Defining Intelligence

Andy Carvin(Traditional view) Many people define intelligence, as a person’s ability to solve problems, utilize logic, and think critically. It also represents how people comprehend, examine and respond to outside stimuli. In this case intelligence can be viewed as a "singular, collective ability to act and react in an everchanging world." (Carvin) in Carvin, Andy. (1999). MI-The Theory. EdWeb: Exploring Technology and School Reform. General intelligence( • Abilities that allow us to be flexible and adaptive thinkers, not necessarily tied to acquired knowledge. • Reasoning, integration and abstraction as may be seen in solving maze or puzzle based problems. Alfred Binet (General intelligence)
Intelligence entails the operation of specific mental functions, including memory, attention, verbal fluency and creativity, that are strictly controlled by practical judgement.

Howard Gardner "The standard view of intelligence is that intelligence is something you are born with; you only have a certain amount of it; you cannot do much about how much of that intelligence you have; and tests exist that tell you how smart you are." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) in Checkley, Kathy. (1997). The first seven…and the eighth: a conversation with Howard Gardner. Educational Leadership, 55, p8-13. Multiple Intelligence Theory(- several types of intelligence-Howard Gardner) "Intelligence refers to the human ability to solve or make something that is valued in one or more cultures. As long as we can find a culture that values an ability to solve a problem or create a product in a particular way, then I would strongly consider whether that ability should be called an intelligence." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) Ability can be called an intelligence only if it meets several criteria: • Representation in the brain for the ability (Biological Basis) • Presence of populations that are especially good or especially impaired in an intelligence (i.e. exhibited in extreme forms in idiot savants, prodigies and geniuses) • Possess a clear developmental history • Used in the performance of culturally valued roles around the world (Cultural Basis) Gardner has identified eight intelligences as : Linguistic-Verbal; Logical-Mathematical; Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic; Spatial; Intrapersonal; Interpersonal; Naturalist
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Together, these eight intelligences provide a theoretical foundation for recognizing the different talents and abilities that people, and especially students, possess. They are generally used concurrently, complementing one another as skills develop. In Gardner’s words: "What makes life interesting, however, is that we don’t have the same strength in each intelligence area, and we don’t have the same amalgam of intelligences. Just as we look different from one another and have different kinds of personalities, we also have different kinds of minds." This theory contradicts the traditional view of intelligence being predetermined and unalterable. MI states that we can get better at each of our intelligences, although some people will improve in some areas more readily than others. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use words and language in various forms • Ability to manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically • Sensitive to meaning, order, function, sound, rhythm of words • Adept at reading and writing • May utilize native as well as other languages • Typically excels at school • Dominant mode of teaching Potential careers: Writer, speaker, orator, lawyer, poet, politician, teacher, professor, editor, journalist,
salesperson, actor, administrator, contractor Tools for Teachers: Reading, biographies, poetry, storytelling, book sharing, humor/jokes, wordplay, riddles, creative writing, debate, journal writing, explanations, feelings, reports, lists, library research. Tips for Parents: Read with your children; Listen to their questions, concerns, and experiences; Provide books and paper for reading and writing activities; Encourage children to share with you what they have read or written; Provide opportunities to visit libraries and bookstores; Play games like Scrabble, Hangman, Boggle, and Yahtzee.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to detect patterns • Approach problems logically • Reason deductively • Adept at math and science • Manipulate numbers, quantities, and operations • Typically precise and methodical • Prefer ordered and sequential activities • Currently highly valued by society Potential careers: Scientist, engineer, accountant, computer analyst, computer programmer, logician,
mathematician, actuary, bank teller. Tools for Teachers: Analyzing, calculations, classifying, pattern games, time lines, numbers, logic problems, experimentation, critical thinking, sequencing, outlining, compare and contrast, graphic organizers, scientific thinking, Venn diagrams, writing problems, reasoning problem solving, computer instruction

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Tips for Parents: Let your children experiment; Invite them to help make a cake or mix paint colors to make
new ones; Let them help with family budget, budget their own allowances, or operate a calculator; Provide opportunities for setting table, sorting clothes, organizing drawers; Play games like Uno, checkers, and chess.

Musical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to discern meaning in rhythmically arranged sets of pitches • Think "in music" • Recognize nonverbal sounds: pitch, rhythm, and tonal patterns • Adept at remembering melodies and converting sounds into rhythms • May be the least developed intelligence • One of the earliest talents to emerge Potential careers:Composer, singer, performer, conductor, music critic, violinist. Tools for Teachers: Chants, rhythmic patterns, listening, rap, singing, music performance, humming,
instrumental sounds, music education, musical chairs, listening centers, descriptive and rhythmic words (to enhance communication). Tips for Parents: Allow children to select their own music cassettes/CDs; Encourage singing along and clapping to rhythm; Involve children in music lessons; Attend concerts and musicals.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use one’s mental abilities to coordinate one’s own bodily movements • Ability to understand things by using one’s body or parts of the body • Use body to solve a problem, make something, put on a production • Respond well to nonverbal communication • Frequently can’t sit still, need to touch things • Adept at all sorts of athletic and fine motor activities • Typically chooses to be a participant rather than an observer • Challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated • Most controversial of the proposed intelligences Potential careers:Dancer, athlete, mime, actor, clown, comedian, craftsperson. Tools for Teachers: Acting, drama, dancing, exercise, physical gestures, experiment, inventing, movement, role
playing, human graph, demonstrations, hands-on thinking. Tips for Parents: Involve children in dancing, acting, or sports; Provide a variety of anipulatives (clay, fabric, blocks) for experimentation; Walk, jog, hike, bowl, play tennis, or bike as a family; Enjoy sliding, swinging, and riding toys; Provide chores like sweeping, setting table, emptying trash; Play games like charades, Simon says, and hide-and-seek.

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collages. ONESMUS W. clinician.I 4 . markers. Provide time for reflection. Intrapersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to understand oneself. religious leader. Tips for Parents: Give children quality time to work or play alone. crayons. manipulate them spatially. • Adept at group work. paints. labeling. and draw them in detail • Typically thinks in images and pictures • Ability to orient themselves in a house or outdoors • Used in both arts and sciences • Enjoys chess and jig-saw puzzles • Often daydreamers • Like multiple colors • Taught best using photos. graphic or industrial designer. Tools for Teachers: Reflection. design furniture arrangement. Encourage writing in a diary or journal. Visit art museums. mapping. puzzles. fantasy. goal setting. Let children choose the color for their bedroom. therapist. imagination. pictures or having them draw ideas • Not limited to visual domain-can also be formed in blind children Potential careers: Artist (like painter. counselor. • Very social and street smart. including feelings and motivations • Includes the ability to delay gratification • Can discipline themselves to accomplish a wide variety of tasks • Adept at independent work. self-identification. pretending. free choice time. artist. Tools for Teachers: Guided imagery. motivations. awareness of personal feelings. Tips for Parents: Provide opportunities for solving or inventing. higher order reasoning. use color in activities. mazes.Spatial Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Visualize mental models. Provide art mediums—brushes. designs. typically assume a leadership role. metacognition. politician. lighting specialist. independent work and projects. inventor. • Able to understand and empathize with what others are thinking and doing. Interpersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to "read people"—discriminate among other individuals especially their moods. take photographs. poet. Potential careers: Teacher. concentration. autobiography. charting. Play games like Pictionary or cards. navigator. pictures. focusing. intentions. posters. sculptor…) architect. community organizer. thinking strategies. drawing. social worker. salesperson. typically enjoy solitude • "March to a different drummer" • May be daydreamers • Draw upon feelings to guide behavior Potential careers:Psychotherapist. sailor.

Tools for Teachers: Create observation notebooks. Forms of mental self-government: • Monarchic people perform best when goals are singular. Robert (1988) The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Intelligence. types of makeup… Potential careers:Botanist.stylistic variables: • Internal . as a family. taxonomist. animals • Sensitive to other features of the natural world (clouds. II. interviews. photography. They deal best with one goal or need at a time. external variables and anarchic habits of mental self-government. flowers. peer tutors. Encourage children to participate in activities. planning. binoculars. discussion. and so forth. team assessments. Functions of governments of the mind: • • • Legislative . empathy practices. Sternberg's Theory of Triarchic Intelligence(Professor Robert Sternberg of Yale University) (Summarized from: Sternberg.collaboration III. draw natural scenes. Scope . Encourage discussion and problem solving. Tips for Parents: Take children on nature walks to observe and journal.judging. imagining. plants…. These three areas correspond with: 1. Judicial . skits. 5 ONESMUS W. I. Share. observations from notebooks. Tips for Parents: Play a family game. evaluating. Collect leaves. sneakers. rock configurations) • Recognize patterns in nature • Prefer to be outdoors • Most recently "discovered" intelligence • May extend into consumer realm—discriminate among cars.implementing and doing. NY: Viking Press. role playing. classify and categorize things in nature. teamwork. debates. 2. plays.by themselves • External . and formulating. and comparing.creating. scientist. while another individual might prefer executive functions. magnifiers.) This concept of intelligence equates to combinations of individual preferences from three levels of mental self-management. Encourage "backyard experiments" with bugs.Tools for Teachers: Feedback. Forms of mental self-government. design Venn diagrams. telescopes. group projects. Examples: As a combination a person might prefer legislative functions. personto-person communication. Executive . internal variables and hierarchic habits of mental self-government. and 3. rocks… and try to identify using a field guide. chef. Stylistic preferences.I . microscopes. Naturalist Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to recognize and classify living things like plants. describe changes in environment. Functions of governments of the mind. cooperative groups. Star watch from the backyard or local observatory.

handling blocks. Motions co-ordination. Perceptual speed.number series identification. and managing your relationships effectively. 3. numbers. Anarchic people depart from form and precedent. Numerical ability. COGNITIVE FACULTIES Include mechanisms for: Vision. paper folding. 4. interacting smoothly.• • • Hierarchic people can focus on multiple goals at once and recognize that all goals cannot be fulfilled equally.in marriage and families. Hearing . Impulse control. Self-esteem . In essence. It includes knowing your feelings and using them to make good decisions. Those emotional skills matter immensely . Oligarchic people deal with goals that are of equal weight well. 2. visual details.clerical speed and accuracy. These people operate without rules or structure. 5. Self-motivation . Emotional intelligence(Daniel Goleman) Goleman defines EQ as: EQ is not destiny . Summary on the definition of intelligence Left as an exercise. creating their own problem-solving techniques with insights that often easily break existing mindsets. exhibiting empathy and compassion.numbers of words known. COGNINITIVE ABILITIES Cognitive abilities include the following: Spatial ability. computational ability. motivating yourself with zeal and persistence. Memory. in career and the workplace. These people can prioritize goals easily. Learning . recognizing relationships. presenting ideas logically. Vocabulary. inductive and deductive reasoning. Speech and language. patterns. numerical reasoning. maintaining hope in the face of frustration. but they have difficulty prioritizing goals of different weight.structural visualization. fluent expressions. Problem solving(adaptation). the panorama of skills found in the context of emotional intelligence help individuals manage both the self and others in the following areas: 1. Thinking. managing your feelings well. Often they don't like or understand the need for rules and regulations.emotional intelligence is a different way of being smart.analytical reasoning. People skills. for health and contentment. Persons having EQ exhibit the following common attributes. Exercises What is intelligence? Can intelligence be mechanized? ONESMUS W.I 6 .remembering designs. observations. Mood management .

