Defining Intelligence

Andy Carvin(Traditional view) Many people define intelligence, as a person’s ability to solve problems, utilize logic, and think critically. It also represents how people comprehend, examine and respond to outside stimuli. In this case intelligence can be viewed as a "singular, collective ability to act and react in an everchanging world." (Carvin) in Carvin, Andy. (1999). MI-The Theory. EdWeb: Exploring Technology and School Reform. General intelligence( • Abilities that allow us to be flexible and adaptive thinkers, not necessarily tied to acquired knowledge. • Reasoning, integration and abstraction as may be seen in solving maze or puzzle based problems. Alfred Binet (General intelligence)
Intelligence entails the operation of specific mental functions, including memory, attention, verbal fluency and creativity, that are strictly controlled by practical judgement.

Howard Gardner "The standard view of intelligence is that intelligence is something you are born with; you only have a certain amount of it; you cannot do much about how much of that intelligence you have; and tests exist that tell you how smart you are." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) in Checkley, Kathy. (1997). The first seven…and the eighth: a conversation with Howard Gardner. Educational Leadership, 55, p8-13. Multiple Intelligence Theory(- several types of intelligence-Howard Gardner) "Intelligence refers to the human ability to solve or make something that is valued in one or more cultures. As long as we can find a culture that values an ability to solve a problem or create a product in a particular way, then I would strongly consider whether that ability should be called an intelligence." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) Ability can be called an intelligence only if it meets several criteria: • Representation in the brain for the ability (Biological Basis) • Presence of populations that are especially good or especially impaired in an intelligence (i.e. exhibited in extreme forms in idiot savants, prodigies and geniuses) • Possess a clear developmental history • Used in the performance of culturally valued roles around the world (Cultural Basis) Gardner has identified eight intelligences as : Linguistic-Verbal; Logical-Mathematical; Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic; Spatial; Intrapersonal; Interpersonal; Naturalist
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Together, these eight intelligences provide a theoretical foundation for recognizing the different talents and abilities that people, and especially students, possess. They are generally used concurrently, complementing one another as skills develop. In Gardner’s words: "What makes life interesting, however, is that we don’t have the same strength in each intelligence area, and we don’t have the same amalgam of intelligences. Just as we look different from one another and have different kinds of personalities, we also have different kinds of minds." This theory contradicts the traditional view of intelligence being predetermined and unalterable. MI states that we can get better at each of our intelligences, although some people will improve in some areas more readily than others. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use words and language in various forms • Ability to manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically • Sensitive to meaning, order, function, sound, rhythm of words • Adept at reading and writing • May utilize native as well as other languages • Typically excels at school • Dominant mode of teaching Potential careers: Writer, speaker, orator, lawyer, poet, politician, teacher, professor, editor, journalist,
salesperson, actor, administrator, contractor Tools for Teachers: Reading, biographies, poetry, storytelling, book sharing, humor/jokes, wordplay, riddles, creative writing, debate, journal writing, explanations, feelings, reports, lists, library research. Tips for Parents: Read with your children; Listen to their questions, concerns, and experiences; Provide books and paper for reading and writing activities; Encourage children to share with you what they have read or written; Provide opportunities to visit libraries and bookstores; Play games like Scrabble, Hangman, Boggle, and Yahtzee.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to detect patterns • Approach problems logically • Reason deductively • Adept at math and science • Manipulate numbers, quantities, and operations • Typically precise and methodical • Prefer ordered and sequential activities • Currently highly valued by society Potential careers: Scientist, engineer, accountant, computer analyst, computer programmer, logician,
mathematician, actuary, bank teller. Tools for Teachers: Analyzing, calculations, classifying, pattern games, time lines, numbers, logic problems, experimentation, critical thinking, sequencing, outlining, compare and contrast, graphic organizers, scientific thinking, Venn diagrams, writing problems, reasoning problem solving, computer instruction

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Tips for Parents: Let your children experiment; Invite them to help make a cake or mix paint colors to make
new ones; Let them help with family budget, budget their own allowances, or operate a calculator; Provide opportunities for setting table, sorting clothes, organizing drawers; Play games like Uno, checkers, and chess.

Musical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to discern meaning in rhythmically arranged sets of pitches • Think "in music" • Recognize nonverbal sounds: pitch, rhythm, and tonal patterns • Adept at remembering melodies and converting sounds into rhythms • May be the least developed intelligence • One of the earliest talents to emerge Potential careers:Composer, singer, performer, conductor, music critic, violinist. Tools for Teachers: Chants, rhythmic patterns, listening, rap, singing, music performance, humming,
instrumental sounds, music education, musical chairs, listening centers, descriptive and rhythmic words (to enhance communication). Tips for Parents: Allow children to select their own music cassettes/CDs; Encourage singing along and clapping to rhythm; Involve children in music lessons; Attend concerts and musicals.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use one’s mental abilities to coordinate one’s own bodily movements • Ability to understand things by using one’s body or parts of the body • Use body to solve a problem, make something, put on a production • Respond well to nonverbal communication • Frequently can’t sit still, need to touch things • Adept at all sorts of athletic and fine motor activities • Typically chooses to be a participant rather than an observer • Challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated • Most controversial of the proposed intelligences Potential careers:Dancer, athlete, mime, actor, clown, comedian, craftsperson. Tools for Teachers: Acting, drama, dancing, exercise, physical gestures, experiment, inventing, movement, role
playing, human graph, demonstrations, hands-on thinking. Tips for Parents: Involve children in dancing, acting, or sports; Provide a variety of anipulatives (clay, fabric, blocks) for experimentation; Walk, jog, hike, bowl, play tennis, or bike as a family; Enjoy sliding, swinging, and riding toys; Provide chores like sweeping, setting table, emptying trash; Play games like charades, Simon says, and hide-and-seek.

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use color in activities. • Adept at group work.Spatial Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Visualize mental models. pictures. metacognition. goal setting. therapist. politician. typically enjoy solitude • "March to a different drummer" • May be daydreamers • Draw upon feelings to guide behavior Potential careers:Psychotherapist. thinking strategies. puzzles. fantasy. mapping. clinician. navigator. imagination.I 4 . Tips for Parents: Provide opportunities for solving or inventing. social worker. artist. typically assume a leadership role. Play games like Pictionary or cards. Provide art mediums—brushes. labeling. mazes. design furniture arrangement. sculptor…) architect. Intrapersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to understand oneself. focusing. ONESMUS W. autobiography. pretending. take photographs. • Able to understand and empathize with what others are thinking and doing. and draw them in detail • Typically thinks in images and pictures • Ability to orient themselves in a house or outdoors • Used in both arts and sciences • Enjoys chess and jig-saw puzzles • Often daydreamers • Like multiple colors • Taught best using photos. intentions. paints. community organizer. free choice time. posters. Potential careers: Teacher. inventor. independent work and projects. Interpersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to "read people"—discriminate among other individuals especially their moods. salesperson. charting. higher order reasoning. Let children choose the color for their bedroom. concentration. Encourage writing in a diary or journal. motivations. • Very social and street smart. graphic or industrial designer. Tips for Parents: Give children quality time to work or play alone. designs. poet. Tools for Teachers: Reflection. Provide time for reflection. counselor. pictures or having them draw ideas • Not limited to visual domain-can also be formed in blind children Potential careers: Artist (like painter. manipulate them spatially. collages. awareness of personal feelings. crayons. religious leader. drawing. markers. Visit art museums. lighting specialist. including feelings and motivations • Includes the ability to delay gratification • Can discipline themselves to accomplish a wide variety of tasks • Adept at independent work. Tools for Teachers: Guided imagery. self-identification. sailor.

They deal best with one goal or need at a time. Star watch from the backyard or local observatory. Forms of mental self-government: • Monarchic people perform best when goals are singular.stylistic variables: • Internal . team assessments. and formulating. magnifiers. Stylistic preferences.implementing and doing. Sternberg's Theory of Triarchic Intelligence(Professor Robert Sternberg of Yale University) (Summarized from: Sternberg. Collect leaves. types of makeup… Potential careers:Botanist. peer tutors. telescopes. Scope . These three areas correspond with: 1. rock configurations) • Recognize patterns in nature • Prefer to be outdoors • Most recently "discovered" intelligence • May extend into consumer realm—discriminate among cars. Functions of governments of the mind: • • • Legislative . NY: Viking Press.I . 5 ONESMUS W. design Venn diagrams. planning. Encourage "backyard experiments" with bugs. sneakers. Robert (1988) The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Intelligence. Judicial . binoculars. plants…. Share. external variables and anarchic habits of mental self-government. cooperative groups. II. as a family. Tips for Parents: Take children on nature walks to observe and journal. while another individual might prefer executive functions. skits. Examples: As a combination a person might prefer legislative functions. and so forth. 2.Tools for Teachers: Feedback. evaluating. rocks… and try to identify using a field guide. Encourage discussion and problem solving.) This concept of intelligence equates to combinations of individual preferences from three levels of mental self-management. debates. discussion. flowers. role playing.by themselves • External .judging. Tips for Parents: Play a family game. Encourage children to participate in activities. interviews. photography. Forms of mental self-government. scientist. and 3. classify and categorize things in nature. and comparing. animals • Sensitive to other features of the natural world (clouds. I. group projects. Functions of governments of the mind. draw natural scenes.creating. empathy practices. plays. Executive . Tools for Teachers: Create observation notebooks. Naturalist Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to recognize and classify living things like plants. observations from notebooks. personto-person communication. teamwork.collaboration III. internal variables and hierarchic habits of mental self-government. chef. describe changes in environment. microscopes. taxonomist. imagining.

