CS, 2007), and people with access cafe, water supply 41% (M.C.S). Poor sanitation related and water borne: Diseases (MOHL Annual/ reports 2005 & 2006). Diarrhea Diseases rank the second in the top ten diseases morbidity and mortality. Waste handling practice (collection, storage transportation and disposal) are highly rudimentary and there is no inter Medical Dump Site. Waste disposal terminal sites (open dumping) and poorly managed large dug pits found on observation located on landscape depression are subject to lead contamination of surface and ground water. Integrated quality control for food and water consumption is lacking.

Hargeisa municipality contracted out garbage collection in the city by two private companies: 1 DHIS private company is responsible for garbage collection from the northern part of the city.
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2 Sabawanaag private is responsible for garbage removal from the southern part of the city. DHIS removes 22 loads, of Solid waste each day municipality wants to relieve the burden of work form DHIS by taking assignment on garbage removal ensure part of the northern location of the city form temporary dump sites. Sabawanaag removes 18 loads of Solid waste per day from the householders, streets & temporary dump sites. The transportation of waste is done by tipper trucks to two terminal dump sites located in the north of the city and south of the city, the private companies were instructed to buy 10 plots by each of them for temporary garbage collection points-dump sites. So for, this has not been materialized. As part of our efforts to improve efficiency of the garbage collection from the city we have ordered 12 trailers from China in order to enhance the efficiency of the mechanized machinery. The mayor indicated that neither reducing the garbage at the source nor recycling system is in use the cutting edge of recycling the solid waste is the level of cost- recovery which provides a very minimal salvageable value in relation to investment (cost) in recycling. Hence, in the management of garbage the system of sustainability is a major issue of concern. The Honorable Mayor indicated that the most drastic product of the Solid waste is the plastic bags/ containers that are thrown away. WFP participates in the collection of plastic bag through food for work program but on ad-hoc basis. Both technical and financial constraints impede the removal of garbage from the city effectively he concluded. In the slaughter house, the major has indicated that the good sanitary operating practices are well maintained by the private company who runs the slaughterhouse. Finally the mayor has assigned one of his sanitation officers to take us to the dump site located north to the city (15km away). Burcoa: Solid Waste Visit to Burao town Garbage terminal dumpsite During the environmental health assessment mission we have visited Burao town waste disposal site. The garbage terminal dumpsite located at 7km and southwards of Burao town, the terminal dumpsite was a large excavated dug dumpsite used for the disposal of solid wastes, in a semi-controlled tipping. We have seen that tipper trucks carrying solid wastes directly dumping inside the dug pit the tipper trucks are owned by Burao municipality. The site was guarded by site supervisors who were responsible to oversee and monitor that tipper trucks have dumped the loads of garbage into the pit. The solid waste was properly
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dumped into the excavated semi-land fill operated dumpsite. The disposal procedure of the garbage in Burao town was better managed than the one in Hargeisa. There were no birds or wild animals roaming in the disposal site. The disposal site itself and the garbage has constituted a minimal public health threat to the town resident population or to those who live in far located areas at least for the time being. The system of garbage disposal in Burao town can be easily turned into sanitary landfill method provided some investment and machinery is made available. This will in turn become a model to be followed by other municipalities of Somaliland.

This truck picks up several loads of the solid waste a day from the City of Buroa, Somaliland. The serious nature of the solid waste threat in every big city of the whole country and the environmental needs have been presented in our salient discussions. The lack of efficiency, sufficient funds, or commitment and effective strategy to deal with the municipal and industrial waste was evident. Every local and international NGOs we had interviewed made similar comment when it comes to the waste issue. There were general consensuses that the local governments in these different regions were not adequately handling their end of
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the bargain in managing the waste problem. Likewise, the local government was pointing the finger to a different and passing the blame. Though some of these shortcomings were due to shortage of funds, it was lack of an effective strategy and commitment on the part of the local government to enforce the regulations and follow up with a study on how well their strategy was working. This failure, on the major part, is the lack of environmental policies and effective vision on how to control waste while following well defined regulations to meet the challenge. Another explanation could be that, although some environmental policies are preventive, most have focused on cleaning up messes after the factwhat the environmentalists call end of pipe solutions3. Preventive and proactive measures should be taken to protect the environmental damages. It is not enough to address problems only after they have become so obvious that they cannot be ignored often, literally waiting for the dead bodies to appear or for coastlines to disappear into the ocean. Borama: Borama town sanitation The town is generally poor in sanitation for the production of garbage and its removal are not proportionally matching accumulated garbage is seen in and around the quarters of the town, although, the municipal administration of the town who is the caretaker of the sanitation do strive to promote town sanitation.The dumpsite for the terminal disposal of the solid wastes locates about 3 3.5km north of Borama town at the junction of the beginning of river valley (Dry River). It is indiscriminately dumped inside the large natural depression and around its surroundings outside the depression/garbage dumpsite. The danger of pollution of water sources is absolutely unavoidable, even though the solid waste was removed from the town and dumped in far away waste pit. Now the pit is nearly being filled up with garbage and new site is needed.

