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The problems listed below are intended as review problems to do before the

nal. They are organized in groups according to sections in my notes, but it is not

forbidden to use techniques from later sections (sometimes dramatically easier) to

solve earlier problems.

I emphatically do not imply that my solutions are unique or even the best solu-

tions to these problems. I hope, at least, that there are no erroneous solutions.

If you nd an error or typo, or have a better solution, be sure to let me know!

(i). Linear Equations and R

n

.

(a), (b) and (c) Solve:

_

1 2 3

1 5 6

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

3

7

_

and

_

1 2 3

1 2 3

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

3

7

_

and

_

1 2

3 4

__

x

y

_

=

_

3

7

_

.

Solutions:

(a)

_

1 2 3 3

1 5 6 7

_

_

1 2 3 3

0 7 9 10

_

_

1 2 3 3

0 1

9

7

10

7

_

_

1 0

3

7

1

7

0 1

9

7

10

7

_

.

We interpret this to mean x+

3

7

z =

1

7

and y+

9

7

z =

10

7

. Rewriting this parametrically

(set z = t) gives

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

1

7

10

7

0

_

_

_

_

+t

_

_

_

_

3

7

9

7

1

_

_

_

_

t is any real number.

(b)

_

1 2 3 3

1 2 3 7

_

_

1 2 3 3

0 0 0 4

_

. No solution.

(c)

_

1 2 3

3 4 7

_

_

1 2 3

0 2 2

_

_

1 2 3

0 1 1

_

_

1 0 1

0 1 1

_

. Solution:

_

x

y

_

=

_

1

1

_

Date: March 24, 2006.

1

2 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

(ii). Parametric and Point-Normal Equations for Lines and Planes.

(a) Find parametric and point-normal forms for a line in R

2

through the point

(6, 4) and perpendicular to the vector (1, 3).

Solution: Parametric: Q(t) = (6, 4) +t (3, 1).

Point Normal: ( (x, y) (6, 4) ) (1, 3) = 0.

(b) Find parametric and point-normal forms for a plane containing the three

points (6, 4, 7), (0, 0, 1) and (1, 0, 2).

Solution: V = (6, 4, 7) (0, 0, 1) = (6, 4, 6) and W = (1, 0, 2) (0, 0, 1) =

(1, 0, 1) lie in the plane, head and tail. V W = (4, 12, 4).

Parametric: Q(s, t) = (0, 0, 1) +s (6, 4, 6) +t (1, 0, 1).

Point Normal: ( (x, y, z) (0, 0, 1) ) (4, 12, 4) = 0.

(iii). Linear Transformations from R

n

to R

m

.

(a), (b) and (c) Which of the following are linear? Justify your conclusion.

g

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

4

x +y

_

h

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

xy

x +y

_

f

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

z x

x +y

_

.

Solutions:

(a) Not linear, because g(0) = 0.

(b) Not linear. If linear, it would correspond to the matrix

( h(e

1

) h(e

2

) h(e

3

) ) =

_

0 0 0

1 1 0

_

.

However

_

0 0 0

1 1 0

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

0

x +y

_

=

_

xy

x +y

_

.

(c) Is linear: ( f(e

1

) f(e

2

) f(e

3

) )

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

1 0 1

1 1 0

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

z x

x +y

_

.

(iv). Eigenvalues.

(a), (b) and (c) Find real eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors (if any) for:

_

0 1

1 0

_ _

1 0

0 3

_

and

_

1 0

4 5

_

.

Solutions:

(a) det

_

1

1

_

=

2

+ 1 which has no real solutions. No real eigenvalues.

(b) det

_

+ 1 0

0 3

_

= ( + 1)( 3). Real eigenvalues: 1 and 3.

= 1 has eigenvector (1, 0). = 3 has eigenvector (0, 1).

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 3

(c) det

_

1 0

4 5

_

= ( 1)( 5). Real eigenvalues: 1 and 5.

= 1 has eigenvector (1, 1). = 5 has eigenvector (0, 1).

(v). General Vector Spaces and Subspaces.

(a) Is the set of 3 by 3 matrices whose determinant is 0 a vector space with the

usual matrix addition and scalar multiplication?

Solution:

No: not closed under addition.