Vocabulary. 3. It includes knowing your feelings and using them to make good decisions. 5. Hearing . the panorama of skills found in the context of emotional intelligence help individuals manage both the self and others in the following areas: 1. Problem solving(adaptation). handling blocks. 2. numerical reasoning.analytical reasoning. in career and the workplace. Speech and language. for health and contentment. motivating yourself with zeal and persistence. These people can prioritize goals easily. Impulse control. presenting ideas logically. Perceptual speed. Summary on the definition of intelligence Left as an exercise. and managing your relationships effectively. maintaining hope in the face of frustration. numbers. exhibiting empathy and compassion. visual details. computational ability. managing your feelings well.remembering designs.numbers of words known. COGNITIVE FACULTIES Include mechanisms for: Vision. Self-esteem . Self-motivation .structural visualization.• • • Hierarchic people can focus on multiple goals at once and recognize that all goals cannot be fulfilled equally.I 6 . These people operate without rules or structure. patterns. Thinking. Numerical ability.number series identification. Exercises What is intelligence? Can intelligence be mechanized? ONESMUS W. Anarchic people depart from form and precedent. observations. Often they don't like or understand the need for rules and regulations. Emotional intelligence(Daniel Goleman) Goleman defines EQ as: EQ is not destiny . Persons having EQ exhibit the following common attributes. recognizing relationships.in marriage and families. COGNINITIVE ABILITIES Cognitive abilities include the following: Spatial ability.emotional intelligence is a different way of being smart. People skills.clerical speed and accuracy. In essence. Learning . inductive and deductive reasoning. Those emotional skills matter immensely . interacting smoothly. but they have difficulty prioritizing goals of different weight. Oligarchic people deal with goals that are of equal weight well. Motions co-ordination. paper folding. Memory. creating their own problem-solving techniques with insights that often easily break existing mindsets. 4. fluent expressions. Mood management .

These are considered below. 1990 who particularly thought that AI is the art of creating computers that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. 1978. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computers that rationally think are made. Total Turing test included vision & robotics. 1985 who think that AI is the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models. TURING TEST FOR INTELLIGENCE (ACT HUMANLY) Interpersonal link (teletext) HUMAN INTERROGATOR COMPUTER The human interrogator thinks he/she is communicating with a human.  Represent knowledge. 1990 who consider AI to be a study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes. People in this group are Charniac & McDermott.I 7 . Haugeland. there are various definitions that have been proposed. 1993.DEFINING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There is no agreed definition of the term artificial intelligence. ONESMUS W. Winston. Artificial intelligence is the study in which systems that rationally act are made.  Learn and adapt to the new situations. 1985 & Bellman. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that think like human beings. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that act like people. Rich & Knight were also in this group and they considered AI as the study of how to make computers do things which at the moment people are better at. However. People in this group include Kurzweil. reason and act. People in this group include Schalkeoff. To pass Turing Test the computer must:  Process natural language. 1992 is also in this group who think that AI is the study of computations that make it possible to perceive. are also in this group and they consider AI to be a branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior. Luger & Stubblefield.  Reason.

In order to classify machines as "thinking". This is cognitive modelling.I 8 . Experts Generalists prefer overarching programs. Rational agent is something that perceives and acts. Rational thinking Laws of thought have been devised to manipulate though processes. Some related terms Human thinking This has been studied so that it may be modelled. programming language. or simulations. ONESMUS W. it is necessary to define intelligence/knowledge. Problems are physical and non physical and they have not been resolved. Earlier people involved were Socrates." (Gardner. those which can be applied throughout. Some definitions focus on programs. Experts prefer highly detailed programs which are knowledgable in specific domains but restricted in applicability. tension has risen between scientists in two main topics: Generalists vs. a pattern of output that would be considered intelligent if displayed by human beings. Scientific Level of the Field Some scientists feel that AI is simply a form of applied engineering and not a field of psychology. Aristotle and Plato. 1984) Controversy exists over a single definition of AI. AI may also be seen as a study in which rational agents are constructed. What is knowledge? How is knowledge represented? How do we use knowledge? Within the field of AI. Rational actions Rational action is one in which inputs from the environment are taken and is in the best interest of the actor. Ways have been investigated to find out how mechanize the way the human mind works. on a computer.Cognitive Science’s view of artificial intelligence() Text Book Definition: "Artificial Intelligence seeks to produce.

David Hilbert (1862. They contributed to its growth directly or were necessary in the development of artificial intelligence. John Locke (1632 . Psychology (1879 . Mathematics (800 .1983) introduced the reference theory in which objects in logic are related to real objects.now) Algorithms are traced from the work of an Arab mathematician of 9th century called alKhowarazmi. The mind is seen as a connection between knowledge and action. Alfred Tarki (1902.now) Herman Von Helmboltz (1821. Bertrand Russel (1872-1970) proposed logical positivism in which all knowledge can be characterized by logical theories.I 9 .1714) argued for materialism in which the world is seen to be controlled by physical laws.1864) formulated the rules of thought that provide a language that is used for logical inference(1847). Renè Descartes (1596 . ONESMUS W. Gottlob Frege (1848-1928) introduced the rules for first order logic except for notations. Algorithms were sought to distinguish pious from non pious actions. They proposed that perception involves unconcious logical inference.1894) and Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) used scientific method to study human vision.1650) presented the principle of dualism in which issues on distinction between matter and mind are raised. Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646 .FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE These are some of the bases that enabled the development of artificial intelligence.1943) raised a question looking for an algorithm that may be used for any proposition involving natural numbers. George Boole (1815. David Hume (1711-17776) proposed induction in which generalization can be made from the specific.1704) advanced empricism in which the source of knowledge is seen as only possible through senses. Philosophy (428 BC to present) Plato in 428 BC presented dialog of thought in which piety and pious actions were considered.

William James (1842. ONESMUS W.1910) proposed cognitive psychology in which the brain posses and processes information. beliefs.John Watson (1878.now) Work in AI and computer science has been complementary.1958). It is the advances in computer engineering that has enabled the production of software. Edward Thorndike (1879 .I 10 . Lingusitics (1957 . They rejected mental constructs such as knowledge.present) Noam Chomsky published syntax structure. goals and reasoning steps as scientific. Today we have computational linguistics which is natural language processing. Computer Engineering (1940 . In 1960s much of the work was done in knowledge representation.1949) maintained that only measurable percepts (stimuli) should be studied and their resulting actions.

Some similar phenomena are included.1969) Much enthusiasm was generated by earlier successes of the Logic Theorist and later General Problem Solver. Frank Rosenblatt (1962) advance the perceptron convergence theorem which was about a learning algorithm that can adjust connection strengths of a perceptron to match any input data. Claud Shannon (1950). James Slagle (1963) wrote SAINT progam which solved closed form integration problems found in first year courses. Enthusiasm and great expectation (1952.1956) Warren McCulloth & Walter Pitts (1943) proposed a model of artificial neurons. helped by Minsky. Allen Newel and Herbet Simon demonstrated a program called Logic Theorist which was a reasoning system that proved Russel & Whiteheads theorems. In other words perceptrons can learn.I 11 . John McCArthy (1958) defined LISP which is a dominant AI language. Alan Turing (1953) wrote chess programs.HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we trace the evolution of artificial intelligence. General Problem Solver at Carnegie Mellon University imitated how humans reason. Donald Hebb (1949) demonstrated a rule for updating connection strengths between neurons so that learning could occur. Bertram Raphael (1968) wrote SIR which was a program that could answer questions in a restricted area in English. The name Artificial Intelligence was coined at the conference. They also suggested that neural networks could learn. the first neural network computer. 10 researchers attended. Gestation period (1943 . 1956: There was a workshop at Dartmouth College organized by John McCarthy. Arthur Samuel (1952-) wrote many programs for checkers. Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds build SNARC. Shannon and Rochester. ONESMUS W. Tom Evans (1968) wrote ANALOGY program which solved simple geometric problems.

Was a program that had geological data. LUNAR. By 1988. 1973 by William Woods was a program in geology that could be asked questions about rock samples from the moon. Most AI problems turned out to be intractable in that time needed grew exponentially compared to size of instances. Was a program that would take in a formula such as C6H13NO2 and mass spectrum data from electron bombardment and generate as its output the possible structures and mass spectrum that would be observed. It had 450 rules and performed much better than junior doctors. In 1988 Du Pont had over 100 expert systems in use and 500 in development and estimated $10 million in savings. It however had problems of intractability with large molecules. MYCIN. learn and create and that it would not take long before computers could do what men would do’. It recommended exploratory drilling site that proved to have substantial molybdenum deposit.I 12 . Buchanan. The solution was to use knowledge that can be used by several reasoning steps and solves typical cases in a narrow area of expertise. In summary. 1982 by McDermott. 1971 by Fiegenbaum.Challenges. the importance of knowledge was discovered. $40 million was saved annually by 1986. was an expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation to configure orders for the new system. DENDRAL. 1979 by Duda et al. Problems arose with demonstrations as the programs contained no knowledge of their own. AI becomes an industry (1980-1988) R1. 1961 by Buchanan et al. Shortliffe was a program that could diagnose blood infections. DEC’s AI group deployed over 40 expert systems.1974) Claim by Herbet Simon (1957) that ‘computers could think. ONESMUS W. Fundamental structures used to generate intelligent behaviour were limited. Knowledge based systems. Typical example is the translator: ‘The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak’ <> ‘Vodka is good but mean is rotten’. Minsky also showed that there were cases in which perceptrons could not learn.key to power? (1969.a dose of reality (1966. turned out to be wild dreams.1979) The earlier methods were found to be weak due to weak information domain. PROSPECTOR.

How did AI evolve? Discuss the various disciplines that contributed to the development of AI. The dominant areas include Hidden Markov models. It used video cameras.htm) The future of AI will certainly be just as important as it will be interesting. Japanese announced the 5th computer generation project to build intelligent computers using PROLOG . 1991 reported an expert system that gets a better diagnosis than a medical doctor. This generated much interest in AI. 1994 reported a system that automatically calls an ambulance on accident occurring. 1993. ONESMUS W. Return to Neural Networks (1986 . MARVEL (Schwuttke. Today our lives almost revolve around the technologies provided by computers. 1992) is a real time expert system that handles massive stream of data from spacecraft. and belief networks in which reasoning is combined with uncertain evidence. Future of Artificial Intelligence(http://www. sonar and laser range finders to drive the car. State of the art 1997/8 Computer program beats the International Grandmaster in Chess. Kotter et al. Discuss the events in the development of AI.student. What is Artificial Intelligence? Describe the Turing Test. There is also a need to show relevance to real world applications. EXERCISES 1. 3. King et al.richmond. Heckerman.edu/~cschlenk/futureof. The emphasis now is on building on existing theories and not inventing new ones.now) Disillusionment with MYCIN type expert systems grew as they needed more than rules. Rumelheart & McClelland (1986) distributed a collection of works in parallel distributed processing. PEGASUS. Recent events (1987 . 1993) drove at 55 mph. The work of Byson and Ho (1969) on back-propagation learning was re-invented. There is no doubt that AI will provide significant applications for everyday life.In 1981. 2.now) There has been a change in content and methods of research. And in the future we will probably rely on them more. ROBOT DRIVER (Pornerleau. 5. It is now desired that claims be build on rigorous theorems or evidence. You say where and when. 4.I 13 .speech understanding program that handles air travel transactions.

