Defining Intelligence

Andy Carvin(Traditional view) Many people define intelligence, as a person’s ability to solve problems, utilize logic, and think critically. It also represents how people comprehend, examine and respond to outside stimuli. In this case intelligence can be viewed as a "singular, collective ability to act and react in an everchanging world." (Carvin) in Carvin, Andy. (1999). MI-The Theory. EdWeb: Exploring Technology and School Reform. General intelligence( • Abilities that allow us to be flexible and adaptive thinkers, not necessarily tied to acquired knowledge. • Reasoning, integration and abstraction as may be seen in solving maze or puzzle based problems. Alfred Binet (General intelligence)
Intelligence entails the operation of specific mental functions, including memory, attention, verbal fluency and creativity, that are strictly controlled by practical judgement.

Howard Gardner "The standard view of intelligence is that intelligence is something you are born with; you only have a certain amount of it; you cannot do much about how much of that intelligence you have; and tests exist that tell you how smart you are." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) in Checkley, Kathy. (1997). The first seven…and the eighth: a conversation with Howard Gardner. Educational Leadership, 55, p8-13. Multiple Intelligence Theory(- several types of intelligence-Howard Gardner) "Intelligence refers to the human ability to solve or make something that is valued in one or more cultures. As long as we can find a culture that values an ability to solve a problem or create a product in a particular way, then I would strongly consider whether that ability should be called an intelligence." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) Ability can be called an intelligence only if it meets several criteria: • Representation in the brain for the ability (Biological Basis) • Presence of populations that are especially good or especially impaired in an intelligence (i.e. exhibited in extreme forms in idiot savants, prodigies and geniuses) • Possess a clear developmental history • Used in the performance of culturally valued roles around the world (Cultural Basis) Gardner has identified eight intelligences as : Linguistic-Verbal; Logical-Mathematical; Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic; Spatial; Intrapersonal; Interpersonal; Naturalist

Together, these eight intelligences provide a theoretical foundation for recognizing the different talents and abilities that people, and especially students, possess. They are generally used concurrently, complementing one another as skills develop. In Gardner’s words: "What makes life interesting, however, is that we don’t have the same strength in each intelligence area, and we don’t have the same amalgam of intelligences. Just as we look different from one another and have different kinds of personalities, we also have different kinds of minds." This theory contradicts the traditional view of intelligence being predetermined and unalterable. MI states that we can get better at each of our intelligences, although some people will improve in some areas more readily than others. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use words and language in various forms • Ability to manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically • Sensitive to meaning, order, function, sound, rhythm of words • Adept at reading and writing • May utilize native as well as other languages • Typically excels at school • Dominant mode of teaching Potential careers: Writer, speaker, orator, lawyer, poet, politician, teacher, professor, editor, journalist,
salesperson, actor, administrator, contractor Tools for Teachers: Reading, biographies, poetry, storytelling, book sharing, humor/jokes, wordplay, riddles, creative writing, debate, journal writing, explanations, feelings, reports, lists, library research. Tips for Parents: Read with your children; Listen to their questions, concerns, and experiences; Provide books and paper for reading and writing activities; Encourage children to share with you what they have read or written; Provide opportunities to visit libraries and bookstores; Play games like Scrabble, Hangman, Boggle, and Yahtzee.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to detect patterns • Approach problems logically • Reason deductively • Adept at math and science • Manipulate numbers, quantities, and operations • Typically precise and methodical • Prefer ordered and sequential activities • Currently highly valued by society Potential careers: Scientist, engineer, accountant, computer analyst, computer programmer, logician,
mathematician, actuary, bank teller. Tools for Teachers: Analyzing, calculations, classifying, pattern games, time lines, numbers, logic problems, experimentation, critical thinking, sequencing, outlining, compare and contrast, graphic organizers, scientific thinking, Venn diagrams, writing problems, reasoning problem solving, computer instruction



Tips for Parents: Let your children experiment; Invite them to help make a cake or mix paint colors to make
new ones; Let them help with family budget, budget their own allowances, or operate a calculator; Provide opportunities for setting table, sorting clothes, organizing drawers; Play games like Uno, checkers, and chess.

Musical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to discern meaning in rhythmically arranged sets of pitches • Think "in music" • Recognize nonverbal sounds: pitch, rhythm, and tonal patterns • Adept at remembering melodies and converting sounds into rhythms • May be the least developed intelligence • One of the earliest talents to emerge Potential careers:Composer, singer, performer, conductor, music critic, violinist. Tools for Teachers: Chants, rhythmic patterns, listening, rap, singing, music performance, humming,
instrumental sounds, music education, musical chairs, listening centers, descriptive and rhythmic words (to enhance communication). Tips for Parents: Allow children to select their own music cassettes/CDs; Encourage singing along and clapping to rhythm; Involve children in music lessons; Attend concerts and musicals.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use one’s mental abilities to coordinate one’s own bodily movements • Ability to understand things by using one’s body or parts of the body • Use body to solve a problem, make something, put on a production • Respond well to nonverbal communication • Frequently can’t sit still, need to touch things • Adept at all sorts of athletic and fine motor activities • Typically chooses to be a participant rather than an observer • Challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated • Most controversial of the proposed intelligences Potential careers:Dancer, athlete, mime, actor, clown, comedian, craftsperson. Tools for Teachers: Acting, drama, dancing, exercise, physical gestures, experiment, inventing, movement, role
playing, human graph, demonstrations, hands-on thinking. Tips for Parents: Involve children in dancing, acting, or sports; Provide a variety of anipulatives (clay, fabric, blocks) for experimentation; Walk, jog, hike, bowl, play tennis, or bike as a family; Enjoy sliding, swinging, and riding toys; Provide chores like sweeping, setting table, emptying trash; Play games like charades, Simon says, and hide-and-seek.



take photographs. awareness of personal feelings. pictures or having them draw ideas • Not limited to visual domain-can also be formed in blind children Potential careers: Artist (like painter. poet. typically enjoy solitude • "March to a different drummer" • May be daydreamers • Draw upon feelings to guide behavior Potential careers:Psychotherapist. • Able to understand and empathize with what others are thinking and doing. graphic or industrial designer. therapist. Tools for Teachers: Reflection. independent work and projects. fantasy. mapping. religious leader. focusing.Spatial Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Visualize mental models. markers. intentions. self-identification. charting. counselor. • Very social and street smart. Provide time for reflection. Interpersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to "read people"—discriminate among other individuals especially their moods. clinician. Let children choose the color for their bedroom. Tips for Parents: Give children quality time to work or play alone. goal setting. Encourage writing in a diary or journal. ONESMUS W. salesperson. drawing. navigator. sailor. thinking strategies. collages. motivations. posters. Tools for Teachers: Guided imagery. community organizer. Visit art museums. crayons. designs. metacognition. lighting specialist. free choice time. sculptor…) architect. concentration. and draw them in detail • Typically thinks in images and pictures • Ability to orient themselves in a house or outdoors • Used in both arts and sciences • Enjoys chess and jig-saw puzzles • Often daydreamers • Like multiple colors • Taught best using photos. • Adept at group work. higher order reasoning. politician.I 4 . Intrapersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to understand oneself. pretending. design furniture arrangement. paints. Play games like Pictionary or cards. social worker. Provide art mediums—brushes. Potential careers: Teacher. inventor. puzzles. mazes. imagination. labeling. artist. autobiography. pictures. Tips for Parents: Provide opportunities for solving or inventing. typically assume a leadership role. use color in activities. manipulate them spatially. including feelings and motivations • Includes the ability to delay gratification • Can discipline themselves to accomplish a wide variety of tasks • Adept at independent work.

team assessments. I. personto-person communication. cooperative groups. describe changes in environment.creating. observations from notebooks. Executive . Sternberg's Theory of Triarchic Intelligence(Professor Robert Sternberg of Yale University) (Summarized from: Sternberg. Judicial . interviews. imagining. group projects. Encourage "backyard experiments" with bugs. 2. II. Star watch from the backyard or local observatory. Tools for Teachers: Create observation notebooks. skits. debates. as a family. planning. evaluating.collaboration III. binoculars. internal variables and hierarchic habits of mental self-government. Scope . NY: Viking Press. photography. scientist. design Venn diagrams. rocks… and try to identify using a field guide. and formulating.judging. They deal best with one goal or need at a time. flowers. rock configurations) • Recognize patterns in nature • Prefer to be outdoors • Most recently "discovered" intelligence • May extend into consumer realm—discriminate among cars.I . external variables and anarchic habits of mental self-government. telescopes. Naturalist Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to recognize and classify living things like plants.Tools for Teachers: Feedback. Forms of mental self-government: • Monarchic people perform best when goals are singular. and comparing. Examples: As a combination a person might prefer legislative functions. sneakers. types of makeup… Potential careers:Botanist. draw natural scenes. plays. peer tutors. classify and categorize things in nature. Functions of governments of the mind. 5 ONESMUS W. These three areas correspond with: 1.) This concept of intelligence equates to combinations of individual preferences from three levels of mental themselves • External . Tips for Parents: Play a family game. animals • Sensitive to other features of the natural world (clouds. Encourage discussion and problem solving. Encourage children to participate in activities. Robert (1988) The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Intelligence. taxonomist. Tips for Parents: Take children on nature walks to observe and journal. Functions of governments of the mind: • • • Legislative . empathy practices. teamwork. chef. and so forth. role playing. discussion. plants…. and 3. microscopes. Collect leaves.implementing and doing.stylistic variables: • Internal . Stylistic preferences. Share. magnifiers. Forms of mental self-government. while another individual might prefer executive functions.