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This man (truck driver) was explaining to us, during our visit to the site, that it was very difficult to pick up the waste from all places in the City of Borama because of financial difficulties that the local government was facing. There were no enough trucks to pick up the waste; not enough gasoline was provided by the local government to make more than three trips a day; and there were no enough incentives for the men who were loading and loading the waste with their bare hands. For example, this man on the top of the truck makes something like less than $0.4 a day (less than 40 cents). No one could live on or feed his family with this kind of income. Erigavo town Solid Waste A similar situation to that of Borama town prevails in Erigavo town. However, Erigavo town is one of the cleanest towns in Somaliland for the municipality takes its responsibility to keep the town clean, and closely works with and takes advice from the regional sanitation officer, Mr. Mohamoud Barre Dualeh. The only major problem is that the dumpsite is a natural depression and is partly protected by fence, which is up now being filled. Therefore, a new terminal dumpsite is urgently needed. Lasanod town Solid Waste
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Lasanod is perhaps the worst in solid and liquid waste management there is no official care taker of the solid waste, although, the municipality is entitled to do so and is minimally involved at least to organize clean up campaign with the participation of the resident population of the town. The garbage collection and disposal was previously implemented by a local NGO called SAVO headed by the late engineer Said Abdi. Since his death in 2005, things have fallen apart. The dumpsite is open land in between two small hills located north east of Lasanod. The poor sanitation condition can be easily accessed by large quantities of flies that are always remains a menace to sanitation and hygiene standards. Only Lasanod town cannot be associated with abundance of field, but also, Berbera, Borama and even Burao and Hargeisa do host such disease carrying vector in large quantities according to seasonal climate changes. All in all we need to improve our sanitation to the highest standards with our own efforts and resources appeal the international community, for urgent assistance both technically and financially. In summary, waste reduction at the source is not practically used at all levels, so also, neither sorting nor recycling is in use. Garbage burning in dumpsites is not in practice. While sorting of hazardous wastes and disposing it separately is not employed in all situations including hospitals and industrials waste. Finally, the general consensus of the public and government is that concerted efforts and collaborative actions must applied collectively to keep our cities towns rural settlements and environment clean, safe, pollution, free, aesthetic, healthful and pleasing. Hence, our expectations should match realities through action of the citizens of the nation as whole. While sorting of hazardous wastes and disposing it separately is not employed in all situation including hospitals and industrials waste. Finally, the general consensus of the public and government is that concerted efforts and collaborative actions must applied collectively to keep our cities towns rural settlements and environment clean, safe, pollution, free, aesthetic, healthful and pleasing. Hence, our expectations should match realities through action of the citizens of the nation as whole. Inventory Sanitation equipments/facilities & machinery in the town Region: City/town machinery dumpsites Maroodi jeex Hargeisa 12 Tip per trucks 2 Bulldozer Gabiley 1 tipper truck 1 Togwajaale 1 tipper truck 1
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Awdal Borama 2 tipper trucks 1 Sahil Berbera 2 tipper trucks 1 Togdheer Burao 4 tipper trucks 1 Sanag Erigavo 2 tipper trucks 1 Non-mechanized inventories such as, donkey carts, wheel-barrows, shovels and rakes are available for use, but are limited. Liquid wastes in major urban centers Liquid wastes here are referred waste water from domestic waste water, closet, septic tank, latrine, laundries, hotels,flushing etc, for practical purposes and from public health point of view, these waste water should be considered sewage (waste water) and containing pathogens from latrines septic tanks, bathroom showers, wash basins, from clothes washing, dish washing etc or otherwise should be treated. In Somaliland, such waste water is neither treated nor disposed of sanitarily in oxidation ponds. Vacuum tanker trucks carrying waste water from latrines, septic tanks and soak away pits spill over in open land fields especially valleys. The contaminated waste water (leachate) reaches to contaminate underground water through subsurface absorption system or is washed away by rainfall run off(rain storms) water into shallow wells, dams, in this practice is common in all urban settings we need introducing a system of waste water treatment and reuse. Hargeisa Slaughterhouse We met the slaughterhouse management body, who gave us comprehensive information on the slaughterhouse ownership, facilities equipments operations and compliance with sanitary and hygiene procedures and standards (regulations). Good Sanitary operating Practices were observed. Inspections/observation Location of the slaughterhouse: located in the eastern edge of the city with no zoning restrictions in place. Buildings and dwellings are as close as less than 100 meters to the site. Premises and infrastructure: Premises is protected by fence, buildings, work blocks and cemented concrete platforms for slaughtering animals in good repair, smooth, clean and had lighting, ventilation and adequate drainage for sewage and liquid waste disposal system. Septic tanks and refuse, offal manure, non-edible parts, condemned meats disposed of separately. Health of livestock heads for slaughtering (Animals Health) Disease free from anti-mortem veterinary inspection and meat supplied to the market is certified for quality assurance by veterinary post-mortem permits.
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Water supply: the borehole was under repair and maintenance at the time of the visit. Water tankernig trucks supply water to the slaughterhouse with cost $250 per day. Struck tankers x 50 barrels x 200 liters = 50,000 liters/day. Transportation: 6 transport vehicles used only for edible meat, some of them equipped with cooling system, found clean and hygienic, meat wrapped and protected. Overall slaughterhouse sanitation and hygiene In animal slaughtering areas, a high degree of cleanliness of the slaughterhouse is maintained and personnel observe hygienic safe practices. At the time of the visit, the slaughterhouse was clean and adequate water and cleaning agents and chemicals have been used, effluent biological liquid water sewage drained into water tight septic tanks. No overflow of septic tanks to the dry-riverbed nor 2.6.1 Hargeisa: Generated Blood and Biohazard Waste:

