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ME495/ME598

SCALING LAWS
Lecture #2 October 3, 2006

Northwestern University

OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric Effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples
Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory

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Size of Things

Micro-world Scale

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Why Miniaturization?
Minimizing energy and materials used for the manufacture of devices Integration with electronics; simplifying systems Cost/performance advantages Faster devices Increased selectivity and sensitivity Exploitation of new effects, e.g., the breakdown of continuum theory

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Definition of Scaling Laws


Scaling laws deal with the structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale among otherwise similar (isometric) structures/organisms.

The three parameters that can be changed when the size of a structure is increased/decreased are: Dimensions (e.g., thicker walls) Materials (e.g., from brick to steel) Design (e.g., from compression to tension elements) Linear extrapolation of length comes easy to us, but we are quickly at a loss when considering the implications that shrinking of length has on surface area to volume ratios (S/V) and on the relative strength of external forces (actuation mechanisms), e.g., capillary tubes: weight scales as L3 and surface tension as L.
A 1 m diameter capillary will raise water 30 m.
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BASIC PREMISE Isomorphic scaling (i.e., all dimensions scale uniformly CONSEQUENCE: Scaling will lead to various physical effects that influence overall system/device operation in unexpected ways
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Why Do We Need to Study Scaling Laws?


In dealing with very small devices, our macro-intuition on their operations is often misleading. It is necessary to develop an improved intuition about the likely behavior of the system when downsized. Dominant physical quantities between different scales change:
Gravitational, inertial forces become less effective Van der Waals forces, electrostatic forces, surface tension forces become more Important

Better understand the physical consequence of downscaling mechanical, electrostatic, electromagnetic, fluidic, and thermal devices. Based on the better understanding, explain the unexpected behaviors of micro machines and better understand why, in some cases, it makes sense to miniaturize a device for reasons beyond economics, volume and weight.

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S/V Relations

(I) Surface ~ (length)2 or S ~ L2 (II) Volume ~ (length)3 or V ~ L3 (III) Surface ~ (volume)2/3 or S ~ V2/3 In the last equation we learn that as the volume of a body is increased, its surface does not increase in the same proportion, but only in proportion to the two-thirds power of the volume (IV) S = k V0.67 or S/V = k V-0.33 The latter expression repeats another well-known fact: smaller bodies have, relative to their volumes, larger surface areas than larger bodies of the same shape
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Animal Size
Metabolic rate (watts) 1000 100 10 1

0.1 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Body mass (kg) 1000 10000

Small mammals must keep on eating to stay warm ((heat loss ~ l2 and heat generation (through eating) is ~ l3))---insects avoid this problem by being cold blooded A lower limit for lives in dry environment even for cold blooded animals, limiting them to 25~30 m, because they can NOT retain their vital fluids long enough to survive.
DArcy Thompson: On Growth and Form and Knut Schmidt-Nielsen: Why is Animal Size so Important?
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Animal Size
Number of life species

1,000,000

1-2 mm

Biosensors in the 10 to 100m range face evaporation of liquids

100,000 5-6 cm 10,000 S/V effect, surface tension, viscosity and Brownain motion limit small size tension 1,000

30-40 cm Niches in nature and gravity limit large size

100

10 102-103 m < 102 m 104-105 m

2-3 m 106-107 m > 107 m

103-104 m

105-106 m

Size
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OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
Northwestern University

Scaling of Gravity & Pressure


Gravity Fgr=m*g=L3*g ~ L3 Pressure P= Fgr/S=L*g ~ L
Fgr
g is the gravitational acceleration

At the microscopic level, adhesion forces dominate, because the details of the forces at the molecular level are much larger than the gravitational ones

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Scaling of Energy
Kinetic energy: Ek = mv2/2; Thus, Ek ~ L3 Ek ~ L5
- for constant v - for v ~ L

Gravitational potential energy: Ep = mgh; Thus, Ep ~ L3 - for constant h Ep ~ L4


- for h ~ L

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Scaling in Springs
Spring Force Fspring = K (L) ~ L Oscillating Frequency = 1 k ~ L3 / 2 2 m Oscillation Period Tsping ~ L3 / 2 Potential Energy E pot = K (L) 2 ~ L2

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Scaling in Rotating Bodies


Inertial Momentum

I ml 2 l 5
Rotational Kinetic Energy 1 K = I 2 l 5 2
This implies that, at constant , the rotational energy of a small systems decreases rapidly. A small motor will reach top speed in a fraction of a second; large motors may require seconds to reach full speed.
MICRO STRUCTURE BULLETIN NO.2 MAY 1997
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Scaling in Cantilever Beams


Maximum Stress

max =

12 FLb 6 F = 2 l 2 2 2b l
If the same maximal stress is desired in the beam, then the applied load F must be reduced as the square of the linear dimension, by assuming simple beam theory holds at all structural scales and that the material properties are also constant