Be a broker at a stock exchange. Analyze. emergency or to consumers. Give access to information from large databases. Help operators for example in a factory.APPLICATION DOMAINS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we consider the different ways in which artificial intelligence has been applied. As in checking the movements in currency exchange rates. As in supervision of information distribution or networks. Auction. Since Artificial intelligence(AI) does much to do with reasoning consider some of these reasoning activities and AI can be used in these areas: Access. Monitor. As in finding out why decisions are made. etc. As in determining courses of action or effects of changes. Invent. purchase from an open market. Coordinate. etc. plant faults.I 14 . As in dealing with routine information and passing only critical issues to humans. Categorize. ONESMUS W. processing. Advice. Manage. Artificial intelligence has been found useful in many areas including medicine. Optimize. As in isolating important mails from a mass of e-mails. Handle. Organize. or representing. or using rules of thumb. As in constructing new circuits for a simplified job. As in remembering and avoiding old mistakes. As discussing requests for licences. As in planning. Give hints on classification especially on the Web. Apply rules of auction to many items. Classify. Guide. For example in placing detectors. Filter. Negotiate. As in making optimal designs. As in a project team. Bid. Mediate. Offer a bid at an auction. Broker. As in directing movement. Detect patterns from large databases. ranking. predicting. As in diseases. Decide. Help. Learn. military and industry. As in point of sales. As in going between parties. Explain. Compare. For example as in work-flows or chemical processes. Give advice to on health.j Control. Diagnose. Assist. avoiding danger. Evaluate. For example in legal cases find precedence. education. Categorize for example the customers. Data-mine. As in assisting engineers with technical issues.

the computers should be able to speak in natural language and understand. The main challenges include speech recognition and generation. Speech synthesizers have been used to demonstrate speech in minimal and constrained circumstances. This is area dealing with visual recognition of objects. knowledge representation. Cameras and sensors are used. discuss. The main challenges include the arm positioning and locating positions. On maturity. learning operators and how to help humans learn. Currently they are used for such industrial applications such as sorting. Understanding and text or document translation are some of the important problems. Its main challenges include finding out how to formulate the problems. solve problems and be adaptive. On maturity computers will learn from experience. Natural language and understanding. assembling and welding.Main branches of AI Machine vision. Here the investigation is focused on making computers acquire knowledge. On maturity. read articles aloud and take voice commands. ONESMUS W. vehicles can find their way around. Interlanguage translations will also be possible. and understanding. The challenges include knowledge acquisition. This is an area that attempt to find how to make computers recognize voice inputs and respond vocally. Here investigations consider grammars and semantics of languages. If it matures then computers can recognize their owners. Speech synthesis and recognition. This is an area that originally attempted to build a general problem solver. On maturity the robots will be used for additional domestic and industrial applications. On maturity computers can talk. Problem solving. Here the investigation is focused on movement and positioning of arms and other parts. Its focus was later revised to specialized problem solvers such as expert systems. The challenges in it involve mapping visual realities to representations that allow easy pattern recognition. representing knowledge. Robotics.I 15 . The challenges include getting uniform grammar and semantic representations. robots can conduct chores in the house moving around. Machine learning. computers will solve various problems and problem solving can be embedded into many industrial applications. skills and be adaptive. Some of the recent practical research include ways of recognizing people using the retina. looking or searching for solutions.

it was also possible to model simulation of fission triggered chain reaction. Natural language. monitoring and control of equipment. Military applications There was revived interest in artificial intelligence due to breakthroughs in robotics and knowledge based systems. The main sponsor of research in AI has been US. Reported work include: hazardous site evaluation. In 1950s. Civil engineering. Initially AI was perceived as a tip of the iceberg in a body of knowledge in IT that would be important in key areas in international security such as command control. natural language interface to databases. robotics. Medical applications AI applications in medicine have been fuelled mainly by expert systems and neural networks. planning. control and manufacture. vision and position estimation in the house. Work has been reported on automatic programming. Robotics. neural networks and genetic algorithms. Earlier experience in world war II saw the British use computers to decipher the German codes and they could monitor bombings. These areas include military. We consider a few examples of reported work in industry below. drug manufacture. These applications have been on diagnosis. offshore structure applications.I 16 .SOME APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There are currently many applications of artificial intelligence. strategic defense and verification. Industry AI is used in all spheres of industry in areas related to planning. Some of the areas in which artificial intelligence is used are also regarded as application problem domain areas for artificial intelligence. ONESMUS W.Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Most of the industrial uses have been fuelled by expert systems. urban storm sewer systems. Work have been reported on inter-frame displacement. identification and ranking of severe storms. composition of stereotype documents in foreign languages. development of smart weapons. it was also possible to manage information on locomotion of warheads. number crunching enabled construction of thermo-nuclear bombs. In 1980s there were interests in semi-automated operation weapons. design. industry and business. medicine.

I 17 . forecasting and advising. automated valve expert capture. network communication design. mediate. Electrical engineering. entities that mediate between two agents knowing little about each other. VLSI transistor sizing. hold dialog and assist in direct manipulation of computers or machines. single board computer design. Reported work include: intelligent interface design. In business AI has been used in many areas including planning. Business. ONESMUS W. Reported work include: managing VLSI CAD data. trouble shooting of large industrial plants.Mechanical engineering. help. Software engineering. In education AI is being used to assist in tutoring and other computer assisted learning activities. Reported work include: marine system design. drilling stations management. Education. reason.

evolution.j Input links ∑ ∫ aI Output links ∑ ∫ ai I1 . and neural networks).I 18 . The first one is using the search technique and the second one is by modeling natural phenomena (e. H3 W13 w35 O5 W14 I2 W24 H4 w45 ONESMUS W. NEURAL NETWORKS Human neuron nucleus axon synapse dendrites cell body Artificial neuron Wi.g.PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Problems are tackled in AI using two main broad approaches.activation function -activation value of unit i.input function .

a new generation is reproduced using mutation and cross over of members of the current population. A general genetic algorithm Function GeneticAlgorithm(Population. Var parents:composite structure. Genes A B C D Mutation Involves changing a value of a component of the gene (chromosome) eg.GENETIC ALGORITHMS These are models used to solve problems based on the theory of evolution and natural selection. FitnessFn):Individual. C B A D In genetic algorithms. Begin Repeat Parents:=SELECTION(population.I 19 . ONESMUS W.FitnessFn). C B Cross-over Involves exchanging values of components (chromosomes) across genes. Population:=REPRODUCTION(parents). Mutation and cross-over of genes are modelled. The resulting new population is selected make the numbers constant using a selection criteria called the fitness function. Until Some individual is fit enough End.

Searching is the process of looking for the solution of a problem through the a set of possibilities (state space). 2.SEARCHING AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE Since searching is extensively used.  Cost of obtaining the solution. Check the current state. Check if the new state is the solution state. Process of Searching Searching proceeds as follows: 1. which is a path from the current state to the goal state. we look at searching as a technique of solving problems in more detail. The states are represented as nodes while the allowed steps or actions are represented as arcs. and a test to check whether the goal condition is met. Defining a search problem A search problem is defined by specifying:  State space. check whether it has been reached. 3. Search conditions include:  Current state -where one is.  Start node. The solution is a path from the current state to the goal state. Execute allowable actions to move to the next state. ONESMUS W.  Goal state – the solution reached. Representing search problems A search problem is represented using a directed graph.  Rules giving how to change states. Search problem The search problem consists of finding a solution plan.I 20 .  Goal condition. if it is not then the new state becomes the current state and the process is repeated until a solution is found or the state space is exhausted.

C on a table are considered. The solution to our problem is any member of the set of all paths from original to goal state such as the path indicated in bold. B. p. Problem Initial state(current state) C A B Goal state (final state) A B C State space C A B A BC A BC B A C A B A B AC B AC ABC C AB C AB A C B B C A A B C The state space has 13 elements or nodes.Example of a search case study [Bratko.259] Three blocks A. Only one block can be moved at a time.I 21 . ONESMUS W. Possible moves  Put a block on table.  Remove a block from the top of another and place on top of another block. A block can be grasped when there is no other block on top of it.  Put a block on top of another block.

EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH STRATEGIES Searching may yield a solution or the state space may be exhausted without a solution. If Goal_test(problem. QueuingFn): Solution|Failure.I 22 . The may also be regarded as traversal techniques. STATE(node)) succeeds then Solution:=Node Else Nodes:=QueuingFn(node.General search algorithm Function Gsearch (Problem. Depth first The branch (child) nodes are visited first. EndWhile End. OPERATOR(problem)). Begin While Begin Node:= remove_front_node(nodes). ONESMUS W. Var nodes:structure. a b c d e f g f The arrows show the depth first search progression. End. Exhaustive search may be performed using breadth first or depth first (iterative deepening) strategies.

At times the number of possibilities rise and demands on storage and processing cannot be met. Sometimes the state space can be inexhaustible.I 23 . One problem is about combinatorial problems associated with some search cases. Guided search is also called heuristic search and is a search strategy in which the knowledge about the problem domain is used to guide the search mechanism thus enabling it to avoid wrong options. Heuristics are rules that apply most of the time but not all the time. There are several heuristics that are used to guide search mechanisms. but the ones considered here is called the best-first search heuristic. The other problem is that the state space can be extremely large such that complete search is time consuming.Breadth first This is search strategy in which the nodes of the same level are visited first. However. GUIDED SEARCH Guided search is one solution to the problems associated with exhaustive search. in that it is difficult to enumerate. a b c d e f g f The arrows show the breadth first search progression LIMITATIONS OF EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH METHODS Exhaustive search has the advantage of guaranteeing solutions if they exist. exhaustive search has some problems associated with the need to visit all states at times. ONESMUS W.

I . Original problems 5 a 2 4 b 2 4 c f minimize{f(x):= sum path} s 2 2 e s 7 f(a)=7 5 f(b)=13 4 2 f(c)=19 f(d)=25 c a e f(e)=9 b f f(f)=18 2 3 2 g g d t f(g)=22 3 d 3 t goal Exercise: re-trace the path given that the heuristic function only adds the sum of path and the cost of the current node. Heuristic estimates are computed values that assess the suitability of a node as candidate solution. 24 . In this case we consider a heuristic that seeks to minimize the costs. Nodes are regarded as most promising when they are associated with the most desired numerical values called heuristic estimates. The search is going to be guided by cost minimization. At times the nodes have associated costs or benefits. Consider an example. OTHER SEARCH PROBLEMS There are so many cases in which the search technique may be used. 1 2 3 4 8 5 6 7 8-queens problem.. The functions used to compute heuristic estimates are called heuristic functions. in which nodes have associated costs and also subsequent paths have associated costs as well. Vacuum world V . These include the following cases: 8-puzzle problems.BEST-FIRST SERARCH HEURISTIC In the best-first search heuristic the node with the most promising chance of being the solution is visited first. A heuristic function would therefore seek to minimize costs or maximize benefits.. ONESMUS W.