Inside the slaughterhouse was clean and well managed. It is operated by a private company with partnership with the local government. The blood and the animal parts and waste are removed by trucks and located to the earth catchments shown in the above pictures. Offensive odors observed on inspection in the site. Two vacuum tanker trucks remove sewage from the septic tanks and the hazardous biological waste are poured into open cesspools/ditches with overflow liquid drains into low lands, gullies and rivers that lead to contaminate extensive areas. The sewage disposal ditches are located near the Nasahablood hills. The lagoons are poorly designed unprotected and allowed to drain liquid into the
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entire basin of watershed areas lying below towards the lagoons. Wild brid/ animals and other carnivores swim in the pools and feed on the refuse and other organic (biological) wastes that are indiscriminately dumped near the cesspools. There is high possibility of epizone diseases outbreak affecting the population living in adjacent or far places in the downstream. Need to construct proper oxidation ponds which should be treated and protected. Management and ownership The slaughterhouse is owned and managed by a private company called Mandeeq. The premises are owned by Hargeisa municipality and the company has invested to expand the slaughterhouse. Hargeisa municipality ensures legal enforcement for the use of slaughterhouse in slaughtering animals by the public. Slaughtering animals outside the slaughterhouse is illegal and carries penalty personnel of the slaughterhouse: 96 persons. Butchers have code numbers to slaughter animals in the slaughterhouse that are strictly observed and followed. The whole premises were free from insects and rodents. Number of animals slaughterhouse per/day 1. Sheep/goats: 1000 heads 2. Cattle: 60 cows/heads 3. Camels: 30 camels/heads Solid wastes Remnants or the unwanted parts of the slaughtered animals, offal manure and other solids were cleaned from the slaughterhouse premises and have been thrown crudely in open dumpsites (separate place or where garbage is of dumped) attracting fleets of car rivers birds and animals with resultant high level environmental pollution. No recycling system has been ever used. Liquid waste Liquid waste is emptied from septic tanks in the slaughterhouse and poured into open pools up to the level of overflow, where flooded biological liquid wastes drain into down streams/open lands (Hargeisa). The overflow design of liquid wastes from the slaughterhouse into downstream valleys and open fields is the norm of practice to dispose of liquid wastes from slaughterhouses. Burao, Borama and Berbera slaughterhouses do the same. No standard sanitary disposal system for solid and liquid wastes in both private (commercial) slaughtering (Hargeisa slaughterhouse) and municipal slaughtering houses has been established to meet
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minimum sanitary and hygiene standards for compliance in the design, construction and operation of slaughtering houses as meat plants under regulatory-framework formulated to protect public health safety, and welfare. The lagoon system combined with initiative solid screening, biological effluent, treatment systems sludge (composting) for testing recycling to produce fertilizers as important measures.