Oscillating Frequency

1 = 2

EI l 1 4 AL

A beam a thousand times smaller bends a million times less under its own weight. Resonant frequencies are large in small systems.
Wautelet, Michel. Scaling laws in the macro-, micro- and nano-world, European Journal of Physics 22 (2001): 602-611.
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Scaling in Strength to Weight Ratio


Strength l2 while Weight l3
Strength l 2 3 = l 1 Weight l

Small things tend to be stronger


VS
50 Times
http://www.control.hut.fi/Kurssit/AS74.3136/materials/scaling_s.pdf#search=%22Quan%20Zhou%2C%20scaling_s.pdf%22

Young and small trees appear slender and old and tall ones appear squat or stunted

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Scaling in Strength to Weight Ratio


(continued)

Compressed materials may withstand a maximal stress of max If they are submitted to their own weight, mg, max ~ mg/A (A cross section, e.g., ~ d2) it follows that max ~ L3/L2 ~ L For a given material max is constant, hence when the dimensions increase, the diameter, d, of the supporting material is such that d2 ~ L3, or

d ~ L3/2
CONSIDER: Animal bones!
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Scaling in Swimming
Skin friction R l2
R skin friction V - swimming speed E Energy ~ mass of creatures muscles l3

E RV 2
V E l3 = 2 = l R l

The larger the creature grows, the greater its swimming speed
Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002.
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Flying
Flying (birds fly from 10.8 to 20.7 m/sec): Wing length ~ l ~ M 1/3 and wing area ~ l2 ~ M 2/3 The characteristic speed for flying varies as l 1/2 or M 0.17 Drag/lift forces are given by FL = 1/2 CL Av2. This expression has an order of 2 + 2v Of key importance is the lift-to weight ratio (divide by l3) which is of the order 2v-1 Since the lift-to-weight ratio should be invariant with scale to achieve flight a zero order scaling law is needed thus v must be 1/2 to achieve sufficient lift (same result as above)

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10

Adhesive Forces
Adhesive forces dominate in the micro-world Adhesive forces are due to the forces between atoms and molecules Three forces:
Van der Waals force Surface tension Electrostatic force

Fadh ~ L2 (In lots of cases)


Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force

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Scaling in Friction
In the macro-world, friction is independent of the contact area. Ffr = Fgr = mg ~ L3 In the micro-world, due to surface roughness and large adhesive forces, striction (i.e., the combination of adhesion and friction) forces, Fstr, has to be taken into account: Fstr ~ L2

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11

Comparison between Gravity & Adhesive Forces


Gravity Fgr ~ L3 and adhesive Fadh ~ L2 Fadh / Fgr ~ L-1 The adhesion force dominates the gravitational force at low L. The critical value at which both forces are equal depends on x and on the nature of the medium between the two solids. However, below say L = 1 mm, Fgr is much less than Fvdw. Gravitation may then be neglected at such small dimensions, both in the micro- and the nano-worlds.
Northwestern University

OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
Northwestern University

12

Van der Waals Forces


Attraction force between a sphere and surface
Fvdw = HR 12 x
H- Hamaker constant

H depends on the nature of the medium between the slabs


Order of J in air Order of 10-20 J in water 10-19

Relation valid for x between around 2 and 10 nm.


F. Arai, D.Ando, T. Fukuda, Y. Nonoda, T. Oota, Micro manipulation based on micro physics, 1995.
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Van der Waals Forces


Two atoms Two spheres

Ei =

r6

- London-van der Waals constant.

H = 2n2

Hamaker constant (where n is the number of atoms per cm3).

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force

Northwestern University

13

Van der Waals Forces


Van der Waals energy between a sphere and a rectangular block

Total Energy

Van der Waals force


Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Van der Waals Forces

Fvdw~L2

http://www.control.hut.fi/Kurssit/AS74.3136/materials/scaling_s.pdf#search=%22Qu an%20Zhou%2C%20scaling_s.pdf%22
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14

Effects of Surface Roughness


Van der Waals force is very sensitive to surface roughness

http://www.control.hut.fi/Kurssit/AS-74.3136/materials/scaling_s.pdf#search=%22Quan%20Zhou%2C%20scaling_s.pdf%22

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Scaling in Surface Tension


The molecules on the surface tend to be pulled away from the surface, and therefore work must be done to bring the molecules from the body of the liquid to the surface. The work required per unit area to bring molecules to the surface (i.e., to create a new surface) is called surface tension.

http://www.me.jhu.edu/~thwang/notes/Scaling-I.pdf#search=%22Jeff%20Wang%20Johns%20Hopkins%20University%2C%20scaling%22
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15

Scaling in Surface Tension


When humidity is high, or with hydrophilic surfaces, a liquid film between a spherical object and a planar surface contributes a large capillary force

Assume R2 << d,
-the surface tension force d-the object diameter

Scaling in surface tension is as L1


F. Arai, D.Ando, T. Fukuda, Y. Nonoda, T. Oota, Micro manipulation based on micro physics, 1995.

Northwestern University

Scaling in Surface Tension


Capillary tubes (L3 vs. L1)
weight scales as L3 surface tension as L

Size of a droplet (L3 vs. L1)


A 1 m diameter capillary will raise water 30 m.