REAL LIFE APPLICATIONS OF THE SEARCH TECHNIQUE Travelling – minimize the distances in route finding. EXERCISES Investigate how to program models related to agents. ONESMUS W. 1. VLSI layouts Robot navigation – robot movements Assembly sequencing. 4.I 25 . 5. 7. Discuss examples of agents. 6. 2. 3. How are problems solved in artificial intelligence? What is searching? Discuss how to handle problems using searching technique. neural networks and genetic algorithms. Discuss exhaustive search and heuristic search. Discuss relevance of the search technique and other examples where the search technique may be applied. Discuss how to implement the genetic algorithm.

Components cannot be individually examined. Discuss examples. Representation. True rational belief(philosophy). where function is any object or relationship. Knowledge representations schemes Propositional calculus. The quantifiers are used. Disadvantages. Knowledge representation.’ BenchCapon. it is expressive. Predicate calculus. OR game layout and rules of play. OR map + operations. explanations are possible. Framework for storing knowledge and manipulating knowledge OR ‘Set of syntactic and semantic conventions that makes it possible to describe things. give directives or strategy. Advantages: easy to use. conflict resolution. they can grow to unmanageable size.OR facts. conflict set . Advantages. capture heuristics.source of rules. ONESMUS W. It has well defined rules for manipulation. Structure+ operations. data and relationships (Computational view). Disadvantages: cannot cope with complex associated knowledge. 1990.I 26 .is an extension of propositional calculus. can handle uncertainties to some extent. uses small primitives for descriptions whose numbers can be many. use logical connectives and boolean logic. Rules These are formalization of used to specify recommendations.assertions describing things. Predicates are used these are of the form function(arguments). Can reason about the world. OR abstract data types. Format: IF <premises> THEN <conclusion>. Advantages. Discuss examples.KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION Definition Knowledge. Related ideas: rules and fact base. Cannot handle uncertainty. Discuss examples. Disadvantages.deciding on rules to apply. based on proven theory.

2. 3. nodes may have confusing roles or meanings. Frames These are knowledge representation formalisms in which stereotyped information on objects are represented. Define terms related to knowledge representation. Advantages: can cope with missing values. can represent only binary or unary predicates. What is a problem? 4. Discuss the search process. the arcs are the relationships or moves.Semantic networks Semantic networks are graphical representation of entities and their relationships. Describe the knowledge representation formalisms giving their advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages: has been hard to implement. Structure: Node and collection of attributes(slots). Easy to translate to predicate calculus. Describe blind search. cannot express standard logical connectives. ONESMUS W. The nodes are objects or events. Disadvantages.I 27 . searching may lead to combinatorial explosion. especially inheritance. search done by matching. Features: capture object attributes and their values. Cannot handle quantifiers. Describe guided search. Discuss examples: body parts. Advantages. Discuss examples. 5. 6. Exercises 1. sentences.close matches are presented.

rules) from human experts. books. articles. Formalization The knowledge is extracted from the sources. Conceptualization The best method of representing knowledge is identified and selected. Implementation The program is written or a prototype is developed. its characteristics are examined and it is broken down into smaller sub-problems. The resources are identified or provided. Observation – the experts are observed at work. magazines. Protocol analysis – this is a documentation of how the expert behaves and processes information during problem solving. knowledge engineers). METHODS OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION Face to face interview with experts – the experts are interviewed by knowledge engineers. The experts are consulted on acceptability of results. procedures. mass media materials. Testing Test cases are used.I 28 . Questionnaires – these are questions that are sent to experts for responses. documents. Analysis of documented knowledge – this is extraction of knowledge from such sources as books. Usually the experts think aloud. users. The situation is studied.KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION Definition Knowledge acquisition is the process of extracting knowledge (facts. sensors or computer files and converting it into a form that can be stored and manipulated by the computer for purposes of problem solving. ONESMUS W. The participants are identified (experts. THE KNOWLEDGE AQUISITION PROCESS Identification This is a stage in the problem is identified. journals. Software and hardware issues are resolved.

• Many participants are involved and they have varied backgrounds causing communication challenges(Keng. 3. Dom. etc. Expert. Explain how you may acquire knowledge to build a system. Describe the steps in knowledge acquisition. EXERCISES 1.I 29 . Discuss ways of acquiring knowledge. Examples Rule Induction New cases Rule Induction classification Training Usage Issues with knowledge acquisition • Machine representation is lower in form than human usage of knowledge. What is knowledge acquisition? 2. • Mismatch between the way experts hold their knowledge and the way computers represent knowledge. Users.). Discuss problems associated with knowledge acquisition. • Experts may not express their knowledge). 5..Rule induction (computer aided knowledge acquisition) – rule induction can be viewed as a system that accepts examples and develops classification rules. System designers. ONESMUS W. 4.

D: Walk to work. Example A: It is raining. then sets out to draw a conclusion. solution data bank) and use it to match new problems and adapt solutions. Meta-level reasoning: use knowledge about what is known to solve problems. Rule-based inference controls Forward chaining – this is an inference mechanism which begins with evidence(facts).build a (problem. Some inference strategies in Artificial Intelligence Applications Reasoning by analogy. B: It is sunny. mathematical logic. Example: Bone fracture. C: It is cold. It may also be seen as reaching a decision through reasoning. find someone with a fixed bone and get advice. Formal reasoning: use rules. heap of sand. The problematic situation is examined.this is an inference mechanism which begins with the goal (conclusion) and sets out to look for evidence to establish or disprove the goal. Fuzzy phenomena include: rain. Backward chaining. Fuzzy logic: this is less precise and less logical method of reasoning. Special case: case-based reasoning. induction and deduction.the proponents claim that this is a natural way humans handle problems. size. then it is linked with other similar situations that are then used to build a solution. height. harvest. predicate calculus. Procedural reasoning: use formulae and algorithms to solve problems. ONESMUS W. F: Jump in a matatu. E: Carry umbrella. facts. Generalization and abstraction: use sets.sets whose membership is probalistic. The facts and rules are scanned and rules fire as they meet available evidence.I 30 . Fuzzy sets.INFERENCE Definition Inference is the process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence. beauty.

R2: If B then D. EXERCISES 1. Advice a pupil on what to do on a cold raining day. ii. Describe forward and backward chaining inference controls. What are AI inference strategies? 4.R1: If A ∨C then E. Advice a pupil on what to do on a raining day. 5. R3: If A ∧ then F. C Problem Use backward and forward chaining inference mechanisms to: i.I 31 . Is inference problem solving? 3. What does an inference engine do? ONESMUS W. What is inference? 2.

For instance when reading we quickly recognize the letters. Feature space. Example: Rugby players and Ballet dancers Feature space. Usually only useful features are categorized. weight Height Weight Legend: . Definitions Pattern recognition.PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION Everyday life consists of many occasions when we handle familiar occurrences at times unawares. A feature is any measurement on input pattern so that it may be categorized.Rugby player ONESMUS W. Feature. A feature space is an n-dimensional space created by the n-elements in the feature space. We do so by classifying the character object.Ballet dancer . In this section we will examine how the process of classification can be mechanized by examining the techniques used for pattern recognition. Classifier. A feature vector is an measurement of features that make up the input pattern in which each feature is unique. Try to explain how A and H differ. Sometimes templates or stereotypes may be used to classify.height.I 32 . FEATURE VECTORS AND FEATURE SPACE Feature vector. Pattern recognition system is a device that extracts features of an object then classifies the object. A classifier is a system that takes inputs then places it into a category.

numeric methods are classification techniques that that depend on symbolic processing such as those dealing with fuzzy sets.Rugby player Decision boundary is a discriminating function that in above case is a straight line. Such a line. that is used to separate classes is an example of linear classifiers.Ballet dancer . ONESMUS W.DISCRIMINATION FUNCTION Discrimination function is a function that maps input features into a classification space. The non. Decision boundary Height Weight Legend: . These are numeric and non-numeric methods.I 33 . They are used in many pattern recognition techniques. Our scope of treatment will only cover numeric-methods of classification include deterministic and statistical techniques discussed below. The numeric methods are classification techniques that use measurements of geometric patterns. They can be deterministic or statistical. CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES There are two broad classes of classification techniques.

k-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR CLASSIFICATION The nearest neighbour classification is one in which a new pattern is placed in the class to which it is closest. Height d1 X d2

Class A

Class B Weight

Legend: - Ballet dancer d1 is the shortest distance to class A d2 is the shortest distance to class B X is the unclassified pattern

- Rugby player

Consider the a discriminant function f(X), where f(X) = closest(Class A) – closest (Class B). If f(X) is positive then place in class B. If f(X) is negative then place in class A. In practice, all (k) members are taken into account. In this case we have k-nearest neighbour, where k is the number of samples. A general problem is to find a reliable measure of distance from one class of samples. There are several k-nearest neighbour methods that are discussed below. Hamming distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the hamming distance between then denoted by H is given by: n H = ∑ |xi-yi| 1 The hamming distance is commonly used to compare binary vectors where it gives the number of different bits. Note that |xi-yi| = xI XOR yI .

Euclidean distance This is an accurate distance metric based on Pythagoras’s theorem. It is defined as given below.
ONESMUS W.I 34

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Euclidean distance between then denoted by d(X,Y)euc is given by: n d(X,Y)euc = X

√(∑ (x -y ) )
i I 2

1

Euclidean distance Y

A special occurs when the input vectors are binary. In this case the Euclidean distance is the square root of the Hamming distance. The amount of computations are reduced by approximating Euclidean distance using the following methods that are faster but less accurate. City-block distance X City-block distance Y

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Cityblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)cb is given by: n d(X,Y)cb = ∑ |xi-yI| 1 No square roots are taken. Square distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Squreblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)sq is given by: d(X,Y)sq = max{ |xi-yI|}, where the maximum value of the differences( or the longest side) is taken.

