Você está na página 1de 23


BATCHING a) Concrete mixing b) Cement mixers Form work detail Reinforcement detail of a) Beam b) Column c) Slabs Test on a) Aggregate b) Cement c) Concrete

INTRODUCTIONPrime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the Rajiv Gandhi Urja Bhavan, being set up at New Delhi by Energy major ONGC to establish a state of the art R&D centre for non-conventional sources of Energy. The complex will also house Corporate offices of ONGC group of companies. The Prime Minister was accompanied by Chairperson of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Ms Sonia Gandhi. The day, 20th August signifies birth anniversary of late Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi, who had a great vision for Energy Security and had spearheaded the use of science and technology in the nation building process. The Energy Centre to be housed in Rajiv Gandhi Urja Bhavan will be a National Institute for holistic Research in alternate energy sources beyond Oil and Coal, specifically the following: Thermo-chemical generation of Hydrogen on a massive scale. Geo-Bio reactors for in-situ generation of Methane in deeper coal seams and oil reservoirs. Efficient use of electricity for lighting using SSL (Solid State Lighting) Development of fuel cells with Transport and Power Generation applications as objectives. Participation in the efforts for mass production of solar grade Silicon rods for Photovoltaic cells. The building being built on a plot area of 36,340 square metres at Vasant Kunj Mall Phase-II, Nelson Mandela Road, New Delhi has been designed by noted architect Ar. Hafeez Contractor. It will have ground plus 5 floors and two basement levels. This building is perceived as the largest Green building in the country. The building is estimated to cost around Rs 490 Crore. ONGC has committed upto Rs 500 crore for supporting the R&D activities to be carried out through a Trust set up as ONGC Energy Centre.

CCCL bags ONGC Project worth Rs.431 crores To build ONGCs corporate office - Rajiv Gandhi Urja Bhavan in New Delhi

The new ONGC corporate office will be state-of-the-art construction with Green Building compliance and complete side walling done of curtain wall glazing. The building also features center dome with lenticular cable net system inclusive of glass canopies. The total area of the green building is 10, 63,085 Sqft consisting of two basements, ground floor and 5 floors. CCCL will be responsible for the design and civil construction.

CONCRETE MIXINGProportion, type and grading of aggregates shall be made by trial in such a way so as to obtain densest possible concrete. All ingredients of the concrete should be used by mass only. It is important to maintain the water-cement ratio constant at its correct value. Determination of moisture contents in both fine and coarse aggregates shall be made as frequently as possible. Concrete shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer The mixing shall be continued until there is a uniform distribution of the materials and the mass is uniform in colour and c0nsistenc.y. If there is segregation after unloading from the mixer, the concrete should be remixed. Properties of concreteWORKABILITY OF CONCRETE- The concrete mix proportions chosen should be be compacted such that the concrete is of adequate workability for ranges of workability of concrete measured in the placing conditions of the concrete. Heavily reinforced Medium sections in slabs, beams, walls, columns; 75-100 mm DURABILITY OF CONCRETEslump in mm -

The factors influencing durability include: a) b) c) d) e) f) The environment The cover to embedded steel The type and quality of constituent materials The cement content and water/cement ratio of the concrete Workmanship, to obtain full compaction and efficient curing The shape and size of the member.

One of the main characteristics influencing the durability of concrete is its permeability to the ingress of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride, sulphate and other substances. Impermeability is achieved by having an adequate cement content, sufficiently low free water cement ratio by ensuring complete compaction of the concrete, and by adequate curing.

FORMWORK DETAILThe formwork shall be designed and constructed so as to remain sufficiently rigid during placing and compaction of concrete, and shall be such as to prevent loss of slurry from the concrete. Cleaning and treatment of Formwork- All rubbish, particularly, chippings, shavings and sawdust shall be removed from the interior of the forms before the concrete is placed. Stripping Time- Forms shall not be released until the concrete has achieved a strength of at least twice the stress to which the concrete may be subjected at the time of removal of formwork. where ordinary Portland cement is used and adequate curing is done, following striking period may be used S.no Type of frame work 1 2 Vertical formwork to columns, walls, beams Formwork of slabs a)spanning up to 4.5 m Minimum time before stripping 16-24 hrs

7 days

b)spanning over 4.5 m Formwork of beams and arches a)spanning up to 6 m b)spanning over 6m

14 days 14 days 21 days

Construction of frame work According to plan of drawing we construct the framework of beam and slab .In the plan the dimension of beams and slabs are given and according

to that we construct the frame work for slabs and beams.