The mass of a liquid in a capillary tube, and hence the weight, scales as L3 and decreases more rapidly than the surface tension, which scales as L as the system becomes smaller. That is why it is more difficult to empty liquids from a capillary compared to spilling coffee from a cup.
http://www.me.jhu.edu/~thwang/notes/Scaling-I.pdf#search=%22Jeff%20Wang%20Johns%20Hopkins%20University%2C%20scaling%22

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16

Surface Tension Gripper


Picking up several small objects from the working area without damage to the surface by using surface tension

Small object, a metal ball of 0.8mm in diameter, 2.4 mg in weight is successfully picked up

Ref: http://www.aolab.mce.uec.ac.jp/AOLAB/Eng/IWMF/IWMF.html
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Self Assembly Based on Capillary Forces

Xiaorong Xiong, Yael Hanein, Controlled Multibatch Self-Assembly of Microdevices, JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 2, APRIL 2003
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17

Electrostatic Forces
q q

Definition:
The electrical force of repulsion or attraction induced by an electric field E r

Coulombs law
F= 1 qq ' 4 r 2
-permittivity of the material separating two particles

Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002

Northwestern University

Scaling in Electrostatic Forces


Electric potential in parallel plates:
V (breakdown voltage) is assumed proportional to L

WLV 2 1 E = CV 2 = 0 r 2 2d

0 and r are the permittivity and relative permittivity of the dielectric medium
L

0, r l0
E (l 0 )(l 0 )(l1 )(l1 )(l1 ) 2 = l3 1 l

http://www.control.hut.fi/Kurssit/AS-74.3136/materials/scaling_s.pdf#search=%22Quan%20Zhou%2C%20scaling_s.pdf%22

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18

Scaling in Electrostatic Forces


The forces in the d, W, and L directions FL

Fw Lateral forces tend to move the plates


towards each other

Fd

Fd, FW, and FL L2

Assume V~L and d>10um

A 10x size reduction of the parallel plates will lead to a 100x decrease in the electrostatic forces
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
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Breakdown of Continuum Theory


Paschen Curve in Air

Micro-intuition The Paschen effects suggest yet another advantage in the nonlinear region - the field scales like l -1/2 and the force like l1 Understanding scaling allows one to choose an actuator principle with more confidence There are many factors though beyond scaling that play a role in the decision which actuator mechanism to use e.g. absolute energy density

Breakdown Voltage V 1400 V 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2 2.6 m 10 13. 16 m At 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg New Physics and Chemistry 20 30 40 Pressure x distance P X d ( mm Hg-mm)

Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002
Northwestern University

19

Breakdown of Continuum Theory


Because of non-linear effects electrostatic devices can be operated in air without breaking down (operation on the left side of the Paschen curve). New physics and chemistries to be explored.

Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002

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Electrostatic Actuation & Sensing


Actuation and Sensing can utilize both the vertical and laterally driven motions Advantage of lateral movement over vertical movement
The force changes linearly with the distance (L) Dissipative damping is avoided Larger displacement

Electrical fields can exert great forces but generally across very short distance only

Left: Vertically driven polysilicon bridge Resonant microstructures/devices used for accelerometers Right: Laterally driven electrostatic actuator large displacement devices

Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002
Northwestern University

20

Electrostatic Applications
Actuators
Optical switches Micro motors (wobble) Micro valves Grippers X-Y stages for AFM

Rotational Electrostatic Motor

Sensors
Gyroscopes Accelerometers
Linear Electrostatic Motor (comb driver) Micro-gripper Ref: Enikov 2003
Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002
Northwestern University

OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
Northwestern University

21

Electromagnetic Forces
Amperes law:

B dl = 0 J dA = 0 I
A

Force on a wire in B-field

u0 -the magnetic permeability of free space J current density

Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002

Northwestern University

Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces


Assume J constant

F (l 2 )(l 2 ) = l 4
So a 10x reduction of size leads to a 10,000x reduction of electromagnetic force Scaling results of the interaction between a coil and a permanent magnet is somewhat better

F l3
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
Northwestern University

22

Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces


Scaling results of the interaction between a coil and a permanent magnet

F l3
Assume constant heat flow per unit area of winding

F l3

The assumption of a constant temperature difference between windings and the environment yields l2, yet the power dissipation per unit volume scales as l-1. Superconductors could eliminate this problem.
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
Northwestern University

OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory

Northwestern University

23

Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity is the ability of crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress The piezoelectric effect is reversible in that piezoelectric crystals, when subjected to an externally applied voltage, can change shape by a small amount Piezoelectric material: crystals

http://www.stanford.edu/class/me220/data/lectures/lect06/equivale.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.stanford.edu/class/me220 /data/lectures/lect06/lect_6.html&h=496&w=784&sz=7&hl=en&start=19&tbnid=01BmrCASO5qtdM:&tbnh=90&tbn w=143&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPiezoelectricity%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

A 1 cm cube of quartz with 500 lbf (2 kN) of correctly applied force upon it, can produce a voltage of 12,500 V.
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Actuator Types

Transverse Wafer Longitudinal Wafer

Stack Actuator Bimorph (extension) Bimorph (bending)

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24

Scaling of Piezoelectric Effects


Hooks Law

D is the electric displacement, is permittivity and E is electric field strength

Constitutive equation for dielectrics


S is strain s is compliance T is stress.

Coupled Equations
The matrix d contains the piezoelectric coefficients for the material

Piezoelectric effect scales down with the bulk of the material, miniaturization opportunities are limited hybrid-type micro actuator are more reasonable
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Piezoelectric Materials
Applications:
Mechanical to Electrical
Force, Pressure, and acceleration sensors Smart Sensors for Side Impact Diagnostics High Voltage - Low Current Generators: Spark Igniters for Gas grills, small engines, etc. Yaw Rate Sensors Platform Stabilization Sensors

Electrical to Mechanical:
Ultrasonic motors, Small Vibration Shakers Microactuators (High Precision Macro actuators) Sonar array arrays for collision avoidance Pumps for Inkjet Printers

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25

Scaling in Electricity
Electric resistance:
- electric resistivity of the conductor L Length A cross section area

R=

L
A

Resistive power loss:

P=

Power dissipated by unit area

v2 l R

V - the applied voltage

Punit =

P l 2 = l 1 Area l

Reduction in size leads to more dissipated power. One way to diminish this effect is to reduce the applied voltage
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.

Northwestern University

Scaling in Electricity
Capacitance:

C = 0A/d
Charge:

C~L

Q = CVel

Q~L

Energy stored in the capacitor:

Ecap = Q2/2C

Ecap = ~ L

(Stored energy decreases with the size of the capacitor)

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26

Scaling in Electricity
Magnetic field in a solenoid:
n number of turns L wire length Iel - current

B = Ieln/L

B~L

(It is assumeb that n remains constant and that a constant current density is maintained)

Magnetic energy stored in the solenoid:

Emag = B2Vvol/2

Emag ~ L5 Fmag ~ L4

Vvol Volume of the magnetic field Vvol ~ L3

(Technological problems must also be considered: Number of turns not independent of L since very this wires cannot be yet manufactured; Solenoids smaller than 1 mm3 seem impractical; Maximum current density is limited by energy dissipation (i.e., maximal allowable temperature; Etc.)

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Scaling in Electricity
Previous laws apply for miniaturizing devices it is more important to look at the scaling of electric power supplies
For a system that carries its own power supply, the available power is related to the volume, i.e., Eav (l)3 Therefore, P/Eav (l)-2

This means that a 10x reduction in the size of the power supply system would lead to a 100x greater power loss due to the increase in resistivity
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.

Northwestern University

27

General Scaling Laws


Small things are fast Small things are strong Small things are not affected much by gravity compared to friction Small things do not provide much torque or power Small things are dominated by Van der Waals forces, surface tension
Time l0 van der Waals Force l Distance l Velocity l Surface Tension l Muscle Force l2 Friction l2 Mass l3 Gravity l3 Magnetic force l3 Torque l3 Power l3

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OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
Northwestern University

28

Scaling in Fluid Mechanics


Two characteristic parameters
Density &Viscosity
A h u F

Dynamic Viscosity (kg/m s)


Ratio of shear stress/Shear rate Causes shear when the fluid is moving Air 1.85 10-5 and Water 10-3

Newtonian flow
Shear stress and velocity is linearly related Only a function of the nature of the fluid Water, air

Non-Newtonian flow
Viscosity is also a function of velocity gradient; decreases as gradient increases Milk, blood

F = = A s u h

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Scaling in Fluid Mechanics


Navier-Stokes law Hagen-Poiseuille law
Experimental determination of fluid viscosity for laminar flow of a fluid through a capillary

8 xu p = r2

r 4 p Q= 8 x

Volumetric flow u=Q/A=avg. velocity

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29

Scaling in Fluid Mechanics


Scaling in rate of volumetric flow
Assume constant pressure drop per unit length r 4 p 4 Q= ~l 8 x 10x reduction in size leads to 10,000x reduction in rate of volumetric flow

Scaling in pressure
Assume constant u, x 8 xU p = 2 ~ [l 2 ] r Large pressures are needed to drive micro-flows
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Scaling in Fluid Mechanics