• • • Hierarchic people can focus on multiple goals at once and recognize that all goals cannot be fulfilled equally. observations. creating their own problem-solving techniques with insights that often easily break existing mindsets.analytical reasoning. recognizing relationships. Impulse control. managing your feelings well. Thinking. COGNITIVE FACULTIES Include mechanisms for: marriage and families. Anarchic people depart from form and precedent. patterns. These people can prioritize goals easily. COGNINITIVE ABILITIES Cognitive abilities include the following: Spatial ability.numbers of words known. handling blocks. presenting ideas logically. 4. inductive and deductive reasoning. exhibiting empathy and compassion.I 6 . computational ability. the panorama of skills found in the context of emotional intelligence help individuals manage both the self and others in the following areas: 1.clerical speed and accuracy. Those emotional skills matter immensely . numerical reasoning. Perceptual speed. Exercises What is intelligence? Can intelligence be mechanized? ONESMUS W. Memory.emotional intelligence is a different way of being smart.structural visualization. numbers. Problem solving(adaptation). Often they don't like or understand the need for rules and regulations. Persons having EQ exhibit the following common attributes. Hearing . Summary on the definition of intelligence Left as an exercise.number series identification. interacting smoothly.remembering designs. 2. Oligarchic people deal with goals that are of equal weight well. paper folding. It includes knowing your feelings and using them to make good decisions. and managing your relationships effectively. Emotional intelligence(Daniel Goleman) Goleman defines EQ as: EQ is not destiny . These people operate without rules or structure. Speech and language. 3. Motions co-ordination. Numerical ability. Mood management . but they have difficulty prioritizing goals of different weight. Learning . In essence. motivating yourself with zeal and persistence. 5. fluent expressions. maintaining hope in the face of frustration. visual details. Vocabulary. in career and the workplace. Self-esteem . Self-motivation . for health and contentment. People skills.

there are various definitions that have been proposed. 1985 & Bellman. People in this group include Kurzweil. TURING TEST FOR INTELLIGENCE (ACT HUMANLY) Interpersonal link (teletext) HUMAN INTERROGATOR COMPUTER The human interrogator thinks he/she is communicating with a human. Winston.I 7 . These are considered below. 1978. Rich & Knight were also in this group and they considered AI as the study of how to make computers do things which at the moment people are better at. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that think like human beings. However. ONESMUS W.  Learn and adapt to the new situations. Total Turing test included vision & robotics. Artificial intelligence is the study in which systems that rationally act are made. 1990 who particularly thought that AI is the art of creating computers that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computers that rationally think are made. reason and act. To pass Turing Test the computer must:  Process natural language. People in this group include Schalkeoff. are also in this group and they consider AI to be a branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior.  Represent knowledge.  Reason. 1985 who think that AI is the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models. 1992 is also in this group who think that AI is the study of computations that make it possible to perceive. People in this group are Charniac & McDermott. Haugeland. 1993. 1990 who consider AI to be a study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes. Luger & Stubblefield.DEFINING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There is no agreed definition of the term artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that act like people.

Rational thinking Laws of thought have been devised to manipulate though processes. those which can be applied throughout. This is cognitive modelling. Some related terms Human thinking This has been studied so that it may be modelled.Cognitive Science’s view of artificial intelligence() Text Book Definition: "Artificial Intelligence seeks to produce. tension has risen between scientists in two main topics: Generalists vs. Experts Generalists prefer overarching programs. it is necessary to define intelligence/knowledge. a pattern of output that would be considered intelligent if displayed by human beings.I 8 . on a computer. Scientific Level of the Field Some scientists feel that AI is simply a form of applied engineering and not a field of psychology. ONESMUS W. Rational actions Rational action is one in which inputs from the environment are taken and is in the best interest of the actor. What is knowledge? How is knowledge represented? How do we use knowledge? Within the field of AI. Experts prefer highly detailed programs which are knowledgable in specific domains but restricted in applicability. Aristotle and Plato. Problems are physical and non physical and they have not been resolved. In order to classify machines as "thinking"." (Gardner. Some definitions focus on programs. Rational agent is something that perceives and acts. programming language. or simulations. Earlier people involved were Socrates. Ways have been investigated to find out how mechanize the way the human mind works. 1984) Controversy exists over a single definition of AI. AI may also be seen as a study in which rational agents are constructed.

1864) formulated the rules of thought that provide a language that is used for logical inference(1847). Gottlob Frege (1848-1928) introduced the rules for first order logic except for notations. ONESMUS W. Alfred Tarki (1902. John Locke (1632 .1650) presented the principle of dualism in which issues on distinction between matter and mind are raised. They contributed to its growth directly or were necessary in the development of artificial intelligence. Mathematics (800 . Psychology (1879 .I 9 . Renè Descartes (1596 . Bertrand Russel (1872-1970) proposed logical positivism in which all knowledge can be characterized by logical theories. Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646 .now) Herman Von Helmboltz (1821. Algorithms were sought to distinguish pious from non pious actions.1714) argued for materialism in which the world is seen to be controlled by physical laws. David Hilbert (1862. David Hume (1711-17776) proposed induction in which generalization can be made from the specific. George Boole (1815.1894) and Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) used scientific method to study human Algorithms are traced from the work of an Arab mathematician of 9th century called alKhowarazmi.1983) introduced the reference theory in which objects in logic are related to real objects.1943) raised a question looking for an algorithm that may be used for any proposition involving natural numbers.FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE These are some of the bases that enabled the development of artificial intelligence. The mind is seen as a connection between knowledge and action. They proposed that perception involves unconcious logical inference.1704) advanced empricism in which the source of knowledge is seen as only possible through senses. Philosophy (428 BC to present) Plato in 428 BC presented dialog of thought in which piety and pious actions were considered.

beliefs. In 1960s much of the work was done in knowledge representation. Computer Engineering (1940 . Lingusitics (1957 . goals and reasoning steps as scientific.John Watson (1878.I 10 . Today we have computational linguistics which is natural language processing. Edward Thorndike (1879 .1958). They rejected mental constructs such as knowledge. ONESMUS W. William James (1842.1910) proposed cognitive psychology in which the brain posses and processes Work in AI and computer science has been complementary.1949) maintained that only measurable percepts (stimuli) should be studied and their resulting actions.present) Noam Chomsky published syntax structure. It is the advances in computer engineering that has enabled the production of software.

Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds build SNARC. Frank Rosenblatt (1962) advance the perceptron convergence theorem which was about a learning algorithm that can adjust connection strengths of a perceptron to match any input data. Gestation period (1943 . General Problem Solver at Carnegie Mellon University imitated how humans reason. 1956: There was a workshop at Dartmouth College organized by John McCarthy. Allen Newel and Herbet Simon demonstrated a program called Logic Theorist which was a reasoning system that proved Russel & Whiteheads theorems. 10 researchers attended. In other words perceptrons can learn. Bertram Raphael (1968) wrote SIR which was a program that could answer questions in a restricted area in English.I 11 . Enthusiasm and great expectation (1952. helped by Minsky. ONESMUS W. Claud Shannon (1950). the first neural network computer. Donald Hebb (1949) demonstrated a rule for updating connection strengths between neurons so that learning could occur. Arthur Samuel (1952-) wrote many programs for checkers. Shannon and Rochester. The name Artificial Intelligence was coined at the conference.1969) Much enthusiasm was generated by earlier successes of the Logic Theorist and later General Problem Solver. James Slagle (1963) wrote SAINT progam which solved closed form integration problems found in first year courses. Tom Evans (1968) wrote ANALOGY program which solved simple geometric problems. John McCArthy (1958) defined LISP which is a dominant AI language. They also suggested that neural networks could learn. Alan Turing (1953) wrote chess programs. Some similar phenomena are included.1956) Warren McCulloth & Walter Pitts (1943) proposed a model of artificial neurons.HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we trace the evolution of artificial intelligence.

In summary. 1979 by Duda et al.a dose of reality (1966. It however had problems of intractability with large molecules.I 12 . DENDRAL. AI becomes an industry (1980-1988) R1. Fundamental structures used to generate intelligent behaviour were limited. the importance of knowledge was discovered. 1973 by William Woods was a program in geology that could be asked questions about rock samples from the moon. Was a program that had geological data.Challenges. Minsky also showed that there were cases in which perceptrons could not learn. Typical example is the translator: ‘The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak’ <> ‘Vodka is good but mean is rotten’. Shortliffe was a program that could diagnose blood infections. 1961 by Buchanan et al. 1982 by McDermott. The solution was to use knowledge that can be used by several reasoning steps and solves typical cases in a narrow area of expertise. MYCIN. 1971 by Fiegenbaum. was an expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation to configure orders for the new system.1974) Claim by Herbet Simon (1957) that ‘computers could think. learn and create and that it would not take long before computers could do what men would do’. It recommended exploratory drilling site that proved to have substantial molybdenum deposit. turned out to be wild dreams. DEC’s AI group deployed over 40 expert systems. Buchanan. By 1988. Problems arose with demonstrations as the programs contained no knowledge of their own. Was a program that would take in a formula such as C6H13NO2 and mass spectrum data from electron bombardment and generate as its output the possible structures and mass spectrum that would be observed. In 1988 Du Pont had over 100 expert systems in use and 500 in development and estimated $10 million in savings.1979) The earlier methods were found to be weak due to weak information domain. $40 million was saved annually by 1986. PROSPECTOR.key to power? (1969. Most AI problems turned out to be intractable in that time needed grew exponentially compared to size of instances. It had 450 rules and performed much better than junior doctors. Knowledge based systems. ONESMUS W. LUNAR.

Recent events (1987 . How did AI evolve? Discuss the various disciplines that contributed to the development of AI. 5. This generated much interest in AI. It is now desired that claims be build on rigorous theorems or evidence.student.richmond.htm) The future of AI will certainly be just as important as it will be interesting. State of the art 1997/8 Computer program beats the International Grandmaster in Chess. Discuss the events in the development of AI. The emphasis now is on building on existing theories and not inventing new ones. 2. The work of Byson and Ho (1969) on back-propagation learning was re-invented. 3. You say where and when. EXERCISES 1. What is Artificial Intelligence? Describe the Turing Test. Kotter et al. PEGASUS. Future of Artificial Intelligence(http://www. Return to Neural Networks (1986 . MARVEL (Schwuttke. 1992) is a real time expert system that handles massive stream of data from There has been a change in content and methods of research. And in the future we will probably rely on them more. There is no doubt that AI will provide significant applications for everyday life. 1991 reported an expert system that gets a better diagnosis than a medical doctor. 1993) drove at 55 mph.I 13 . ROBOT DRIVER (Pornerleau. It used video understanding program that handles air travel transactions. sonar and laser range finders to drive the car. 4. 1993. Heckerman. 1994 reported a system that automatically calls an ambulance on accident occurring. There is also a need to show relevance to real world applications. The dominant areas include Hidden Markov models.In 1981. and belief networks in which reasoning is combined with uncertain evidence. Today our lives almost revolve around the technologies provided by computers. Rumelheart & McClelland (1986) distributed a collection of works in parallel distributed processing. Japanese announced the 5th computer generation project to build intelligent computers using PROLOG . King et al. ONESMUS Disillusionment with MYCIN type expert systems grew as they needed more than rules.