FURTHER REMARKS ON LINEAR CLASSIFIERS

ONESMUS W.I

35

Linear classifiers occur many times. They depend on linear functions or straight line boundaries that are used as decision boundaries. Sometimes a weight vector may be used to adjust the decision boundary so that classification is correctly performed. This is depicted below. Height linear decision boundary

Class A Weight vector Legend: - Ballet dancer

Class B Weight - Rugby player

n f(X) = ∑ wixIwhere X is the boundary, w is the weight. 1 For two classes A and B, one classification rule would be f(X) > 0 ⇒ place in Class A, and f(X) < 0 ⇒ place in Class B. Usually the challenge is to find w so that classification is correct, especially in nearest –neigbour methods. Linear separable problems These are problems for which it is possible to find a single linear decision boundary(line or plane). Several classes may be handled systematically such as: ABCD could be handled as A or BCD, B or CD, then C or D. Sometimes it may be hard to get class boundaries, in such a case the samples may be split as below: class 1 class 3 class 4 Usually the nature of the problem determines which technique to use. STATISICAL CLASSIFICATION METHODS These are methods that use statistical techniques to classify. They are based on conditional probability that is generalized in Baye’s theorem.
ONESMUS W.I 36

class 2

i ≠ j. Usually models are assumed on the patterns of data distribution such as the normal distribution. It is a theorem that Bayesian classifiers reduce to linear classifiers. G2 …. P(X| Gi) is obtained from the distribution being used such as the normal distribution or some other probability distribution function. in other words what is the probability. G 1 Gn Let P(G) be the probability of a pattern X belonging to group Gi. …. G3.. 3. The conditional probability of event X given event Y has occurred is written as P(X|Y). ….. G2. Statistical classification problem Given a set of measurements. Bayesian classifiers can be optimized to perform very well. .I 37 . for all i=1. what is the probability that it belongs to calss Gi. X. P(Gi|X). Baye’s rule: P(Gi|X) = P(X| Gi) P(Gi) ∑P(X|Gj) P(Gj) j P(Gi) is easy to get as this depends on the number of groups and assuming independence. 2. Gn be possible classes or groups. EXERCISES 1.Let G1. What is pattern recognition? ONESMUS W. n. Baye’s classifier X belongs to class Gi if P(Gi|X) > P(Gj|X) .

ONESMUS W. 4. What is classification? 3.2. What is discrimination function? 5. What is statistical classification? 7. 8. Discuss Bayesian classification technique.I 38 . Explain the meanings of the terms feature vector and feature space. Describe the nearest-neighbour classification technique. 6. Discuss an example showing how Baye’s theorem may be used in a classification a problem.

Provide the solution to the problem fast. The word expert is derived from human experts. Recognize their limitations but still offer workable solutions(degrade gracefully). Tell the relevance of situations or issues. a system may be adaptive. The first term to consider is the term system. closed. and existence of boundaries. composition by several inter-related components that contribute individually to the its goal. psychiatrics. Break rules. The term system is used here in the sense of computer system or computer programs in particular.  Meta-knowledge(knowledge about knowledge). reading. etc. We meet human experts as experienced doctors. Learn from experience. A system is an environmental entity that is considered to have the characteristics that include: existence of a purpose or goal. analysts.  Facts about the problem area. open. The knowledge could include:  Theories about the problem area. ONESMUS W. practice and experience. Experts take a long time to develop and when they solve problems they may do so in one or more of the following ways:         Recognize and formulate the problem. craftsmen. Expert system is therefore a set of computer programs that mimic the human expert. Expert systems must therefore have knowledge similar to the ones held by human experts and use it to solve problems of the type solved by human beings.  Rules and procedures regarding general problem area. programmers.I 39 . The programs will take and solve problems in restricted problem domains or areas of expertise. Restructure knowledge. Human experts usually solve problems in specified areas of expertise with appreciable level of competence. administrators. static or dynamic. educators. In addition.  Global strategies for solving typical problems. Expertise is a property of human beings describing their abilities to cope with difficult problem solving situations. Explain the solution to a problem. Human experts have extensive task specific knowledge acquired from training. politicians.EXPERT SYSTEMS Towards a definition Expert systems are computer systems that are best appreciated first by examining what the terms mean.  Rules (heuristics) on what to do in a given problem case. engineers.

I 40 .schedules. .draws conclusion . enforces consistency checks Expert Knowledge Blackboard (Workspace) Plan Solution Agenda Problem description Knowledge refinement Adapted from Turban & Ronson [P. 447] ONESMUS W.interprets.STRUCTURE OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE BASE Facts: what is known about the problem domain area Rules:logical reference such as between symptoms and causes User User interface Knowledge Engineer Recommended action Explanation facility Documented knowledge INFERENCE ENGINE .

transfer and transformation of problem solving expertise from experts or documented knowledge sources to a computer program. semantic networks.  Schedule that maintains control over the agenda. special research reports and the internet. Blackboard (workspace) is the area in working memory where current problems are described. It is sometimes called control structure or rule interpreter. The blackboard may contain a plan of how the problem should be solved. Heuristics are rules that are used to solve some typical problems. they may also be kept.I 41 .The development environment is used by the experts to build the components and enter the knowledge into the expert system. It uses priorities and other criteria to estimate the effect of applying rules on the agenda. It provides a methodology and implementation of the reasoning mechanism that uses the knowledge held in the knowledge base and the blackboard to formulate conclusions.  Consistency enforcer maintains a consistent representation of the emerging solution. ONESMUS W. textbooks. databases. The consultation environment is used by the non-experts to obtain expert help or knowledge from the expert system. The knowledge acquisition subsystem assists in the accumulation. data is entered and intermediate results are kept.  Why some alternatives are rejected. Inference engine is the brain of the expert system. Structures used to store knowledge are called knowledge representation formalisms and they include rules. It may explain:  Why some questions are asked by the expert system. It gives a means of using the knowledge by developing the agenda that organizes and controls the steps taken to solve problems during consultation. Explanation subsystem (justifier) is the part that traces responsibility for conclusions to their sources. User interface the part that enables the users or builders to submit their items to the expert system and also the expert system to respond to the users or builders. formulating and solving problems. The knowledge base contains the knowledge needed for understanding. Knowledge can be acquired from human experts. propositions and predicates. The parts of the inference engine consists of:  Interpreter (rule interpreter in many system) that executes selected agenda items by applying relevant rules from the knowledge base. Knowledge will include facts in the problem area and the theory of the problem area. an agenda of potential actions awaiting execution and a solutions indicating candidate hypotheses and alternate courses of action. frames.  How some conclusions are reached. multimedia documents.

predict. Many times he may be the expert systems builder also. The user may be an expert systems builder who adds knowledge to the knowledge base of the expert system which acts as a partner. These areas are given below. The user may also be student who wants to learn from the expert system which acts as an instructor.I 42 . The plan used to reach the solution. Category Interpretation Prediction Diagnosis Design Planning Monitoring Debugging Repair Instruction Control Problem area addressed Infer situation descriptions from observations Infer consequences of given situations Infer malfunctions from observations Configure objects under constraints Develop plans to achieve goals Compare observations and plans. repair and monitor system behaviour BENEFITS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS Increased productivity and output since expert systems work faster than humans. The Knowledge engineer is the is the one who extracts and structures knowledge from sources such as the human experts. ONESMUS W. CLASSIC PROBLEM AREAS ADDRESSED BY EXPERT SYTEMS Expert systems have been used in several typical problem areas. PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERT SYSTEMS The Expert is the person who has a special knowledge. experience or methods used to solve problems or advise on a given class of problems. and correct student performance Interpret. The User is someone who is involved with an expert system as a non-expert and the expert system is an consultant providing advice or solutions to problems. In this case the expert system gives a second opinion. judgement. Knowledge refining system is the part that enables the analysis and use of knowledge so that leaning may take place and improvements may be made. so that it may be put into the computer for use in expert an system. debug. who is someone who uses the expert system as an assistant or colleague. flag exceptions Prescribe remedies to malfunctions Execute plans to administer prescribed remedy Diagnose.  The remaining facts to establish before the final conclusion. The user may also be a partner. Several application systems have been demonstrated in these areas.

ONESMUS W. Reduced down time as expert systems (ES) where ES are used for diagnosis of malfunctions and prescribing repairs. Operation in harzadous environments where ES is used where humans are not safe such as in nuclear power plants. Elimination of the need for expensive equipment where ES is used to perform monitoring and control tasks with low-cost equipment. Flexibility as ES can sense changing needs and advice accordingly. Capture of scarce resource as ES can store the expertise held by humans who may be taking long to train. Easier equipment operation where ES is used to operate a complex equipment. Accessibility to knowledge and help desks where ES is used to supply information and scarce knowledge or support help desks. Increased process and product quality as errors can be significantly reduced.I 43 . Provide training where ES is used by novices because of its contents in the knowledge base. toxic environments. Enhanced problem solving and decision making where ES integrates analysis and judgement of top experts. Integration of several experts’ opinions where ES are built by consulting several experts. such as a product out of production.Decreased decision-making time as expert systems can make decisions faster. Ability to work with incomplete or uncertain information where ES may use existing knowledge to solve a problem even though some other facts may still be missing or uncertain. Increased capability of other computerized system where ES integrate with other systems to make applications work faster or produce higher quality results.

 Only work well in a narrow domain. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS Implementation of expert systems may succeed because of the following factors: ONESMUS W.I 44 .  Variations in problem assessment by different experts.  Difficulty in extracting expertise from humans. Ability to solve complex problems as ES can hold a massive amount of knowledge and thus being able to handle complex problems. Enhancement of other CBIS as ES adds the necessary intelligence capabilities needed in other CBIS. tired or hold attitudes. Improved decision quality as ES is reliable and does not become bored.  End-users may not trust expert system.  Cognitive limitations of users.  Experts may not always use understood vocabulary. LIMITATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS The following problems are associated with expert systems:  Knowledge is not always readily available.Improved decision-making processes where ES provide rapid feedback on consequences. Knowledge transfer to remote locations as ES can hold specialist knowledge that may be used in remote locations such as eye disease diagnosis and treatment system demonstrated in Algeria and Egypt by World Health Organization.  Subjectivity and biases in knowledge transfer.  Knowledge engineers are few and expensive.  Experts may not always validate their conclusions.  Human experts cannot abstract when under pressure.