Unfavorable Volume & Pressure scaling cause design of conventional volumetric pumping at the micro-scale impractical Surface-driving forces more useful:
surface-traction surface-tension flow (capillary effects) piezoelectric electro-osmotic electro-hydrodynamic

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30

Scaling in Fluid Mechanics


Reynolds number
Re < 2100 => laminar flow regime Slow fluid flow, no inertial effects Re >4 000 => turbulent flow regime whale swimming at 10 m/second ~ 300,000,000 mosquito larva, moving at 1mm/sec ~ 0.3

Assume U~l =>Re [l]2 Always laminar flow! Dominant laminar flow in micro systems makes it difficult to mix liquids in micro-channels

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Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Micro-fluidic mixing:

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31

Scaling in Fluid Mechanics


Body falls vertically in a fluid
Vlim = 4 gr 2 ~ [l 2 ] 18
2r

~ [l 2 ]

Viscous forces rapidly damp any motion for objects with small dimensions Small "swimming" objects are very rapidly brought to a halt due to viscosity. A very small body remains immobile in air, as experienced by us by looking at dust in sunrays
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OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
Northwestern University

32

Scaling in Thermodynamics
Energy required to heat a system to temperature T is proportional to mass

Eth ~ L3
For conduction and radiation power dissipation is proportional to area

Pd ~ L2
The time needed to homogenize the temperature in a system of given shape is

th ~ L 2

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Scaling in Heat Conduction


Q Q A x
K-heat conductivity

Fourier law in heat conduction

Q = kA
Fourier number

T ~ [l ] x

commonly used to determine the time increments in a transient heat conduction analysis:
Cp-Specific heat

Thermal diffusivity
Q Rate of heat conduction

Easier to remove heat from a smaller object 10x reduction in time with a 10x size reduction Application to mammals Efficient micro heat sinks dissipate up to 1 kw/cm2, 40 time more than a conventional heat sink
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
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33

Scaling in Heat Convection


Newtons cooling law

Q = hAT ~ [l 2 ]
h - Heat transfer coefficient Q - Heat flow Total heat flow primarily depends on the crosssectional area, A

Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
Northwestern University

Scaling in Thermodynamics
Nature seems to favor small, e.g., insects are very well adapted: See species abundance curve (many niches) Insects walk on water (surface tension supports their mass m) Insects jump very far (E~mh and muscle for that work is ~m so h is a constant) Faster cooling and heating (cold blooded) Small thermal stresses (Small Biot number, i.e., little thermal stress) Derivation of the heating/cooling time constant:

L Biot =

= CpV A

= CpV A

A = surface area V = volume Cp =specific heat capacity = heat transfer coefficient at the surface L = characteristic dimension = thermal conductance of the solid
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34

Scaling in Thermodynamics
By heating a micromachined and thermally isolated Pt line the thermal budget can be reduced drastically because: Small thermal mass makes the device consume much less power Switch on and off much faster Biot number is small so it does not crack that easily

B=

L
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Thermal Actuators
A) Thermopneumatic actuator B) Bimetallic actuator C) Shape Memory alloy actuator

B
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35

Electrochemistry
A molecule diffuses over 10 m, 1 million times faster than over 1 cm:
Total area remains constant : R 2 = n r 2 e.g. from 50 to 2 m

x =

2D

A microbattery on a micromachine is usually not a good idea as power scales with volume, a solar cell incorporated in a micromachine might be a good idea though, i.e., beam the power in rather than generate it on the micromachine There are advantages in working with arrays of micro-electrodes, for example, an increased sensitivity for micro arrays of amperometric sensors electrodes (see next viewgraph)

n2 r > 2 R R 2 = nr 2 n = R2 (625 ) or 625.2 > 5 r2


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Electrochemistry
Nonlinear diffusion and the advantages of using micro-electrodes:
I l = nFAD 0 C0

An electrode with a size comparable to the thickness of the diffusion layer


= (D0 t )2
1

The Cottrell equation is the current-vs.time on an electrode after a potential step: 1


0 D 2 I l = nFAC 0 t

For micro-electrodes it needs correction :

D 2 I l = nFAC 0 0 + AnFD t

C0 r

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36

OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
Northwestern University

The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector

Trimmer has created a matrix to represent force scaling with related parameters of acceleration, time, and power density (P/V) that is required for scaling systems in motion Force scaling vector: F=[lF]=[l1 l2 l3 l4]T

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37

The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector

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Scaling in Time

Even in the worst case, F~l4, the time required to perform a task remains constant, when the system is scaled down. Under more favorable force scaling, for F~l2, a system 10 times smaller can perform an operation ten times faster. Smaller things tend to be fast.
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
Northwestern University

38

Scaling in Power Density

When F~l2, P/V0~ l-1. When the system is scaled down 10 time, P/V0 increase by a factor of 10.