Placing of Reinforcement- Reinforcement should be placed and tied in such a way that concrete placement be possible without segregation of the mix. Reinforcement placing should allow compaction by immersion vibrator. Within the concrete mass, different types of metal in contact should be avoided to ensure that bimetal corrosion does not take place. All reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in the position shown in the drawings by providing proper cover blocks, spacers, supporting bars, etc. Beam reinforcementSOME IMPORTED POINT REGARDING REINFORCEMENT1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Lap should be avoided at near the support at top of the beams . Lap should be avoided at mid span at bottom of the beams . Stirrups are used mainly to retain the shear at near the support. The reinforcement at top of the slab should be avoided after 0.3 of each sides. In circular structure the span of beam increase with radius so 4m span is good but when we increase the span of beam the extra bar at mid span at bottom require to resist the bending moment. 6) Extra bar at support are used to resist the bending. 7) The spacing of stirrups shall be less at near the support compare to middle. 8) Types of stirrups- 2 leg stirrups,4-leg stirrups, 6-leg stirrups.

Extra bars in beam reinforcementa) Extra bar in mid span at bottom (.15L distance from column c/c) to resist bending at bottom. b) Extra bar near support (.25L from column face) to resist shear at support.

Development length for mix of rcc

Steel r/f grade Fe 500 Fe 500 Fe 500

Mix of Rcc M25 M30 M35

Ld 50d 46d 40d

Columns reinforcement1) In column reinforcement lap should be avoided at the height of h/4 from support. 2) In lap portion ties spacing will be 150 c/c not more it.

3) Lap should be in alternate bars and opposite end. 4) Lap in columns = 50d (d=dia. of bars) 5) Stirrups angle and curtailement

Total length of stirrups for 600*800 beam=2(600+800)+2(10d)-5(2d) If d=10 mm length=2800+200-100=2900mm.

Slab reinforcement-

Clear Cover to outer R/F shall be as under1 2 3 Footings Columns Beams 75mm 40mm 25mm

4 Slabs 5 Retaining wall

20mm 25mm


1) Consistency of cementThe basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency as specified by the IS: 4031 (Part 4) 1988. The principle is that standard consistency of cement is that consistency at which the Vicat plunger penetrates to a point 5-7mm from the bottom of Vicat mould. Apparatus Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 1976, Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 1982. 2) Procedure to determine consistency of cement i) Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes. ii) Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel. iii) Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface. iv) Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste. v) Note the reading on the gauge. vi) Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm. 3) Trial Weight of cement Quantity of water added Penetration of vicat no. taken in gms In % in ml apparatus from bottom(mm) 1) 400 30 % 120 6 mm





7 mm

Reporting of Results-Standard consistency of cement (Pn) =29%

(penetration 5 -7

mm from bottom)

Setting time
INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME We need to calculate the initial and final setting time as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) 1988. To do so we need Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 1976, Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 1982. Procedure to determine initial and final setting time of cement i) Prepare a cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. ii) Start a stop-watch, the moment water is added to the cement. iii) Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste gauged as above, the mould resting on a non-porous plate and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is the test block. A) INITIAL SETTING TIME Place the test block under the rod bearing the needle. Lower the needle gently in order to make contact with the surface of the cement paste and release quickly, allowing it to penetrate the test block. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the test block to a point 5.0 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould.The time period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle fails to pierce the test block by 5.0 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould, is the initial setting time. B) FINAL SETTING TIME Replace the above needle by the one with an annular attachment. The cement should be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the

surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression therein, while the attachment fails to do so. The period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test block, while the attachment fails to do so, is the final setting time.

Weight of cement taken (c) =400gm Water require to mix sand and mortar = .85*Pn*c/100 (ml) Time of adding water to cement (a) Time of initial set (b) Tome of final set (c) Initial set (b-a) Final set (c-a) Average initial setting time Average final setting time 4:10 pm 6:00pm 9:20 pm 110 min 310 min 110 min 310 min

SOUNDNESS TEST OF CEMENTSoundness of cement is determined by Le-Chatelier method as per IS: 4031 (Part 3) 1988. Apparatus The apparatus for conducting the Le-Chatelier test should conform to IS: 5514 1969 Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g and Water bath. Procedure to determine soundness of cementi) Place the mould on a glass sheet and fill it with the cement paste formed by gauging cement with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. ii) Cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet, place a small weight on this covering glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly in water at a

temperature of 27 2oC and keep it there for 24hrs. iii) Measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm (say d1 ). iv) Submerge the mould again in water at the temperature prescribed above. Bring the water to boiling point in 25 to 30 minutes and keep it boiling for 3hrs. v) Remove the mould from the water, allow it to cool and measure the distance between the indicator points (say d2 ). vi) (d2 d1 ) represents the expansion of cement. Weight of cement taken (w1) 100gm Weight of water to be added (w1 *Pn*0.78)= 23 ml Where Pn = standard consistency =31%

Initial distance between indicators ends(d1)=07 mm (After 24 hrs immersed in water) Final distance between indicators ends(d2)=08 mm (After 3 hrs boiling in water ) Cement expansion (d2-d1)= 01 mm Average expansion of cement in mm= 01 mm Maximum allowable 10mm , as result are less, so passed.


Date of casting -16-05-11 grade &quantity m30 11 no. of cubes-06 date 7 days testing-23-05-

date of 28 days casting-13-06-11 s. Weight of cubes Load no In Kn 1 2 3 4 5 6 8288 8460 8450 8486 8422 8492 810 840 840 960 1000 990

Compressive strength 7 days 36.00 37.33 37.22 average 36.88 42.67 44.44 44.00 28 days average


Determination of compressive strength of cementProportion standard sand Cement( gm) Sand(500-90 1.00mm-500 u 2.00mmu) 1.00mm 200 200 200 200

water 80

Water require to mix=(Pn/4 +3)% of combined mass of cement and sand =84 ml Pn = 30% water for standard consistency Compressive strength Test Casting Age Testing Load Strength Average cube date (days) date N/mm2 N/mm2 no 1 12.06.11 3 days 15.06.11 160 32.10 2 12.06.11 3 days 15.06.11 170 34.10 32.16 3 12.06.11 3 days 15.06.11 160 32.10 4 12.06.11 7 days 19.06.11 210 42.13 5 12.06.11 7 days 19.06.11 210 42.13 42.80 6 12.06.11 7 days 19.06.11 220 44.14 7 12.06.11 28 10.07.11 260 52.16

8 9

days 12.06.11 28 days 12.06.11 28 days

10.07.11 280 10.07.11 270

56.17 54.17



This test is done to determine the specific gravity of fine-grained soil by density bottle method Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of a material at a standard temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at the same stated temperature. The apparatus used: i) Two density bottles of approximately 50ml capacity along with stoppers ii) Constant temperature water bath (27.0 + 0.2oC) iii) Vacuum desiccator iv) Oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 to 110oC v) Weighing balance, with an accuracy of 0.001g vi) Spatula PREPARATION OF SAMPLE The soil sample (50g) should if necessary be ground to pass through a 2mm IS Sieve. A 5 to 10g sub-sample should be obtained by riffling and oven-dried at a temperature of 105 to 110oC. Procedure to Determine the Specific Gravity of Fine-Grained Soil i) The density bottle along with the stopper, should be dried at a temperature of 105 to 110oC, cooled in the desiccator and weighed to the nearest 0.001g (W1). ii) The sub-sample, which had been oven-dried should be transferred to the density bottle directly from the desiccator in which it was cooled. The bottles and contents together with the stopper should be weighed to the nearest 0.001g (W2). iii) Cover the soil with air-free distilled water from the glass wash bottle and leave for a period of 2 to 3hrs. for soaking. Add water to fill the bottle to about half.

iv) Entrapped air can be removed by heating the density bottle on a water bath or a sand bath. v) Keep the bottle without the stopper in a vacuum desiccator for about 1 to 2hrs. until there is no further loss of air. vi) Gently stir the soil in the density bottle with a clean glass rod, carefully wash off the adhering particles from the rod with some drops of distilled water and see that no more soil particles are lost. vii) Repeat the process till no more air bubbles are observed in the soil-water mixture. viii) Observe the constant temperature in the bottle and record. ix) Insert the stopper in the density bottle, wipe and weigh(W3). x) Now empty the bottle, clean thoroughly and fill the density bottle with distilled water at the same temperature. Insert the stopper in the bottle, wipe dry from the outside and weigh (W4 ). xi) Take at least two such observations for the same soil. Weight of saturated surface dry sample (a) =542gm (after 24 hrs in water) Weight of picnometer of glass jar and sample filled with distilled water (b)=1836gm Weight of picnometer of glass jar and filled with distilled water (c) =1490gm Weight of oven dried sample(d) =540gm Calculation Specific gravity of saturated surface dry sample=d/a-(b-c)=2.750 Water absorption (%) (a-d)*100/d =.37% REPORTING OF RESULTS The specific gravity G of the soil = (W2 W1) / [(W4-1)-(W3-W2)]


This test is done to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) 1963. The apparatus used for determining aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates is Impact testing machine conforming to IS: 2386 (Part IV)- 1963,IS Sieves of sizes 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm, A cylindrical metal measure of 75mm dia. and 50mm depth, A tamping rod of 10mm circular cross section and 230mm length, rounded at one end and Oven. Preparation of Sample i) The test sample should conform to the following grading: - Passing through 12.5mm IS Sieve 100% - Retention on 10mm IS Sieve 100% ii) The sample should be oven-dried for 4hrs. at a temperature of 100 to 110 oC and cooled. iii) The measure should be about one-third full with the prepared aggregates and tamped with 25 strokes of the tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregates should be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure should finally be filled to overflow, tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregates struck off, using a tamping rod as a straight edge. The net weight of the aggregates in the measure should be determined to the nearest gram (Weight A).

Procedure to determine Aggregate Impact Value i) The cup of the impact testing machine should be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod. ii) The hammer should be raised to 380mm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup and allowed to fall freely onto the aggregates. The test sample should be subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second.

Step 1) fill up the special mould with aggregate in three layer by compacted and weight it. Step 2) weight the aggregate passing 12.5 mm sieve ,retained on 10.00mm sieve size. Description Mass of sample placed in moulds (gm) Mass passing 2.36mm after impact (gm) Test result 340 262

1 2

Crushing value =b *100/a =262*100/340 =77.05% Impact value= 22.95% Silt content1) Fill up test tube with water 2) Than placed sand in it at the half of water. Than wait &watch 3) After half an hour note the finall reading and sand reading 4) Sand +silt reading =280 mm 5) Sand reading=270 mm 6) Silt reading = 10 mm 7) Silt contained=10*100/280=3.57%

Green and Energy-efficient features:

The building will be a Green one, designed on sustainable and environmentfriendly architectural concept resulting in environment protection, water conservation, energy efficiency, usage of recycled products and renewable energy. The building would: 1) Use renewable energy such as solar energy to reduce power consumption 2) Optimise energy performance of the building 3) Ensure Roof / Wall insulation to reduce load on HVAC.

4) Use high efficiency and HFC based chillers for reducing environmental degradation due to carbon & Nox emissions 5) Use energy modeling before construction so that complete building performance is known and can be optimized at the design stage itself 6) Ensure water use reduction by using water-less urinals, recycling of water and rain water harvesting 7) Use CO2 Sensors monitoring air quality to enhance benefits to occupants 8) Use building material with high recycled content 9) Use Certified wood & High-performance glass 10) Use Double skin external wall The Rajiv Gandhi Urja Bhavan project is registered with the US Green Building Council (USGBC) for obtaining LEED system rates buildings on a Green Building Scale as certified, Silver, Gold and Platimum. In addition to other benefits such as a healthy working environment that results in increased employee productivity, there are quantifiable benefits such as 40-50% reduction in power and water consumption. Intelligent features: An Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) will manage the HVAC, lighting, power, individual access control, vehicle access control, parking, fire detection & control, lifts, water & waste disposal management, office automation processes and communication processes in the building. Barrier-free features: Providing access to, movement within and around buildings for physically-challenged people. Speaking after the foundation stone laying, ONGC CMD Mr R. S. Sharma said that the Research centre reiterates ONGCs intentions to emerge as a global scale energy giant, committed to ensure Energy Independence for India.