Guide. Since Artificial intelligence(AI) does much to do with reasoning consider some of these reasoning activities and AI can be used in these areas: Access. Advice. For example in placing detectors. etc. Diagnose. As in a project team. education. For example as in work-flows or chemical processes. As in point of sales. emergency or to consumers. ranking. Data-mine. Help. As in supervision of information distribution or networks.I 14 . etc. predicting. Learn. As in isolating important mails from a mass of e-mails. As in constructing new circuits for a simplified job. Handle. Bid. As in determining courses of action or effects of changes. As in checking the movements in currency exchange rates. Negotiate. Invent. Broker. Coordinate. Analyze. As in making optimal designs. Compare. As in planning. Apply rules of auction to many items.APPLICATION DOMAINS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we consider the different ways in which artificial intelligence has been applied. military and industry. Artificial intelligence has been found useful in many areas including medicine. As in diseases. As in dealing with routine information and passing only critical issues to humans. Filter. Give access to information from large databases. As in finding out why decisions are made. ONESMUS W. As in directing movement. Optimize. Categorize. plant faults.j Control. Monitor. Give hints on classification especially on the Web. Manage. As discussing requests for licences. Organize. For example in legal cases find precedence. Detect patterns from large databases. Classify. As in remembering and avoiding old mistakes. Assist. Be a broker at a stock exchange. Help operators for example in a factory. As in assisting engineers with technical issues. Offer a bid at an auction. or using rules of thumb. Decide. Evaluate. or representing. Mediate. Categorize for example the customers. avoiding danger. Give advice to on health. As in going between parties. purchase from an open market. processing. Auction. Explain.

Some of the recent practical research include ways of recognizing people using the retina. learning operators and how to help humans learn. The main challenges include speech recognition and generation. Here the investigation is focused on movement and positioning of arms and other parts. On maturity computers can talk. Natural language and understanding. Here the investigation is focused on making computers acquire knowledge. The challenges in it involve mapping visual realities to representations that allow easy pattern recognition. This is an area that originally attempted to build a general problem solver. On maturity. Speech synthesizers have been used to demonstrate speech in minimal and constrained circumstances. The challenges include knowledge acquisition. This is area dealing with visual recognition of objects. Speech synthesis and recognition. This is an area that attempt to find how to make computers recognize voice inputs and respond vocally. Understanding and text or document translation are some of the important problems. vehicles can find their way around. Machine learning. On maturity the robots will be used for additional domestic and industrial applications. Cameras and sensors are used. skills and be adaptive. Its focus was later revised to specialized problem solvers such as expert systems. The challenges include getting uniform grammar and semantic representations. discuss. Here investigations consider grammars and semantics of languages. The main challenges include the arm positioning and locating positions. representing knowledge. looking or searching for solutions. If it matures then computers can recognize their owners. Interlanguage translations will also be possible. the computers should be able to speak in natural language and understand.Main branches of AI Machine vision. Problem solving.I 15 . On maturity. On maturity computers will learn from experience. ONESMUS W. and understanding. Currently they are used for such industrial applications such as sorting. robots can conduct chores in the house moving around. computers will solve various problems and problem solving can be embedded into many industrial applications. knowledge representation. Robotics. Its main challenges include finding out how to formulate the problems. solve problems and be adaptive. assembling and welding. read articles aloud and take voice commands.

planning. These applications have been on diagnosis. it was also possible to manage information on locomotion of warheads. Robotics. Most of the industrial uses have been fuelled by expert systems. Work have been reported on inter-frame displacement. urban storm sewer systems. Initially AI was perceived as a tip of the iceberg in a body of knowledge in IT that would be important in key areas in international security such as command control. Natural language. natural language interface to databases. design. number crunching enabled construction of thermo-nuclear bombs. Some of the areas in which artificial intelligence is used are also regarded as application problem domain areas for artificial intelligence. strategic defense and verification. composition of stereotype documents in foreign languages. Military applications There was revived interest in artificial intelligence due to breakthroughs in robotics and knowledge based systems. ONESMUS W. Civil engineering. Reported work include: hazardous site evaluation. In 1980s there were interests in semi-automated operation weapons. monitoring and control of equipment. Medical applications AI applications in medicine have been fuelled mainly by expert systems and neural networks.SOME APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There are currently many applications of artificial intelligence. neural networks and genetic algorithms. it was also possible to model simulation of fission triggered chain reaction. drug manufacture. We consider a few examples of reported work in industry below. offshore structure applications. Work has been reported on automatic programming. Industry AI is used in all spheres of industry in areas related to planning. robotics. development of smart weapons. These areas include military. identification and ranking of severe storms. vision and position estimation in the house. In 1950s. The main sponsor of research in AI has been US. medicine.Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).I 16 . Earlier experience in world war II saw the British use computers to decipher the German codes and they could monitor bombings. control and manufacture. industry and business.

Mechanical engineering. automated valve expert capture. hold dialog and assist in direct manipulation of computers or machines. Reported work include: marine system design. drilling stations management. Reported work include: intelligent interface design. Electrical engineering. single board computer design. reason. forecasting and advising. In education AI is being used to assist in tutoring and other computer assisted learning activities. trouble shooting of large industrial plants.I 17 . help. Reported work include: managing VLSI CAD data. mediate. ONESMUS W. Software engineering. network communication design. Education. Business. entities that mediate between two agents knowing little about each other. In business AI has been used in many areas including planning. VLSI transistor sizing.

input function . and neural networks).g. evolution.PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Problems are tackled in AI using two main broad approaches. The first one is using the search technique and the second one is by modeling natural phenomena (e.j Input links ∑ ∫ aI Output links ∑ ∫ ai I1 . NEURAL NETWORKS Human neuron nucleus axon synapse dendrites cell body Artificial neuron Wi. H3 W13 w35 O5 W14 I2 W24 H4 w45 ONESMUS W.activation function -activation value of unit i.I 18 .

Genes A B C D Mutation Involves changing a value of a component of the gene (chromosome) eg. C B A D In genetic algorithms.FitnessFn). ONESMUS W. a new generation is reproduced using mutation and cross over of members of the current population. Until Some individual is fit enough End. Begin Repeat Parents:=SELECTION(population. Var parents:composite structure. Mutation and cross-over of genes are modelled. C B Cross-over Involves exchanging values of components (chromosomes) across genes. The resulting new population is selected make the numbers constant using a selection criteria called the fitness function.I 19 . FitnessFn):Individual.GENETIC ALGORITHMS These are models used to solve problems based on the theory of evolution and natural selection. Population:=REPRODUCTION(parents). A general genetic algorithm Function GeneticAlgorithm(Population.

Defining a search problem A search problem is defined by specifying:  State space.  Rules giving how to change states. ONESMUS W.  Goal condition. 3. Searching is the process of looking for the solution of a problem through the a set of possibilities (state space). Check the current state. we look at searching as a technique of solving problems in more detail. Process of Searching Searching proceeds as follows: 1.  Cost of obtaining the solution. which is a path from the current state to the goal state.I 20 . The solution is a path from the current state to the goal state.SEARCHING AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE Since searching is extensively used. 2.  Start node. if it is not then the new state becomes the current state and the process is repeated until a solution is found or the state space is exhausted. and a test to check whether the goal condition is met. Execute allowable actions to move to the next state.  Goal state – the solution reached. check whether it has been reached. The states are represented as nodes while the allowed steps or actions are represented as arcs. Search conditions include:  Current state -where one is. Check if the new state is the solution state. Search problem The search problem consists of finding a solution plan. Representing search problems A search problem is represented using a directed graph.

259] Three blocks A. The solution to our problem is any member of the set of all paths from original to goal state such as the path indicated in bold. Only one block can be moved at a time. Possible moves  Put a block on table.I 21 . p.Example of a search case study [Bratko.  Put a block on top of another block. C on a table are considered.  Remove a block from the top of another and place on top of another block. Problem Initial state(current state) C A B Goal state (final state) A B C State space C A B A BC A BC B A C A B A B AC B AC ABC C AB C AB A C B B C A A B C The state space has 13 elements or nodes. A block can be grasped when there is no other block on top of it. B. ONESMUS W.

a b c d e f g f The arrows show the depth first search progression. Var nodes:structure. STATE(node)) succeeds then Solution:=Node Else Nodes:=QueuingFn(node. EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH STRATEGIES Searching may yield a solution or the state space may be exhausted without a solution. EndWhile End. End. Begin While Begin Node:= remove_front_node(nodes). ONESMUS W. Depth first The branch (child) nodes are visited first. OPERATOR(problem)).General search algorithm Function Gsearch (Problem.I 22 . If Goal_test(problem. The may also be regarded as traversal techniques. Exhaustive search may be performed using breadth first or depth first (iterative deepening) strategies. QueuingFn): Solution|Failure.

Breadth first This is search strategy in which the nodes of the same level are visited first. GUIDED SEARCH Guided search is one solution to the problems associated with exhaustive search. Guided search is also called heuristic search and is a search strategy in which the knowledge about the problem domain is used to guide the search mechanism thus enabling it to avoid wrong options. One problem is about combinatorial problems associated with some search cases. ONESMUS W. exhaustive search has some problems associated with the need to visit all states at times.I 23 . Heuristics are rules that apply most of the time but not all the time. Sometimes the state space can be inexhaustible. However. There are several heuristics that are used to guide search mechanisms. At times the number of possibilities rise and demands on storage and processing cannot be met. a b c d e f g f The arrows show the breadth first search progression LIMITATIONS OF EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH METHODS Exhaustive search has the advantage of guaranteeing solutions if they exist. but the ones considered here is called the best-first search heuristic. The other problem is that the state space can be extremely large such that complete search is time consuming. in that it is difficult to enumerate.

1 2 3 4 8 5 6 7 8-queens problem. At times the nodes have associated costs or benefits. OTHER SEARCH PROBLEMS There are so many cases in which the search technique may be used. Consider an example. In this case we consider a heuristic that seeks to minimize the costs. The functions used to compute heuristic estimates are called heuristic functions..I . in which nodes have associated costs and also subsequent paths have associated costs as well. Heuristic estimates are computed values that assess the suitability of a node as candidate solution. Vacuum world V .. Original problems 5 a 2 4 b 2 4 c f minimize{f(x):= sum path} s 2 2 e s 7 f(a)=7 5 f(b)=13 4 2 f(c)=19 f(d)=25 c a e f(e)=9 b f f(f)=18 2 3 2 g g d t f(g)=22 3 d 3 t goal Exercise: re-trace the path given that the heuristic function only adds the sum of path and the cost of the current node. ONESMUS W. Nodes are regarded as most promising when they are associated with the most desired numerical values called heuristic estimates. These include the following cases: 8-puzzle problems.BEST-FIRST SERARCH HEURISTIC In the best-first search heuristic the node with the most promising chance of being the solution is visited first. 24 . The search is going to be guided by cost minimization. A heuristic function would therefore seek to minimize costs or maximize benefits.

