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Maheen Nazim

Wong, SNC1D1

March 8th, 2012

Identifying Gases by Conducting Chemical Tests Purpose:


The purpose of this experiment is to identify three different gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide) by conducting a chemical test.

Hypothesis:
If in experiment the burning splint starts to burn vigorously or a flame is reignited, then the gas would be oxygen because pure oxygen causes things to burn much more intensely. If water vapour is created when conducting the chemical test and a distinguished pop sound is heard, then the gas would be hydrogen because when hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms form then they create H2O (water vapour). If a flame does not burn at all or is extinguished during the tests, then this gas would be identified as carbon dioxide because it does not burn or support combustion.

Procedure:
In this experiment three test tubes were placed; test tube A had one-tenth of the tube filled with hydrogen peroxide and a small amount of manganese dioxide (as much as the tip of the scoopula). A burning splint was lit with a lighter, brought to the mouth of the test tube and extinguished after five seconds. A glowing splint was then inserted halfway into the test tube and watched for a reaction. In test tube B, one-tenth of the tube was filled with hydrochloric acid and a small amount baking soda (tip of scoopula) was mixed in. A burning splint was brought to the mouth of the test tube and waited for a reaction. After, the flame was blown out and the glowing splint was inserted midway into the tube and observed. In test tube C, hydrochloric acid and magnesium were being used; one-third of the test tube is filled with hydrochloric acid and a 2 cm magnesium strip was used. A burning splint was then brought to the mouth of this test tube and waited upon for a few seconds. After, the glowing splint was inserted halfway into the test tube and extinguished once the reaction was noticed. All observations were recorded in Table 1.

Maheen Nazim

Wong, SNC1D1

March 8th, 2012

Table 1:

Observations of Hydrogen, Oxygen, & Carbon Dioxide Reacting to Various Chemical Tests

Reactants

Burning Splint Test

Glowing Splint Test

Identify the Gas

Manganese dioxide and hydrogen peroxide

- splint continues to burn (more vigorous) - the flame was reignited - liquid in test tube starts as soon as it was put into to bubble/fizz the test tube - this starts to create gas in the air - Flame was extinguished immediately when put above test tube - flame created a noise (pop sound) - water vapour was produced - splint was put out - thin layer of gas when splint was removed

Oxygen

Hydrochloric acid and baking soda

Carbon Dioxide

Hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon

- splint remained glowing and then flickered a bit until pulled out

Hydrogen

Discussion Questions
a) The gas produced when manganese dioxide and hydrogen peroxide were mixed was oxygen. When the burning splint was put to the mouth of the test tube, it burned more vigorously and when the blowing splint was inserted into the test tube the flame reignited itself. This was because oxygen is essential for burning, so this gas will cause a flame to burn more and can kindle a flame, just like this experiment showed. b) The gas produced when hydrochloric acid and baking soda were mixed was carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide when exposed to fire does not continue to burn nor does it support combustion; it was apparent that this was the gas in the experiment when the burning splint and the glowing splint were extinguished immediately when put into the test tube. c) The gas produced when hydrochloric acid and magnesium were mixed was hydrogen. A popping was created when the burning splint was put inside the test tube, as well as water

Maheen Nazim

Wong, SNC1D1

March 8th, 2012

vapour was produced. This occurred because when hydrogen is ignited in the air, the hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine molecules to form H2O or in this case, water vapour. d) For each activity, there was a chemical change; the first experiment chemicals reacted to each other to create oxygen, the second experiment chemicals reacted to make carbon dioxide, and the third experiment reacted to create hydrogen. A chemical change is when there is a new chemical being produced and that is exactly what the experiments did. There were no physical changes that were observed in these experiments. However, in the first experiments with manganese dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, the liquid did start to boil with the burning flint, and a conclusion would be that if the burning flint was not extinguished the liquid would turn into a gas. This would be because the heat from the flame would cause the particles in the liquid to speed up and spread out and thus creating a gas. e) While doing these tests, the major problem encountered was that the group was rushing into the experiment. The instructions were not read over carefully and therefore resulted in having to do some of the experiments more than once. Also, our measurements in terms of one-tenth, onethird, etc. for the test tube were a bit off. If we had stuck closer to the numbers, it would have been easier to notice the reactions and perhaps see them for a longer period of time. f) In future tests, it would be better if the group took its time and read over each experiment in detail and twice. This would help us not only in the procedure, but also understanding as to why things have to be done in a certain way. It would also be better to keep our roles the same way throughout because switching roles can complicate things between the group. g) i. The reason birthday balloons are filled with helium and not hydrogen is because hydrogen can combust fairly easily when exposed to heat. This would not be acceptable in general because the point of a balloon is to keep it blown up, and also balloons are used primarily for children and it could be a huge safety hazard for them. ii. During surgery using oxygen cylinders, medical staff wear coverings over their shoes to eliminate sparks because oxygen has a high chance on create a fire when exposed to heat or a spark. This is because oxygen is essential for burning, so if pure oxygen is open during a surgery and friction from their shoes causes a spark, it could cause a fire and burn everything down literally.

Maheen Nazim