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Hargeisa: Blood from the slaughterhouse stored in an earth catchment near Nasa Hablood

The above pictures and the proceeding ones from different waste sites demonstrate a great damage and colossal negligence to the environment and the high risk it poses to the public, who depends on it for survival. Clearly, these open landfills of both solid and liquid wastes, including human and animal daily wastes,
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impact the environment and the ecological systems surrounding all big towns and cities in the entire country. Even though the country is not heavily industrialized, the uncontrolled municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes are being scattered everywhere and every space available. Often these wastes are directly washed or are flooded into the rivers and deep into the local drinking water. Most people and their livestock drink from hand-dig, shallow water wells or directly from the rivers, Brakeds and other water catchments, especially during the rainy seasons. There are no effective environmental assessments carried out regarding whether the potential toxic exposure from these open waste sites find their ways into the public food chain and into the breathing air. There are no environmental health and exposure assessment agencies that are equipped to established methods of exposure assessments and sampling techniques that could examine what the public being exposed to through air, soil, water, food or through occupation. Furthermore, population continue to increase, more people are being forced into the big cities by poverty looking for jobs. Domestic waste and industrial waste will continue to increase exponentially. Countries to Somalia, In addition, there reports of extensive illegal export of hazardous toxic wastes, including radioactive waste, from industrial to Somalia. There are also growing local industries inside the country that are remained unregulated even though they have the potential to pollute the environment. Such industries include two leather tanning and producing factories in Dacarbudhuq, between Hargeisa and Barbera and many more such as soap producing industries that are scattered in the country without being monitored. These new factories, whether they produce leather, water, cloth, plastic bags or furniture, do not spend a dime on shouldering the burden of safe disposal in order to protecting the environment and the public. These safeguard includes building modern landfills, maybe one in every region where the waste could be managed. Such directive should require the manufactures, restaurants and other businesses, under the leadership of the local governments or independent agencies, to set up an infrastructure to collect the waste. It goes without saying, therefore, that, in the absence of regulations, and without proper landfills or waste treatment plants, this waste here and in the whole country will be out of control and the public remains at the mercy of such exposure. 2.6.2 Burao town slaughterhouse Burao town slaughterhouse has been constructed in an open sky slaughterhouse design without roofing or rooms the slaughtering plots for sheep/goats, camels or cows have been having concrete floors, are drained and clean at the time of our
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inspection visit the cleaning operation of the slaughterhouse was in progress or going on while the slaughterhouse was observed relatively clean inside. However, the sanitary condition of the slaughterhouse for the disposal of liquid wastes was extremely a real threat to the whole environment around the slaughterhouse and entire basin of the dry river and along its further tip in the downstream. The septic tanks that are constructed many years for the collection and decomposition of liquid wastes have been destroyed and were no longer in use as soak away pits. Therefore, the liquid waste from the slaughterhouse is drained into the dry river bed (Togdheer river bed) and to the furthest point in the downstream. This has constituted an alarming public health hazard to the whole population of the town and to the communities who are living far located areas along the banks of the river or those who get water from the shallow wells located along the river banks or inside the river bed. The slaughterhouse in Burao town needs immediate relocation and redevelopment into modern slaughterhouse through proper design and construction of new one.

Ownership & Management: Burao Municipality Number of personnel Number of animals slaughtered: Sheep and goats: 750 heads Camels: 25 heads Cows: 00 heads

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Borama Current slaughterhouse Borama slaughterhouse is the open sky traditional type construction of slaughterhouse. It locates south east of the town near the valley and the dry river called Qorgab, where a large number of shallow well locate to provide water supplies to a large portion of the town population, as well as, to rural and pastoralist communities. The slaughterhouse resembles that of Barbera or Burao town in the aspect of sanitation and hygiene standards and capacity to handle the number of slaughtered animals in the slaughterhouse per day. The slaughterhouse is constrained by lack of water supply for cleanliness and the hard crust of the earth where it locates has made difficult to dug and construct septic tanks for sewage, hence, the sewage overflows on open land and drains into the Qorgab valley and river bed leading to constantly contaminate the shallow wells water. But now, a new slaughterhouse is being built and the problem will be solved in the near future at least partially. Number of heads slaughtered 1. Sheep and goats: 130 heads 2. Cattle 20 heads 3. Camels 5 heads