1. ONESMUS W. 4. 2. Discuss exhaustive search and heuristic search. 5. Discuss relevance of the search technique and other examples where the search technique may be applied. 6. neural networks and genetic algorithms. VLSI layouts Robot navigation – robot movements Assembly sequencing.I 25 . EXERCISES Investigate how to program models related to agents. Discuss how to implement the genetic algorithm. Discuss examples of agents. 3.REAL LIFE APPLICATIONS OF THE SEARCH TECHNIQUE Travelling – minimize the distances in route finding. 7. How are problems solved in artificial intelligence? What is searching? Discuss how to handle problems using searching technique.

Predicates are used these are of the form function(arguments).OR facts. use logical connectives and boolean logic. they can grow to unmanageable size. The quantifiers are used. conflict resolution. Knowledge representations schemes Propositional calculus. capture heuristics. Predicate calculus. Discuss examples. Advantages: easy to use. Related ideas: rules and fact base. can handle uncertainties to some extent. Disadvantages.I 26 . Representation. conflict set . Disadvantages. Advantages.’ BenchCapon. Framework for storing knowledge and manipulating knowledge OR ‘Set of syntactic and semantic conventions that makes it possible to describe things. Knowledge representation. True rational belief(philosophy). Structure+ operations.deciding on rules to apply. uses small primitives for descriptions whose numbers can be many. OR map + operations. where function is any object or relationship. Cannot handle uncertainty. 1990.source of rules. Format: IF <premises> THEN <conclusion>. Discuss examples. based on proven theory. OR game layout and rules of play. data and relationships (Computational view). Advantages. it is expressive.assertions describing things. Components cannot be individually examined.KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION Definition Knowledge. Can reason about the an extension of propositional calculus. explanations are possible. Disadvantages: cannot cope with complex associated knowledge. It has well defined rules for manipulation. give directives or strategy. Discuss examples. ONESMUS W. Rules These are formalization of used to specify recommendations. OR abstract data types.

Discuss examples: body parts. 2. searching may lead to combinatorial explosion. The nodes are objects or events. the arcs are the relationships or moves. cannot express standard logical connectives. Advantages: can cope with missing values.I 27 . Advantages. 3. Describe blind search. Define terms related to knowledge representation. 5. especially inheritance. Describe the knowledge representation formalisms giving their advantages and disadvantages. Structure: Node and collection of attributes(slots). Cannot handle quantifiers. sentences. Frames These are knowledge representation formalisms in which stereotyped information on objects are represented.close matches are presented. What is a problem? 4. Describe guided search. Easy to translate to predicate calculus. Disadvantages. nodes may have confusing roles or meanings.Semantic networks Semantic networks are graphical representation of entities and their relationships. Discuss examples. can represent only binary or unary predicates. Exercises 1. ONESMUS W. 6. Features: capture object attributes and their values. search done by matching. Discuss the search process. Disadvantages: has been hard to implement.

documents. The experts are consulted on acceptability of results. mass media materials. ONESMUS W. Formalization The knowledge is extracted from the sources. users. THE KNOWLEDGE AQUISITION PROCESS Identification This is a stage in the problem is identified. books. METHODS OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION Face to face interview with experts – the experts are interviewed by knowledge engineers. The participants are identified (experts.I 28 . articles. Usually the experts think aloud. Conceptualization The best method of representing knowledge is identified and selected. sensors or computer files and converting it into a form that can be stored and manipulated by the computer for purposes of problem solving. The situation is studied. Implementation The program is written or a prototype is developed. Testing Test cases are used. The resources are identified or provided. procedures. rules) from human experts. Software and hardware issues are resolved. magazines. Questionnaires – these are questions that are sent to experts for responses. its characteristics are examined and it is broken down into smaller sub-problems. journals. Observation – the experts are observed at work. Protocol analysis – this is a documentation of how the expert behaves and processes information during problem solving. Analysis of documented knowledge – this is extraction of knowledge from such sources as books.KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION Definition Knowledge acquisition is the process of extracting knowledge (facts. knowledge engineers).

).Rule induction (computer aided knowledge acquisition) – rule induction can be viewed as a system that accepts examples and develops classification rules. Discuss ways of acquiring knowledge. etc. 3. Describe the steps in knowledge acquisition. EXERCISES 1. • Experts may not express their knowledge). Examples Rule Induction New cases Rule Induction classification Training Usage Issues with knowledge acquisition • Machine representation is lower in form than human usage of knowledge. System designers.I 29 . Dom. Explain how you may acquire knowledge to build a system. Discuss problems associated with knowledge acquisition. 5. Users. • Many participants are involved and they have varied backgrounds causing communication challenges(Keng. Expert. • Mismatch between the way experts hold their knowledge and the way computers represent knowledge. ONESMUS W. 4. What is knowledge acquisition? 2..

E: Carry umbrella. then it is linked with other similar situations that are then used to build a solution. find someone with a fixed bone and get a (problem. The facts and rules are scanned and rules fire as they meet available evidence. Rule-based inference controls Forward chaining – this is an inference mechanism which begins with evidence(facts). Fuzzy phenomena include: rain. Some inference strategies in Artificial Intelligence Applications Reasoning by analogy. predicate calculus. induction and deduction. height. D: Walk to work.I 30 .sets whose membership is probalistic. Special case: case-based reasoning. facts. ONESMUS W.this is an inference mechanism which begins with the goal (conclusion) and sets out to look for evidence to establish or disprove the goal. Procedural reasoning: use formulae and algorithms to solve problems. B: It is sunny. heap of sand. solution data bank) and use it to match new problems and adapt solutions. Formal reasoning: use rules. Backward chaining. Meta-level reasoning: use knowledge about what is known to solve problems. Example A: It is raining. beauty. Generalization and abstraction: use sets. It may also be seen as reaching a decision through reasoning. Fuzzy logic: this is less precise and less logical method of reasoning. size. Example: Bone fracture. mathematical logic. harvest.INFERENCE Definition Inference is the process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence. Fuzzy sets.the proponents claim that this is a natural way humans handle problems. The problematic situation is examined. F: Jump in a matatu. then sets out to draw a conclusion. C: It is cold.

R1: If A ∨C then E. Describe forward and backward chaining inference controls. Is inference problem solving? 3. Advice a pupil on what to do on a raining day. 5. ii. Advice a pupil on what to do on a cold raining day. What is inference? 2. What does an inference engine do? ONESMUS W. EXERCISES 1.I 31 . R2: If B then D. What are AI inference strategies? 4. C Problem Use backward and forward chaining inference mechanisms to: i. R3: If A ∧ then F.

Rugby player ONESMUS W. A classifier is a system that takes inputs then places it into a category. Classifier. Feature. Pattern recognition system is a device that extracts features of an object then classifies the object. Definitions Pattern recognition. We do so by classifying the character object. Feature space. Sometimes templates or stereotypes may be used to classify. In this section we will examine how the process of classification can be mechanized by examining the techniques used for pattern recognition. weight Height Weight Legend: .I 32 .Ballet dancer . A feature space is an n-dimensional space created by the n-elements in the feature space. A feature is any measurement on input pattern so that it may be categorized. Try to explain how A and H differ. Usually only useful features are categorized. Example: Rugby players and Ballet dancers Feature space.PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION Everyday life consists of many occasions when we handle familiar occurrences at times unawares. For instance when reading we quickly recognize the letters.height. A feature vector is an measurement of features that make up the input pattern in which each feature is unique. FEATURE VECTORS AND FEATURE SPACE Feature vector.

numeric methods are classification techniques that that depend on symbolic processing such as those dealing with fuzzy sets. The non. They are used in many pattern recognition techniques.Rugby player Decision boundary is a discriminating function that in above case is a straight line. that is used to separate classes is an example of linear classifiers.DISCRIMINATION FUNCTION Discrimination function is a function that maps input features into a classification space. CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES There are two broad classes of classification techniques. Such a line. Decision boundary Height Weight Legend: . These are numeric and non-numeric methods.I 33 . ONESMUS W. The numeric methods are classification techniques that use measurements of geometric patterns. Our scope of treatment will only cover numeric-methods of classification include deterministic and statistical techniques discussed below.Ballet dancer . They can be deterministic or statistical.

k-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR CLASSIFICATION The nearest neighbour classification is one in which a new pattern is placed in the class to which it is closest. Height d1 X d2

Class A

Class B Weight

Legend: - Ballet dancer d1 is the shortest distance to class A d2 is the shortest distance to class B X is the unclassified pattern

- Rugby player

Consider the a discriminant function f(X), where f(X) = closest(Class A) – closest (Class B). If f(X) is positive then place in class B. If f(X) is negative then place in class A. In practice, all (k) members are taken into account. In this case we have k-nearest neighbour, where k is the number of samples. A general problem is to find a reliable measure of distance from one class of samples. There are several k-nearest neighbour methods that are discussed below. Hamming distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the hamming distance between then denoted by H is given by: n H = ∑ |xi-yi| 1 The hamming distance is commonly used to compare binary vectors where it gives the number of different bits. Note that |xi-yi| = xI XOR yI .

Euclidean distance This is an accurate distance metric based on Pythagoras’s theorem. It is defined as given below.

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Euclidean distance between then denoted by d(X,Y)euc is given by: n d(X,Y)euc = X

√(∑ (x -y ) )
i I 2


Euclidean distance Y

A special occurs when the input vectors are binary. In this case the Euclidean distance is the square root of the Hamming distance. The amount of computations are reduced by approximating Euclidean distance using the following methods that are faster but less accurate. City-block distance X City-block distance Y

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Cityblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)cb is given by: n d(X,Y)cb = ∑ |xi-yI| 1 No square roots are taken. Square distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Squreblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)sq is given by: d(X,Y)sq = max{ |xi-yI|}, where the maximum value of the differences( or the longest side) is taken.