_

_

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 1 1

_

_

+

_

_

1 1 1

0 0 1

1 1 1

_

_

=

_

_

2 2 2

1 1 2

1 2 2

_

_

.

(b) Is the set of ordered pairs of integers a vector space with the usual operations?

Solution:

No: not closed under scalar multiplication.

1

2

(1, 1) =

_

1

2

,

1

2

_

.

(c) Prove that the eigenspace for a given eigenvalue of a square matrix is a vector

space.

Solution:

Suppose that v and w are eigenvectors for eigenvalue for matrix M and c is

any constant.

M(v +cw) = Mv +cMw = v +cw = (v +cw).

So v +cw is also an eigenvector for this eigenvalue.

(d) Is a plane in three dimensional space which contains the origin a subspace

of R

3

? What if it doesnt contain the origin?

Solution:

Yes: the equation of a plane through the origin can be written in normal form

n x = 0. Dot product is linear, so (as in the last example) the vectors in the plane

are closed under scalar multiplication and vector addition.

The points in any plane not containing 0 cannot be closed under scalar multi-

plication and so is not a vector space.

(e) Is the graph of y = x

2

a subspace of R

2

?

No: (1, 1) is in this set but 2(1, 1) is not.

(f) Is the set consisting of the x and y axes (combined) a vector subspace of R

2

?

Solution:

No: (1, 0) and (0, 1) are in this set but (1, 0) + (0, 1) is not.

4 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

(vi). Basis for a Vector Space.

(a) Find a basis for the vector space of 2 by 2 matrices with trace 0.

Solution:

Trace is a linear function on matrices so its nullspace is a vector space. Obviously

not all 2 by 2 matrices have trace zero, so the dimension of the nullspace is at most

three. Here is a collection of three independent matrices with trace 0, which must

therefore constitute a basis:

_

1 0

0 1

_

and

_

0 0

1 0

_

and

_

0 1

0 0

_

.

(b) Find a basis for the plane given by (3, 6, 1) (x, y, z) = 0.

Solution:

{ (6, 3, 0), (0, 1, 6) }. These are two independent vectors in the plane, which

cannot have dimension exceeding two (since it is not all of R

3

.) So they form a

basis.

(c) Find a basis for the hyperplane given by (3, 6, 1, 5) (x, y, z, w) = 0.

Solution:

{ (6, 3, 0, 0), (0, 1, 6, 0), (0, 0, 5, 1) }. These are three independent vectors

in the hyperplane, which cannot have dimension exceeding three (since it is not

all of R

4

.) So these vectors form a basis.

(d) Find a basis for the set of polynomials in the variable t. (hint: This will be

an innite basis.)

Solution:

The easiest basis is { 1, t, t

2

, . . . } where we will not dwell upon the meaning of

. . . You know what I mean, right? It is obvious that this set spans the vector

space of polynomials, since any polynomial is by denition a linear combination of

these powers. We need to show it is an independent set.

Suppose there is a sum a

n

t

n

+ a

n1

t

n1

+ + a

0

of distinct powers of t, and

where a

n

is nonzero, which adds to 0. Then dividing both sides by a

n

t

n

we nd

that

0 = 1 +

a

n1

a

n

t

+ +

a

0

a

n

t

n

.

But the limit, as t , of the right is 1, since every term but the rst has t in

the denominator. Since 0 = 1 we conclude that there is no such nontrivial linear

combination, and the set of non-negative powers of t is independent.

(vii). Linear Functions Between Vector Spaces.

Let W denote the set of polynomials in x of degree 5 or less. Consider the linear

function

d

2

dx

2

: W W.

(a) What is the nullspace of

d

2

dx

2

? Find a basis.

Solution:

By the mean value theorem (applied twice) if

d

2

dx

2

f = 0 then f(x) must be of the

form ax +b. So { 1, x} is a basis of the nullspace.

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 5

(b) What is the image of

d

2

dx

2

? Find a basis.

Solution:

d

2

dx

2

reduces the degree of a polynomial by exactly 2 if it started at degree 5, 4, 3

or 2. So the image of

d

2

dx

2

will be certain polynomials of degree 3 or less. On the

other hand,

d

2

dx

2

_

a

3

20

x

5

+

a

2

12

x

4

+

a

1

6

x

3

+

a

0

2

x

2

_

= a

3

x

3

+a

2

x

2

+a

1

x +a

0

.