Total Turing test included vision & robotics. 1993. there are various definitions that have been proposed. 1990 who consider AI to be a study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes. These are considered below. 1978. 1992 is also in this group who think that AI is the study of computations that make it possible to perceive. TURING TEST FOR INTELLIGENCE (ACT HUMANLY) Interpersonal link (teletext) HUMAN INTERROGATOR COMPUTER The human interrogator thinks he/she is communicating with a human. Artificial intelligence is the study in which systems that rationally act are made.  Learn and adapt to the new situations. reason and act. Luger & Stubblefield. People in this group include Schalkeoff. People in this group are Charniac & McDermott. Winston.  Reason.  Represent knowledge. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computers that rationally think are made.I 7 . 1985 who think that AI is the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models. 1990 who particularly thought that AI is the art of creating computers that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that think like human beings. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that act like people. People in this group include Kurzweil. To pass Turing Test the computer must:  Process natural language.DEFINING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There is no agreed definition of the term artificial intelligence. 1985 & Bellman. are also in this group and they consider AI to be a branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior. ONESMUS W. However. Haugeland. Rich & Knight were also in this group and they considered AI as the study of how to make computers do things which at the moment people are better at.

ONESMUS W. Experts prefer highly detailed programs which are knowledgable in specific domains but restricted in applicability." (Gardner. Some related terms Human thinking This has been studied so that it may be modelled. it is necessary to define intelligence/knowledge. Earlier people involved were Socrates. Experts Generalists prefer overarching programs. Problems are physical and non physical and they have not been resolved. programming language. a pattern of output that would be considered intelligent if displayed by human beings.Cognitive Science’s view of artificial intelligence() Text Book Definition: "Artificial Intelligence seeks to produce. Rational actions Rational action is one in which inputs from the environment are taken and is in the best interest of the actor.I 8 . This is cognitive modelling. Aristotle and Plato. Scientific Level of the Field Some scientists feel that AI is simply a form of applied engineering and not a field of psychology. In order to classify machines as "thinking". on a computer. Ways have been investigated to find out how mechanize the way the human mind works. 1984) Controversy exists over a single definition of AI. tension has risen between scientists in two main topics: Generalists vs. Rational thinking Laws of thought have been devised to manipulate though processes. What is knowledge? How is knowledge represented? How do we use knowledge? Within the field of AI. those which can be applied throughout. Rational agent is something that perceives and acts. or simulations. AI may also be seen as a study in which rational agents are constructed. Some definitions focus on programs.

Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646 .1704) advanced empricism in which the source of knowledge is seen as only possible through senses.1714) argued for materialism in which the world is seen to be controlled by physical laws.I 9 .1983) introduced the reference theory in which objects in logic are related to real objects. ONESMUS W. They proposed that perception involves unconcious logical inference. Philosophy (428 BC to present) Plato in 428 BC presented dialog of thought in which piety and pious actions were considered. Algorithms were sought to distinguish pious from non pious actions.1943) raised a question looking for an algorithm that may be used for any proposition involving natural numbers. Mathematics (800 .FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE These are some of the bases that enabled the development of artificial intelligence.1864) formulated the rules of thought that provide a language that is used for logical inference(1847). Bertrand Russel (1872-1970) proposed logical positivism in which all knowledge can be characterized by logical theories. David Hume (1711-17776) proposed induction in which generalization can be made from the specific. Alfred Tarki (1902. George Boole (1815.1650) presented the principle of dualism in which issues on distinction between matter and mind are raised.now) Algorithms are traced from the work of an Arab mathematician of 9th century called alKhowarazmi. The mind is seen as a connection between knowledge and action. They contributed to its growth directly or were necessary in the development of artificial intelligence. Gottlob Frege (1848-1928) introduced the rules for first order logic except for notations. Psychology (1879 . Renè Descartes (1596 .now) Herman Von Helmboltz (1821. David Hilbert (1862. John Locke (1632 .1894) and Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) used scientific method to study human vision.

They rejected mental constructs such as knowledge. ONESMUS W. goals and reasoning steps as scientific. Lingusitics (1957 .I 10 .1949) maintained that only measurable percepts (stimuli) should be studied and their resulting actions.now) Work in AI and computer science has been complementary.1910) proposed cognitive psychology in which the brain posses and processes information. It is the advances in computer engineering that has enabled the production of software. Today we have computational linguistics which is natural language processing.present) Noam Chomsky published syntax structure. William James (1842.1958). Edward Thorndike (1879 . Computer Engineering (1940 .John Watson (1878. In 1960s much of the work was done in knowledge representation. beliefs.

Allen Newel and Herbet Simon demonstrated a program called Logic Theorist which was a reasoning system that proved Russel & Whiteheads theorems. 1956: There was a workshop at Dartmouth College organized by John McCarthy. The name Artificial Intelligence was coined at the conference. James Slagle (1963) wrote SAINT progam which solved closed form integration problems found in first year courses. Gestation period (1943 .1956) Warren McCulloth & Walter Pitts (1943) proposed a model of artificial neurons. Arthur Samuel (1952-) wrote many programs for checkers. 10 researchers attended. In other words perceptrons can learn. Claud Shannon (1950). the first neural network computer. Donald Hebb (1949) demonstrated a rule for updating connection strengths between neurons so that learning could occur. John McCArthy (1958) defined LISP which is a dominant AI language. ONESMUS W. helped by Minsky. Shannon and Rochester.I 11 . They also suggested that neural networks could learn. General Problem Solver at Carnegie Mellon University imitated how humans reason. Alan Turing (1953) wrote chess programs. Bertram Raphael (1968) wrote SIR which was a program that could answer questions in a restricted area in English. Enthusiasm and great expectation (1952. Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds build SNARC. Tom Evans (1968) wrote ANALOGY program which solved simple geometric problems. Frank Rosenblatt (1962) advance the perceptron convergence theorem which was about a learning algorithm that can adjust connection strengths of a perceptron to match any input data. Some similar phenomena are included.1969) Much enthusiasm was generated by earlier successes of the Logic Theorist and later General Problem Solver.HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we trace the evolution of artificial intelligence.

In summary. Typical example is the translator: ‘The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak’ <> ‘Vodka is good but mean is rotten’. It recommended exploratory drilling site that proved to have substantial molybdenum deposit. Minsky also showed that there were cases in which perceptrons could not learn. the importance of knowledge was discovered. turned out to be wild dreams. It had 450 rules and performed much better than junior doctors. PROSPECTOR. 1961 by Buchanan et al. 1979 by Duda et al. $40 million was saved annually by 1986. By 1988. ONESMUS W.1979) The earlier methods were found to be weak due to weak information domain. Problems arose with demonstrations as the programs contained no knowledge of their own. The solution was to use knowledge that can be used by several reasoning steps and solves typical cases in a narrow area of expertise.key to power? (1969. Most AI problems turned out to be intractable in that time needed grew exponentially compared to size of instances.1974) Claim by Herbet Simon (1957) that ‘computers could think. 1982 by McDermott. LUNAR. DENDRAL. Buchanan. Fundamental structures used to generate intelligent behaviour were limited. learn and create and that it would not take long before computers could do what men would do’. 1971 by Fiegenbaum.a dose of reality (1966.I 12 . In 1988 Du Pont had over 100 expert systems in use and 500 in development and estimated $10 million in savings. Shortliffe was a program that could diagnose blood infections. Was a program that had geological data.Challenges. was an expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation to configure orders for the new system. MYCIN. AI becomes an industry (1980-1988) R1. 1973 by William Woods was a program in geology that could be asked questions about rock samples from the moon. Knowledge based systems. Was a program that would take in a formula such as C6H13NO2 and mass spectrum data from electron bombardment and generate as its output the possible structures and mass spectrum that would be observed. DEC’s AI group deployed over 40 expert systems. It however had problems of intractability with large molecules.

The emphasis now is on building on existing theories and not inventing new ones. 3. Kotter et al. And in the future we will probably rely on them more. 1991 reported an expert system that gets a better diagnosis than a medical doctor.now) There has been a change in content and methods of research. 1993) drove at 55 mph. Recent events (1987 . The work of Byson and Ho (1969) on back-propagation learning was re-invented. 1992) is a real time expert system that handles massive stream of data from spacecraft.I 13 . Heckerman. Future of Artificial Intelligence(http://www.now) Disillusionment with MYCIN type expert systems grew as they needed more than rules. ROBOT DRIVER (Pornerleau. EXERCISES 1. It is now desired that claims be build on rigorous theorems or evidence. 2. You say where and when. What is Artificial Intelligence? Describe the Turing Test. 4. Japanese announced the 5th computer generation project to build intelligent computers using PROLOG . The dominant areas include Hidden Markov models.richmond.htm) The future of AI will certainly be just as important as it will be interesting.edu/~cschlenk/futureof. PEGASUS. It used video cameras. MARVEL (Schwuttke. 1994 reported a system that automatically calls an ambulance on accident occurring. and belief networks in which reasoning is combined with uncertain evidence. 1993.speech understanding program that handles air travel transactions. Today our lives almost revolve around the technologies provided by computers.In 1981. Discuss the events in the development of AI.student. State of the art 1997/8 Computer program beats the International Grandmaster in Chess. This generated much interest in AI. 5. sonar and laser range finders to drive the car. Rumelheart & McClelland (1986) distributed a collection of works in parallel distributed processing. There is also a need to show relevance to real world applications. King et al. How did AI evolve? Discuss the various disciplines that contributed to the development of AI. Return to Neural Networks (1986 . ONESMUS W. There is no doubt that AI will provide significant applications for everyday life.