Linear classifiers occur many times. They depend on linear functions or straight line boundaries that are used as decision boundaries. Sometimes a weight vector may be used to adjust the decision boundary so that classification is correctly performed. This is depicted below. Height linear decision boundary

Class A Weight vector Legend: - Ballet dancer

Class B Weight - Rugby player

n f(X) = ∑ wixIwhere X is the boundary, w is the weight. 1 For two classes A and B, one classification rule would be f(X) > 0 ⇒ place in Class A, and f(X) < 0 ⇒ place in Class B. Usually the challenge is to find w so that classification is correct, especially in nearest –neigbour methods. Linear separable problems These are problems for which it is possible to find a single linear decision boundary(line or plane). Several classes may be handled systematically such as: ABCD could be handled as A or BCD, B or CD, then C or D. Sometimes it may be hard to get class boundaries, in such a case the samples may be split as below: class 1 class 3 class 4 Usually the nature of the problem determines which technique to use. STATISICAL CLASSIFICATION METHODS These are methods that use statistical techniques to classify. They are based on conditional probability that is generalized in Baye’s theorem.

class 2

…. X. G 1 Gn Let P(G) be the probability of a pattern X belonging to group Gi.I 37 .. i ≠ j. Baye’s classifier X belongs to class Gi if P(Gi|X) > P(Gj|X) . Statistical classification problem Given a set of measurements. Baye’s rule: P(Gi|X) = P(X| Gi) P(Gi) ∑P(X|Gj) P(Gj) j P(Gi) is easy to get as this depends on the number of groups and assuming independence. Usually models are assumed on the patterns of data distribution such as the normal distribution. 3.. G2 …. P(Gi|X). 2. The conditional probability of event X given event Y has occurred is written as P(X|Y). EXERCISES 1. for all i=1.Let G1. It is a theorem that Bayesian classifiers reduce to linear classifiers. G3. G2. n. …. P(X| Gi) is obtained from the distribution being used such as the normal distribution or some other probability distribution function. . what is the probability that it belongs to calss Gi. Gn be possible classes or groups. Bayesian classifiers can be optimized to perform very well. in other words what is the probability. What is pattern recognition? ONESMUS W.

8.I 38 .2. 4. Discuss an example showing how Baye’s theorem may be used in a classification a problem. What is statistical classification? 7. ONESMUS W. Describe the nearest-neighbour classification technique. Explain the meanings of the terms feature vector and feature space. What is discrimination function? 5. 6. Discuss Bayesian classification technique. What is classification? 3.

educators. etc. The knowledge could include:  Theories about the problem area. static or dynamic. Restructure knowledge. open.EXPERT SYSTEMS Towards a definition Expert systems are computer systems that are best appreciated first by examining what the terms mean. Human experts have extensive task specific knowledge acquired from training. The programs will take and solve problems in restricted problem domains or areas of expertise. The first term to consider is the term system. Recognize their limitations but still offer workable solutions(degrade gracefully).  Facts about the problem area. Provide the solution to the problem fast. Learn from experience.  Rules and procedures regarding general problem area. The term system is used here in the sense of computer system or computer programs in particular. and existence of boundaries.  Global strategies for solving typical problems. politicians. In addition. closed. programmers. practice and experience. A system is an environmental entity that is considered to have the characteristics that include: existence of a purpose or goal. Explain the solution to a problem.  Meta-knowledge(knowledge about knowledge). engineers. We meet human experts as experienced doctors. The word expert is derived from human experts. reading. a system may be adaptive. Tell the relevance of situations or issues. Expertise is a property of human beings describing their abilities to cope with difficult problem solving situations. Human experts usually solve problems in specified areas of expertise with appreciable level of competence. Experts take a long time to develop and when they solve problems they may do so in one or more of the following ways:         Recognize and formulate the problem. analysts. psychiatrics. Expert system is therefore a set of computer programs that mimic the human expert. administrators. composition by several inter-related components that contribute individually to the its goal. ONESMUS W. Expert systems must therefore have knowledge similar to the ones held by human experts and use it to solve problems of the type solved by human beings.I 39 . craftsmen.  Rules (heuristics) on what to do in a given problem case. Break rules.

enforces consistency checks Expert Knowledge Blackboard (Workspace) Plan Solution Agenda Problem description Knowledge refinement Adapted from Turban & Ronson [P.schedules.I 40 .draws conclusion . . 447] ONESMUS W.interprets.STRUCTURE OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE BASE Facts: what is known about the problem domain area Rules:logical reference such as between symptoms and causes User User interface Knowledge Engineer Recommended action Explanation facility Documented knowledge INFERENCE ENGINE .

I 41 .  Schedule that maintains control over the agenda. The knowledge acquisition subsystem assists in the accumulation. an agenda of potential actions awaiting execution and a solutions indicating candidate hypotheses and alternate courses of action. It uses priorities and other criteria to estimate the effect of applying rules on the agenda. ONESMUS W. Knowledge can be acquired from human experts. It may explain:  Why some questions are asked by the expert system. Blackboard (workspace) is the area in working memory where current problems are described.  How some conclusions are reached. transfer and transformation of problem solving expertise from experts or documented knowledge sources to a computer program.  Why some alternatives are rejected. propositions and predicates. Explanation subsystem (justifier) is the part that traces responsibility for conclusions to their sources. semantic networks. multimedia documents.The development environment is used by the experts to build the components and enter the knowledge into the expert system. frames. special research reports and the internet. textbooks. User interface the part that enables the users or builders to submit their items to the expert system and also the expert system to respond to the users or builders. The consultation environment is used by the non-experts to obtain expert help or knowledge from the expert system. The knowledge base contains the knowledge needed for understanding.  Consistency enforcer maintains a consistent representation of the emerging solution. It provides a methodology and implementation of the reasoning mechanism that uses the knowledge held in the knowledge base and the blackboard to formulate conclusions. databases. It gives a means of using the knowledge by developing the agenda that organizes and controls the steps taken to solve problems during consultation. The blackboard may contain a plan of how the problem should be solved. It is sometimes called control structure or rule interpreter. The parts of the inference engine consists of:  Interpreter (rule interpreter in many system) that executes selected agenda items by applying relevant rules from the knowledge base. they may also be kept. Structures used to store knowledge are called knowledge representation formalisms and they include rules. formulating and solving problems. Heuristics are rules that are used to solve some typical problems. Knowledge will include facts in the problem area and the theory of the problem area. data is entered and intermediate results are kept. Inference engine is the brain of the expert system.

PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERT SYSTEMS The Expert is the person who has a special knowledge. debug. so that it may be put into the computer for use in expert an system. flag exceptions Prescribe remedies to malfunctions Execute plans to administer prescribed remedy Diagnose. In this case the expert system gives a second opinion. repair and monitor system behaviour BENEFITS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS Increased productivity and output since expert systems work faster than humans. The User is someone who is involved with an expert system as a non-expert and the expert system is an consultant providing advice or solutions to problems. The user may also be a partner.  The remaining facts to establish before the final conclusion. The user may be an expert systems builder who adds knowledge to the knowledge base of the expert system which acts as a partner. The Knowledge engineer is the is the one who extracts and structures knowledge from sources such as the human experts. These areas are given below. Knowledge refining system is the part that enables the analysis and use of knowledge so that leaning may take place and improvements may be made. Category Interpretation Prediction Diagnosis Design Planning Monitoring Debugging Repair Instruction Control Problem area addressed Infer situation descriptions from observations Infer consequences of given situations Infer malfunctions from observations Configure objects under constraints Develop plans to achieve goals Compare observations and plans. who is someone who uses the expert system as an assistant or colleague. and correct student performance Interpret. judgement. The plan used to reach the solution. Several application systems have been demonstrated in these areas. experience or methods used to solve problems or advise on a given class of problems. Many times he may be the expert systems builder also. predict. The user may also be student who wants to learn from the expert system which acts as an instructor.I 42 . CLASSIC PROBLEM AREAS ADDRESSED BY EXPERT SYTEMS Expert systems have been used in several typical problem areas. ONESMUS W.

Reduced down time as expert systems (ES) where ES are used for diagnosis of malfunctions and prescribing repairs. Operation in harzadous environments where ES is used where humans are not safe such as in nuclear power plants. Integration of several experts’ opinions where ES are built by consulting several experts. toxic environments.Decreased decision-making time as expert systems can make decisions faster. Easier equipment operation where ES is used to operate a complex equipment.I 43 . Increased process and product quality as errors can be significantly reduced. Accessibility to knowledge and help desks where ES is used to supply information and scarce knowledge or support help desks. ONESMUS W. Elimination of the need for expensive equipment where ES is used to perform monitoring and control tasks with low-cost equipment. Provide training where ES is used by novices because of its contents in the knowledge base. Capture of scarce resource as ES can store the expertise held by humans who may be taking long to train. such as a product out of production. Flexibility as ES can sense changing needs and advice accordingly. Enhanced problem solving and decision making where ES integrates analysis and judgement of top experts. Ability to work with incomplete or uncertain information where ES may use existing knowledge to solve a problem even though some other facts may still be missing or uncertain. Increased capability of other computerized system where ES integrate with other systems to make applications work faster or produce higher quality results.

Ability to solve complex problems as ES can hold a massive amount of knowledge and thus being able to handle complex problems. Enhancement of other CBIS as ES adds the necessary intelligence capabilities needed in other CBIS. Knowledge transfer to remote locations as ES can hold specialist knowledge that may be used in remote locations such as eye disease diagnosis and treatment system demonstrated in Algeria and Egypt by World Health Organization.I 44 .  Cognitive limitations of users. tired or hold attitudes. LIMITATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS The following problems are associated with expert systems:  Knowledge is not always readily available.Improved decision-making processes where ES provide rapid feedback on consequences.  Human experts cannot abstract when under pressure. Improved decision quality as ES is reliable and does not become bored.  End-users may not trust expert system. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS Implementation of expert systems may succeed because of the following factors: ONESMUS W.  Difficulty in extracting expertise from humans.  Subjectivity and biases in knowledge transfer.  Knowledge engineers are few and expensive.  Only work well in a narrow domain.  Experts may not always validate their conclusions.  Variations in problem assessment by different experts.  Experts may not always use understood vocabulary.