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The waste from the slaughterhouse is separated at different steps. The solid waste is collected at the first collection point and will be transported to an open earth catchment where is treated with bacteria to break down the waste. The waste will be eventually used as a fertilizer. Any remaining fatty material will be removed at the second chamber before the septic tank and is added to the solid waste. The liquid waste passes through septic tank and will be released into an open field where it will be absorbed into the soil. The unanswered question, however, is whether this liquid is safe to be released into the soil. It was not clear from the conversation I had with Dr. Wamalwa Kinyanjjui, hygiene consultant for
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FAO Somalia, whether all necessary measures were taken to insure strict environment safety and the protection of the community residing near and around plant after it became operational. He sounded as if the final decision on how to address these concerns were not made yet, though her assured an overall safety of the environment. Erigavo slaughterhouse In Erigavo and Lasanod towns the capital towns of Sanag and Sool regions respectively have no slaughterhouse or there are no premises and infrastructure for slaughtering animals in either of the towns. Therefore, the animals to be slaughtered are subject to open-land, exposure. Blood is drained into the soil and the remnants and unwanted body parts of the slaughtered livestock are thrown and left in the open field. Later in the night or whenever people leave from the sites, birds and wild canine animals, vector and rodents come together to the slaughter places and feed on the remnants blood and other biological wastes. While in the rainy these dirty biological wastes are washed into the down streams to contaminate shallow wells water and surface water supplies of the public especially, rural and nomadic communities. This can cause serious diseases outbreaks or various epizone diseases, at the same time this practice is a continuous source of poor sanitation and unhygienic living conditions surrounding the whole environments of the towns that urgently requires to be altered through appropriate interventions. The number of animals slaughtered by type in each town per day is as follows: Erigavo town (Sool) 1. Sheep & Goats: 160 heads per day (average) 2. Camels: 18 heads per day 3. Cattle: 12 heads per day Lasanod town (Sool) 1. Sheep and Goats: 175 heads per day 2. Camels: 20 heads per day 3. Cattle: 8 heads per day Hygiene slaughtering of livestock and observing standard sanitary operating practices in meat handling and delivering to the market was found reasonably maintained in Hargeisa slaughterhouses. Manual cleaning and disinfection to improve and maintain slaughterhouse sanitation and hygienic standards with use of brushes, chlorine and detergents
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was also reasonably effective in Hargeisa slaughterhouse. All surfaces of concrete cement (construction) floors or the marble lined floor of Hargeisa slaughterhouse, Burao town-cemented slaughterhouse and to some extent Borama slaughterhouse were smooth without cracks and sloped to drains waste water, repair and maintenance were in place. Berbera slaughterhouse cement floor was found cracked without repair and Erigavo and Lasanod sanitation is critically alarming as there are no slaughterhouse places at present.

All these discussions and most theme articles including and willing images and picture took to open dumpsites and free smoke incinerations of Hargeisa that which unplanned, and collected the municipal and whole the solid & liquid west of the city, shows as how our sanitation is still poor, but I hope after these we can discuss how to improve immediately and support for this new lesson we learnt about these field.

In addition of top of that we would like to suggest these point we think about it important how to achieve our sanitation millennium goals immediately address the solid waste problem and design better landfills, incinerators and better waste management systems it is recommended that the local government and the local NGOs formulate and implement effective environmental policy to address the solid waste issues immediately address and protect the oceans from abuses and destruction of Coral reefs define and design an environmental protection program, agency or department that promotes an active involvement in the environmental and public health protection programs, and make it sustainable allocate an adequate resources for the protection of all ecological systems that could guarantee the protection of biodiversity increase capacity building at all levels and start training for the conservation of habitats and biodiversity at local and regional level establish the legal and policy framework for conservation of habitats and biodiversity, both in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
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reduce deforestation and degradation of the environment to improve and sustain environmental health start a dialogue on how to 1-Land use plans for the disposal of solid waste in temporary waste collection point and terminal dumpsites (sanitary infrastructure facilities) 2- Capital budget 3- Heavy machinery (garbage collection transport vehicles, bulldozers, graders and compactors) 4- Sufficient numbers of crew/employees for collection and loading 5- Trained are qualified public health inspectors and sanitation and officers supervisors 6- Vacuum tankers construction of lagoons for liquid waste disposal coordination 7- Effective stakeholder coordination 8 -Scaling up the profile of sanitation to meet MDG 7 9- Extensive public education and legal enforcements of relevant laws 10- Performances & efficiency measurement systems supervision & monitoring 11- Solid waste & liquid waste disposal 12- Comprehensive waste management separation of regulatory responsibilities & national, regional and district levels including supervision, control and service operation levels.

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References:1. Annual Editions: Environmental 2009/2010: twenty-Eighth Edition 2. Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA), June 1999. 3. Clashing Views on Environmental Issues by Thomas A. Easton; 13th edition. 4. Country Environmental Profile for Somalia, From 1st March 2006 to 31st August 2006: IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya. 5. WHO Mission Report on: Pesticide Incident in hargeisa, Somali Republic of Somaliland October, 6-15, 2003: World Health Organizational Office for Eastern Mediterranean. http://www.google.com http://www.Ask.com Situation Environment health assessment Somalia pdf adobe reader

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