Defining Intelligence

Andy Carvin(Traditional view) Many people define intelligence, as a person’s ability to solve problems, utilize logic, and think critically. It also represents how people comprehend, examine and respond to outside stimuli. In this case intelligence can be viewed as a "singular, collective ability to act and react in an everchanging world." (Carvin) in Carvin, Andy. (1999). MI-The Theory. EdWeb: Exploring Technology and School Reform. General intelligence( • Abilities that allow us to be flexible and adaptive thinkers, not necessarily tied to acquired knowledge. • Reasoning, integration and abstraction as may be seen in solving maze or puzzle based problems. Alfred Binet (General intelligence)
Intelligence entails the operation of specific mental functions, including memory, attention, verbal fluency and creativity, that are strictly controlled by practical judgement.

Howard Gardner "The standard view of intelligence is that intelligence is something you are born with; you only have a certain amount of it; you cannot do much about how much of that intelligence you have; and tests exist that tell you how smart you are." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) in Checkley, Kathy. (1997). The first seven…and the eighth: a conversation with Howard Gardner. Educational Leadership, 55, p8-13. Multiple Intelligence Theory(- several types of intelligence-Howard Gardner) "Intelligence refers to the human ability to solve or make something that is valued in one or more cultures. As long as we can find a culture that values an ability to solve a problem or create a product in a particular way, then I would strongly consider whether that ability should be called an intelligence." (Howard Gardner in Checkley) Ability can be called an intelligence only if it meets several criteria: • Representation in the brain for the ability (Biological Basis) • Presence of populations that are especially good or especially impaired in an intelligence (i.e. exhibited in extreme forms in idiot savants, prodigies and geniuses) • Possess a clear developmental history • Used in the performance of culturally valued roles around the world (Cultural Basis) Gardner has identified eight intelligences as : Linguistic-Verbal; Logical-Mathematical; Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic; Spatial; Intrapersonal; Interpersonal; Naturalist

Together, these eight intelligences provide a theoretical foundation for recognizing the different talents and abilities that people, and especially students, possess. They are generally used concurrently, complementing one another as skills develop. In Gardner’s words: "What makes life interesting, however, is that we don’t have the same strength in each intelligence area, and we don’t have the same amalgam of intelligences. Just as we look different from one another and have different kinds of personalities, we also have different kinds of minds." This theory contradicts the traditional view of intelligence being predetermined and unalterable. MI states that we can get better at each of our intelligences, although some people will improve in some areas more readily than others. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use words and language in various forms • Ability to manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically • Sensitive to meaning, order, function, sound, rhythm of words • Adept at reading and writing • May utilize native as well as other languages • Typically excels at school • Dominant mode of teaching Potential careers: Writer, speaker, orator, lawyer, poet, politician, teacher, professor, editor, journalist,
salesperson, actor, administrator, contractor Tools for Teachers: Reading, biographies, poetry, storytelling, book sharing, humor/jokes, wordplay, riddles, creative writing, debate, journal writing, explanations, feelings, reports, lists, library research. Tips for Parents: Read with your children; Listen to their questions, concerns, and experiences; Provide books and paper for reading and writing activities; Encourage children to share with you what they have read or written; Provide opportunities to visit libraries and bookstores; Play games like Scrabble, Hangman, Boggle, and Yahtzee.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to detect patterns • Approach problems logically • Reason deductively • Adept at math and science • Manipulate numbers, quantities, and operations • Typically precise and methodical • Prefer ordered and sequential activities • Currently highly valued by society Potential careers: Scientist, engineer, accountant, computer analyst, computer programmer, logician,
mathematician, actuary, bank teller. Tools for Teachers: Analyzing, calculations, classifying, pattern games, time lines, numbers, logic problems, experimentation, critical thinking, sequencing, outlining, compare and contrast, graphic organizers, scientific thinking, Venn diagrams, writing problems, reasoning problem solving, computer instruction



Tips for Parents: Let your children experiment; Invite them to help make a cake or mix paint colors to make
new ones; Let them help with family budget, budget their own allowances, or operate a calculator; Provide opportunities for setting table, sorting clothes, organizing drawers; Play games like Uno, checkers, and chess.