Evaluate the diagram. The problems must be difficult enough to warrant the use of ES. There should be competent knowledge-based system developers. pp. Calculate optimal action according to the available evidence. Where some initial evidence exist in each case it should be entered. Assign conditional probabilities. Assign probabilities. Utilities refer to values that indicate importance of actions. Obtain new evidence. There must be at least one cooperative expert. The ES should positively impact on end-users. Decide on the new evidence to acquire through appropriate acquisition methods. Functions can be used for these. There must be a high level of knowledge. Identify the aspects that determine the utility of outcomes.          Management support and user involvement. Find out the actions. Draw a diagram indicating relevant factors and which ones influence the others. ONESMUS W. 439-463 ] A METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DECISION SUPPORT Determine the problem scope. The problem must be sufficiently narrow in scope. Enter available evidence. Assign utilities. The should be a friendly user interface for novice users. Draw a conceptual diagram. Materials above are adapted from [3.I 45 . outcomes and evidence to consider. The problem must be qualitative (fuzzy). There should be a good ES shell (store & manipulate knowledge naturally).

Where small changes lead to different decisions then more data should be collected.I 46 . 5. Check if the best decision depends on small changes assigned to probabilities and utilities. Do so by varying the parameters and running the evaluation again. ONESMUS W. Describe the qualities and qualifications of a human expert.Perform sensitivity analysis. 4. Describe the structure of a human expert. 2. Describe the people involved with expert systems. 3. Discuss expertise. Discuss the definition of expert systems. EXERCISES 1. 6. Discuss the advantages and limitations of expert systems.

A is a set of output objects (actions). several meanings to the term agent have been proposed as will be discussed below. software entity which functions continuously and autonomously in a particular environment.I. Definition of intelligent agent Working definition of "agent" An agent is a reusable software component that provides controlled access to (shared) services and resources. sophisticated entity acting rationally and intentionally. Definition 4 "Intelligent agents continuously perform three functions: perception of dynamic conditions in the environment. Example: a desktop agent "recruits" the services of a screen and a connection agent to physically connect a call.A. However. 1995] ONESMUS W. and determine" [Hayes. I is a set of internal states.INTELLIGENT AGENTS (IA) Intelligent agents must have been coined from the term agent. and reasoning to interpret perceptions. Agents are the basic building blocks for applications. agents can be seen as programs that help the users with routine tasks. Other definitions of intelligent agent Definition 1 ".. Example: a printer agent that provides printing services schedules requests to a shared printer.P. either isolated or in cooperation with other agents. In conventional interpretation agents are associated with personal representatives that interact with others to accomplish a task.out> where P is a set of input objects (percepts). action to affect conditions in the environment. and do is a function from A X W into W [Russel & Novig]." [Dictionary for AI terminology] Definition 2 ". often inhabited by other agents and processes. We define the agent's environment to be a tuple <A. P is the set of inputs to the agent. W is a set of states. in is a function from P X I into I (the agent's input function). draw inferences. see is a function from W to P.see." Definition 3 An agent is a tuple <P. In computational sense. solve problems.I 47> where A is the set of outputs from the agent.. and applications are organized as networks of collaborating agents.

Creation and duration. from fixed rules to learning engines that allow them to adapt to changes in the environment. • Agents may also cooperate with other agents to carry out more complex tasks than they themselves can handle. the system. This is the owner’s account that may be used for billing or pointer to the account. This is the request or response time expected. • Agents don't only act reactively. that is they communicate with the user. Components of agents The following may be specified for a typical agent: Owner.I 48 . parent name or master agent name. and other agents as required. This is supporting information. it may consist of rule-based expert system or neural network. ONESMUS W. This is the engine that runs the agent’s intelligence. • Agents contain some level of intelligence. These are attributes of the goal. that is they act on behalf of the user. Goal. but sometimes also proactively(initiate actions). • Agents may move from one system to another to access remote resources or even to meet other agents. Intelligent system. Background. This is the user name. Subject description. Account. This is the statement of successful task. • Agents have social ability. Author.Agent and conventional programs Common properties that make agents different from conventional programs: • Agents are autonomous. This is the person or the process that created the agent.

Reactivity. or as they handle high level requests and seek more clarifications if necessary. they can interact with humans. Agents work on a single task. Massive bank of information over the years. The managers have so much information and they need some kind of help to cope. Service support is necessary in many areas including network security. Learning. usually out of sight. Agents have a personality. Agents work on special repetitive tasks. The need for agents The following issues underline the need for agents: Information overload. Proactiveness. electronic commerce or employee support. Mobility. this goes beyond rule-based systems. Personality. Agents act or decide on their own.I 49 . Service support. Agents work in the background. perhaps somewhere in the cyberspace. Agents may be rule-based systems thereby showing flexibility. Temporal continuity. Communication. Agents can take initiatives such as inhibiting behavior instead of just acting in response to environmental inputs. Autonomy. A lot of information has been accumulated over the years and there is need to analyze it and discover any other knowledge held. Sometimes they may do this to circumvent obstacles. Internet. Agents interact with other agents or humans. Agents can learn. Support conditional processing. The Internet requires search tools. ONESMUS W. Agents can perceive the environment and then respond. Background operation.Characteristics of intelligent agents Intelligent agents have several characteristics that are discussed below. Automation of repetitive tasks. Agents can move across different architectures. Agents are continuously running processes. Singularity of task.

service customization. diagnose problems. learning and cooperation. 4. TYPES OF AGENTS Nwana's classification of Agents 1. Overcome user interface problems. Reasoning model: deliberative or reactive. 2. Hybrid: combination of the above. enable resource sharing and selection. Agents act as personal assistants adapting to the users. monitor interacting features where systems are combined.I 50 . management. Classifying agents from application point of view Autonomous agents Biological agents Robotic agents Computational agents Software agents Artificial life agents Task specific agents Entertainment agents Viruses ONESMUS W. Handle information service management problem.Simplification of distributed computing. 3. Role: information. Ideal attributes: autonomy. Mobility: static or mobile. bill electronic users and provide security(firewalls). 5. enable using varied terminals. Agents can provide services. Agents can act as intelligent resource managers.

These are agents that help users surf the Internet. store.Classifying agents from organizational and personal view Organizational agents. These are agents that are initiated by users to get relevant Internet pages such as Yahoo. Agents can collaborate or negotiate. Classifying agents from characteristics point of view Nature of agency. Level 2 agents. Mobility. Electronic commerce support agents that help users engage in electronic business. Alta Vista. Classifying agents by intelligence level and power Level 0 agents. Information support and management agents that help users retrieve. Collaborative agents that work with other agents or people. ONESMUS W. These are agents that follow orders to retrieve documents such as Netscape Navigator. Level 3 agents. Agents have varying degrees of reasoning and learning. search or interpret information. Intelligence. These are agents that monitor information and notify of relevant information such as WebWatcher. These are agents that work on behalf of businesses or computer applications. Inforseek.I 51 . Agents have degrees of mobility across platforms. These are agents that learn and examine user profiles. They work for the users that create them. Personal agents. Desktop application support agents that help users of the desktop PCs. Level 1 agents. Classifying agents by application area There are various types of agents under this category including: Workflow and administrative agents that assist in organizing work schedules or tasks.

diagnose problems. OTHER AGENTS User interface agents. Some agents in this category help users locate what they are looking for. conduct security or manage Internet resources such as WatchGuard. Web browsing agents are those that guide the user browsing the Web. Lycos. Data-mining agents.mail agents are those agents that help e-mail users. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AGENTS These are agents that perform tasks related commerce and examples include: Bargain Finder. printer additions. file & folder management. network-client administration such as licensing and equipment installation.graphical. User interface creation agents are the agents that help users create interfaces or present them with useable interfaces. Spreadsheet agents. E. INTERNET BASED SOFTWARE AGENTS There are various agents associated with the internet that are discussed below. Network control and management agents that help users in controlling and managing the network. Internet management and monitoring is a group of agents that monitor. group management. Software development agents. Operating system agents are those agents that help users of various operating systems get services. add user accounts. Web Crawler. Detect & alert agents. Internet Softbot is an agent associated with finding out user needs. Operating system agents – wizards. Intelligent search agents are those agents that help users traverse that net to get detailed results such as Inforseek. add/remove progrmas. natural language parsing. Collaboration agents.I 52 . Excite. ONESMUS W.Mail message support agents that help users dealing with electronic mails. Good Stuff Cheap(GSC). Frequently Asked Questions Agents are those agents that answer routing similar questions.

IEEE Expert 1996. ONESMUS W. Sycara. In DAI the task is subdivided and each subtask is solved or get handled by an agent. EXAMPLE OF COLLABORATIVE AGENT ORGANIZATION USER 1 USER 2 USER 3 Goals and Results Task specs Interface agent 1 Interface agent 2 Interface agent 3 Task Conflict resolution Task agent 1 Task Proposed solution Task agent j Information integration Information request reply collaborative query processing Information agent 1 Information agent 2 Information agent 3 Query Answer Information Source 1 Information Source 2 Information Source 3 Information Source 4 Source: K.DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL AGENTS (DAI) These are agents that provide intelligent part of the distributed problem. MULTIPLE AGENT SYSTEMS These are systems that provide environments in which there are several agents possibly with different goals each of which probably negotiating their own ways to achieve their ends such as in electronic commerce.I 53 . Distributed Intelligent Agents.

rules) Action = determine-action(rule) Return Ation Reflex agent with internal state environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves what actions to do agent Condition action rules action to take Effectors ONESMUS W. environment Sensors (what the world is like now) agent Condition action rules Effectors(action to take) Algorithm Function simple-agent(percept) returns action Static: rules. a set of condition-action rules State = interpret-input(percept) Rule = match-rules(state.I 54 .Simple Reflex agent architecture These agents find rules that match the current conditions and take action.

Algorithm Function internal-agent(percept) returns action Static: state. percept) Rule = match-rules(state. description of current world state rules. ONESMUS W. rules) Action = determine-action(Rule) State = update-state(state. action) Return Ation goal agent environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves action type agent what actions to do action to take goals Effectors Algorithm is an exercise. a set of condition-action rules State = update-state(state.I 55 .

I 56 . Discuss the components of an agent.EXERCISES 1. ONESMUS W. 3. Discuss the classification of agents. 2. 5. What is an intelligent agent? What is a distributed intelligent agent? What is a multi-agent system? Discuss why agents are necessary. 6. 4.