So any third degree polynomial is in the image of this dierential operator. So

{ 1, x, x

2

, x

3

} is a basis for the image.

(c) Pick a basis A for W and nd a matrix M

A,A

for

d

2

dx

2

.

Solution:

How about the easiest? Let A = { 1, x, x

2

, x

3

, x

4

, x

5

}, in that order.

M

A,A

=

__

d

2

dx

2

1

_

A

_

d

2

dx

2

x

_

A

. . .

_

d

2

dx

2

x

5

_

A

_

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

0 0 2 0 0 0

0 0 0 6 0 0

0 0 0 0 12 0

0 0 0 0 0 20

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

(viii). Nullspace, Columnspace and Solutions.

(a), (b) and (c) Find the nullspace and the columnspace for each matrix:

_

1 2 3

1 5 6

_

and

_

1 2 3

1 2 3

_

and

_

1 2

3 4

_

.

Solutions:

(a) Nullspace: Span( { (3, 9, 7) } ). Columnspace: R

2

.

(b) Nullspace: Span( { (2, 1, 0), (3, 0, 1) } ). Columnspace: Span( { (1, 1) } ).

(c) Nullspace: { (0, 0) }. Columnspace: R

2

.

(d), (e) and (f) Represent the solution to the following equations in parametric

form (if there is more than one solution) using your work from above:

_

1 2 3

1 5 6

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

3

7

_

and

_

1 2 3

1 2 3

_

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

7

7

_

and

_

1 2

3 4

__

x

y

_

=

_

3

7

_

.

Solutions:

(d) Solution Set:

_

0, 1,

1

3

_

+t(3, 9, 7) for any real t.

This could also be written as

_

0, 1,

1

3

_

+Span( { (3, 9, 7) } ).

(e) Solution Set: (7, 0, 0) +s(2, 1, 0) +t(3, 0, 1) for any real s or t.

(f) (1, 1) only.

6 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

(ix). More on Nullspace and Columnspace.

(a) Find the nullspace and the columnspace of

_

_

1 2 3

1 5 4

1 5 4

_

_

.

Solution:

Nullspace: Span( { (1, 1, 1) } ). Columnspace: Span( { (1, 1, 1), (2, 5, 5) } ).

(b) Find the nullspace and the columnspace of

_

_

1 5 6

1 5 6

1 5 6

_

_

.

Solution:

Nullspace: Span( { (5, 1, 0), (1, 0, 1) } ). Columnspace: Span( { (1, 1, 1) } ).

(c) Let V denote the set of 3 by 3 matrices. Show that trace: V R is linear.

What is the dimension of the kernel of trace?

Solution:

trace(X + cY ) =

3

i=1

(x

ii

+cy

ii

) =

3

i=1

x

ii

+c

3

i=1

y

ii

= trace(X) +c trace(Y ).

The dimension of the nullspace plus the dimension of the image must be nine, the

dimension of the space of 3 by 3 matrices. Since the image of trace is R, which has

dimension one, the dimension of the kernel must be eight.

(d) Pick bases for V and R from (c). Find a matrix for trace using your bases.

Solution:

Let A be the ordered basis

_

_

1 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

0 1 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 0

0 0 0

1 0 0

_

_

_

_

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 1 0

_

_

for V and let E be the standard basis 1 for R. The matrix M

A,E

is then the row

matrix

_

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

_

.

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 7

(x). Some Notation for Solutions.

(a) Let V denote the set of 2 by 2 matrices. trace: V R is linear. Find a

basis for the kernel of trace, and use it to nd a general solution to trace(v) = 4.

Solution:

_

4 0

0 0

_

+r

_

0 1

0 0

_

+s

_

1 0

0 1

_

+t

_

0 0

1 0

_

for any real r, s or t.

(b) Let W denote the set of polynomials in x of degree 3 or less. Consider the

linear function

d

2

dx

2

: W W. Find a basis for the nullspace of

d

2

dx

2

and use it to

nd a general solution to

d

2

dx

2

f(x) = 4.

Solution:

2x

2

+rx +s for any real r or s.

(xi). Solving Problems in More Advanced Math Classes.

(xii). Inner Products.