Wautelet, Michel. Scaling laws in the macro-, micro- and nano-world, European Journal of Physics 22 (2001): 602-611. Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.
Northwestern University

The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector


Example: Scaling effects of reducing an objects weight by a factor of 10 W=Mg, where M l3, which means we use Order=3

there is no reduction in acceleration (l0) there is an (l0.5)= (10)0.5= 3.16 reduction in time there is an (l0.5)= 3.16 reduction in power density (P/V) Finally, since V is reduced by a factor of 10, the power consumption reduces by P = 3.16/10 ~ 0.3 times reduction
Hsu, Tai-Ran MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.

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Questions about Scaling Basics


Question:
If two objects fall from a certain height, in different scales, how come the time to reach ground is different?

Physical laws will not change at different scales used.


We are not looking at this problem!!!

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Questions about Scaling Basics


The size of the system is represented by the linear dimension
Choose linear dimension All dimensions are equally scaled down Dimension of the system decreased by a factor of 10, then l = 0.1 Correct interpretation of the problem
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S l*S l-linear dimension

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Example
A 1.0 cm cube of a material weighing 1.0N acted upon by gravity.

1m cube of the same material


Assume the same acceleration, g F=ma ~ l3
Time to travel 1.0 cm in the Macro-world T= (2 (0.01m)/9.8m/s^2)^0.5=0.045s = 45ms Time to travel 1m in the Micro-world T= (2 (0.000001m)/9.8m/s^2)^0.5 = 0.45ms T=0.045s* (10-6/10-2)0.5=0.45ms

S
l*S

Same system of units

1 2x t= l2 a

l-linear dimension

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OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory
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Scaling Effects

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Scaling Effects
Adhesive force could be attributed to electrostatic, Van der Waals or surface tension. Proportional to surface area. In the micro-world, adhesive forces dominate gravity It is typically easy to pick up parts, but very difficult to release parts because of these interactive forces Part adheres to one finger when the gripper opens Pneumatic probes require reversible pressure to blow the part away from the probe, thus releasing it Release of objects is difficult.

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Motion Planning in the Micro-world


As parts approach 1-10 m or less in outside dimensions, interactive forces such as Van der Waals and electrostatic forces become major factors that greatly change the assembly sequence and path plans Assembly plans in the micro-domain are not reversible, motions required to pick up a part are not the reverse of motions required to release a part. Investigate how motion planning changes based on the interactive forces in the micro-domain
Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Van der Waals Forces in Micro Operations


Gravity 3.678093~10-13

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Van der Waals Forces in Micro Operations

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Electrostatic Forces in Micro Operations

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Electrostatic Forces in Micro Operations

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Pick and Place Techniques

Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force

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Micro Operation Example


2 m diameter sphere of copper
H=3.43774E-20 J

1 m square block of copper Resting surface of aluminum


H=10.5648E-20 J D=0.1 nm Fg =3.678093E-13N Fsa=0.110N Fta=0.116N (tool centered) Fta=0.059N (tool moved to one edge contact) Fta=0.025N (tool titled 45 degree)
Feddema, Xavier and Brown, 1999, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force
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Handling Skills with Adhesives


Sliding and inclining tools Using dual manipulators

The disadvantage of these strategies is that friction between tool and part may generate micro dust from yhe object.
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Vacuum Effects Principle


Force is generated by the pressure difference on both sides of the micro-components A simple equation to estimate the suction force
F =

Pd

P: Pressure difference d: aperture dimension of suction hole

A better estimate (Qian, 2000)


Dd F = +h Pd d 4

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Vacuum Gripper
A vacuum gripper consists of a glass pipette and a vacuum control unit.
Glass pipette Made from soda or borosilicat glass tubes. Characterized by inner and outer diameter. An optimum tip size can be found in the range between 25 and 50 m, which is about 25 - 50% of the object size

Vacuum control system Provides an adequate air flow rate in both directions for the whole range of operations Vacuum must be sufficient to pick up objects.

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Vacuum Manipulator Operation

Basic Skills Pick Hold Place Releasing Strategies Strip off Push Blow away

Ref: Zeach(1997)

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OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in Machine Tools and Factory

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Comparison of Maximum Energy Density of Various Actuation Mechanisms

Madou, Marc J. Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002
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Advantages of PTZ Motors Over Various Actuation Mechanisms


Low voltages: no air gap is needed; mechanical forces are generated by applying a voltage directly across the piezo-electric film. With a O.3~m thin film, only a few volts are required, as opposed to hundreds of volts needed in air-gap electrostatic motors. Geardown: motors can be fabricated without the need of a gearbox. Electrostatic wobble motors are also able to produce an inherent gear reduction but do not have the high dielectric advantage. No levitation: with electrostatic motors, levitation and flatness are very important to obtain good sliding motion of the rotor around the bearing. The piezoelectric motor depends on friction so that no levitation is required, and it can be freely sized. Axial coupling: electrostatic motors require axial symmetry around the bearing. Since height is difficult to obtain with most nontraditional micromachining techniques, a limited area is available for energy transduction. With the piezoelectric traveling-wave motors, linear or rotary motors can be built