Assign conditional probabilities. There must be a high level of knowledge. Materials above are adapted from [3. Draw a diagram indicating relevant factors and which ones influence the others. Assign probabilities. Decide on the new evidence to acquire through appropriate acquisition methods. Identify the aspects that determine the utility of outcomes. Enter available evidence. Assign utilities. The problem must be sufficiently narrow in scope.I 45 . Find out the actions. Draw a conceptual diagram. 439-463 ] A METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DECISION SUPPORT Determine the problem scope.          Management support and user involvement. Utilities refer to values that indicate importance of actions. Where some initial evidence exist in each case it should be entered. Obtain new evidence. pp. There should be competent knowledge-based system developers. There should be a good ES shell (store & manipulate knowledge naturally). The problem must be qualitative (fuzzy). The ES should positively impact on end-users. outcomes and evidence to consider. The should be a friendly user interface for novice users. Functions can be used for these. The problems must be difficult enough to warrant the use of ES. Calculate optimal action according to the available evidence. There must be at least one cooperative expert. Evaluate the diagram. ONESMUS W.

Discuss expertise. ONESMUS W. Discuss the definition of expert systems.I 46 . EXERCISES 1. 3. 5. Where small changes lead to different decisions then more data should be collected. Discuss the advantages and limitations of expert systems. Check if the best decision depends on small changes assigned to probabilities and utilities. Describe the people involved with expert systems. 6. Describe the qualities and qualifications of a human expert. Do so by varying the parameters and running the evaluation again.Perform sensitivity analysis. Describe the structure of a human expert. 2. 4.

in." Definition 3 An agent is a tuple <P. and do is a function from A X W into W [Russel & Novig]. solve problems. Other definitions of intelligent agent Definition 1 ". draw inferences. several meanings to the term agent have been proposed as will be discussed below." [Dictionary for AI terminology] Definition 2 ". 1995] ONESMUS W. Definition 4 "Intelligent agents continuously perform three functions: perception of dynamic conditions in the environment. sophisticated entity acting rationally and intentionally. In computational sense.A.see.out> where P is a set of input objects (percepts). and determine actions. and reasoning to interpret perceptions. A is a set of output objects (actions). either isolated or in cooperation with other agents.. often inhabited by other agents and processes.I 47 . Agents are the basic building blocks for applications. in is a function from P X I into I (the agent's input function).INTELLIGENT AGENTS (IA) Intelligent agents must have been coined from the term agent. Example: a printer agent that provides printing services schedules requests to a shared printer. software entity which functions continuously and autonomously in a particular environment.. Definition of intelligent agent Working definition of "agent" An agent is a reusable software component that provides controlled access to (shared) services and resources. We define the agent's environment to be a tuple <A. see is a function from W to P." [Hayes. However. P is the set of inputs to the agent.W.P. agents can be seen as programs that help the users with routine tasks.do> where A is the set of outputs from the agent.I. and applications are organized as networks of collaborating agents. action to affect conditions in the environment. Example: a desktop agent "recruits" the services of a screen and a connection agent to physically connect a call. I is a set of internal states. In conventional interpretation agents are associated with personal representatives that interact with others to accomplish a task. W is a set of states.

that is they act on behalf of the user. Goal. This is the person or the process that created the agent. • Agents may move from one system to another to access remote resources or even to meet other agents. This is the user name.I 48 . but sometimes also proactively(initiate actions). from fixed rules to learning engines that allow them to adapt to changes in the environment. • Agents don't only act reactively. This is the statement of successful task. it may consist of rule-based expert system or neural network. These are attributes of the goal. Components of agents The following may be specified for a typical agent: Owner. and other agents as required. Author. This is the request or response time expected. This is the owner’s account that may be used for billing or pointer to the account. • Agents have social ability. • Agents may also cooperate with other agents to carry out more complex tasks than they themselves can handle. ONESMUS W. that is they communicate with the user. Intelligent system. Background. Account. This is the engine that runs the agent’s intelligence. Subject description. • Agents contain some level of intelligence. Creation and duration.Agent and conventional programs Common properties that make agents different from conventional programs: • Agents are autonomous. the system. This is supporting information. parent name or master agent name.

Agents can move across different architectures. A lot of information has been accumulated over the years and there is need to analyze it and discover any other knowledge held. Automation of repetitive tasks. Agents can learn. Agents act or decide on their own. Proactiveness. Temporal continuity. Agents can perceive the environment and then respond. this goes beyond rule-based systems. Agents work in the background. Autonomy. Reactivity. The Internet requires search tools. Sometimes they may do this to circumvent obstacles. Agents are continuously running processes. Agents work on a single task. Personality. The need for agents The following issues underline the need for agents: Information overload. Service support. Mobility. The managers have so much information and they need some kind of help to cope. ONESMUS W. usually out of sight.Characteristics of intelligent agents Intelligent agents have several characteristics that are discussed below. Agents interact with other agents or humans. Agents work on special repetitive tasks. Background operation. Agents may be rule-based systems thereby showing flexibility. Service support is necessary in many areas including network security. Agents can take initiatives such as inhibiting behavior instead of just acting in response to environmental inputs. Learning. Agents have a personality. perhaps somewhere in the cyberspace. Communication. Support conditional processing. Singularity of task. Internet. electronic commerce or employee support. or as they handle high level requests and seek more clarifications if necessary.I 49 . Massive bank of information over the years. they can interact with humans.

3. Agents act as personal assistants adapting to the users. learning and cooperation. Ideal attributes: autonomy. 4. Handle information service management problem. 2. TYPES OF AGENTS Nwana's classification of Agents 1. Classifying agents from application point of view Autonomous agents Biological agents Robotic agents Computational agents Software agents Artificial life agents Task specific agents Entertainment agents Viruses ONESMUS W. bill electronic users and provide security(firewalls). Reasoning model: deliberative or reactive. Role: information. enable resource sharing and selection. service customization. diagnose problems.Simplification of distributed computing. monitor interacting features where systems are combined. Hybrid: combination of the above. Overcome user interface problems. enable using varied terminals. 5. Mobility: static or mobile.I 50 . management. Agents can act as intelligent resource managers. Agents can provide services.

These are agents that are initiated by users to get relevant Internet pages such as Yahoo. These are agents that follow orders to retrieve documents such as Netscape Navigator. Alta Vista. Agents can collaborate or negotiate. These are agents that work on behalf of businesses or computer applications. Classifying agents by intelligence level and power Level 0 agents. Collaborative agents that work with other agents or people. Information support and management agents that help users retrieve. Classifying agents from characteristics point of view Nature of agency. Classifying agents by application area There are various types of agents under this category including: Workflow and administrative agents that assist in organizing work schedules or tasks. Electronic commerce support agents that help users engage in electronic business. Personal agents. These are agents that help users surf the Internet.Classifying agents from organizational and personal view Organizational agents. Mobility. Level 1 agents. Agents have varying degrees of reasoning and learning. Inforseek. Intelligence. search or interpret information. These are agents that monitor information and notify of relevant information such as WebWatcher. They work for the users that create them. Agents have degrees of mobility across platforms. Desktop application support agents that help users of the desktop PCs. Level 2 agents. ONESMUS W. store. Level 3 agents. These are agents that learn and examine user profiles.I 51 .

Mail message support agents that help users dealing with electronic mails. printer additions. file & folder management. Frequently Asked Questions Agents are those agents that answer routing similar questions. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AGENTS These are agents that perform tasks related commerce and examples include: Bargain Finder. Internet management and monitoring is a group of agents that monitor. Lycos. Some agents in this category help users locate what they are looking for. Internet Softbot is an agent associated with finding out user needs. group management. Web browsing agents are those that guide the user browsing the Web. Good Stuff Cheap(GSC). conduct security or manage Internet resources such as WatchGuard. natural language parsing. Web Crawler. network-client administration such as licensing and equipment installation. add/remove progrmas.I 52 . Collaboration agents. Software development agents. E. User interface creation agents are the agents that help users create interfaces or present them with useable interfaces. diagnose problems. OTHER AGENTS User interface agents. Data-mining agents. Detect & alert agents.mail agents are those agents that help e-mail users. ONESMUS W. INTERNET BASED SOFTWARE AGENTS There are various agents associated with the internet that are discussed below.graphical. Network control and management agents that help users in controlling and managing the network. Spreadsheet agents. Excite. Operating system agents – wizards. add user accounts. Operating system agents are those agents that help users of various operating systems get services. Intelligent search agents are those agents that help users traverse that net to get detailed results such as Inforseek.

Sycara. In DAI the task is subdivided and each subtask is solved or get handled by an agent.DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL AGENTS (DAI) These are agents that provide intelligent part of the distributed problem.I 53 . ONESMUS W. Distributed Intelligent Agents. IEEE Expert 1996. EXAMPLE OF COLLABORATIVE AGENT ORGANIZATION USER 1 USER 2 USER 3 Goals and Results Task specs Interface agent 1 Interface agent 2 Interface agent 3 Task Conflict resolution Task agent 1 Task Proposed solution Task agent j Information integration Information request reply collaborative query processing Information agent 1 Information agent 2 Information agent 3 Query Answer Information Source 1 Information Source 2 Information Source 3 Information Source 4 Source: K. MULTIPLE AGENT SYSTEMS These are systems that provide environments in which there are several agents possibly with different goals each of which probably negotiating their own ways to achieve their ends such as in electronic commerce.

rules) Action = determine-action(rule) Return Ation Reflex agent with internal state environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves what actions to do agent Condition action rules action to take Effectors ONESMUS W. environment Sensors (what the world is like now) agent Condition action rules Effectors(action to take) Algorithm Function simple-agent(percept) returns action Static: rules. a set of condition-action rules State = interpret-input(percept) Rule = match-rules(state.I 54 .Simple Reflex agent architecture These agents find rules that match the current conditions and take action.

percept) Rule = match-rules(state. description of current world state rules. rules) Action = determine-action(Rule) State = update-state(state.Algorithm Function internal-agent(percept) returns action Static: state.I 55 . action) Return Ation goal agent environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves action type agent what actions to do action to take goals Effectors Algorithm is an exercise. ONESMUS W. a set of condition-action rules State = update-state(state.

3.I 56 . 4. What is an intelligent agent? What is a distributed intelligent agent? What is a multi-agent system? Discuss why agents are necessary.EXERCISES 1. 5. 6. Discuss the components of an agent. Discuss the classification of agents. ONESMUS W. 2.