Tele-presence and virtual reality. Mobile robots can be used to distribute mails. or be used as moving vehicles such as underwater vehicles. Nature of real world Inaccessibility. Non-derterminism. Effects of actions vary continuously. lunar exploration. All configurations and motions that are possible cannot be enumerated. or specific devices through variable programmable motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. Augment human abilities. Autonomous robots are those robots that make decisions on their own. deep sea exploration. An alternative definition presents a robot as an active artificial agent whose environment is the physical world. Robots can be used to monitor things going on in distant places or simulate reality through computer controls (virtual reality). Robots can be used to duplicate lost limbs. ONESMUS W. Uncertainties exist. Non episodic. Sensors can only perceive close stimuli. nuclear plant maintenance.ROBOTICS Definition A robot is a programmable multifunction manipulator designed to move material parts. Robots can be used for repetitive manufacturing tasks. Continuous. Robots can be used in dangerous situations such as nuclear disaster zones. Suitable uses of robots Manufacturing and handling materials. Moving items.I 57 . toxic waste clean up. tools. they may also be used as blind guides. Hazardous environments. guided by feedback from physical sensors.

Locomotion involves the change of position of a robot within its environment using effectors. This is where the robot can walk and stay stable as long as it hopping. These parts are discussed below. Manipulators can allow rotary motion where rotation is around a hub. There are different types of motion that are possible that include:Statically stable walker. Effectors.COMPONENTS OF ROBOTS Robots consist of several parts. Holonomic robots. These are tools for action usually by which the robot affects the environment under its control. Manipulators can allow prismatic motion in which the motion is only linear such as piston movements. This involves walking where the robot can pause and not lose balance. LOCOMOTION IN ROBOTS Legs may be used in motion but it is not easy to construct legs to be used by robots. These are robots that cannot exhaust total degrees of freedom of movement available. SENSORS IN ROBOTS Sensors are tools for perception. Dynamically stable hopper. if it suddenly stops then it loses its balance. For example: the car can only move in two dimensions while there are three possible dimensions. These are robots the exhaust all possible degrees of freedom in movement. Manipulation. This is a part of an effector that converts software commands to physical motion such as motors. Actuator. They will determine the degree of freedom. MANIPULATION BY ROBOTS Manipulators are effectors that move objects in the environment. hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders. Manipulation involves moving other objects in the environment using effectors. For example the plane can move in all the three dimensions. Non holonomic robots.I 58 . There are different types of sensing that are discussed below. Locomotion. ONESMUS W.

Structured light sensors are those sensors that project light. Describe the nature of the real world. This involves telling where the joints are. What is a robot? 2. 5. This involves using sound for navigation and range finding usually necessary in detecting objects. manipulation. This involves touch sensing where elastic materials may be used to measure distortion. Why are robots important? 3. Laser range finders are depth finders. and vision in robots. Discuss locomotion. Tactile sensing. 6. Cross-beam sensor and parallel beam sensor determine object identity. 4. EXERCISES 1. Camera data is mainly used for vision. Force sensing. Sonar sensing. Describe the components of a robot. Discuss the uses of robots.Propriperception. ONESMUS W. This invoves sensing and controlling position of joints. Camera data. sensing.I 59 .

and when the agent assesses its own decision-making processes. Model of a learning agent Environment Sensors CRITIC Feedback changes LEARNING ELEMENT Learning goals knowledge future adjustments PROBLEM GENERATOR Effectors PERFORMANCE ELEMENT Adapted from Russel & Novig P. Learning element Learning element is the part of the agent that is responsible for making improvements. Learning will be considered with agents in mind.MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS In this section we will examine machine learning and its related terms.I 60 . Knowledge about learning element and some feedback on how the agent is doing are used to determine how the performance element should be modified to do better in future. Problem generator This is the part of the agent that suggests actions that may lead to new informative experiences. This measure should possibly be conceptually outside the agent. Performance element Performance element is the part of an agent that selects external actions. machine learning had limited successes but useful demonstrations. Terminology in machine learning Learning Learning is the process by which an agent uses percepts to improve its ability to act in future. Much of the work is still under research studies. As a process it takes place as the agent interacts with the world. A fixed standard of performance may be used. Exploratory actions are suggested. Critic This is the part of the learning agent that tells the element how well the agent is doing.526 ONESMUS W. Unlike other AI systems.

that have seen intensive research in recent times that include data mining. Example Example is the pair (x. Unsupervised learning Unsupervised learning is a type of learning in which the no hint is given at all about the correct input. Sometimes a friendly teacher can supply the outputs. then an hypothesis. Where we have massive amount of data and hidden relationships. Instead of doing this. It is however not told the correctness of its action. we can use machine learning techniques to discover the relationships (data mining).I 61 . There some areas. Specifically some of these applications include: Where there are very many examples and we have no function to generate the outputs. new vocabulary arise. Introduction to Machine Learning. machine learning techniques can be used to allow the system to search for suitable functions( hypotheses). learning systems may be built. so machines can adapt instead of re-design new ones. f(x)) where x is the input and f(x) is the output of the function applied to x. Hypothesis Suppose (x. planning and problem solving. If machines learn then their ability to solve problems will be enhanced considerably. In research learning has found applications that are related to knowledge acquisition. Where too much knowledge is available such that it is impossible for man to cope with it. that are side effects of research in Machine learning. is an approximation of the function f. f(x)) is an example. Nilsson(1996). if machines can learn then they can improve their performance. Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning is a type of learning situation in which the agent does not know the outcomes but is given some form of feedback on evaluating its action. new world events stream in and therefore new AI systems should be re-designed. Sometimes machines cannot be built to do what is required due to some limitations. then machines can be used to learn as much as possible. Internet) TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W. J.Supervised learning Supervised learning is the learning situation in which both the inputs and outputs can be perceived. APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING The main aim of machine learning is to make computer systems that can learn. New knowledge is being discovered by humans. (These reasons come from: Nils. Environments change over time. h.

Where there is preference to hypothesis to a given example beyond consistency. examples. feedback action Examples Examples ∪ {(percept. If the agent instead of applying a new hypothesis adjusts the old hypothesis. ONESMUS W. that is used for selecting the action. Global examples {} Function reflex-performance-element(percept) returns an action If (percept. and neural networks. we say there is a bias. Consider an agent that has a reflex learning element that updates global variable. feedback percept Action. given the example (x. The possible curves that can be joined suggest various functions (hypotheses. that approximates the function. action) Inputs: percept. action). action)} We consider two inductive learning methods namely decision trees and version spaces. h. Consider a plot of points. h. otherwise it must formulate a hypothesis. f. If the percept is there then it applies the action. then we say incremental learning occurs. observations. h) that can approximate the original function.I 62 . examples. a) in examples then return a Else H induce(examples) i.e find a hypotheis based on examples Return H(percept) Procedure reflext-learning-element (percept. f(x)). When it is confronted with a percept and it is looking for an action it first checks the list. The skeleton algorithms for a reflex learning agent are given below.Machine learning depends on several methods that include induction. Induction Pure inductive inference problem seeks to find a hypothesis. and that it holds a list of pairs of (percept.

not important.Full) ∧WaitEstimate(X. [Russel & Novig. Raining: if it is raining outside. Patrons: number of people present. pp. An example is given below: Patrons? None No some Yes full WaitEstimate <60 No 30-40 Alternate ? 10-30 Hungry? 0-10 Yes no Reservation? yes Fri/Sat? no Yes yes Alternate? no Bar? yes Yes Yes no No yes Yes Yes no yes Raining? No Yes No A decision tree for deciding on where to wait for a table No No Yes Yes Attributes for the above decision tree are: Alternate: availability of a suitable alternative. 0-10) ∧Hungry(X. 531-535] ONESMUS W. Type: nature of restaurant.Decision trees In decision tree. Each node consists of a test to the value of one of the properties and the branches from the nodes are labeled with possible values of test result. The logical version is given by: ∀ X Patrons(X. Bar: presence of a comfortable bar area to wait in. Fri/Sat: true on Fridays and Saturday. Hungry: whether one is hungry. Reservation: whether reservation has been made. Price: price range-not important. WaitEstimate: the estimated time to wait.I 63 . No) ⇒ WillWait(X). the inputs are objects or situations described by a set of properties while outputs are either yes or no decisions. Each leaf specifies the Boolean value if that leaf is reached.

In this case.Inducing decision trees from examples Decision trees may also be obtained from examples.000 Kamoro 70. set of attributes Default. Applicant Annual income Okello 50.000 Wanjiru 30. 537) Function Decision-tree-learning (examples. majority-value(examples)) add a branch to tree with label vi and subtree subtree.000 Mulei 40.000 No Yes Yes No Logically: ∀ A has_assets(A) ∨annual_income(A. A decision tree learning algorithm (Russel & Novig. Trivially. just take the attributes and enumerate its possible options.000 Turban &Aronson. End Return Tree. a table is used and the goal conditions for yes are collected together. A typical example here is ID3 algorithm. attributes. p.I 64 . set of examples Attributes. default value for the goal predicate If examples is empty then return default Else if all examples have the same classification then return the classification Else if attributes is empty then return majority-value(examples) Else Best choose-attribute(attributes. ONESMUS W. examples) Tree a new decision tree with root Best For each value vi of Best do Examplesi {elements of examples with best = vi} Subtree decision-tree-learning(examplesi.000 Assets available ? Age 30 35 33 42 Dependants 3 1 2 0 Decision Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Annual Income >40. attributes – Best.000 None None 250. The table is processed attribute by attribute and selecting the attribute that minimizes noise or maximizes information. >40.000) ⇒ Approve_loan_for(A). default) returns a decision tree Inputs: examples.507 Assets 100.