(a), (b) and (c) Which of the following

x

T

_

1 2

2 1

_

y or x

T

_

6 2

2 5

_

y or x

T

_

1 2

0 1

_

y

give inner products on R

2

? Give evidence.

Solution:

All three satisfy the linearity in the rst vector condition, because of the

linearity of matrix multiplication.

The rst, however, is not positive denite: (1 0)

_

1 2

2 1

__

1

0

_

= 1.

The third is not symmetric: (4 1)

_

1 2

0 1

__

2

1

_

= 17 = 13 = (2 1)

_

1 2

0 1

__

4

1

_

.

The second is symmetric (because the matrix is) but it still needs to be shown

to be positive denite.

(x y)

_

6 2

2 5

__

x

y

_

= 6x

2

+ 4xy + 5y

2

.

Consider the function h(x) = 6x

2

+4xy +5y

2

where y is to be regarded as constant.

h

y

3

is a minimum.

h

_

y

3

_

= 6

_

y

3

_

2

+ 4

_

y

3

_

y + 5y

2

=

13y

2

3

. This is obviously nonnegative, and can

only be 0 if y itself is 0. But then h(x) = 0 only if x is 0 too.

So (x y)

_

6 2

2 5

__

x

y

_

> 0 unless (x, y) is the zero vector. So the second example

is an inner product.

(d) Prove that f, g =

_

1

0

f(x)g(x) dx gives an inner product on the vector space

of continuous functions on the unit interval.

Solution:

8 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

Linearity and symmetry are basic properties of the integral and ordinary arith-

metic applied to the integral:

_

1

0

f(x)g(x) dx =

_

1

0

g(x)f(x) dx

and

_

1

0

(f(x) +k h(x))g(x) dx =

_

1

0

g(x)f(x) dx +k

_

1

0

h(x)g(x) dx.

It only remains to demonstrate the positivity condition.

If f is continuous and nonzero at c [0, 1] there is some small interval of the

form [a, b] near c so that for every point in this interval the magnitude of f is greater

than a positive number . So (f(x))

2

>

2

> 0 on this interval. So by the denition

of integral as a Riemann sum,

_

1

0

f(x)f(x) dx

_

b

a

f(x)f(x) dx >

_

b

a

2

dx =

2

(b a) > 0.

We conclude that

_

1

0

f(x)f(x) dx > 0 unless f is the zero function.

(e) Prove that f, g =

_

1

0

f(x)g(x) dx does not give an inner product on the

vector space of continuous functions on the interval [0, 2].

Solution:

A counterexample to the positivity condition is provided by the function that is

0 between 0 and 1, but has slope 1 between 1 and 2.

(f) Let V be the space of constant or rst degree polynomials. Dene f, g on

V to be f(0)g(0) +f(1)g(1). Is this an inner product?

Solution:

Yes: If f(0)f(0) +f(1)f(1) = 0 then both f(1) and f(0) are 0. Since f is linear,

that means f is the zero function. The linearity and symmetry conditions follow

quickly.

(g) Is v, w = v

1

v

2

+v

1

+w

1

+w

1

w

2

an inner product on R

2

?

Solution:

No: v, 0 will be nonzero if v = (1, 0).

(h) Is v, w = v

1

w

1

+v

1

w

2

+v

2

w

1

+v

2

w

2

an inner product on R

2

?

Solution:

No: Positive deniteness fails (though symmetry and the linearity condition do

hold.) (1, 1), (1, 1) = 0.

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 9

(xiii). The Matrix for an Inner Product.

Find the matrix G for the inner product on R

2

given by

x, y = 7x

1

y

1

+x

2

y

1

+x

1

y

2

+ 3x

2

y

2

.

Solution: G =

_

e

1

, e

1

e

1

, e

2

e

2

, e

1

e

2

, e

2

_

=

_

7 1

1 3

_

.

(xiv). Orthogonal Complements.

Give R

n

the usual inner product in each case below.

(a) Find the orthogonal complement of Span( { (3, 6, 1, 1), (4, 9, 1, 0) } ).

Solution:

Solve the homogeneous system

_

3 6 1 1

4 9 1 0

_

_

_

_

_

x

y

z

w

_

_

_

_

=

_

0

0

_

.