Non-derterminism. or specific devices through variable programmable motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. An alternative definition presents a robot as an active artificial agent whose environment is the physical world. Robots can be used to monitor things going on in distant places or simulate reality through computer controls (virtual reality). Robots can be used for repetitive manufacturing tasks. All configurations and motions that are possible cannot be enumerated. Nature of real world Inaccessibility. tools. deep sea exploration. guided by feedback from physical sensors. or be used as moving vehicles such as underwater vehicles. Sensors can only perceive close stimuli. Robots can be used to duplicate lost limbs. nuclear plant maintenance. ONESMUS W. Suitable uses of robots Manufacturing and handling materials. Robots can be used in dangerous situations such as nuclear disaster zones. Effects of actions vary continuously. toxic waste clean up. Continuous.ROBOTICS Definition A robot is a programmable multifunction manipulator designed to move material parts. Mobile robots can be used to distribute mails. Tele-presence and virtual reality. Moving items. Autonomous robots are those robots that make decisions on their own. Augment human abilities. they may also be used as blind guides. lunar exploration. Uncertainties exist. Non episodic. Hazardous environments.I 57 .

Effectors. This involves walking where the robot can pause and not lose balance. if it suddenly stops then it loses its balance. Holonomic robots. This is a part of an effector that converts software commands to physical motion such as motors. These are robots the exhaust all possible degrees of freedom in movement. Manipulators can allow prismatic motion in which the motion is only linear such as piston movements. Actuator.COMPONENTS OF ROBOTS Robots consist of several parts. Manipulation. These parts are discussed below.I 58 . There are different types of motion that are possible that include:Statically stable walker. Non holonomic robots. Locomotion involves the change of position of a robot within its environment using effectors. LOCOMOTION IN ROBOTS Legs may be used in motion but it is not easy to construct legs to be used by robots. Manipulation involves moving other objects in the environment using effectors. This is where the robot can walk and stay stable as long as it hopping. Locomotion. Manipulators can allow rotary motion where rotation is around a hub. For example the plane can move in all the three dimensions. MANIPULATION BY ROBOTS Manipulators are effectors that move objects in the environment. SENSORS IN ROBOTS Sensors are tools for perception. These are robots that cannot exhaust total degrees of freedom of movement available. They will determine the degree of freedom. Dynamically stable hopper. These are tools for action usually by which the robot affects the environment under its control. ONESMUS W. For example: the car can only move in two dimensions while there are three possible dimensions. There are different types of sensing that are discussed below. hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders.

Laser range finders are depth finders. This involves touch sensing where elastic materials may be used to measure distortion. Camera data is mainly used for vision. Camera data. This invoves sensing and controlling position of joints. 5. Cross-beam sensor and parallel beam sensor determine object identity. Describe the components of a robot.Propriperception.I 59 . sensing. 6. Structured light sensors are those sensors that project light. manipulation. Tactile sensing. EXERCISES 1. Describe the nature of the real world. This involves telling where the joints are. Why are robots important? 3. Force sensing. and vision in robots. Discuss locomotion. Discuss the uses of robots. 4. What is a robot? 2. Sonar sensing. This involves using sound for navigation and range finding usually necessary in detecting objects. ONESMUS W.

Unlike other AI systems. machine learning had limited successes but useful demonstrations. and when the agent assesses its own decision-making processes. Problem generator This is the part of the agent that suggests actions that may lead to new informative experiences. Model of a learning agent Environment Sensors CRITIC Feedback changes LEARNING ELEMENT Learning goals knowledge future adjustments PROBLEM GENERATOR Effectors PERFORMANCE ELEMENT Adapted from Russel & Novig P. Learning will be considered with agents in mind. Terminology in machine learning Learning Learning is the process by which an agent uses percepts to improve its ability to act in future. A fixed standard of performance may be used.526 ONESMUS W. As a process it takes place as the agent interacts with the world. Critic This is the part of the learning agent that tells the element how well the agent is doing.I 60 . Learning element Learning element is the part of the agent that is responsible for making improvements. Exploratory actions are suggested. Much of the work is still under research studies. Knowledge about learning element and some feedback on how the agent is doing are used to determine how the performance element should be modified to do better in future. This measure should possibly be conceptually outside the agent.MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS In this section we will examine machine learning and its related terms. Performance element Performance element is the part of an agent that selects external actions.

that are side effects of research in Machine learning. learning systems may be built. new vocabulary arise. machine learning techniques can be used to allow the system to search for suitable functions( hypotheses).I 61 . In research learning has found applications that are related to knowledge acquisition. Internet) TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W. Sometimes machines cannot be built to do what is required due to some limitations. Where we have massive amount of data and hidden relationships. Hypothesis Suppose (x. Introduction to Machine Learning. h. if machines can learn then they can improve their performance. then machines can be used to learn as much as possible.Supervised learning Supervised learning is the learning situation in which both the inputs and outputs can be perceived. f(x)) is an example. is an approximation of the function f. If machines learn then their ability to solve problems will be enhanced considerably. Environments change over time. Specifically some of these applications include: Where there are very many examples and we have no function to generate the outputs. J. Sometimes a friendly teacher can supply the outputs. that have seen intensive research in recent times that include data mining. we can use machine learning techniques to discover the relationships (data mining). then an hypothesis. It is however not told the correctness of its action. Nilsson(1996). Instead of doing this. There some areas. planning and problem solving. so machines can adapt instead of re-design new ones. Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning is a type of learning situation in which the agent does not know the outcomes but is given some form of feedback on evaluating its action. Unsupervised learning Unsupervised learning is a type of learning in which the no hint is given at all about the correct input. APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING The main aim of machine learning is to make computer systems that can learn. (These reasons come from: Nils. New knowledge is being discovered by humans. new world events stream in and therefore new AI systems should be re-designed. Example Example is the pair (x. f(x)) where x is the input and f(x) is the output of the function applied to x. Where too much knowledge is available such that it is impossible for man to cope with it.

f. Where there is preference to hypothesis to a given example beyond consistency. action)} We consider two inductive learning methods namely decision trees and version spaces.e find a hypotheis based on examples Return H(percept) Procedure reflext-learning-element (percept. examples. Induction Pure inductive inference problem seeks to find a hypothesis. feedback percept Action. then we say incremental learning occurs. a) in examples then return a Else H induce(examples) i. h. feedback action Examples Examples ∪ {(percept.Machine learning depends on several methods that include induction. action). f(x)). that approximates the function. observations. action) Inputs: percept. Global examples {} Function reflex-performance-element(percept) returns an action If (percept. Consider a plot of points. If the percept is there then it applies the action. When it is confronted with a percept and it is looking for an action it first checks the list. and neural networks. The skeleton algorithms for a reflex learning agent are given below. ONESMUS W. If the agent instead of applying a new hypothesis adjusts the old hypothesis. and that it holds a list of pairs of (percept. Consider an agent that has a reflex learning element that updates global variable. that is used for selecting the action.I 62 . The possible curves that can be joined suggest various functions (hypotheses. otherwise it must formulate a hypothesis. we say there is a bias. examples. h) that can approximate the original function. given the example (x. h.

I 63 . Price: price range-not important. Raining: if it is raining outside. Fri/Sat: true on Fridays and Saturday.Full) ∧WaitEstimate(X. Type: nature of restaurant. Reservation: whether reservation has been made.not important. pp. Patrons: number of people present. No) ⇒ WillWait(X).Decision trees In decision tree. Each node consists of a test to the value of one of the properties and the branches from the nodes are labeled with possible values of test result. [Russel & Novig. The logical version is given by: ∀ X Patrons(X. Each leaf specifies the Boolean value if that leaf is reached. Bar: presence of a comfortable bar area to wait in. WaitEstimate: the estimated time to wait. 0-10) ∧Hungry(X. the inputs are objects or situations described by a set of properties while outputs are either yes or no decisions. 531-535] ONESMUS W. Hungry: whether one is hungry. An example is given below: Patrons? None No some Yes full WaitEstimate <60 No 30-40 Alternate ? 10-30 Hungry? 0-10 Yes no Reservation? yes Fri/Sat? no Yes yes Alternate? no Bar? yes Yes Yes no No yes Yes Yes no yes Raining? No Yes No A decision tree for deciding on where to wait for a table No No Yes Yes Attributes for the above decision tree are: Alternate: availability of a suitable alternative.

just take the attributes and enumerate its possible options. A decision tree learning algorithm (Russel & Novig. attributes – Best. Applicant Annual income Okello 50. End Return Tree. 537) Function Decision-tree-learning (examples. majority-value(examples)) add a branch to tree with label vi and subtree subtree.507 Assets 100. set of examples Attributes. default) returns a decision tree Inputs: examples. In this case. The table is processed attribute by attribute and selecting the attribute that minimizes noise or maximizes information.000 None None 250.000 Mulei 40. >40. attributes. a table is used and the goal conditions for yes are collected together.000 Wanjiru 30.000) ⇒ Approve_loan_for(A). examples) Tree a new decision tree with root Best For each value vi of Best do Examplesi {elements of examples with best = vi} Subtree decision-tree-learning(examplesi.000 Turban &Aronson. A typical example here is ID3 algorithm.000 Assets available ? Age 30 35 33 42 Dependants 3 1 2 0 Decision Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Annual Income >40. ONESMUS W.I 64 .000 No Yes Yes No Logically: ∀ A has_assets(A) ∨annual_income(A.000 Kamoro 70. Trivially. p.Inducing decision trees from examples Decision trees may also be obtained from examples. set of attributes Default. default value for the goal predicate If examples is empty then return default Else if all examples have the same classification then return the classification Else if attributes is empty then return majority-value(examples) Else Best choose-attribute(attributes.