The attributes included relative proportions of gas. ∨. This technique depends on Hypotheses which are candidate functions that may be used to estimate the actual functions. Current-best hypothesis search A single hypothesis is maintained and is adjusted as new examples are encountered. False negative examples. viscosity. Hn}.0-10) H3 ∨ Hungry(P) ∧ Alternative(P) H4 : Hn Consider the hypothesis space { H1. for gas-oil separation for offshore platforms that had about 2500 rules.. Versioning Versioning is another inductive technique that we will outline. H2. The learning algorithm considers that one of the hypothesis is correct. The decision tree learning methods were applied to a database of existing designs and the system was developed in less time with the performance better than human experts. The embedded flight simulator could now do better than human beings in that it made fewer mistakes. Where a hypothesis has been working well and a false negative occurs then it must be extended to include ONESMUS W. oil.Some H1 ∨ Patrons(P. These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be negative but they are actually positive. The idea is to readjust the hypotheses so that the classifications are correct without false placements. especially the disjunction of the hypotheses: H1. False positive examples. ∨ n H Each of the hypothesis predicts a set of examples and this is called the extension of the predicate. There are two approaches that are used to maintain logical consistency of hypotheses. pressure.I 65 . These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be positive but they are actually negative.Two success reports of decision tree learning BP deployed expert system GASOIL in 1986. . density.. temperature and susceptibility to waxing.Full) ∧ Hungry(P) H2 ∨ WaitEstimate(P. For instance the example above where a decision tree was used for the determining whether a patron will wait may have the following hypotheses: ∀P willwait(P) ⇔ patrons(P. and water and the flow rate. A program was written to fly the flight simulator. ∨H2. saving BP millions of dollars (Russel and Novig. by observing real flights about 30 times. P539).

the version space. ∨. An algorithm is given below that describes the process: Function current-best-learning(examples) returns hypothesis H any hypothesis consistent with the first examples For each remaining example in examples do If e is false positive for H then H choose a specialization of H consistent with examples Else if e is false negative for H then H choose a generalization of H consistent with examples If no consistent specialization/generalization can be found then fail End Return H. However. This is called specialization. Least-commitment search Another technique of finding a consistent hypothesis is to start with original disjunction of all hypotheses: H1. If this method is applied then the final set that remains is called a version space. ∨H2. then it must be minimized or cut down to exclude the example.the example.the set of all possible hypotheses V the set of all hypotheses For each example e in examples do If V is not empty then V Version-space-update(V. This is called generalization. when the hypothesis has been working and a false positive occurs.e) End Return V Function version-space-update(V. ∨ n It is original set that is reduced as some hypotheses that are not H consistent are dropped.I 66 . Version space learning algorithm is given below: Function version-space-learning (examples) returns a version space Local variables: V..e) returns an updated version space V {h ∈ V: h is consistent with e} OTHER TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W.

Describe a model of a learning agent. handwritten text recognition. ONESMUS W. hypothesis. Belief Networks Probability trees are constructed and are used decision making. critic. reinforcement learning. 6. Define the terms performance element. unsupervised learning. EXERCISES 1.). driving (AlVIN(1993)-learnt how to steer a vehicle by observing the human driver. Describe learning by versioning.I 67 .Neural networks Neural networks as was seen earlier model the human neuron. Reinforcement learning This is a learning method in which the learner tries to find out the utility function and uses it to select states that maximize the expected utility of outcomes. problem solver. Discuss applications of Machine Learning. The neural network consists of a number of nodes that are connected using links. It also has a non linear component called activation function that transforms the final input values into a final activation value. The learning occurs by adjusting the weights so that the inputs correspond to the outputs. Learning involves adjusting the conditional probabilities as examples are examined. Each link has a numeric weight that is associated with it. example. Describe the techniques used in inductive learning. A neural network unit consists of a linear input function that computes the sum of weighted inputs. Investigate other areas of machine learning. Show how decision trees are used in learning. 7. What is learning? 2. supervised learning. Q-learning occurs where the agent learns the action-value function that gives expected utility of taking a given action. 4. 5. Neural networks have been used in pronunciation in which text streams are mapped to phonemes (basic sound elements. 9. 8. What is machine learning? 3.

A formal language is a set of strings. structured system of signs used by human beings to communicate most of what they know about the world. A sentence is a string consisting of sub-strings from different categories that are allowed for example. ONESMUS W. Communication.  Querying others about various things. Understanding there requires the knowledge of syntax and semantics of a language.  Answering questions. Phrase.I 68 . S NP VP Non terminal symbols. A phrase is any sub-string of a given category. each consisting of a sequence of symbols taken from a definite set. usually called terminal symbols. Speech act. Language. Purposes of speech act include:  Informing each other about the world.  Requesting or commanding others to do things. Speech act is producing language and may involve all forms of using language including typing or sign language. such as the noun phrase (NP) or the verb phrase (VP). Sentence (S).OVERVIEW OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (Based on Russel & Novig Chapters 22 & 23) When considering natural language processing we focus on agents that can communicate. These are symbols such as S.  Sharing feelings or experiences. It also involves logical reasoning which enables forming complex phrases by combining simple ones. It may involve plan recognition which involves forming a model of agents beliefs.  Promising to do things. Communication can be taken to mean intentional exchange of information through producing and perceiving signs drawn for a shared system of conventional signs. A language is a complex. NP and VP. Understanding speech act Speech act can be understood when a set of inputs are associated with the part of the world that would be responsible for creating them.  Acknowledging requests or offers. Formal language.

who wants to convey some message. ideal case).I 69 . (Knowledge about language is used to decide what to utter) S utters the words W (usually addressing them to H). Parsing involves grouping the words into phrases that have categories. . (Is necessary because the utterances have several possible interpretations) Incorporation: H decides to believe Pi (or reject it if it is inconsistent with current beliefs) Example using the statement ‘The cat is good. say S. Pragmatic interpretation is a type of semantic interpretation where the situation is taken into account. Pi = P (may be incorrect). (Two activities are involved: syntactic interpretation.or parsing and semantic interpretation-extracting the meaning.. A parse tree may be used in parsing. P2. Pn (since words and phrases have several meanings). (In AI. A parse tree has nodes representing phrases. ONESMUS W.. phonetic alphabet may be used for string sounds) Analysis: Disambiguation: H infers that S intended to convey Pi.Components of communication The situation is such that there is a speaker. Seven processes are identified that may take place: Speaker’s role: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer’s role: Perception: H perceives W’ (required W = W’. (perceptions is speech recognition in case of speed inputs or optical character recognition in case of character inputs) H infers that W’ has possible meaning P1. links representing applications of grammar rules. using the words W. W express the meaning of P). and leaf nodes representing the words) S wants H to believe P (S is considered to believe P). (S must reason about beliefs of H and decide that H should know about P) S selects the words W (according to S. say proposition P to the hearer H.

good(cat)) Two Agents that communicate with language language Percepts language KB Actions Percepts Actions KB REASONING REASONING Agent A Agent B ONESMUS W. good(cat)) ‘The cat is good’ ‘dikatiskud’ Semantic interpretation: good(cat). cat) Disambiguation: good(cat) Incorporation: tell(KB.Speaker: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer: Perception: Analysis: The cat is good S NP Article The Noun cat Verb is VP Adjective good know(H. caught(rat.I 70 . well(cat) Pragmatic interpretation: good(cat).

and conjuctions such as and. a knowledge base. The words are usually grouped into a set of categories or parts of speech such as nouns (names to denote things). initially 0. pronouns. Other categories include articles such as the. right | left | back | noisy | good |… here | there | nearby | ahead | right | left | back | …. noun phrase(NP).t)) words SPEECH-PART(percepts) semantics DISAMBIGUATION(SEMANTICS(PARSE(words))) If TYPE[sentence] = command then action CONTENTS[semantics] Else if TYPE[semantics] = statement then TELL(KB. Example of a lexicon Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Pronoun ONESMUS W. MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept. and relative clause (RelClause) may be used. The sentence (S).CONTENTS[semantics]) action ASK(KB. preposition phrase (PP). DO(action)) OVERVIEW OF A FORMAL GRAMAMAR FOR A SUBSET OF ENGLISH Language processing is only possible if some set of symbols are used and some form of grammar constructed on them. MAKE-PERCEPT-SENTENCE(KB. This will need a few considerations that are indicated below.Algorithm Function simple-communicating-agent (percept) returns action Static: KB. indicating time TELL(KB. adjectives(modify nouns) and adverbs(modify verbs). Grammar gives rules for forming sentences. Lexicon is a list of allowable vocabulary words. T.I breeze | glitter | nothing | cat | pit | rat | meat | …. verbs (for events). verb phrase (VP). a counter. 71 . prepositions such as in.t)) Else if TYPE[semantics] = none then action ASK(KB.t)) description GENERATE-DESCRIPTION (percept) Return COMPOUND-ACTION(SAY(description).. Lexicon. is | see | feel | chase | hear | catch | hide | kill | eat | smell | go |…. me | you | I | it …. MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept.

I pit the rat 56 the rat + to the east the rat + that is good Smells feel + a breeze is + good chase + to the east go + ahead to + the east that + is good VP PP RelClause A parsing algorithm (Russel & Novig.I 72 .p666) Function BOTTOM-UP-PARSE(words. the | a | an | …. to | in | on | near | ….| 9 Example of grammar with above lexicon S NP NP VP | S conjunction S Pronoun | Noun | Article Noun | Digit Digit | NP PP | NP RelClause Verb | VP NP | VP Adjective | VP PP | VP Adverb Preposition NP that VP Sample phrase I feel a breeze I feel a breeze and I smell a rat. |Mary | Ochieng’ | Kimeo | Mutiso | Kamau | ….Name Article Preposition Conjunction Digit John. and | or | but | … 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | …. grammar) return parse tree ONESMUS W.

i+n-1] [MAKE-NODE(RULE-LHS(rule). i. Database access – use of natural language to access information from databases.I 73 . Information retrieval – retrieval of text documents. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Machine translation. EXERCISES 1. Text categorization – placing texts in various categories for example placing various news articles into relevant categories. Extracting data from a text – converting data in a text into a database format in which key values of parameters are obtained. RULE-RHS(rule)) then forest[i. This has given rise to text interpretation as an additional area of research. Define the terms communication and language. LENGTH(forest)} rule choose from RULES(grammar) n LENGTH(RULE-RHS(rule)) subsequence SUBSEQUENCE(forest.. This has been a subject of research since early 1960.translate from one natural language to another.forest words loop do If LENGTH(forest) = 1 and CATEGORY (forest[1]) = START(grammar) then return (forest) else i choose from {1. ONESMUS W. i+n-1) if MATCH (subsequence. usually containing key words in the query. subsequence)] else fail end NB forest is a list of various allowed phrases. Describe the importance of speech acts. 2..

4. What is the role of grammar in natural language processing? 9. Aronson(1998). [2] Ivan Bratko (1990). Describe the component steps of communication. Discuss aspects of machine vision. Russell. Introduction to Machine Learning. Discuss practical applications of natural language processing. Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach. [4] The INTERNET. 6. What is a lexicon? 8. [3] Wolfgang Kreutzer. Jay E. [5] Ephraim Turban. Discuss the important items to have in natural language processing. perception. 5. Nillson (1996). synthesis. Describe a model for two agents communicating in a language. ONESMUS W. Addison Wesley. Addison-Wesley. Prentice-Hall. 11. 7. Discuss the meaning of the terms: intention. Programming for Artificial Intelligence. PROLOG: Programming for artificial intelligence.Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems. Bruce McKenzie (1991). disambiguation. generation. [6] Nils J. 5th Edition.3. How can a statement in natural language be parsed? 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Stuart J. incorporation. Peter Norvig(1995).I 74 . analysis.

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