Musical Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to discern meaning in rhythmically arranged sets of pitches • Think "in music" • Recognize nonverbal sounds: pitch, rhythm, and tonal patterns • Adept at remembering melodies and converting sounds into rhythms • May be the least developed intelligence • One of the earliest talents to emerge Potential careers:Composer, singer, performer, conductor, music critic, violinist. Tools for Teachers: Chants, rhythmic patterns, listening, rap, singing, music performance, humming,
instrumental sounds, music education, musical chairs, listening centers, descriptive and rhythmic words (to enhance communication). Tips for Parents: Allow children to select their own music cassettes/CDs; Encourage singing along and clapping to rhythm; Involve children in music lessons; Attend concerts and musicals.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Use one’s mental abilities to coordinate one’s own bodily movements • Ability to understand things by using one’s body or parts of the body • Use body to solve a problem, make something, put on a production • Respond well to nonverbal communication • Frequently can’t sit still, need to touch things • Adept at all sorts of athletic and fine motor activities • Typically chooses to be a participant rather than an observer • Challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated • Most controversial of the proposed intelligences Potential careers:Dancer, athlete, mime, actor, clown, comedian, craftsperson. Tools for Teachers: Acting, drama, dancing, exercise, physical gestures, experiment, inventing, movement, role
playing, human graph, demonstrations, hands-on thinking. Tips for Parents: Involve children in dancing, acting, or sports; Provide a variety of anipulatives (clay, fabric, blocks) for experimentation; Walk, jog, hike, bowl, play tennis, or bike as a family; Enjoy sliding, swinging, and riding toys; Provide chores like sweeping, setting table, emptying trash; Play games like charades, Simon says, and hide-and-seek.



poet. Provide art mediums—brushes. • Able to understand and empathize with what others are thinking and doing. Tools for Teachers: Reflection. imagination. graphic or industrial designer. Interpersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to "read people"—discriminate among other individuals especially their moods. religious leader. clinician. designs. Tips for Parents: Provide opportunities for solving or inventing. Tips for Parents: Give children quality time to work or play alone. use color in activities. awareness of personal feelings. self-identification. including feelings and motivations • Includes the ability to delay gratification • Can discipline themselves to accomplish a wide variety of tasks • Adept at independent work. community organizer. pictures or having them draw ideas • Not limited to visual domain-can also be formed in blind children Potential careers: Artist (like painter. typically assume a leadership role. take photographs. and draw them in detail • Typically thinks in images and pictures • Ability to orient themselves in a house or outdoors • Used in both arts and sciences • Enjoys chess and jig-saw puzzles • Often daydreamers • Like multiple colors • Taught best using photos. Potential careers: Teacher. design furniture arrangement. paints. fantasy. sailor. metacognition. Visit art museums. Play games like Pictionary or cards. artist. Intrapersonal Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to understand oneself. labeling. crayons. drawing. Encourage writing in a diary or journal. autobiography. charting. ONESMUS W. intentions. puzzles. therapist. collages. • Adept at group work. pretending. Tools for Teachers: Guided imagery. focusing. higher order reasoning.Spatial Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Visualize mental models. markers. independent work and projects. Let children choose the color for their bedroom. • Very social and street smart. posters. thinking strategies. mazes. goal setting. politician. typically enjoy solitude • "March to a different drummer" • May be daydreamers • Draw upon feelings to guide behavior Potential careers:Psychotherapist.I 4 . lighting specialist. pictures. salesperson. counselor. sculptor…) architect. Provide time for reflection. social worker. manipulate them spatially. mapping. free choice time. motivations. concentration. inventor. navigator.

while another individual might prefer executive functions. cooperative groups. discussion. skits. Forms of mental self-government: • Monarchic people perform best when goals are singular. Naturalist Intelligence Defined with characteristics: • Ability to recognize and classify living things like plants. role playing. Tips for Parents: Take children on nature walks to observe and journal. NY: Viking Press. Functions of governments of the mind: • • • Legislative .by themselves • External . Stylistic preferences. Encourage children to participate in activities. They deal best with one goal or need at a time. photography. types of makeup… Potential careers:Botanist. Functions of governments of the mind. These three areas correspond with: 1. group projects. Examples: As a combination a person might prefer legislative functions. and so forth. binoculars. Share. Star watch from the backyard or local observatory.stylistic variables: • Internal . Tips for Parents: Play a family game. Forms of mental self-government. design Venn diagrams. observations from notebooks. interviews. and formulating. chef. Scope . Encourage discussion and problem solving. Robert (1988) The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Intelligence. plays.) This concept of intelligence equates to combinations of individual preferences from three levels of mental self-management.Tools for Teachers: Feedback. peer tutors.implementing and doing. plants…. debates. classify and categorize things in nature. Sternberg's Theory of Triarchic Intelligence(Professor Robert Sternberg of Yale University) (Summarized from: Sternberg.creating. Tools for Teachers: Create observation notebooks. planning. microscopes. team assessments. evaluating. sneakers. flowers. describe changes in environment. Judicial . rocks… and try to identify using a field guide. Encourage "backyard experiments" with bugs. magnifiers. Executive .collaboration III. 2.judging. imagining. draw natural scenes. personto-person communication. Collect leaves. rock configurations) • Recognize patterns in nature • Prefer to be outdoors • Most recently "discovered" intelligence • May extend into consumer realm—discriminate among cars.I . internal variables and hierarchic habits of mental self-government. telescopes. empathy practices. and 3. taxonomist. 5 ONESMUS W. and comparing. teamwork. animals • Sensitive to other features of the natural world (clouds. as a family. II. external variables and anarchic habits of mental self-government. scientist. I.