The learning algorithm considers that one of the hypothesis is correct.0-10) H3 ∨ Hungry(P) ∧ Alternative(P) H4 : Hn Consider the hypothesis space { H1. by observing real flights about 30 times.Some H1 ∨ Patrons(P.Full) ∧ Hungry(P) H2 ∨ WaitEstimate(P. viscosity. The embedded flight simulator could now do better than human beings in that it made fewer mistakes.Two success reports of decision tree learning BP deployed expert system GASOIL in 1986. The decision tree learning methods were applied to a database of existing designs and the system was developed in less time with the performance better than human experts. There are two approaches that are used to maintain logical consistency of hypotheses.I 65 . These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be negative but they are actually positive. A program was written to fly the flight simulator. pressure. Hn}. ∨. saving BP millions of dollars (Russel and Novig. P539). This technique depends on Hypotheses which are candidate functions that may be used to estimate the actual functions. Where a hypothesis has been working well and a false negative occurs then it must be extended to include ONESMUS W.. H2. For instance the example above where a decision tree was used for the determining whether a patron will wait may have the following hypotheses: ∀P willwait(P) ⇔ patrons(P. for gas-oil separation for offshore platforms that had about 2500 rules. False negative examples. The idea is to readjust the hypotheses so that the classifications are correct without false placements. especially the disjunction of the hypotheses: H1. ∨H2. density. These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be positive but they are actually negative. ∨ n H Each of the hypothesis predicts a set of examples and this is called the extension of the predicate. The attributes included relative proportions of gas. False positive examples. temperature and susceptibility to waxing. oil. Versioning Versioning is another inductive technique that we will outline. .. and water and the flow rate. Current-best hypothesis search A single hypothesis is maintained and is adjusted as new examples are encountered.

e) End Return V Function version-space-update(V. the version space. ∨H2. However. ∨ n It is original set that is reduced as some hypotheses that are not H consistent are dropped.e) returns an updated version space V {h ∈ V: h is consistent with e} OTHER TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W. If this method is applied then the final set that remains is called a version space.I 66 . then it must be minimized or cut down to exclude the example. This is called generalization. when the hypothesis has been working and a false positive occurs.. Version space learning algorithm is given below: Function version-space-learning (examples) returns a version space Local variables: V. Least-commitment search Another technique of finding a consistent hypothesis is to start with original disjunction of all hypotheses: H1. An algorithm is given below that describes the process: Function current-best-learning(examples) returns hypothesis H any hypothesis consistent with the first examples For each remaining example in examples do If e is false positive for H then H choose a specialization of H consistent with examples Else if e is false negative for H then H choose a generalization of H consistent with examples If no consistent specialization/generalization can be found then fail End Return H.the example. This is called specialization. ∨.the set of all possible hypotheses V the set of all hypotheses For each example e in examples do If V is not empty then V Version-space-update(V.

The learning occurs by adjusting the weights so that the inputs correspond to the outputs. Each link has a numeric weight that is associated with it. What is machine learning? 3.). driving (AlVIN(1993)-learnt how to steer a vehicle by observing the human driver. Describe learning by versioning. hypothesis. A neural network unit consists of a linear input function that computes the sum of weighted inputs. Describe a model of a learning agent. Learning involves adjusting the conditional probabilities as examples are examined.I 67 . example. Neural networks have been used in pronunciation in which text streams are mapped to phonemes (basic sound elements. Q-learning occurs where the agent learns the action-value function that gives expected utility of taking a given action. EXERCISES 1. ONESMUS W. What is learning? 2. Describe the techniques used in inductive learning. 8. Reinforcement learning This is a learning method in which the learner tries to find out the utility function and uses it to select states that maximize the expected utility of outcomes. 4. reinforcement learning. supervised learning. Belief Networks Probability trees are constructed and are used decision making. 9. It also has a non linear component called activation function that transforms the final input values into a final activation value. 7. 5.Neural networks Neural networks as was seen earlier model the human neuron. critic. 6. Investigate other areas of machine learning. unsupervised learning. Discuss applications of Machine Learning. Show how decision trees are used in learning. The neural network consists of a number of nodes that are connected using links. problem solver. Define the terms performance element. handwritten text recognition.

 Promising to do things. These are symbols such as S. Sentence (S). A phrase is any sub-string of a given category.OVERVIEW OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (Based on Russel & Novig Chapters 22 & 23) When considering natural language processing we focus on agents that can communicate. such as the noun phrase (NP) or the verb phrase (VP). Formal language. Speech act is producing language and may involve all forms of using language including typing or sign language.  Querying others about various things. Communication. NP and VP. It also involves logical reasoning which enables forming complex phrases by combining simple ones.  Answering questions. each consisting of a sequence of symbols taken from a definite set. It may involve plan recognition which involves forming a model of agents beliefs.  Requesting or commanding others to do things. Purposes of speech act include:  Informing each other about the world. A language is a complex. A formal language is a set of strings.I 68 .  Sharing feelings or experiences. Understanding speech act Speech act can be understood when a set of inputs are associated with the part of the world that would be responsible for creating them. usually called terminal symbols. Phrase. Speech act. Understanding there requires the knowledge of syntax and semantics of a language. Communication can be taken to mean intentional exchange of information through producing and perceiving signs drawn for a shared system of conventional signs. Language. structured system of signs used by human beings to communicate most of what they know about the world.  Acknowledging requests or offers. A sentence is a string consisting of sub-strings from different categories that are allowed for example. S NP VP Non terminal symbols. ONESMUS W.

Parsing involves grouping the words into phrases that have categories. ideal case). (perceptions is speech recognition in case of speed inputs or optical character recognition in case of character inputs) H infers that W’ has possible meaning P1. (S must reason about beliefs of H and decide that H should know about P) S selects the words W (according to S. Pi = P (may be incorrect). ONESMUS W.I 69 .Components of communication The situation is such that there is a speaker. P2. links representing applications of grammar rules. say S. (Is necessary because the utterances have several possible interpretations) Incorporation: H decides to believe Pi (or reject it if it is inconsistent with current beliefs) Example using the statement ‘The cat is good. (In AI.or parsing and semantic interpretation-extracting the meaning. Pn (since words and phrases have several meanings). Seven processes are identified that may take place: Speaker’s role: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer’s role: Perception: H perceives W’ (required W = W’. phonetic alphabet may be used for string sounds) Analysis: Disambiguation: H infers that S intended to convey Pi. A parse tree may be used in parsing. (Two activities are involved: syntactic interpretation. and leaf nodes representing the words) S wants H to believe P (S is considered to believe P). Pragmatic interpretation is a type of semantic interpretation where the situation is taken into account.. W express the meaning of P). (Knowledge about language is used to decide what to utter) S utters the words W (usually addressing them to H). say proposition P to the hearer H. . using the words W. A parse tree has nodes representing phrases.. who wants to convey some message.

Speaker: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer: Perception: Analysis: The cat is good S NP Article The Noun cat Verb is VP Adjective good know(H. good(cat)) ‘The cat is good’ ‘dikatiskud’ Semantic interpretation: good(cat). good(cat)) Two Agents that communicate with language language Percepts language KB Actions Percepts Actions KB REASONING REASONING Agent A Agent B ONESMUS W.I 70 . caught(rat. well(cat) Pragmatic interpretation: good(cat). cat) Disambiguation: good(cat) Incorporation: tell(KB.

Algorithm Function simple-communicating-agent (percept) returns action Static: KB. The sentence (S).CONTENTS[semantics]) action ASK(KB. Lexicon. indicating time TELL(KB. pronouns. initially 0. a knowledge base. me | you | I | it …. and conjuctions such as and. Grammar gives rules for forming sentences. DO(action)) OVERVIEW OF A FORMAL GRAMAMAR FOR A SUBSET OF ENGLISH Language processing is only possible if some set of symbols are used and some form of grammar constructed on them. noun phrase(NP). verbs (for events). is | see | feel | chase | hear | catch | hide | kill | eat | smell | go |….I breeze | glitter | nothing | cat | pit | rat | meat | …. MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept. right | left | back | noisy | good |… here | there | nearby | ahead | right | left | back | …. MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept. T. and relative clause (RelClause) may be used.t)) words SPEECH-PART(percepts) semantics DISAMBIGUATION(SEMANTICS(PARSE(words))) If TYPE[sentence] = command then action CONTENTS[semantics] Else if TYPE[semantics] = statement then TELL(KB. 71 . prepositions such as in.t)) description GENERATE-DESCRIPTION (percept) Return COMPOUND-ACTION(SAY(description). Other categories include articles such as the. preposition phrase (PP).. This will need a few considerations that are indicated below.t)) Else if TYPE[semantics] = none then action ASK(KB. MAKE-PERCEPT-SENTENCE(KB. Lexicon is a list of allowable vocabulary words. The words are usually grouped into a set of categories or parts of speech such as nouns (names to denote things). Example of a lexicon Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Pronoun ONESMUS W. verb phrase (VP). a counter. adjectives(modify nouns) and adverbs(modify verbs).

and | or | but | … 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ….Name Article Preposition Conjunction Digit John.p666) Function BOTTOM-UP-PARSE(words.I 72 . I pit the rat 56 the rat + to the east the rat + that is good Smells feel + a breeze is + good chase + to the east go + ahead to + the east that + is good VP PP RelClause A parsing algorithm (Russel & Novig. to | in | on | near | …. |Mary | Ochieng’ | Kimeo | Mutiso | Kamau | …. grammar) return parse tree ONESMUS W.| 9 Example of grammar with above lexicon S NP NP VP | S conjunction S Pronoun | Noun | Article Noun | Digit Digit | NP PP | NP RelClause Verb | VP NP | VP Adjective | VP PP | VP Adverb Preposition NP that VP Sample phrase I feel a breeze I feel a breeze and I smell a rat. the | a | an | ….

i+n-1] [MAKE-NODE(RULE-LHS(rule). Define the terms communication and language. i. LENGTH(forest)} rule choose from RULES(grammar) n LENGTH(RULE-RHS(rule)) subsequence SUBSEQUENCE(forest. i+n-1) if MATCH (subsequence..I 73 . usually containing key words in the query. This has been a subject of research since early 1960. Information retrieval – retrieval of text documents. This has given rise to text interpretation as an additional area of research. Describe the importance of speech acts.forest words loop do If LENGTH(forest) = 1 and CATEGORY (forest[1]) = START(grammar) then return (forest) else i choose from {1. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Machine translation. Database access – use of natural language to access information from databases. Text categorization – placing texts in various categories for example placing various news articles into relevant categories.translate from one natural language to another. 2. RULE-RHS(rule)) then forest[i. EXERCISES 1. Extracting data from a text – converting data in a text into a database format in which key values of parameters are obtained. ONESMUS W. subsequence)] else fail end NB forest is a list of various allowed phrases..

[3] Wolfgang Kreutzer. Introduction to Machine Learning. ONESMUS W. Describe a model for two agents communicating in a language. Programming for Artificial Intelligence. 5. Addison-Wesley. Bruce McKenzie (1991). Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach.3. Nillson (1996). Discuss practical applications of natural language processing. [4] The INTERNET. Discuss the important items to have in natural language processing. synthesis. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Stuart J. [6] Nils J.Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems.I 74 . [5] Ephraim Turban. generation. perception. Discuss aspects of machine vision. PROLOG: Programming for artificial intelligence. Jay E. 5th Edition. disambiguation. Aronson(1998). Addison Wesley. Russell. How can a statement in natural language be parsed? 10. What is a lexicon? 8. [2] Ivan Bratko (1990). 6. 11. analysis. Prentice-Hall. 4. incorporation. What is the role of grammar in natural language processing? 9. Peter Norvig(1995). Describe the component steps of communication. Discuss the meaning of the terms: intention. 7.

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