The vectors (3, 1, 3, 0) and (9, 4, 0, 3) span this vector subspace, which is the

orthogonal complement we are looking for.

(b) Find the orthogonal complement of Span( { (3, 6, 1), (4, 9, 1) } ).

Solution:

It is Span( { (3, 1, 3) } ). (Use cross product.)

(c) Find the orthogonal complement of Span( { (3, 6) } ).

Solution:

It is Span( { (6, 3) } ).

(xv). Orthonormal Basis.

(a) Let V be the space of constant or rst degree polynomials. Give V the inner

product f, g =

_

3

0

f(x)g(x) dx. Find an orthonormal basis. What is the angle

between x + 1 and x?

Solution:

If you start with ordered basis { 1, x} and apply the orthonormalization proce-

dure you get

_

1

3

,

2

3

x 1

_

. The angle between x + 1 and x is about 11

o

.

(b) With V as above, dene inner product f, g to be f(0)g(0) +f(1)g(1). Find

an orthonormal basis. What is the angle between x + 1 and x?

Solution:

If you start with ordered basis { 1, x} and apply the orthonormalization proce-

dure you get

_

1

2

,

2 x

1

2

_

. The angle between x + 1 and x is about 27

o

.

10 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

(xvi). Projection onto Subspaces in an Inner Product Space.

Let W = Span( { (3, 6, 1, 1), (4, 9, 1, 0) } ) and give R

4

the usual inner product.

(a) Find the matrix with respect to the standard basis for the linear function

Proj

W

. (hint: First nd an orthonormal basis for W and extend it to an orthonor-

mal basis for R

4

.)

(b) Find the matrix, as above, for reection Refl

W

of points in R

4

across W.

Solution:

Apply the Gramm-Schmidt process to the ordered basis

{ (3, 6, 1, 1), (4, 9, 1, 0), (3, 1, 3, 0), (9, 4, 0, 3) }

and you get a particularly easy basis to calculate. That is because the last two

vectors span the orthogonal complement of the rst two, cutting by two thirds the

projections that must be calculated. The basis you end up with consists of the

ordered basis S = { u

1

, . . . , u

4

} given by

1

47

_

_

_

_

3

6

1

1

_

_

_

_

,

1

5499

_

_

_

_

13

21

20

67

_

_

_

_

,

1

19

_

_

_

_

3

1

3

0

_

_

_

_

,

1

20007

_

_

_

_

78

45

93

57

_

_

_

_

.

Proj

W

has a very simple matrix when expressed in these coordinates:

M

S,S

=

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

_

_

_

_

.

This matrix kills the part of any vector that sticks out of the plane of W, but acts

like the identity matrix in W.

However we want the matrix in terms of the standard basis E so we can work

on standard coordinates. Denoting by P

S,E

the matrix of transition from basis S

to basis E we have P

S,E

= ( [u

1

]

E

[u

2

]

E

[u

3

]

E

[u

4

]

E

) where the columns of this

matrix are the standard coordinates of the new basis we calculated above. The

matrix we want is

M

E,E

= P

S,E

M

S,S

P

E,S

.

The matrix P

E,S

is the inverse of P

S,E

, but because both E and S are orthogonal,

P

1

S,E

= P

T

S,E

.

The matrix K

S,S

for the reection in W is given by

K

S,S

=

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

_

.

This matrix preserves the part of a vector in W and reverses the part that sticks out

of W. It too can be transformed to K

E,E

, so it can work on standard coordinates,

by the same process.

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 11

(xvii). Approximate Solutions.

(a) Find the point in R

2

which is the best possible solution to

_

_

1 2

3 4

6 1

_

_

_

x

y

_

=

_

_

3

7

1

_

_

where distance is measured with the usual inner product.

Solution:

We rst nd the vector in the columnspace of the matrix closest to (3, 7, 1). We

apply the Gram-Schmidt procedure to the columns, yielding

u

1

=

1

46

(1, 3, 6) and u

2

=

1

6509

(36, 62, 37).

The projection of p = (3, 7, 1) onto the columnspace is

p, u

1

u

1

+p, u

2

u

2

=

3 + 21 + 6

46

(1, 3, 6) +

108 + 434 37

6509

(36, 62, 37)

=

_

975

283

,

1915

283

,

295

283

_

.