numerical reasoning. Oligarchic people deal with goals that are of equal weight well.I 6 . Those emotional skills matter immensely . patterns. Exercises What is intelligence? Can intelligence be mechanized? ONESMUS W. COGNINITIVE ABILITIES Cognitive abilities include the following: Spatial ability. People skills. Memory. COGNITIVE FACULTIES Include mechanisms for: Vision. Persons having EQ exhibit the following common attributes. numbers. managing your feelings well. presenting ideas logically. Impulse control. 2. Learning . Thinking. Perceptual speed. Numerical ability. Problem solving(adaptation). Self-motivation . Mood management . Summary on the definition of intelligence Left as an exercise. 3. the panorama of skills found in the context of emotional intelligence help individuals manage both the self and others in the following areas: 1. interacting smoothly. Emotional intelligence(Daniel Goleman) Goleman defines EQ as: EQ is not destiny . These people can prioritize goals easily. exhibiting empathy and compassion. Self-esteem . observations.number series identification.analytical reasoning.• • • Hierarchic people can focus on multiple goals at once and recognize that all goals cannot be fulfilled equally. It includes knowing your feelings and using them to make good decisions.clerical speed and accuracy. 4. Motions co-ordination.numbers of words known. for health and contentment.emotional intelligence is a different way of being smart. recognizing relationships. Vocabulary. inductive and deductive reasoning. but they have difficulty prioritizing goals of different weight. creating their own problem-solving techniques with insights that often easily break existing mindsets. paper folding. In marriage and families. computational ability. 5.structural visualization. Anarchic people depart from form and precedent. Speech and language. Hearing . Often they don't like or understand the need for rules and regulations.remembering designs. motivating yourself with zeal and persistence. and managing your relationships effectively. visual details. handling blocks. fluent expressions. These people operate without rules or structure. in career and the workplace. maintaining hope in the face of frustration.

However.  Reason. People in this group include Kurzweil. 1993. To pass Turing Test the computer must:  Process natural language. 1978. TURING TEST FOR INTELLIGENCE (ACT HUMANLY) Interpersonal link (teletext) HUMAN INTERROGATOR COMPUTER The human interrogator thinks he/she is communicating with a human. Luger & Stubblefield. Winston. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that act like people. Artificial intelligence is the study in which systems that rationally act are made.  Represent knowledge.I 7 . 1990 who particularly thought that AI is the art of creating computers that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. Rich & Knight were also in this group and they considered AI as the study of how to make computers do things which at the moment people are better at. 1985 & Bellman. ONESMUS W. there are various definitions that have been proposed. 1985 who think that AI is the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computers that rationally think are made.DEFINING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There is no agreed definition of the term artificial intelligence. 1992 is also in this group who think that AI is the study of computations that make it possible to perceive. are also in this group and they consider AI to be a branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior.  Learn and adapt to the new situations. These are considered below. People in this group include Schalkeoff. People in this group are Charniac & McDermott. reason and act. Total Turing test included vision & robotics. Artificial intelligence is a study in which computer systems are made that think like human beings. Haugeland. 1990 who consider AI to be a study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes.