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Magnetic vs. Electrostatic Actuation


Electrostatic actuation is preferred over magnetic one for surface micro machined actuators Thin insulating layers such as SiO2 or Si3N4 exhibit break- down strengths as high as 2 MVlcm. The power density in this field is 7 x 105 Jlm3; this value is equal to the power density of a 1.3- T magnetic field. The contracting pressure induced by this field is 1.3 MPa. A voltage of about 100 V is sufficient to generate the strong fields mentioned. The electrostatic force is a surface force exhibiting a favorable scaling law. The actuation is simple, as it involves only a pair of electrodes separated by an insulator. The electrostatic actuator is driven by voltage, and voltage switching is far easier and faster than current switching (as in electromagnetic actuators). Energy loss through Joule heating is also lower. Weight and power consumption are low. The following comparison between electrostatic and magnetic micromotors demonstrates that many factors besides scaling need to be considered when deciding upon a certain type of actuation principle. Whereas, in some cases, the magnetic power might scale disadvantageously into the microscale, the absolute forces achievable are larger
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Comparison of Electrostatic vs. Magnetic Actuators

Electrostatics is useful in dry environments and over limited distances; eletromagnetics is still difficult to collapse into integrated structures.
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Actuator Scaling Issues


Electromagnetic actuators scale linearly
Inefficiencies seem to become more tolerable
E.g., Active X, passive Y flattened voice coils with longer end turn regions
Enable an XY platten to be driven from X and Y actuators each of which is anchored to ground

Hertz contact drives scaling of ballscrews and friction drives Leadscrews (sliding contact) scale linearly Wire capstan drives scale non-linearly (in favor of use in smaller machines!)
E.g., Roland Modella machines

Short stroke solid state actuators range of motion generally still too small
Piezoelectric, Electrostatic, Magnetostrictive Inchworm traveling wavedesigns that use these actuators can provide long range of motion
Much exciting development work in this area (Kobe, Delft, Philips) Enables X,Y, motion planar stages

The greatest benefit of small machines is architectures that allow actuators to mostly be anchored to ground thereby minimizing the amount of moving cables
Alexander Slocum, design of Design of Small Precision Machines
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Scaling Issues: Sensors


Unfortunately sensors do not really get smaller than they are now
There probably is a lot of opportunity for advancement!
Capacitance sensors on a chip Scale read heads on a chip

Accuracy of measurement is another issue


Are micro-sensors more or less accurate than their macrocounterparts?
Think of a small cantilever beam used as a sensing element!! (Beam deformation is ~L2 thus the deflection is much less in a small system! Provided the resolution is the same the it is clear that the micro-sensor is less accurate!) There is not yet a good general response to this issue!

Alexander Slocum, design of Design of Small Precision Machines


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OUTLINE:
Introduction Scaling in Mechanics Scaling in Adhesive Forces Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Scaling in Piezoelectric effects Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Scaling in Heat Transfer The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Scaling Examples Manipulation in the Micro-world Actuation Scaling in The Machine Tools and Factory
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Scaling of Structures
Size of machine/range of motion ratio is generally less of an issue the smaller the machine becomes. Structurally, smaller machines can be made higher performance:
Beam stiffness is proportional to:
Thickness to the 3rd power Length to the -3rd power Width

Beam mass is proportional to:


Thickness, length, width

Beam natural frequency is proportional to:


Thickness Length to the -2nd power

Because the structure is smaller it is often easier to make it monolithic and hence of a more rigid nature
More material is also often tolerated/allowed to be added Snap fit structures?

Cabling and wiring can become more problematic because sensor wires do not shrink.
Alexander Slocum, Design of Small Precision Machines
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Scaling of Machine Tools


Trend is towards more small precision manufactured parts for consumer products and medical devices.
Large volumes can be economically made using conventional machines with mass-fixturing or parallel feeds (e.g., screw machines)

Small volumes might be better made on small machines


Can a small precision machine be made less costly than a large precision machine? A small machine takes up less space and thus has less overhead cost The cost to produce a small run of small precision parts on a small precision machine should thus be less

Small precision machines might have work volumes on the order of:
Cubic foot, football, grapefruit Include benchtop hobby machines to benchtop production machines

There are currently many manufacturers of desktop machine tools


Generally considered to be of modest accuracy (0.1 to 10 microns) Can we do better? Have these machines taken full advantage of scaling trends and new ideas?
Alexander Slocum, Design of Small Precision Machines
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Scaling of Machine Tools

http://www-ieem.ust.hk/dfaculty/ajay/courses/ieem215/lecs/cnc_f1.jpg
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Scaling of Machine Tools


- Enhancement of Precision by Downsizing -

MACHINE:
Thermal Expansion Geometric Errors Rigidity Clearance Forces Static Deformation Inertial Forces Etc.