This is a point in the image of the linear transformation, so there is a solution, and

it is the point in the image nearest to the target.

Now solve

_

_

1 2

3 4

6 1

_

_

_

x

y

_

=

_

_

_

_

_

975

283

1915

283

295

283

_

_

_

_

_

by the usual methods, yielding x =

35

283

and y =

505

283

.

(b) Find the points in R

2

which are best possible solutions to

_

1 2

3 6

__

x

y

_

=

_

3

7

_

where distance is measured with the usual inner product.

Solution:

The columnspace is spanned by (1, 3). Projecting the target (3, 7) onto the

columnspace yields the closest point v =

_

12

5

10

,

36

5

10

_

in the image of

_

1 2

3 6

_

.

Solving

_

1 2

3 6

__

x

y

_

=

_

12

5

10

36

5

10

_

yields

_

x

y

_

=

_

0

6

5

10

_

+t

_

2

1

_

for any real t.

12 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

(xviii). Embedding an Inner Product Space in Euclidean Space.

Find an inner product on a nite dimensional vector space from the examples

given above which are not dot product. Find an orthonormal basis. Satisfy yourself

that the inner product corresponds to dot product on coordinates with respect to

this basis.

Solution:

We will examine the bases and inner products from (xv).

Let V be the space of constant or rst degree polynomials with ordered basis

A = { a

1

, a

2

} = { 1, x}. If we give V the inner product f, g =

_

3

0

f(x)g(x) dx

and apply Gramm-Schmidt we get basis C = { c

1

, c

2

} =

_

1

3

,

2

3

x 1

_

. So the

matrices of this inner product in these two bases are

G

A

=

_

a

1

, a

1

a

1

, a

2

a

2

, a

1

a

2

, a

2

_

=

_

3 4.5

4.5 9

_

and

G

C

=

_

c

1

, c

1

c

1

, c

2

c

2

, c

1

c

2

, c

2

_

=

_

1 0

0 1

_

If instead we endow V with inner product f, g = f(0)g(0) + f(1)g(1) we get

an orthonormal basis D = { d

1

, d

2

} =

_

1

2

,

2 x

1

2

_

. The matrices of this

dierent inner product in these two bases are

H

A

=

_

a

1

, a

1

a

1

, a

2

a

2

, a

1

a

2

, a

2

_

=

_

2 1

1 1

_

and

H

D

=

_

d

1

, d

1

d

1

, d

2

d

2

, d

1

d

2

, d

2

_

=

_

1 0

0 1

_

(xix). Change of Basis.

Find matrices of transition from ordered basis A = { 1, x} to orthonormal bases

C for (a) and D for (b) from the last section.

Solutions:

(a) The matrix of transition from C =

_

1

3

,

2

3

x 1

_

to A = { 1, x} is

P

C,A

=

_

1

3

1

0

2

3

_

so P

A,C

= P

1

C,A

=

_

3

3

3

2

0

3

2

_

.

(b) The matrix of transition from D =

_

1

2

,

2 x

1

2

_

to A = { 1, x} is

P

D,A

=

_

1

2

1

2

0

2

_

so P

A,D

= P

1

D,A

=

_

_

2

1

2

0

1

2

_

_

.

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 13

(xx). Eect of Change of Basis on the Matrix for an Inner Product.

Show that the matrix of transition can be used to turn the matrix of the inner

product with respect to original basis into the identity matrix with respect to

orthonormal bases in the two cases above. The inner product becomes dot product

on these coordinates.

Solution:

P

T

A,D

H

D

P

A,D

= P

T

A,D

I P

A,D

=

_

_

2

1

2

0

1

2

_

_

T

_

_

2

1

2

0

1

2

_

_

=

_

2 0

1

2

1

2

_

_

_

2

1

2

0

1

2

_

_

=

_

2 1

1 1

_

= H

A

.

(xxi). Eect of Change of Basis on the Matrix for a Linear Function.

Find the matrices M

A,A

, M

C,C

and M

D,D

corresponding to dierentiation with

respect to the three bases in (xix). Show how to use the matrices of transition to

transform each matrix into the other two.

Solution:

d

dx

1 = 0 and

d

dx

x = 1 so M

A,A

=

_

0 1

0 0

_

.