Experts prefer highly detailed programs which are knowledgable in specific domains but restricted in applicability. Rational actions Rational action is one in which inputs from the environment are taken and is in the best interest of the actor. it is necessary to define intelligence/knowledge. Experts Generalists prefer overarching programs.Cognitive Science’s view of artificial intelligence() Text Book Definition: "Artificial Intelligence seeks to produce. Rational thinking Laws of thought have been devised to manipulate though processes. Some definitions focus on programs. 1984) Controversy exists over a single definition of AI. Earlier people involved were Socrates. a pattern of output that would be considered intelligent if displayed by human beings. those which can be applied throughout. ONESMUS W. Problems are physical and non physical and they have not been resolved. Scientific Level of the Field Some scientists feel that AI is simply a form of applied engineering and not a field of psychology. Some related terms Human thinking This has been studied so that it may be modelled. programming language. Rational agent is something that perceives and acts. In order to classify machines as "thinking". on a computer. AI may also be seen as a study in which rational agents are constructed. or simulations. Ways have been investigated to find out how mechanize the way the human mind works. Aristotle and Plato.I 8 ." (Gardner. This is cognitive modelling. What is knowledge? How is knowledge represented? How do we use knowledge? Within the field of AI. tension has risen between scientists in two main topics: Generalists vs.

1983) introduced the reference theory in which objects in logic are related to real Herman Von Helmboltz (1821. ONESMUS W. Alfred Tarki (1902.1704) advanced empricism in which the source of knowledge is seen as only possible through senses.1714) argued for materialism in which the world is seen to be controlled by physical laws. David Hume (1711-17776) proposed induction in which generalization can be made from the specific.FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE These are some of the bases that enabled the development of artificial intelligence. Algorithms were sought to distinguish pious from non pious actions.1864) formulated the rules of thought that provide a language that is used for logical inference(1847). Psychology (1879 . Gottlob Frege (1848-1928) introduced the rules for first order logic except for notations.I 9 . Bertrand Russel (1872-1970) proposed logical positivism in which all knowledge can be characterized by logical theories. Renè Descartes (1596 .1650) presented the principle of dualism in which issues on distinction between matter and mind are raised.1943) raised a question looking for an algorithm that may be used for any proposition involving natural numbers. Philosophy (428 BC to present) Plato in 428 BC presented dialog of thought in which piety and pious actions were considered. Mathematics (800 . George Boole (1815. Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646 . John Locke (1632 .now) Algorithms are traced from the work of an Arab mathematician of 9th century called alKhowarazmi. They contributed to its growth directly or were necessary in the development of artificial intelligence. They proposed that perception involves unconcious logical inference. David Hilbert (1862. The mind is seen as a connection between knowledge and action.1894) and Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) used scientific method to study human vision.

In 1960s much of the work was done in knowledge representation.present) Noam Chomsky published syntax structure. Computer Engineering (1940 . Lingusitics (1957 .1949) maintained that only measurable percepts (stimuli) should be studied and their resulting actions. beliefs. It is the advances in computer engineering that has enabled the production of software. Edward Thorndike (1879 . They rejected mental constructs such as knowledge.I 10 .1910) proposed cognitive psychology in which the brain posses and processes Work in AI and computer science has been complementary. goals and reasoning steps as scientific. ONESMUS W. Today we have computational linguistics which is natural language processing.John Watson (1878. William James (1842.1958).

Claud Shannon (1950). 1956: There was a workshop at Dartmouth College organized by John McCarthy. Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds build SNARC. Enthusiasm and great expectation (1952.1956) Warren McCulloth & Walter Pitts (1943) proposed a model of artificial neurons. Gestation period (1943 . Shannon and Rochester. Bertram Raphael (1968) wrote SIR which was a program that could answer questions in a restricted area in English. Some similar phenomena are included. 10 researchers attended. John McCArthy (1958) defined LISP which is a dominant AI language. Arthur Samuel (1952-) wrote many programs for checkers. ONESMUS W. Tom Evans (1968) wrote ANALOGY program which solved simple geometric problems.1969) Much enthusiasm was generated by earlier successes of the Logic Theorist and later General Problem Solver. Donald Hebb (1949) demonstrated a rule for updating connection strengths between neurons so that learning could occur. Alan Turing (1953) wrote chess programs. In other words perceptrons can learn. James Slagle (1963) wrote SAINT progam which solved closed form integration problems found in first year courses.I 11 . They also suggested that neural networks could learn. helped by Minsky. the first neural network computer.HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we trace the evolution of artificial intelligence. The name Artificial Intelligence was coined at the conference. Allen Newel and Herbet Simon demonstrated a program called Logic Theorist which was a reasoning system that proved Russel & Whiteheads theorems. General Problem Solver at Carnegie Mellon University imitated how humans reason. Frank Rosenblatt (1962) advance the perceptron convergence theorem which was about a learning algorithm that can adjust connection strengths of a perceptron to match any input data.