MT
N N N N N2 N N3

mMT
1 1 1 1 1 1 1

NOTE: Machine MT is N - times bigger than machine mMT


ASSUMPTION: Geometric Similarity

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Scaling Laws
Natural Frequency:

n = n

EI mL4
E: I: m:

Elastic Modulus The area moment of inertia Mass per unit length Length of the beam an appropriate coefficient for boundary conditions

Equivalent Rigidity:

K eq =

EI L3

L: a n:

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Scaling Laws
Comparing Two Beams

I L4 IA = mA = LA =

Natural Frequencies

IB
4

n _ A = n _ B
Equivalent Rigidity

mB

LB

K eq _ A =

K eq _ B

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Scaling Laws - Example


Lee et al. (2005) FEM analysis of the dynamics of a conventional machine tool (2100900960) Rigid body assumption of the structure

Modes 1 2 3
st

Natural Frequency (Hz) FE analysis Experiment 24.85 27.11 64.45 77.82 23.7 28.0 59.6 71.1

nd rd th

Comparing the FEM analysis with Experiments


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Scaling Laws - Example


Lee et al. (2005) Comparing the natural frequencies of a conventional machine with those of a meso-scale machine tool (15070140) Natural frequencies of the mMT derived by the scaling laws: 385Hz FEM results of natural frequencies of mMT: 408Hz Measured natural frequency by impact test: 81Hz

Weak joints lower the Natural Frequencies.


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Joint Properties
Modeling joints as springs and dampers in the lumped parameter model Parameter identifications using measured FRFs Lee et al. (2005) - Individual joint parameters are identified by separate sets of tests - Larger damping and smaller rigidity due to bolted and sliding joints were found.

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Modeling & Identifying Joint Properties


Lee et al.(2005)

Identifying the parameters m1=4.20kg, k1=1.3107 N/m, c1=939.0Ns/m

Lumped Model
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Scaling the Factory


Okazaki, AIST
High-speed spindle (150,000 rpm)

Exchangeable units
Middle-speed spindle (25,000 rpm) Low-speed spindle (with rotary encoder)

Laser units

Piezo vibration unit

Processes
Milling, Drilling, Turning, Grinding, Polishing, EDM, ECM, Laser machining Milling, Drilling, Turning, Grinding, Polishing, EDM, ECM, Laser machining Laser treatment, ED grinding, EC grinding, EC polishing, Laser-assisted milling, etc. Laser treatment, ED grinding, EC grinding, EC polishing, Laser-assisted milling, etc.
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Scaling the Factory


Desk top factory in Japan (DTF) Revised Desktop UHS milling machine -spindle rotation at up to 300,000 rpm and higher stage speed/acceleration with linear motors: 400 mm/s-2.1 G (Okazaki at AIST)

2000

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Scaling the Factory

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Scaling the Factory


Benefits:
Savings in energy and materials Easy to move Easier to keep clean Higher accuracy Temperature control is easier Humans are outside the clean area Less expensive

Problems:
Technological hurdles Mass production How to ensure quality

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Conclusions

Due to the scaling down, there are so called scaling effects which must be taken into account in the micro-world. The physical laws remain the same, but their significance at different scales changes

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References
Hsu, Tai-Ran, MEMS & MICROSYSTEMS: Design and Manufacture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002. Madou, Marc J., Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2002. Wautelet, Michel., Scaling laws in the macro-, micro- and nano-world, European Journal of Physics, 22 (2001): 602-611. Feddema, Xavier and Brown, Micro-Assembly Planning with van der Waals Force, 1999 Yamagata, Y., T., Higuchi, Micropositioning device for precision automatic assembly using impact force of piezoelectric elements, Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, v 1, pp. 666-671, 1995 Arai, F. , D.Ando, T. Fukuda, Y. Nonoda, T. Oota, Micro manipulation based on micro physics, 1995.
S.W. Lee, R. Mayor. J. Ni, Dynamic Analysis of a Meso-Scale Machine Tool, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., to be published Alexander Slocum, Design of Small Precision Machines. http://www.aolab.mce.uec.ac.jp/AOLAB/Eng/IWMF/IWMF.html Xiaorong Xiong, Yael Hanein, Controlled Multibatch Self-Assembly of Microdevices, JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~wu/ee250b/Magnetic%20Actuators%20(2).pdf#search=%22magnetic% 20actuator%22 Zech, W. Brunner, M. Weber, 1997, A Vacuum tool for handling microobjects with a NanoRobot Robotics and Automation, 1997. Proceedings., 1997 IEEE International Conference on

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