As in finding out why decisions are made. Diagnose. Invent. or using rules of thumb. As in making optimal designs. processing. Give access to information from large databases. military and industry. Advice. ONESMUS W. Compare. Filter. Since Artificial intelligence(AI) does much to do with reasoning consider some of these reasoning activities and AI can be used in these areas: Access. Coordinate. Broker. Classify. As in going between parties.APPLICATION DOMAINS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we consider the different ways in which artificial intelligence has been applied. Auction. etc. For example in legal cases find precedence. Data-mine. Handle. Help operators for example in a factory. As in directing movement. For example as in work-flows or chemical processes. As in a project team. Give hints on classification especially on the Web. Categorize. Manage. As in isolating important mails from a mass of e-mails. As in point of sales. As in supervision of information distribution or networks.j Control. Decide. purchase from an open market. Give advice to on health. As in assisting engineers with technical issues. Mediate. Monitor. education. As in checking the movements in currency exchange rates. As in remembering and avoiding old mistakes. Assist. etc. Explain. Guide. plant faults.I 14 . Optimize. Offer a bid at an auction. predicting. Analyze. As in determining courses of action or effects of changes. or representing. ranking. Bid. As discussing requests for licences. Artificial intelligence has been found useful in many areas including medicine. Help. Detect patterns from large databases. avoiding danger. Be a broker at a stock exchange. Negotiate. As in constructing new circuits for a simplified job. As in planning. Evaluate. Learn. Categorize for example the customers. For example in placing detectors. Apply rules of auction to many items. As in dealing with routine information and passing only critical issues to humans. As in diseases. emergency or to consumers. Organize.

skills and be adaptive. The challenges include knowledge acquisition. This is an area that attempt to find how to make computers recognize voice inputs and respond vocally. This is area dealing with visual recognition of objects. learning operators and how to help humans learn. Here the investigation is focused on movement and positioning of arms and other parts. solve problems and be adaptive. ONESMUS W. If it matures then computers can recognize their owners. Here the investigation is focused on making computers acquire knowledge. Here investigations consider grammars and semantics of languages. looking or searching for solutions. On maturity computers can talk. The challenges include getting uniform grammar and semantic representations. computers will solve various problems and problem solving can be embedded into many industrial applications. The main challenges include the arm positioning and locating positions. Problem solving. On maturity. discuss. Robotics. On maturity. Its focus was later revised to specialized problem solvers such as expert systems. On maturity computers will learn from experience. Understanding and text or document translation are some of the important problems. and understanding. vehicles can find their way around. knowledge representation. The main challenges include speech recognition and generation. representing knowledge. Cameras and sensors are used.I 15 . Some of the recent practical research include ways of recognizing people using the retina. On maturity the robots will be used for additional domestic and industrial applications. Interlanguage translations will also be possible. Speech synthesis and recognition. Currently they are used for such industrial applications such as sorting. assembling and welding. Natural language and understanding. Machine learning. the computers should be able to speak in natural language and understand. This is an area that originally attempted to build a general problem solver.Main branches of AI Machine vision. Speech synthesizers have been used to demonstrate speech in minimal and constrained circumstances. read articles aloud and take voice commands. Its main challenges include finding out how to formulate the problems. The challenges in it involve mapping visual realities to representations that allow easy pattern recognition. robots can conduct chores in the house moving around.

robotics. industry and business. We consider a few examples of reported work in industry below.Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). offshore structure applications. Reported work include: hazardous site evaluation. In 1950s. it was also possible to manage information on locomotion of warheads. neural networks and genetic algorithms. Work has been reported on automatic programming. Natural language. control and manufacture. In 1980s there were interests in semi-automated operation weapons. Civil engineering. planning. design. drug manufacture. Work have been reported on inter-frame displacement. natural language interface to databases. Medical applications AI applications in medicine have been fuelled mainly by expert systems and neural networks. number crunching enabled construction of thermo-nuclear bombs. medicine.I 16 . Some of the areas in which artificial intelligence is used are also regarded as application problem domain areas for artificial intelligence. Robotics. ONESMUS W. monitoring and control of equipment. identification and ranking of severe storms. Most of the industrial uses have been fuelled by expert systems. vision and position estimation in the house. Industry AI is used in all spheres of industry in areas related to planning. These applications have been on diagnosis. Military applications There was revived interest in artificial intelligence due to breakthroughs in robotics and knowledge based systems.SOME APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There are currently many applications of artificial intelligence. urban storm sewer systems. Initially AI was perceived as a tip of the iceberg in a body of knowledge in IT that would be important in key areas in international security such as command control. These areas include military. strategic defense and verification. development of smart weapons. The main sponsor of research in AI has been US. Earlier experience in world war II saw the British use computers to decipher the German codes and they could monitor bombings. it was also possible to model simulation of fission triggered chain reaction. composition of stereotype documents in foreign languages.

Business. In education AI is being used to assist in tutoring and other computer assisted learning activities. In business AI has been used in many areas including planning. single board computer design. help.I 17 . Reported work include: managing VLSI CAD data. VLSI transistor sizing. Education. trouble shooting of large industrial plants. drilling stations management. Software engineering. automated valve expert capture. Reported work include: marine system design. mediate. Reported work include: intelligent interface design. Electrical engineering. entities that mediate between two agents knowing little about each other. reason. hold dialog and assist in direct manipulation of computers or machines. ONESMUS W. forecasting and advising.Mechanical engineering. network communication design.

The first one is using the search technique and the second one is by modeling natural phenomena (e.I 18 .j Input links ∑ ∫ aI Output links ∑ ∫ ai I1 .g.activation function -activation value of unit i. H3 W13 w35 O5 W14 I2 W24 H4 w45 ONESMUS W.input function . NEURAL NETWORKS Human neuron nucleus axon synapse dendrites cell body Artificial neuron Wi.PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Problems are tackled in AI using two main broad approaches. and neural networks). evolution.

Mutation and cross-over of genes are modelled.FitnessFn). a new generation is reproduced using mutation and cross over of members of the current population.GENETIC ALGORITHMS These are models used to solve problems based on the theory of evolution and natural selection. Begin Repeat Parents:=SELECTION(population. C B Cross-over Involves exchanging values of components (chromosomes) across genes. Genes A B C D Mutation Involves changing a value of a component of the gene (chromosome) eg. C B A D In genetic algorithms. ONESMUS W. The resulting new population is selected make the numbers constant using a selection criteria called the fitness function. Population:=REPRODUCTION(parents). Until Some individual is fit enough End. FitnessFn):Individual. Var parents:composite structure.I 19 . A general genetic algorithm Function GeneticAlgorithm(Population.

 Goal state – the solution reached.SEARCHING AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE Since searching is extensively used. 2. we look at searching as a technique of solving problems in more detail.  Rules giving how to change states. Defining a search problem A search problem is defined by specifying:  State space.  Goal condition. Process of Searching Searching proceeds as follows: 1. Check the current state. The states are represented as nodes while the allowed steps or actions are represented as arcs. Search conditions include:  Current state -where one is. Execute allowable actions to move to the next state. Representing search problems A search problem is represented using a directed graph. if it is not then the new state becomes the current state and the process is repeated until a solution is found or the state space is exhausted. and a test to check whether the goal condition is met.I 20 . check whether it has been reached. which is a path from the current state to the goal state.  Start node. 3. Check if the new state is the solution state. Search problem The search problem consists of finding a solution plan. Searching is the process of looking for the solution of a problem through the a set of possibilities (state space). ONESMUS W. The solution is a path from the current state to the goal state.  Cost of obtaining the solution.

Example of a search case study [Bratko. ONESMUS W. C on a table are considered.  Remove a block from the top of another and place on top of another block. p. Only one block can be moved at a time.I 21 . Problem Initial state(current state) C A B Goal state (final state) A B C State space C A B A BC A BC B A C A B A B AC B AC ABC C AB C AB A C B B C A A B C The state space has 13 elements or nodes.259] Three blocks A. The solution to our problem is any member of the set of all paths from original to goal state such as the path indicated in bold.  Put a block on top of another block. Possible moves  Put a block on table. B. A block can be grasped when there is no other block on top of it.

EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH STRATEGIES Searching may yield a solution or the state space may be exhausted without a solution. End. If Goal_test(problem. Exhaustive search may be performed using breadth first or depth first (iterative deepening) strategies. STATE(node)) succeeds then Solution:=Node Else Nodes:=QueuingFn(node. ONESMUS W. The may also be regarded as traversal techniques. QueuingFn): Solution|Failure. Begin While Begin Node:= remove_front_node(nodes). Depth first The branch (child) nodes are visited first. OPERATOR(problem)). a b c d e f g f The arrows show the depth first search progression.General search algorithm Function Gsearch (Problem.I 22 . Var nodes:structure. EndWhile End.

Sometimes the state space can be inexhaustible. However. but the ones considered here is called the best-first search heuristic. a b c d e f g f The arrows show the breadth first search progression LIMITATIONS OF EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH METHODS Exhaustive search has the advantage of guaranteeing solutions if they exist. Heuristics are rules that apply most of the time but not all the time. exhaustive search has some problems associated with the need to visit all states at times. There are several heuristics that are used to guide search mechanisms. in that it is difficult to enumerate. The other problem is that the state space can be extremely large such that complete search is time consuming. One problem is about combinatorial problems associated with some search cases. ONESMUS W. At times the number of possibilities rise and demands on storage and processing cannot be met. Guided search is also called heuristic search and is a search strategy in which the knowledge about the problem domain is used to guide the search mechanism thus enabling it to avoid wrong options.I 23 .Breadth first This is search strategy in which the nodes of the same level are visited first. GUIDED SEARCH Guided search is one solution to the problems associated with exhaustive search.

Nodes are regarded as most promising when they are associated with the most desired numerical values called heuristic estimates. in which nodes have associated costs and also subsequent paths have associated costs as well. The search is going to be guided by cost minimization. 1 2 3 4 8 5 6 7 8-queens problem. ONESMUS W.BEST-FIRST SERARCH HEURISTIC In the best-first search heuristic the node with the most promising chance of being the solution is visited first. The functions used to compute heuristic estimates are called heuristic functions.. Original problems 5 a 2 4 b 2 4 c f minimize{f(x):= sum path} s 2 2 e s 7 f(a)=7 5 f(b)=13 4 2 f(c)=19 f(d)=25 c a e f(e)=9 b f f(f)=18 2 3 2 g g d t f(g)=22 3 d 3 t goal Exercise: re-trace the path given that the heuristic function only adds the sum of path and the cost of the current node. These include the following cases: 8-puzzle problems. Vacuum world V . In this case we consider a heuristic that seeks to minimize the costs. At times the nodes have associated costs or benefits.I . Consider an example. OTHER SEARCH PROBLEMS There are so many cases in which the search technique may be used. Heuristic estimates are computed values that assess the suitability of a node as candidate solution.. A heuristic function would therefore seek to minimize costs or maximize benefits. 24 .

Discuss exhaustive search and heuristic search. 4. Discuss relevance of the search technique and other examples where the search technique may be applied. neural networks and genetic algorithms. 7. 3. 5.I 25 . Discuss examples of agents. VLSI layouts Robot navigation – robot movements Assembly sequencing. 1. 6. ONESMUS W. Discuss how to implement the genetic algorithm. 2. How are problems solved in artificial intelligence? What is searching? Discuss how to handle problems using searching technique. EXERCISES Investigate how to program models related to agents.REAL LIFE APPLICATIONS OF THE SEARCH TECHNIQUE Travelling – minimize the distances in route finding.

Can reason about the world.’ BenchCapon. Disadvantages. 1990. give directives or strategy. it is expressive. Rules These are formalization of used to specify recommendations. data and relationships (Computational view).I 26 . Format: IF <premises> THEN <conclusion>. The quantifiers are used.KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION Definition Knowledge. Discuss examples.assertions describing things. OR game layout and rules of play.source of rules. uses small primitives for descriptions whose numbers can be many. explanations are possible. It has well defined rules for manipulation. OR abstract data types. capture heuristics. Advantages. Predicates are used these are of the form function(arguments). they can grow to unmanageable size. Knowledge representation. Cannot handle uncertainty. where function is any object or relationship. Predicate calculus. can handle uncertainties to some extent. Framework for storing knowledge and manipulating knowledge OR ‘Set of syntactic and semantic conventions that makes it possible to describe things. based on proven theory. conflict set . conflict resolution. Discuss examples. Discuss examples. True rational belief(philosophy). Knowledge representations schemes Propositional calculus. OR map + operations. Related ideas: rules and fact base. Advantages: easy to use.is an extension of propositional calculus.deciding on rules to apply. Components cannot be individually examined. Structure+ operations. Disadvantages: cannot cope with complex associated knowledge. Disadvantages. Representation. ONESMUS W.OR facts. Advantages. use logical connectives and boolean logic.

Cannot handle quantifiers. nodes may have confusing roles or meanings. Advantages: can cope with missing values. 2. ONESMUS W. Disadvantages: has been hard to implement. Exercises 1. The nodes are objects or events. Advantages. sentences. Discuss examples: body parts. Disadvantages. cannot express standard logical connectives. searching may lead to combinatorial explosion.Semantic networks Semantic networks are graphical representation of entities and their relationships. Discuss the search process. Discuss examples.close matches are presented. What is a problem? 4. Frames These are knowledge representation formalisms in which stereotyped information on objects are represented. 5. can represent only binary or unary predicates. 6.I 27 . especially inheritance. 3. Describe guided search. Structure: Node and collection of attributes(slots). Describe the knowledge representation formalisms giving their advantages and disadvantages. the arcs are the relationships or moves. Features: capture object attributes and their values. search done by matching. Describe blind search. Easy to translate to predicate calculus. Define terms related to knowledge representation.

Software and hardware issues are resolved. The participants are identified (experts. knowledge engineers). The situation is studied. Formalization The knowledge is extracted from the sources. journals. Testing Test cases are used. METHODS OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION Face to face interview with experts – the experts are interviewed by knowledge engineers. Implementation The program is written or a prototype is developed.KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION Definition Knowledge acquisition is the process of extracting knowledge (facts. mass media materials. THE KNOWLEDGE AQUISITION PROCESS Identification This is a stage in the problem is identified. Usually the experts think aloud. documents.I 28 . Analysis of documented knowledge – this is extraction of knowledge from such sources as books. rules) from human experts. Protocol analysis – this is a documentation of how the expert behaves and processes information during problem solving. sensors or computer files and converting it into a form that can be stored and manipulated by the computer for purposes of problem solving. magazines. its characteristics are examined and it is broken down into smaller sub-problems. The resources are identified or provided. users. ONESMUS W. procedures. articles. books. Conceptualization The best method of representing knowledge is identified and selected. Observation – the experts are observed at work. The experts are consulted on acceptability of results. Questionnaires – these are questions that are sent to experts for responses.

Explain how you may acquire knowledge to build a system. • Experts may not express their knowledge). • Many participants are involved and they have varied backgrounds causing communication challenges(Keng. 5. Describe the steps in knowledge acquisition. EXERCISES 1. Examples Rule Induction New cases Rule Induction classification Training Usage Issues with knowledge acquisition • Machine representation is lower in form than human usage of knowledge. Dom. 4. Discuss problems associated with knowledge acquisition.Rule induction (computer aided knowledge acquisition) – rule induction can be viewed as a system that accepts examples and develops classification rules.). Expert. Users.. etc. System designers.I 29 . • Mismatch between the way experts hold their knowledge and the way computers represent knowledge. What is knowledge acquisition? 2. 3. Discuss ways of acquiring knowledge. ONESMUS W.

build a (problem. The facts and rules are scanned and rules fire as they meet available evidence. then sets out to draw a conclusion. C: It is cold. Example A: It is raining. The problematic situation is examined. induction and deduction. height.this is an inference mechanism which begins with the goal (conclusion) and sets out to look for evidence to establish or disprove the goal. Meta-level reasoning: use knowledge about what is known to solve problems. Fuzzy logic: this is less precise and less logical method of reasoning. size. mathematical logic. beauty. E: Carry umbrella. B: It is sunny. Fuzzy phenomena include: rain. predicate calculus. It may also be seen as reaching a decision through reasoning. Generalization and abstraction: use sets. then it is linked with other similar situations that are then used to build a solution. Some inference strategies in Artificial Intelligence Applications Reasoning by analogy. D: Walk to work. solution data bank) and use it to match new problems and adapt solutions. Special case: case-based reasoning. ONESMUS W. facts. harvest.sets whose membership is probalistic.the proponents claim that this is a natural way humans handle problems.I 30 . Formal reasoning: use rules. Fuzzy sets. F: Jump in a matatu. Example: Bone fracture. Procedural reasoning: use formulae and algorithms to solve problems. Rule-based inference controls Forward chaining – this is an inference mechanism which begins with evidence(facts).INFERENCE Definition Inference is the process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence. Backward chaining. heap of sand. find someone with a fixed bone and get advice.

I 31 . EXERCISES 1. What is inference? 2. ii.R1: If A ∨C then E. What does an inference engine do? ONESMUS W. Is inference problem solving? 3. What are AI inference strategies? 4. R2: If B then D. R3: If A ∧ then F. Advice a pupil on what to do on a cold raining day. C Problem Use backward and forward chaining inference mechanisms to: i. Describe forward and backward chaining inference controls. Advice a pupil on what to do on a raining day. 5.

Ballet dancer . Pattern recognition system is a device that extracts features of an object then classifies the object. Usually only useful features are categorized. A feature vector is an measurement of features that make up the input pattern in which each feature is unique. Sometimes templates or stereotypes may be used to classify. FEATURE VECTORS AND FEATURE SPACE Feature vector. Feature.height. Definitions Pattern recognition. A classifier is a system that takes inputs then places it into a category. A feature space is an n-dimensional space created by the n-elements in the feature space. Feature space. A feature is any measurement on input pattern so that it may be categorized. In this section we will examine how the process of classification can be mechanized by examining the techniques used for pattern recognition. For instance when reading we quickly recognize the letters. Try to explain how A and H differ. Example: Rugby players and Ballet dancers Feature space.PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION Everyday life consists of many occasions when we handle familiar occurrences at times unawares. We do so by classifying the character object. weight Height Weight Legend: . Classifier.I 32 .Rugby player ONESMUS W.

numeric methods are classification techniques that that depend on symbolic processing such as those dealing with fuzzy sets. Such a line. that is used to separate classes is an example of linear classifiers.I 33 . Decision boundary Height Weight Legend: . The numeric methods are classification techniques that use measurements of geometric patterns. These are numeric and non-numeric methods.Rugby player Decision boundary is a discriminating function that in above case is a straight line. ONESMUS W. Our scope of treatment will only cover numeric-methods of classification include deterministic and statistical techniques discussed below.Ballet dancer . The non. They can be deterministic or statistical.DISCRIMINATION FUNCTION Discrimination function is a function that maps input features into a classification space. They are used in many pattern recognition techniques. CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES There are two broad classes of classification techniques.

k-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR CLASSIFICATION The nearest neighbour classification is one in which a new pattern is placed in the class to which it is closest. Height d1 X d2

Class A

Class B Weight

Legend: - Ballet dancer d1 is the shortest distance to class A d2 is the shortest distance to class B X is the unclassified pattern

- Rugby player

Consider the a discriminant function f(X), where f(X) = closest(Class A) – closest (Class B). If f(X) is positive then place in class B. If f(X) is negative then place in class A. In practice, all (k) members are taken into account. In this case we have k-nearest neighbour, where k is the number of samples. A general problem is to find a reliable measure of distance from one class of samples. There are several k-nearest neighbour methods that are discussed below. Hamming distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the hamming distance between then denoted by H is given by: n H = ∑ |xi-yi| 1 The hamming distance is commonly used to compare binary vectors where it gives the number of different bits. Note that |xi-yi| = xI XOR yI .

Euclidean distance This is an accurate distance metric based on Pythagoras’s theorem. It is defined as given below.
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Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Euclidean distance between then denoted by d(X,Y)euc is given by: n d(X,Y)euc = X

√(∑ (x -y ) )
i I 2

1

Euclidean distance Y

A special occurs when the input vectors are binary. In this case the Euclidean distance is the square root of the Hamming distance. The amount of computations are reduced by approximating Euclidean distance using the following methods that are faster but less accurate. City-block distance X City-block distance Y

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Cityblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)cb is given by: n d(X,Y)cb = ∑ |xi-yI| 1 No square roots are taken. Square distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Squreblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)sq is given by: d(X,Y)sq = max{ |xi-yI|}, where the maximum value of the differences( or the longest side) is taken.

FURTHER REMARKS ON LINEAR CLASSIFIERS

ONESMUS W.I

35

Linear classifiers occur many times. They depend on linear functions or straight line boundaries that are used as decision boundaries. Sometimes a weight vector may be used to adjust the decision boundary so that classification is correctly performed. This is depicted below. Height linear decision boundary

Class A Weight vector Legend: - Ballet dancer

Class B Weight - Rugby player

n f(X) = ∑ wixIwhere X is the boundary, w is the weight. 1 For two classes A and B, one classification rule would be f(X) > 0 ⇒ place in Class A, and f(X) < 0 ⇒ place in Class B. Usually the challenge is to find w so that classification is correct, especially in nearest –neigbour methods. Linear separable problems These are problems for which it is possible to find a single linear decision boundary(line or plane). Several classes may be handled systematically such as: ABCD could be handled as A or BCD, B or CD, then C or D. Sometimes it may be hard to get class boundaries, in such a case the samples may be split as below: class 1 class 3 class 4 Usually the nature of the problem determines which technique to use. STATISICAL CLASSIFICATION METHODS These are methods that use statistical techniques to classify. They are based on conditional probability that is generalized in Baye’s theorem.
ONESMUS W.I 36

class 2

. 2. P(Gi|X). 3. n. Baye’s rule: P(Gi|X) = P(X| Gi) P(Gi) ∑P(X|Gj) P(Gj) j P(Gi) is easy to get as this depends on the number of groups and assuming independence. what is the probability that it belongs to calss Gi. X. What is pattern recognition? ONESMUS W. Baye’s classifier X belongs to class Gi if P(Gi|X) > P(Gj|X) . Usually models are assumed on the patterns of data distribution such as the normal distribution. i ≠ j.. P(X| Gi) is obtained from the distribution being used such as the normal distribution or some other probability distribution function.I 37 . The conditional probability of event X given event Y has occurred is written as P(X|Y). Bayesian classifiers can be optimized to perform very well. EXERCISES 1. G 1 Gn Let P(G) be the probability of a pattern X belonging to group Gi. …. G3. ….. for all i=1. G2 …. G2. in other words what is the probability. Gn be possible classes or groups. It is a theorem that Bayesian classifiers reduce to linear classifiers.Let G1. Statistical classification problem Given a set of measurements.

What is classification? 3. 8. Discuss Bayesian classification technique. ONESMUS W. 6. Explain the meanings of the terms feature vector and feature space. Describe the nearest-neighbour classification technique.I 38 .2. What is discrimination function? 5. What is statistical classification? 7. Discuss an example showing how Baye’s theorem may be used in a classification a problem. 4.

engineers. Tell the relevance of situations or issues. ONESMUS W. Human experts have extensive task specific knowledge acquired from training. reading. A system is an environmental entity that is considered to have the characteristics that include: existence of a purpose or goal. practice and experience. The knowledge could include:  Theories about the problem area. etc. craftsmen. Expert system is therefore a set of computer programs that mimic the human expert. and existence of boundaries.I 39 .  Meta-knowledge(knowledge about knowledge).  Global strategies for solving typical problems. composition by several inter-related components that contribute individually to the its goal. We meet human experts as experienced doctors. educators. closed.EXPERT SYSTEMS Towards a definition Expert systems are computer systems that are best appreciated first by examining what the terms mean. Expertise is a property of human beings describing their abilities to cope with difficult problem solving situations. psychiatrics.  Rules and procedures regarding general problem area. politicians.  Rules (heuristics) on what to do in a given problem case. static or dynamic. a system may be adaptive. In addition. Explain the solution to a problem. Experts take a long time to develop and when they solve problems they may do so in one or more of the following ways:         Recognize and formulate the problem. The programs will take and solve problems in restricted problem domains or areas of expertise. Expert systems must therefore have knowledge similar to the ones held by human experts and use it to solve problems of the type solved by human beings. Break rules. administrators. Learn from experience. Human experts usually solve problems in specified areas of expertise with appreciable level of competence. Restructure knowledge. programmers.  Facts about the problem area. Recognize their limitations but still offer workable solutions(degrade gracefully). Provide the solution to the problem fast. The term system is used here in the sense of computer system or computer programs in particular. The word expert is derived from human experts. analysts. The first term to consider is the term system. open.

schedules.interprets.STRUCTURE OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE BASE Facts: what is known about the problem domain area Rules:logical reference such as between symptoms and causes User User interface Knowledge Engineer Recommended action Explanation facility Documented knowledge INFERENCE ENGINE . . 447] ONESMUS W. enforces consistency checks Expert Knowledge Blackboard (Workspace) Plan Solution Agenda Problem description Knowledge refinement Adapted from Turban & Ronson [P.draws conclusion .I 40 .

databases. It may explain:  Why some questions are asked by the expert system. special research reports and the internet. Structures used to store knowledge are called knowledge representation formalisms and they include rules. User interface the part that enables the users or builders to submit their items to the expert system and also the expert system to respond to the users or builders.  Why some alternatives are rejected. Heuristics are rules that are used to solve some typical problems.  Schedule that maintains control over the agenda. textbooks. data is entered and intermediate results are kept. Knowledge will include facts in the problem area and the theory of the problem area. transfer and transformation of problem solving expertise from experts or documented knowledge sources to a computer program. Inference engine is the brain of the expert system.The development environment is used by the experts to build the components and enter the knowledge into the expert system. Knowledge can be acquired from human experts. The consultation environment is used by the non-experts to obtain expert help or knowledge from the expert system. multimedia documents. The blackboard may contain a plan of how the problem should be solved. frames. semantic networks. formulating and solving problems. an agenda of potential actions awaiting execution and a solutions indicating candidate hypotheses and alternate courses of action. Blackboard (workspace) is the area in working memory where current problems are described. It uses priorities and other criteria to estimate the effect of applying rules on the agenda. they may also be kept. The knowledge acquisition subsystem assists in the accumulation.I 41 . propositions and predicates. Explanation subsystem (justifier) is the part that traces responsibility for conclusions to their sources.  How some conclusions are reached. The parts of the inference engine consists of:  Interpreter (rule interpreter in many system) that executes selected agenda items by applying relevant rules from the knowledge base. ONESMUS W. It is sometimes called control structure or rule interpreter. It gives a means of using the knowledge by developing the agenda that organizes and controls the steps taken to solve problems during consultation.  Consistency enforcer maintains a consistent representation of the emerging solution. It provides a methodology and implementation of the reasoning mechanism that uses the knowledge held in the knowledge base and the blackboard to formulate conclusions. The knowledge base contains the knowledge needed for understanding.

so that it may be put into the computer for use in expert an system. The User is someone who is involved with an expert system as a non-expert and the expert system is an consultant providing advice or solutions to problems. CLASSIC PROBLEM AREAS ADDRESSED BY EXPERT SYTEMS Expert systems have been used in several typical problem areas. who is someone who uses the expert system as an assistant or colleague. The user may be an expert systems builder who adds knowledge to the knowledge base of the expert system which acts as a partner.I 42 . flag exceptions Prescribe remedies to malfunctions Execute plans to administer prescribed remedy Diagnose. The Knowledge engineer is the is the one who extracts and structures knowledge from sources such as the human experts. repair and monitor system behaviour BENEFITS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS Increased productivity and output since expert systems work faster than humans. Many times he may be the expert systems builder also. judgement. Knowledge refining system is the part that enables the analysis and use of knowledge so that leaning may take place and improvements may be made. The user may also be student who wants to learn from the expert system which acts as an instructor. Category Interpretation Prediction Diagnosis Design Planning Monitoring Debugging Repair Instruction Control Problem area addressed Infer situation descriptions from observations Infer consequences of given situations Infer malfunctions from observations Configure objects under constraints Develop plans to achieve goals Compare observations and plans. experience or methods used to solve problems or advise on a given class of problems. Several application systems have been demonstrated in these areas. and correct student performance Interpret. ONESMUS W. These areas are given below. PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERT SYSTEMS The Expert is the person who has a special knowledge.  The remaining facts to establish before the final conclusion. The plan used to reach the solution. The user may also be a partner. debug. predict. In this case the expert system gives a second opinion.

Operation in harzadous environments where ES is used where humans are not safe such as in nuclear power plants.Decreased decision-making time as expert systems can make decisions faster. Integration of several experts’ opinions where ES are built by consulting several experts. Elimination of the need for expensive equipment where ES is used to perform monitoring and control tasks with low-cost equipment. ONESMUS W. Provide training where ES is used by novices because of its contents in the knowledge base. Increased capability of other computerized system where ES integrate with other systems to make applications work faster or produce higher quality results. Enhanced problem solving and decision making where ES integrates analysis and judgement of top experts. Ability to work with incomplete or uncertain information where ES may use existing knowledge to solve a problem even though some other facts may still be missing or uncertain. Easier equipment operation where ES is used to operate a complex equipment. Flexibility as ES can sense changing needs and advice accordingly. such as a product out of production. Capture of scarce resource as ES can store the expertise held by humans who may be taking long to train. Reduced down time as expert systems (ES) where ES are used for diagnosis of malfunctions and prescribing repairs. Accessibility to knowledge and help desks where ES is used to supply information and scarce knowledge or support help desks. toxic environments.I 43 . Increased process and product quality as errors can be significantly reduced.

Improved decision-making processes where ES provide rapid feedback on consequences.  Experts may not always use understood vocabulary. LIMITATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS The following problems are associated with expert systems:  Knowledge is not always readily available. tired or hold attitudes.  Experts may not always validate their conclusions.  Subjectivity and biases in knowledge transfer. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS Implementation of expert systems may succeed because of the following factors: ONESMUS W.  Variations in problem assessment by different experts.  Difficulty in extracting expertise from humans.I 44 .  End-users may not trust expert system. Ability to solve complex problems as ES can hold a massive amount of knowledge and thus being able to handle complex problems. Enhancement of other CBIS as ES adds the necessary intelligence capabilities needed in other CBIS.  Human experts cannot abstract when under pressure.  Cognitive limitations of users. Knowledge transfer to remote locations as ES can hold specialist knowledge that may be used in remote locations such as eye disease diagnosis and treatment system demonstrated in Algeria and Egypt by World Health Organization. Improved decision quality as ES is reliable and does not become bored.  Only work well in a narrow domain.  Knowledge engineers are few and expensive.

ONESMUS W. Functions can be used for these. Assign utilities. Obtain new evidence. There must be at least one cooperative expert. Identify the aspects that determine the utility of outcomes. Calculate optimal action according to the available evidence. pp. There should be competent knowledge-based system developers. The problem must be qualitative (fuzzy). Assign probabilities. Assign conditional probabilities. Decide on the new evidence to acquire through appropriate acquisition methods. There should be a good ES shell (store & manipulate knowledge naturally). The should be a friendly user interface for novice users. The problems must be difficult enough to warrant the use of ES. Find out the actions.I 45 . Evaluate the diagram.          Management support and user involvement. Draw a conceptual diagram. The ES should positively impact on end-users. There must be a high level of knowledge. outcomes and evidence to consider. Enter available evidence. Draw a diagram indicating relevant factors and which ones influence the others. 439-463 ] A METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DECISION SUPPORT Determine the problem scope. The problem must be sufficiently narrow in scope. Utilities refer to values that indicate importance of actions. Materials above are adapted from [3. Where some initial evidence exist in each case it should be entered.

Discuss the advantages and limitations of expert systems. Describe the qualities and qualifications of a human expert. Describe the structure of a human expert. Do so by varying the parameters and running the evaluation again. Discuss expertise.I 46 . 5. ONESMUS W. Discuss the definition of expert systems. 3. Where small changes lead to different decisions then more data should be collected. Check if the best decision depends on small changes assigned to probabilities and utilities. Describe the people involved with expert systems. 4.Perform sensitivity analysis. EXERCISES 1. 2. 6.

INTELLIGENT AGENTS (IA) Intelligent agents must have been coined from the term agent.W. A is a set of output objects (actions). Other definitions of intelligent agent Definition 1 ". and applications are organized as networks of collaborating agents.I.out> where P is a set of input objects (percepts). Agents are the basic building blocks for applications. In computational sense. Definition of intelligent agent Working definition of "agent" An agent is a reusable software component that provides controlled access to (shared) services and resources. Example: a desktop agent "recruits" the services of a screen and a connection agent to physically connect a call. We define the agent's environment to be a tuple <A." [Hayes." Definition 3 An agent is a tuple <P. and determine actions. I is a set of internal states. several meanings to the term agent have been proposed as will be discussed below. 1995] ONESMUS W. action to affect conditions in the environment. agents can be seen as programs that help the users with routine tasks. in is a function from P X I into I (the agent's input function).A. W is a set of states. In conventional interpretation agents are associated with personal representatives that interact with others to accomplish a task.I 47 . either isolated or in cooperation with other agents. see is a function from W to P.. and do is a function from A X W into W [Russel & Novig]. sophisticated entity acting rationally and intentionally. and reasoning to interpret perceptions.in. P is the set of inputs to the agent. software entity which functions continuously and autonomously in a particular environment. draw inferences. However." [Dictionary for AI terminology] Definition 2 ". Definition 4 "Intelligent agents continuously perform three functions: perception of dynamic conditions in the environment. often inhabited by other agents and processes..P. solve problems.do> where A is the set of outputs from the agent. Example: a printer agent that provides printing services schedules requests to a shared printer.see.

Background. This is the owner’s account that may be used for billing or pointer to the account. ONESMUS W. This is the engine that runs the agent’s intelligence. Author. parent name or master agent name. Account.Agent and conventional programs Common properties that make agents different from conventional programs: • Agents are autonomous. This is the statement of successful task. that is they act on behalf of the user. that is they communicate with the user. the system. • Agents may move from one system to another to access remote resources or even to meet other agents. Goal. Components of agents The following may be specified for a typical agent: Owner. but sometimes also proactively(initiate actions). it may consist of rule-based expert system or neural network. This is the person or the process that created the agent. These are attributes of the goal. from fixed rules to learning engines that allow them to adapt to changes in the environment. Intelligent system. Subject description. • Agents have social ability. and other agents as required. This is the request or response time expected. Creation and duration.I 48 . • Agents don't only act reactively. This is supporting information. • Agents contain some level of intelligence. • Agents may also cooperate with other agents to carry out more complex tasks than they themselves can handle. This is the user name.

Automation of repetitive tasks. Service support is necessary in many areas including network security. Learning. they can interact with humans. Agents work on special repetitive tasks. Support conditional processing. The managers have so much information and they need some kind of help to cope. Background operation. Temporal continuity. Massive bank of information over the years. Autonomy. Agents interact with other agents or humans. Proactiveness. Communication. Agents are continuously running processes. Agents can move across different architectures. usually out of sight. Agents may be rule-based systems thereby showing flexibility. Agents can learn. A lot of information has been accumulated over the years and there is need to analyze it and discover any other knowledge held. The need for agents The following issues underline the need for agents: Information overload. Mobility. Agents can take initiatives such as inhibiting behavior instead of just acting in response to environmental inputs. Agents have a personality. or as they handle high level requests and seek more clarifications if necessary. ONESMUS W. perhaps somewhere in the cyberspace. Reactivity. Agents work on a single task. Sometimes they may do this to circumvent obstacles. electronic commerce or employee support. Agents work in the background. Agents act or decide on their own. Agents can perceive the environment and then respond.Characteristics of intelligent agents Intelligent agents have several characteristics that are discussed below. Internet. Personality. Service support. The Internet requires search tools. Singularity of task.I 49 . this goes beyond rule-based systems.

Classifying agents from application point of view Autonomous agents Biological agents Robotic agents Computational agents Software agents Artificial life agents Task specific agents Entertainment agents Viruses ONESMUS W. 4. monitor interacting features where systems are combined. enable using varied terminals. Role: information. Hybrid: combination of the above. 2. Ideal attributes: autonomy. Handle information service management problem. enable resource sharing and selection. diagnose problems. learning and cooperation.Simplification of distributed computing. Agents can act as intelligent resource managers. Agents can provide services. 5. Mobility: static or mobile. bill electronic users and provide security(firewalls). TYPES OF AGENTS Nwana's classification of Agents 1. Agents act as personal assistants adapting to the users. service customization.I 50 . Overcome user interface problems. 3. management. Reasoning model: deliberative or reactive.

Classifying agents by intelligence level and power Level 0 agents. Classifying agents from characteristics point of view Nature of agency. Mobility. Intelligence. These are agents that are initiated by users to get relevant Internet pages such as Yahoo. Personal agents. Agents have varying degrees of reasoning and learning. These are agents that monitor information and notify of relevant information such as WebWatcher. Level 3 agents. These are agents that work on behalf of businesses or computer applications.I 51 . store. These are agents that follow orders to retrieve documents such as Netscape Navigator. Alta Vista. Information support and management agents that help users retrieve.Classifying agents from organizational and personal view Organizational agents. Desktop application support agents that help users of the desktop PCs. Agents have degrees of mobility across platforms. They work for the users that create them. Inforseek. ONESMUS W. These are agents that help users surf the Internet. These are agents that learn and examine user profiles. Collaborative agents that work with other agents or people. Level 2 agents. search or interpret information. Electronic commerce support agents that help users engage in electronic business. Level 1 agents. Agents can collaborate or negotiate. Classifying agents by application area There are various types of agents under this category including: Workflow and administrative agents that assist in organizing work schedules or tasks.

mail agents are those agents that help e-mail users. Operating system agents – wizards.Mail message support agents that help users dealing with electronic mails. E. User interface creation agents are the agents that help users create interfaces or present them with useable interfaces. group management. Network control and management agents that help users in controlling and managing the network.graphical. Good Stuff Cheap(GSC). Spreadsheet agents. Excite.I 52 . OTHER AGENTS User interface agents. add user accounts. Data-mining agents. Web Crawler. Internet management and monitoring is a group of agents that monitor. add/remove progrmas. printer additions. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AGENTS These are agents that perform tasks related commerce and examples include: Bargain Finder. Intelligent search agents are those agents that help users traverse that net to get detailed results such as Inforseek. conduct security or manage Internet resources such as WatchGuard. network-client administration such as licensing and equipment installation. Collaboration agents. Detect & alert agents. ONESMUS W. Web browsing agents are those that guide the user browsing the Web. INTERNET BASED SOFTWARE AGENTS There are various agents associated with the internet that are discussed below. file & folder management. Internet Softbot is an agent associated with finding out user needs. diagnose problems. Software development agents. Operating system agents are those agents that help users of various operating systems get services. natural language parsing. Frequently Asked Questions Agents are those agents that answer routing similar questions. Lycos. Some agents in this category help users locate what they are looking for.

ONESMUS W. MULTIPLE AGENT SYSTEMS These are systems that provide environments in which there are several agents possibly with different goals each of which probably negotiating their own ways to achieve their ends such as in electronic commerce.I 53 .DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL AGENTS (DAI) These are agents that provide intelligent part of the distributed problem. Distributed Intelligent Agents. Sycara. In DAI the task is subdivided and each subtask is solved or get handled by an agent. EXAMPLE OF COLLABORATIVE AGENT ORGANIZATION USER 1 USER 2 USER 3 Goals and Results Task specs Interface agent 1 Interface agent 2 Interface agent 3 Task Conflict resolution Task agent 1 Task Proposed solution Task agent j Information integration Information request reply collaborative query processing Information agent 1 Information agent 2 Information agent 3 Query Answer Information Source 1 Information Source 2 Information Source 3 Information Source 4 Source: K. IEEE Expert 1996.

environment Sensors (what the world is like now) agent Condition action rules Effectors(action to take) Algorithm Function simple-agent(percept) returns action Static: rules. a set of condition-action rules State = interpret-input(percept) Rule = match-rules(state. rules) Action = determine-action(rule) Return Ation Reflex agent with internal state environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves what actions to do agent Condition action rules action to take Effectors ONESMUS W.I 54 .Simple Reflex agent architecture These agents find rules that match the current conditions and take action.

action) Return Ation goal agent environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves action type agent what actions to do action to take goals Effectors Algorithm is an exercise.I 55 .Algorithm Function internal-agent(percept) returns action Static: state. a set of condition-action rules State = update-state(state. rules) Action = determine-action(Rule) State = update-state(state. percept) Rule = match-rules(state. ONESMUS W. description of current world state rules.

5. What is an intelligent agent? What is a distributed intelligent agent? What is a multi-agent system? Discuss why agents are necessary. 3. 2. ONESMUS W. 4. Discuss the classification of agents.EXERCISES 1. Discuss the components of an agent.I 56 . 6.

or be used as moving vehicles such as underwater vehicles. Tele-presence and virtual reality. Non episodic. Robots can be used to duplicate lost limbs. lunar exploration. Hazardous environments. tools. Non-derterminism. guided by feedback from physical sensors. ONESMUS W. toxic waste clean up. nuclear plant maintenance. Sensors can only perceive close stimuli. or specific devices through variable programmable motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. they may also be used as blind guides. Autonomous robots are those robots that make decisions on their own. deep sea exploration. Robots can be used to monitor things going on in distant places or simulate reality through computer controls (virtual reality). Robots can be used for repetitive manufacturing tasks.I 57 . Effects of actions vary continuously. Continuous. Robots can be used in dangerous situations such as nuclear disaster zones. All configurations and motions that are possible cannot be enumerated. Moving items. An alternative definition presents a robot as an active artificial agent whose environment is the physical world. Nature of real world Inaccessibility. Suitable uses of robots Manufacturing and handling materials. Mobile robots can be used to distribute mails.ROBOTICS Definition A robot is a programmable multifunction manipulator designed to move material parts. Augment human abilities. Uncertainties exist.

This is where the robot can walk and stay stable as long as it hopping. These are robots that cannot exhaust total degrees of freedom of movement available. hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders. This is a part of an effector that converts software commands to physical motion such as motors. For example the plane can move in all the three dimensions. For example: the car can only move in two dimensions while there are three possible dimensions. Manipulators can allow prismatic motion in which the motion is only linear such as piston movements. Dynamically stable hopper. These are robots the exhaust all possible degrees of freedom in movement.COMPONENTS OF ROBOTS Robots consist of several parts. SENSORS IN ROBOTS Sensors are tools for perception. Actuator. These parts are discussed below. There are different types of sensing that are discussed below. There are different types of motion that are possible that include:Statically stable walker. Locomotion. This involves walking where the robot can pause and not lose balance. They will determine the degree of freedom.I 58 . Manipulation. if it suddenly stops then it loses its balance. Locomotion involves the change of position of a robot within its environment using effectors. Manipulation involves moving other objects in the environment using effectors. Manipulators can allow rotary motion where rotation is around a hub. Non holonomic robots. MANIPULATION BY ROBOTS Manipulators are effectors that move objects in the environment. Holonomic robots. Effectors. These are tools for action usually by which the robot affects the environment under its control. ONESMUS W. LOCOMOTION IN ROBOTS Legs may be used in motion but it is not easy to construct legs to be used by robots.

6. ONESMUS W. Discuss locomotion. manipulation. Discuss the uses of robots. Describe the nature of the real world. Describe the components of a robot.Propriperception. Laser range finders are depth finders. Cross-beam sensor and parallel beam sensor determine object identity. EXERCISES 1. 5. This involves using sound for navigation and range finding usually necessary in detecting objects. Camera data is mainly used for vision. 4. This involves touch sensing where elastic materials may be used to measure distortion. Sonar sensing. Tactile sensing. Why are robots important? 3.I 59 . This invoves sensing and controlling position of joints. This involves telling where the joints are. Force sensing. sensing. and vision in robots. Structured light sensors are those sensors that project light. Camera data. What is a robot? 2.

Critic This is the part of the learning agent that tells the element how well the agent is doing. Problem generator This is the part of the agent that suggests actions that may lead to new informative experiences. Unlike other AI systems. Exploratory actions are suggested. and when the agent assesses its own decision-making processes.MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS In this section we will examine machine learning and its related terms. machine learning had limited successes but useful demonstrations.526 ONESMUS W. Knowledge about learning element and some feedback on how the agent is doing are used to determine how the performance element should be modified to do better in future. Terminology in machine learning Learning Learning is the process by which an agent uses percepts to improve its ability to act in future.I 60 . A fixed standard of performance may be used. Performance element Performance element is the part of an agent that selects external actions. As a process it takes place as the agent interacts with the world. Learning will be considered with agents in mind. Much of the work is still under research studies. Model of a learning agent Environment Sensors CRITIC Feedback changes LEARNING ELEMENT Learning goals knowledge future adjustments PROBLEM GENERATOR Effectors PERFORMANCE ELEMENT Adapted from Russel & Novig P. This measure should possibly be conceptually outside the agent. Learning element Learning element is the part of the agent that is responsible for making improvements.

APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING The main aim of machine learning is to make computer systems that can learn. New knowledge is being discovered by humans. learning systems may be built. Sometimes a friendly teacher can supply the outputs. Instead of doing this. planning and problem solving. Example Example is the pair (x. we can use machine learning techniques to discover the relationships (data mining). that have seen intensive research in recent times that include data mining. then machines can be used to learn as much as possible. There some areas. Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning is a type of learning situation in which the agent does not know the outcomes but is given some form of feedback on evaluating its action.I 61 . f(x)) where x is the input and f(x) is the output of the function applied to x. Where too much knowledge is available such that it is impossible for man to cope with it. f(x)) is an example. if machines can learn then they can improve their performance. Internet) TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W. It is however not told the correctness of its action. Specifically some of these applications include: Where there are very many examples and we have no function to generate the outputs. In research learning has found applications that are related to knowledge acquisition. machine learning techniques can be used to allow the system to search for suitable functions( hypotheses). that are side effects of research in Machine learning. Environments change over time. is an approximation of the function f. then an hypothesis. Sometimes machines cannot be built to do what is required due to some limitations. If machines learn then their ability to solve problems will be enhanced considerably. (These reasons come from: Nils. Introduction to Machine Learning. Unsupervised learning Unsupervised learning is a type of learning in which the no hint is given at all about the correct input. so machines can adapt instead of re-design new ones. new world events stream in and therefore new AI systems should be re-designed. Hypothesis Suppose (x. Where we have massive amount of data and hidden relationships. J.Supervised learning Supervised learning is the learning situation in which both the inputs and outputs can be perceived. h. new vocabulary arise. Nilsson(1996).

f. h) that can approximate the original function. and that it holds a list of pairs of (percept. If the agent instead of applying a new hypothesis adjusts the old hypothesis. and neural networks. observations.e find a hypotheis based on examples Return H(percept) Procedure reflext-learning-element (percept.I 62 . ONESMUS W. h. action) Inputs: percept. a) in examples then return a Else H induce(examples) i. f(x)). that approximates the function. The possible curves that can be joined suggest various functions (hypotheses. given the example (x. we say there is a bias. that is used for selecting the action. The skeleton algorithms for a reflex learning agent are given below. examples. Induction Pure inductive inference problem seeks to find a hypothesis. otherwise it must formulate a hypothesis. then we say incremental learning occurs. Consider a plot of points. action)} We consider two inductive learning methods namely decision trees and version spaces. Consider an agent that has a reflex learning element that updates global variable. examples. feedback percept Action.Machine learning depends on several methods that include induction. action). Global examples {} Function reflex-performance-element(percept) returns an action If (percept. If the percept is there then it applies the action. When it is confronted with a percept and it is looking for an action it first checks the list. h. Where there is preference to hypothesis to a given example beyond consistency. feedback action Examples Examples ∪ {(percept.

An example is given below: Patrons? None No some Yes full WaitEstimate <60 No 30-40 Alternate ? 10-30 Hungry? 0-10 Yes no Reservation? yes Fri/Sat? no Yes yes Alternate? no Bar? yes Yes Yes no No yes Yes Yes no yes Raining? No Yes No A decision tree for deciding on where to wait for a table No No Yes Yes Attributes for the above decision tree are: Alternate: availability of a suitable alternative. pp. Each leaf specifies the Boolean value if that leaf is reached. Hungry: whether one is hungry. Patrons: number of people present. Type: nature of restaurant. Each node consists of a test to the value of one of the properties and the branches from the nodes are labeled with possible values of test result.Decision trees In decision tree. Fri/Sat: true on Fridays and Saturday. No) ⇒ WillWait(X). 531-535] ONESMUS W. Reservation: whether reservation has been made. Bar: presence of a comfortable bar area to wait in. Price: price range-not important.Full) ∧WaitEstimate(X. [Russel & Novig. The logical version is given by: ∀ X Patrons(X. the inputs are objects or situations described by a set of properties while outputs are either yes or no decisions. Raining: if it is raining outside.not important.I 63 . WaitEstimate: the estimated time to wait. 0-10) ∧Hungry(X.

In this case. attributes. just take the attributes and enumerate its possible options.000 None None 250.I 64 . ONESMUS W.000 No Yes Yes No Logically: ∀ A has_assets(A) ∨annual_income(A. set of examples Attributes. default) returns a decision tree Inputs: examples. a table is used and the goal conditions for yes are collected together.000 Turban &Aronson. p.Inducing decision trees from examples Decision trees may also be obtained from examples.000 Assets available ? Age 30 35 33 42 Dependants 3 1 2 0 Decision Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Annual Income >40. Trivially.000) ⇒ Approve_loan_for(A). Applicant Annual income Okello 50. End Return Tree. A typical example here is ID3 algorithm. examples) Tree a new decision tree with root Best For each value vi of Best do Examplesi {elements of examples with best = vi} Subtree decision-tree-learning(examplesi.000 Kamoro 70. The table is processed attribute by attribute and selecting the attribute that minimizes noise or maximizes information. attributes – Best. 537) Function Decision-tree-learning (examples.000 Wanjiru 30.000 Mulei 40. majority-value(examples)) add a branch to tree with label vi and subtree subtree. default value for the goal predicate If examples is empty then return default Else if all examples have the same classification then return the classification Else if attributes is empty then return majority-value(examples) Else Best choose-attribute(attributes. set of attributes Default. >40.507 Assets 100. A decision tree learning algorithm (Russel & Novig.

for gas-oil separation for offshore platforms that had about 2500 rules. ∨ n H Each of the hypothesis predicts a set of examples and this is called the extension of the predicate. The learning algorithm considers that one of the hypothesis is correct. temperature and susceptibility to waxing. oil. especially the disjunction of the hypotheses: H1. ∨. H2.. pressure.I 65 . These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be positive but they are actually negative. density. The embedded flight simulator could now do better than human beings in that it made fewer mistakes. and water and the flow rate. A program was written to fly the flight simulator.. False positive examples. Hn}. by observing real flights about 30 times. . This technique depends on Hypotheses which are candidate functions that may be used to estimate the actual functions. saving BP millions of dollars (Russel and Novig. There are two approaches that are used to maintain logical consistency of hypotheses. The attributes included relative proportions of gas. The idea is to readjust the hypotheses so that the classifications are correct without false placements. P539). The decision tree learning methods were applied to a database of existing designs and the system was developed in less time with the performance better than human experts. Where a hypothesis has been working well and a false negative occurs then it must be extended to include ONESMUS W. Versioning Versioning is another inductive technique that we will outline.Some H1 ∨ Patrons(P. False negative examples. viscosity. These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be negative but they are actually positive.Two success reports of decision tree learning BP deployed expert system GASOIL in 1986. For instance the example above where a decision tree was used for the determining whether a patron will wait may have the following hypotheses: ∀P willwait(P) ⇔ patrons(P. Current-best hypothesis search A single hypothesis is maintained and is adjusted as new examples are encountered. ∨H2.0-10) H3 ∨ Hungry(P) ∧ Alternative(P) H4 : Hn Consider the hypothesis space { H1.Full) ∧ Hungry(P) H2 ∨ WaitEstimate(P.