LUNAR. DENDRAL. learn and create and that it would not take long before computers could do what men would do’. ONESMUS W. It had 450 rules and performed much better than junior doctors.a dose of reality (1966. 1971 by Fiegenbaum. PROSPECTOR. 1961 by Buchanan et al.Challenges. Was a program that had geological data. 1982 by McDermott. Minsky also showed that there were cases in which perceptrons could not learn. AI becomes an industry (1980-1988) R1. Knowledge based systems. Buchanan. was an expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation to configure orders for the new system. Problems arose with demonstrations as the programs contained no knowledge of their own. Shortliffe was a program that could diagnose blood infections. turned out to be wild dreams. MYCIN. The solution was to use knowledge that can be used by several reasoning steps and solves typical cases in a narrow area of expertise. Most AI problems turned out to be intractable in that time needed grew exponentially compared to size of instances. It recommended exploratory drilling site that proved to have substantial molybdenum deposit. It however had problems of intractability with large molecules.1979) The earlier methods were found to be weak due to weak information domain. Was a program that would take in a formula such as C6H13NO2 and mass spectrum data from electron bombardment and generate as its output the possible structures and mass spectrum that would be observed. the importance of knowledge was discovered. Fundamental structures used to generate intelligent behaviour were limited. DEC’s AI group deployed over 40 expert systems.I 12 . By 1988. In summary.1974) Claim by Herbet Simon (1957) that ‘computers could think. 1973 by William Woods was a program in geology that could be asked questions about rock samples from the moon. 1979 by Duda et al. In 1988 Du Pont had over 100 expert systems in use and 500 in development and estimated $10 million in savings. $40 million was saved annually by 1986. Typical example is the translator: ‘The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak’ <> ‘Vodka is good but mean is rotten’.key to power? (1969.

Today our lives almost revolve around the technologies provided by computers. 1991 reported an expert system that gets a better diagnosis than a medical doctor.I 13 . 3. and belief networks in which reasoning is combined with uncertain evidence. 1993. Recent events (1987 .student.richmond. ROBOT DRIVER (Pornerleau. The dominant areas include Hidden Markov models. 4. King et al. PEGASUS. What is Artificial Intelligence? Describe the Turing Test.htm) The future of AI will certainly be just as important as it will be interesting. And in the future we will probably rely on them more. State of the art 1997/8 Computer program beats the International Grandmaster in Chess. Discuss the events in the development of AI. Return to Neural Networks (1986 . There is no doubt that AI will provide significant applications for everyday life. The emphasis now is on building on existing theories and not inventing new ones. You say where and when. MARVEL (Schwuttke. ONESMUS W. 5. Rumelheart & McClelland (1986) distributed a collection of works in parallel distributed processing. 1994 reported a system that automatically calls an ambulance on accident occurring. 2. There is also a need to show relevance to real world applications.In 1981. EXERCISES 1. Heckerman. 1992) is a real time expert system that handles massive stream of data from spacecraft. Kotter et al. sonar and laser range finders to drive the car. How did AI evolve? Discuss the various disciplines that contributed to the development of AI. This generated much interest in AI.speech understanding program that handles air travel transactions. The work of Byson and Ho (1969) on back-propagation learning was 1993) drove at 55 There has been a change in content and methods of Disillusionment with MYCIN type expert systems grew as they needed more than rules. It is now desired that claims be build on rigorous theorems or evidence. Future of Artificial Intelligence(http://www. It used video cameras. Japanese announced the 5th computer generation project to build intelligent computers using PROLOG .

Diagnose. As in going between parties. emergency or to consumers. For example in placing detectors. As in checking the movements in currency exchange rates. Categorize for example the customers. education. For example as in work-flows or chemical processes. etc. etc. Mediate. purchase from an open market. As in point of sales. Learn. Manage. Decide. As in finding out why decisions are made. As in a project team. Evaluate. Invent. ONESMUS W. As in remembering and avoiding old mistakes. Classify. Detect patterns from large databases. Give advice to on health. ranking. Categorize. Explain. Optimize. Compare. Assist. Offer a bid at an auction. As in planning. predicting. Handle. As in constructing new circuits for a simplified job. As discussing requests for licences. