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Introduction to Energy Balance Table (EBT)

AIM Training Workshop Tokyo, Japan Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Contents
Basics of energy data General descriptions of EBT Interpretation Rules/Conventions Analysis Data preparation

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Basics of Energy Data

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

General Energy Flow


Production
Import/Export Import/Export

Total Primary Energy Supply Transformation Transformation Technologies Technologies Total Final Energy Losses Consumption Technology producing the Technology producing the demanded services demanded services

Energy stock Energy stock

Services

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Terms (Definitions)
Primary Energy
Energy embodied in natural resources (e.g. coal, crude oil, sunlight, uranium) that has not undergone any anthropogenic conversions or transformations (IPCC).

Secondary Energy
Form of energy generated by conversion of primary energies, e.g. electricity from gas, nuclear energy, coal, and gasoline from mineral oil, coke and coke oven gas from coal (European nuclear society).

Total primary energy supply (TPES)


Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers stock changes (IEA)

Total final energy consumption (TFC)


Total final consumption (TFC) is the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors (IEA).
AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Terms (Definitions)
Energy intensity
Ratio between the consumption of energy to a given quantity of output.

Carbon intensity
The relative amount of carbon emitted per unit of energy or fuels consumed.

Energy Service
Useful energy output of any final technical energy consumption system. Examples of energy services would include - mechanical work, transportation, force - pumping, venting and vacuum applications - thermal uses (specific heating and cooling) - lighting / illumination / magnification

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data

General descriptions
Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

General Descriptions of EBT

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data

What is Energy Balance Table?


Simple Table Format Illustrate general energy flow (production to end-use) of a region in question Flow (in row), Product (in column) Input (-), Output (+) Available at;
IEA, Energy Balances and Statistics (170 countries) APEC, APEC Energy Handbook etc. National statistics (each country)

General descriptions
Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data

Why is EBT so important?


Easy comparison (by country, by year) Easy interpretation Double count avoided Same format data available (Internationally)

General descriptions
Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Buta little differences in definitions (Be careful!!)

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data

How is it look like?


Crude oil Production Imports Exports & Stock Change TPES Electricity Plants Petro. Refineries Other Transformation Own Use / Trans. losses Statistical Differences TFC Industry Domestic. & Commercial Transportation Petro. Hydro/ Products Nuclear Elec. Coal/ Gas etc. Total

General descriptions
Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

0.7 220.3 0.2 221.2 -6.2 -214.4 -1.2 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 54.6 -15.2 39.4 -24.1 212.7 -2.1 -12.3 6.3 219.9 93.3 37.6 89.2

81.6 0.0 0.0 81.6 -81.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 93.2 0.0 -0.1 -9.3 0.0 83.8 35.9 46.1 1.9

10.5 175.8 -1.7 184.6 -111.8 0.0 0.1 -4.0 0.6 69.5 50.9 18.7 0.0

92.8 450.7 -16.7 526.8 -130.5 -1.7 -3.3 -25.6 7.5 373.2 180.1 102.4 91.1

*TPES: Total Primary Energy Supply *TFC: Total Final Consumption AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table Total Primary Energy Supply 23,060


Nuclear

Transformation/Losses 6,871

Total Final Energy Cons. 16,024 Tomoki Ehara

Hyd/Ren/Geo NG

Generation & Transmission losses

Pub. Power Plant


Own use

Residential
Electricity

Autoproducer Commercial City Gas Transport OIL


Passenger

Crude oil (Before refinery)

Oil Refinery

Transportation Fuel

Freight

Industrial

COAL

AIM Coal Product Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions

Interpretation
Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Interpretations

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions

How to interpret EBT ?


Crude oil Petro. Hydro/ Products Nuclear Elec. Coal/ Gas etc. Total

Interpretation
Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Production Imports etc.


TPES Electricity Plants Petro. Refineries

Production

0.7 220.3 0.2 221.2 -6.2 -214.4 -1.2 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 54.6 -15.2 39.4 -24.1 212.7 -2.1 -12.3 6.3 219.9 93.3 37.6 89.2

81.6 0.0 0.0 81.6 -81.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 93.2 0.0 -0.1 -9.3 0.0 83.8 35.9 46.1 1.9

10.5 175.8 -1.7 184.6 -111.8 0.0 0.1 -4.0 0.6 69.5 50.9 18.7 0.0

92.8 450.7 -16.7 526.8 -130.5 -1.7 -3.3 -25.6 7.5 373.2 180.1 102.4 91.1

Exports & Stock Change

Other Transformation Transformation Own Use / Trans. losses Statistical Differences TFC Industry Domestic. & Commercial End-use Transportation

*TPES: Total Primary Energy Supply *TFC: Total Final Consumption AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions

Interpretation (Production etc.)


Production: Coal, Gas and Oil mine Stock change: Stock building (-), Stock using (+)
Crude oil Production Imports Exports & Stock Change TPES Petro. Hydro/ Products Nuclear Elec. Coal/ Gas etc. Total

Interpretation
Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

0.7 220.3 0.2 221.2

0.0 54.6 -15.2 39.4

81.6 0.0 0.0 81.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

10.5 175.8 -1.7 184.6

92.8 450.7 -16.7 526.8

Oil dependence (%) Oil dependence (%) =(221.2+39.4)/526.9*100=49.5% =(221.2+39.4)/526.9*100=49.5% Import dependence (%) Import dependence (%) =450.7/(450.7+92.8)*100=82.9% =450.7/(450.7+92.8)*100=82.9%
AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions

Interpretation (Transformations)
Primary Energy Secondary Energy Input(-), Output(+)
Petro. Hydro/ Products Nuclear Coal/ Gas etc.

Interpretation
Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Crude oil TPES Electricity Plants Petro. Refineries Other Transformation Own Use / Trans. losses Statistical Differences TFC

Elec.

Total

221.2 -6.2 -214.4 -1.2 0.0 0.6 0.0

39.4 -24.1 212.7 -2.1 -12.3 6.3 219.9

81.6 -81.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 93.2 0.0 -0.1 -9.3 0.0 83.8

184.6 -111.8 0.0 0.1 -4.0 0.6 69.5

526.8 -130.5 -1.7 -3.3 -25.6 7.5 373.2

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions

Interpretation (Energy end-use)


Energy consumption by sector (by energy) Detailed Analysis possible
Compare among countries Historical change of energy consumption in certain sectors
Crude oil TFC Industry Domestic. & Commercial Transportation Petro. Hydro/ Products Nuclear Elec. Coal/ Gas etc. Total

Interpretation
Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

219.9 93.3 37.6 89.2

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

83.8 35.9 46.1 1.9

69.5 50.9 18.7 0.0

373.2 180.1 102.4 91.1

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation

Rules/Conventions
Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Rules/Conventions

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation

Primary Energy Equivalent


Conventions for primary energy (Renewables, Nuclear, Hydro, and Geothermal)
The partial substitution method: The amount of energy that would be necessary to generate an identical amount of electricity in conventional thermal power plants The physical energy content method (IEA) Renewables, Hydro: 100% Geothermal (electricity): 10% Geothermal (Heat): 50% Nuclear: 33%
AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Rules/Conventions
Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation

Unit of energy used in EBT


Different unit used for each energy sources
(tonnes for coal, kl for oil m3 for gas etc)

Rules/Conventions
Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Same unit should be used for easy analysis


toe (tonnes of oil equivalent) cal (calories) J (joules) *Energy unit in IEA:ktoe = 1010 kcal

Unit Prefix K M G T P E Kilo (103) Mega (106) Giga (109) Tera (1012) Peta (1015) Exa (1018)

Unit prefix is commonly used

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation

Conversion factors (Energy)


Conversion factors for Energy
To From: TJ Gcal Mtoe MBtu GWh TJ multiply by: 1 -3 4.2868*10 4.1868*104 1.0551*10-3 3.6 Gcal 238.8 1 107 0.252 860 Mtoe 2.388*10-5 10-7 1 2.52*10-8 8.6*10-5 MBtu 947.8 3.968 3.968*107 1 3412 GWh 0.2778 1.163*10-3 11630 2.931*10-4 1

Rules/Conventions
Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

TPES in Japan (2004) :562,777 1044(Gcal) TPES in Japan (2004) :562,777 10(Gcal)

=562,777*1044(Gcal) *4.29*10-3(TJ/Gcal)=2.41*107(TJ) =562,777*10 (Gcal) *4.29*10-3(TJ/Gcal)=2.41*107(TJ) =562,777*1044(Gcal) *10-7(Mtoe/Gcal)=563(Mtoe) =562,777*10 (Gcal) *10-7(Mtoe/Gcal)=563(Mtoe) =562,777*1044(Gcal) *3.97(MBtu/Gcal)=2.23*1010 (MBtu) =562,777*10 (Gcal) *3.97(MBtu/Gcal)=2.23*1010 (MBtu) =562,777*1044(Gcal) *1.16*10-3(GWh/Gcal)=6.53*1066 =562,777*10 (Gcal) *1.16*10-3(GWh/Gcal)=6.53*10 (GWh) (GWh)

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation

Conversion factors (Mass/Vol.)


Conversion factors for Mass
To kg From: multiply by: 1 Kilogramme (kg) 1000 tonne (t)t 1016 Long ton (lt) 907.2 Short ton (st) 0.454 pound (lb) t 0.001 1 1.016 0.9072 4.54*10-4 lt 9.84*10-4 0.984 1 0.893 4.46*10-4 st 1.102*10-3 1.1023 1.120 1 -4 5.0*10 lb 2.2046 2204.6 2240.0 2000.0 1

Rules/Conventions
Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

Conversion factors for Volume


gal U.S. From: multiply by: 1 U.S. gallon (gal) 1.201 U.K. gallon (gal) 42.0 Barrel (bbl) 7.48 Cubic foot (ft3) 0.2642 Litre (l) 264.2 Cubic metre (m3) To gal U.K. 0.8327 1 34.97 6.229 0.220 220.0 bbl 0.02381 0.02859 1 0.1781 0.0063 6.289 ft3 0.1337 0.1605 5.615 1 0.0353 35.3147 l 3.785 4.546 159.0 28.3 1 1000.0 m3 0.0038 0.0045 0.159 0.0283 0.001 1

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation

CO2 Emissions (Energy related)


CO2 Emissions derived from energy use (tCO2) CO2 Emissions derived from energy use (tCO2) =Energy Cons. (tJ)*CO2 emission factors (tCO2/tJ) =Energy Cons. (tJ)*CO2 emission factors (tCO2/tJ) =Energy Cons. (tJ)*C emission factors (tC/tJ)*44 /12 =Energy Cons. (tJ)*C emission factors (tC/tJ)*44 /12

Rules/Conventions
Analysis Analysis Data preparation Data preparation

tC or tCO2?

Ref. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions

Analysis
Data preparation Data preparation

Analysis (Examples)

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions
(%) (%)

Historical Trends
90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0

Oil Dependence (%) Oil Dependence (%)

Analysis
Data preparation Data preparation

600 600 500 500 400 400 300 300 200 200 100 100 00

TPES (Mtoe) TPES (Mtoe)


Hydro.etc Hydro.etc Nuclear Nuclear Gas Gas Oil Oil Coal Coal

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

1 19 96 65 5 6 68 8 7 71 1 7 74 4 7 77 7 8 80 0 8 83 3 8 86 6 8 89 9 9 92 2 9 95 5 9 98 8 0 01 1 0 04 4
FY FY

1 19 96 65 5 6 68 8 7 71 1 Mtoe Mtoe 7 74 4 7 77 7 8 80 0 8 83 3 8 86 6 8 89 9 9 92 2 9 95 5 9 98 8 0 01 1 0 04 4
FY FY

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions

Comparisons among Countries


TFC in 1971 (by Country) TFC in 1971 (by Country)
100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% 60% 60% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0%

Analysis
Data preparation Data preparation

Industry Industry Dom, Com & Agr TFC in Dom, Com &Country) 2001 (by Agr TFC Transport (by Country) in 2001 Transport
100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% UK Germany France Germany UK France 60% 60% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Japan US Japan US

Japan Japan

US US

Industry Industry Dom, Com & Agr Dom, Com & Agr Transport Transport

Germany Germany

UK UK

France France

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions

CO2 Emission analysis


1,400 1,400 1,200 1,200 1,000 1,000 Mil.t CO2 Mil.t CO2 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 Energy Transf. Energy Transf. Domestic Domestic Commercial Commercial Transportation Transportation Industry Industry

CO2 Emission (Energy Related) CO2 Emission (Energy Related)

Analysis
Data preparation Data preparation

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

1 19 99 90 0 19 19 9 91 1 19 19 9 92 2 1 19 99 93 3 19 19 9 94 4 19 19 9 95 5 19 19 9 96 6 19 19 9 97 7 1 19 99 98 8 19 19 9 99 9 20 20 0 00 0 20 20 0 01 1 20 20 0 02 2 2 20 00 03 3

FY FY

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis

Data preparation

Data preparation for EST

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions Analysis Analysis

Data preparation
1. Download data (EBT of your country) on 1. Download data (EBT of your country) on your Personal Computer (Table format) your Personal Computer (Table format) 2. See items in row & columns, and check the 2. See items in row & columns, and check the definitions of the terms definitions of the terms 3. Check the differences with your national 3. Check the differences with your national statistics statistics 4. Calculate energy losses in electricity 4. Calculate energy losses in electricity distribution processes distribution processes 5. Modify the format where necessarily 5. Modify the format where necessarily

Data preparation

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Contents
Basics of energy data Basics of energy data General descriptions General descriptions Interpretation Interpretation Rules/Conventions Rules/Conventions

Analysis
Data preparation Data preparation

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Please do not hesitate to ask questions!!

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

General energy flow


Production Production Transformation Transformation Consumption Consumption Services Services

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

General energy flow


OIL Oil field Petroleum refining
Distillation plant LNG terminal

Oil tanker Gas field LNG

Thermal power plant

LNG tanker Coal field Coal Steel plant

Transportation Uranium Nuclear plant

Gas Holder

Transportation

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Net and Gross calorific value


Net (IEA) and Gross calorific value
The difference is latent heat of vaporizations of the water contained in the materials and produced during combustion of the fuel Net Calorific Value (NCV): exclude latent heat Gross Calorific Value (GCV): include latent heat NCV=LCV, GCV=HCV NCV<GCV (5% for coal & oil, 9-10% for gas) Heat Latent Heat H2O CO2
AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006

Introduction to Energy Balance Table


Tomoki Ehara

Factor analysis
Kaya Identity
E C C = D D E
D: Driving forces (service demand) D: Driving forces (service demand) E: Energy Consumption E: Energy Consumption C: CO22 emission with measures in C: CO emission with measures in transformation sector transformation sector E/D: Energy Intensity E/D: Energy Intensity C/E: CO22 intensity C/E: CO intensity

C D ( E / D) (C / E ) + + C D ( E / D) (C / E )
Changes in service demand Changes in Energy Intensity Changes in Carbon Intensity

AIM Training Workshop Ohyama Hall, NIES, Ibaraki, Japan, Oct 16-20, 2006