So

M

C,C

= P

A,C

M

A,A

P

C,A

=

_

3

3

3

2

0

3

2

_

_

0 1

0 0

__

1

3

1

0

2

3

_

=

_

0

2

3

3

0 0

_

and

M

D,D

= P

A,D

M

A,A

P

D,A

=

_

_

2

1

2

0

1

2

_

_

_

0 1

0 0

_

_

1

2

1

2

0

2

_

=

_

0 2

0 0

_

(xxii). Basis of Eigenvectors.

(a) Let u, v and w be eigenvectors for three dierent eigenvalues for a linear

function f. Show that these three vectors form an independent set of vectors.

Solution:

Suppose u, v and w are eigenvectors for distinct eigenvalues

1

,

2

and

3

.

Relabel if necessary so that

1

= 0. Suppose further that au + bv + cw = 0 for

certain real numbers a, b and c. Applying f to this sum and using linearity of f

yields a

1

u+b

2

v+c

3

w = 0. Dividing this by (nonzero)

1

and subtracting this

linear combination from the earlier one yields

b

_

1

2

1

_

v +c

_

1

3

1

_

w = 0 so b

_

1

2

1

_

v = c

_

1

1

_

w.

14 REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

Applying f to both sides of the rightmost equation yields dierent multiples of each

side. The only way that can happen is if both sides are the zero vector. It follows

that c and b are both 0, which implies that a = 0 too. So the three eigenvectors

are independent.

The same argument can be adapted to show that any nite number of eigenvec-

tors for dierent eigenvalues must form an independent set of vectors. (hint: If this

set is dependent there would be a dependency involving the fewest number of these

vectors. That number of vectors must exceed three, by our work from above. So

every coecient in a linear combination of these particular eigenvectors which adds

to the zero vector must be nonzero. Apply the argument from above to exhibit

a nontrivial combination of these vectors involving fewer eigenvectors, yielding a

contradiction and establishing the result.)

(b) Find a basis of eigenvectors using the Cayley-Hamilton theorem as suggested

in the notes for the matrix

M = M

E,E

=

_

_

1 0 0

4 5 0

7 8 9

_

_

where E is the standard basis of R

3

.

(c) Find the matrix of transition from the standard basis E to the new basis B.

Verify that P

E,B

M

E,E

P

B,E

= M

B,B

is diagonal.

Solution:

The characteristic polynomial for this matrix is

h(x) = (x 1)(x 5)(x 9).

The columnspace of the matrices found below must be killed by the missing factor,

and so are eigenvectors for the eigenvalue involved in the missing factor. These

calculations are so arduous to do by hand that hardware assistance is a practical

necessity.

(M I)(M 5I) =

_

_

0 0 0

0 0 0

60 64 32

_

_

(M I)(M 9I) =

_

_

0 0 0

16 16 0

32 32 32

_

_

(M 5I)(M 9I) =

_

_

32 0 0

32 0 0

4 0 0

_

_

We select ordered basis B of eigenvectors u

1

= (0, 0, 1) and u

2

= (0, 1, 2) and

u

1

= (8, 8, 1). These are eigenvectors for eigenvalues 9, 5 and 1, respectively.

REAL LINEAR ALGEBRA: PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS 15

M

B,B

must be diagonal, and we verify

M

B,B

=

_

_

9 0 0

0 5 0

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

0 0 8

0 1 8

1 2 1

_

_

1

_

_

1 0 0

4 5 0

7 8 9

_

_

_

_

0 0 8

0 1 8

1 2 1

_

_

= P

E,B

M

E,E

P

B,E

.

(d) Suppose M

A,A

is a matrix for a linear transformation f : V V where V has

dimension 4 and A = { a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

}. We nd that f has eigenvalues 3 and 7 with

corresponding eigenvectors v

1

and v

2

. We also nd that the vectors v

1

, v

2

, a

2

, a

3

(in that order) form a basis B. What can you say about the matrix M

B,B

?

Solution:

The matrix will be ([f(v

1

)]

B

[f(v

2

)]

B

[f(a

2

)]

B

[f(a

3

)]

B

). The rst two columns

simplify nicely: the rst is 3e

1

and the second is 7e

2

. Nothing can be said about

the last two columns.

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