e) End Return V Function version-space-update(V. ∨ n It is original set that is reduced as some hypotheses that are not H consistent are dropped.the set of all possible hypotheses V the set of all hypotheses For each example e in examples do If V is not empty then V Version-space-update(V. the version space. An algorithm is given below that describes the process: Function current-best-learning(examples) returns hypothesis H any hypothesis consistent with the first examples For each remaining example in examples do If e is false positive for H then H choose a specialization of H consistent with examples Else if e is false negative for H then H choose a generalization of H consistent with examples If no consistent specialization/generalization can be found then fail End Return H. then it must be minimized or cut down to exclude the example. This is called generalization. If this method is applied then the final set that remains is called a version space. This is called specialization.the example. Least-commitment search Another technique of finding a consistent hypothesis is to start with original disjunction of all hypotheses: H1.. However.e) returns an updated version space V {h ∈ V: h is consistent with e} OTHER TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W.I 66 . ∨. when the hypothesis has been working and a false positive occurs. ∨H2. Version space learning algorithm is given below: Function version-space-learning (examples) returns a version space Local variables: V.

unsupervised learning. Show how decision trees are used in learning. Learning involves adjusting the conditional probabilities as examples are examined. problem solver. handwritten text recognition. Belief Networks Probability trees are constructed and are used decision making. example. EXERCISES 1. Describe a model of a learning agent. Neural networks have been used in pronunciation in which text streams are mapped to phonemes (basic sound elements. 9. It also has a non linear component called activation function that transforms the final input values into a final activation value. Reinforcement learning This is a learning method in which the learner tries to find out the utility function and uses it to select states that maximize the expected utility of outcomes. Describe the techniques used in inductive learning. Describe learning by versioning. Q-learning occurs where the agent learns the action-value function that gives expected utility of taking a given action. Define the terms performance element. hypothesis. Investigate other areas of machine learning.). What is machine learning? 3.I 67 . reinforcement learning. Each link has a numeric weight that is associated with it. The learning occurs by adjusting the weights so that the inputs correspond to the outputs. 6. What is learning? 2. 8. 5.Neural networks Neural networks as was seen earlier model the human neuron. ONESMUS W. The neural network consists of a number of nodes that are connected using links. 4. 7. Discuss applications of Machine Learning. supervised learning. driving (AlVIN(1993)-learnt how to steer a vehicle by observing the human driver. critic. A neural network unit consists of a linear input function that computes the sum of weighted inputs.

 Answering questions. Purposes of speech act include:  Informing each other about the world. Sentence (S). A language is a complex.OVERVIEW OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (Based on Russel & Novig Chapters 22 & 23) When considering natural language processing we focus on agents that can communicate. NP and VP. It may involve plan recognition which involves forming a model of agents beliefs. These are symbols such as S.  Acknowledging requests or offers. structured system of signs used by human beings to communicate most of what they know about the world. S NP VP Non terminal symbols. Communication. usually called terminal symbols. Understanding there requires the knowledge of syntax and semantics of a language. A sentence is a string consisting of sub-strings from different categories that are allowed for example. Formal language.  Requesting or commanding others to do things. such as the noun phrase (NP) or the verb phrase (VP). Speech act. A phrase is any sub-string of a given category.I 68 .  Querying others about various things. Communication can be taken to mean intentional exchange of information through producing and perceiving signs drawn for a shared system of conventional signs. Phrase. Language.  Sharing feelings or experiences. each consisting of a sequence of symbols taken from a definite set. Speech act is producing language and may involve all forms of using language including typing or sign language.  Promising to do things. It also involves logical reasoning which enables forming complex phrases by combining simple ones. A formal language is a set of strings. ONESMUS W. Understanding speech act Speech act can be understood when a set of inputs are associated with the part of the world that would be responsible for creating them.

(S must reason about beliefs of H and decide that H should know about P) S selects the words W (according to S. Pi = P (may be incorrect). who wants to convey some message. .I 69 . (Is necessary because the utterances have several possible interpretations) Incorporation: H decides to believe Pi (or reject it if it is inconsistent with current beliefs) Example using the statement ‘The cat is good. A parse tree has nodes representing phrases. and leaf nodes representing the words) S wants H to believe P (S is considered to believe P). phonetic alphabet may be used for string sounds) Analysis: Disambiguation: H infers that S intended to convey Pi. P2. links representing applications of grammar rules. say S. (Two activities are involved: syntactic interpretation. Seven processes are identified that may take place: Speaker’s role: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer’s role: Perception: H perceives W’ (required W = W’. ONESMUS W. using the words W.or parsing and semantic interpretation-extracting the meaning.. say proposition P to the hearer H. Pragmatic interpretation is a type of semantic interpretation where the situation is taken into account. ideal case). W express the meaning of P).. (Knowledge about language is used to decide what to utter) S utters the words W (usually addressing them to H). Pn (since words and phrases have several meanings). A parse tree may be used in parsing. Parsing involves grouping the words into phrases that have categories. (In AI. (perceptions is speech recognition in case of speed inputs or optical character recognition in case of character inputs) H infers that W’ has possible meaning P1.Components of communication The situation is such that there is a speaker.

cat) Disambiguation: good(cat) Incorporation: tell(KB. good(cat)) Two Agents that communicate with language language Percepts language KB Actions Percepts Actions KB REASONING REASONING Agent A Agent B ONESMUS W. caught(rat.I 70 . well(cat) Pragmatic interpretation: good(cat). good(cat)) ‘The cat is good’ ‘dikatiskud’ Semantic interpretation: good(cat).Speaker: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer: Perception: Analysis: The cat is good S NP Article The Noun cat Verb is VP Adjective good know(H.

and relative clause (RelClause) may be used. T. prepositions such as in.I breeze | glitter | nothing | cat | pit | rat | meat | …. verb phrase (VP). This will need a few considerations that are indicated below. Grammar gives rules for forming sentences. The words are usually grouped into a set of categories or parts of speech such as nouns (names to denote things).. 71 . and conjuctions such as and. a counter. MAKE-PERCEPT-SENTENCE(KB. The sentence (S). preposition phrase (PP). Lexicon is a list of allowable vocabulary words. right | left | back | noisy | good |… here | there | nearby | ahead | right | left | back | ….t)) Else if TYPE[semantics] = none then action ASK(KB. verbs (for events). MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept. indicating time TELL(KB. adjectives(modify nouns) and adverbs(modify verbs).CONTENTS[semantics]) action ASK(KB. pronouns. Other categories include articles such as the. me | you | I | it ….t)) words SPEECH-PART(percepts) semantics DISAMBIGUATION(SEMANTICS(PARSE(words))) If TYPE[sentence] = command then action CONTENTS[semantics] Else if TYPE[semantics] = statement then TELL(KB.t)) description GENERATE-DESCRIPTION (percept) Return COMPOUND-ACTION(SAY(description). MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept. Example of a lexicon Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Pronoun ONESMUS W.Algorithm Function simple-communicating-agent (percept) returns action Static: KB. Lexicon. noun phrase(NP). initially 0. a knowledge base. is | see | feel | chase | hear | catch | hide | kill | eat | smell | go |…. DO(action)) OVERVIEW OF A FORMAL GRAMAMAR FOR A SUBSET OF ENGLISH Language processing is only possible if some set of symbols are used and some form of grammar constructed on them.

p666) Function BOTTOM-UP-PARSE(words. and | or | but | … 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ….| 9 Example of grammar with above lexicon S NP NP VP | S conjunction S Pronoun | Noun | Article Noun | Digit Digit | NP PP | NP RelClause Verb | VP NP | VP Adjective | VP PP | VP Adverb Preposition NP that VP Sample phrase I feel a breeze I feel a breeze and I smell a rat. the | a | an | …. grammar) return parse tree ONESMUS W. |Mary | Ochieng’ | Kimeo | Mutiso | Kamau | ….I 72 .Name Article Preposition Conjunction Digit John. I pit the rat 56 the rat + to the east the rat + that is good Smells feel + a breeze is + good chase + to the east go + ahead to + the east that + is good VP PP RelClause A parsing algorithm (Russel & Novig. to | in | on | near | ….

Database access – use of natural language to access information from databases.i+n-1] [MAKE-NODE(RULE-LHS(rule). Text categorization – placing texts in various categories for example placing various news articles into relevant categories. Extracting data from a text – converting data in a text into a database format in which key values of parameters are obtained. Describe the importance of speech acts.forest words loop do If LENGTH(forest) = 1 and CATEGORY (forest[1]) = START(grammar) then return (forest) else i choose from {1. usually containing key words in the query. EXERCISES 1. LENGTH(forest)} rule choose from RULES(grammar) n LENGTH(RULE-RHS(rule)) subsequence SUBSEQUENCE(forest.I 73 . subsequence)] else fail end NB forest is a list of various allowed phrases. This has given rise to text interpretation as an additional area of research. Define the terms communication and language. 2. RULE-RHS(rule)) then forest[i.. Information retrieval – retrieval of text documents.translate from one natural language to another. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Machine translation. ONESMUS W. This has been a subject of research since early 1960. i.. i+n-1) if MATCH (subsequence.

Introduction to Machine Learning. disambiguation. [6] Nils J. [2] Ivan Bratko (1990). Jay E. analysis.3. Addison Wesley. 5th Edition. How can a statement in natural language be parsed? 10. Bruce McKenzie (1991). 7. Discuss aspects of machine vision. PROLOG: Programming for artificial intelligence. 5. synthesis. Programming for Artificial Intelligence. 11. Aronson(1998). 6. Describe a model for two agents communicating in a language. incorporation. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Stuart J. Discuss practical applications of natural language processing. Nillson (1996). generation. Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach. Addison-Wesley. [3] Wolfgang Kreutzer. Discuss the meaning of the terms: intention. 4.I 74 . [5] Ephraim Turban. [4] The INTERNET.Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems. Russell. Peter Norvig(1995). What is the role of grammar in natural language processing? 9. What is a lexicon? 8. ONESMUS W. Describe the component steps of communication. Discuss the important items to have in natural language processing. perception. Prentice-Hall.

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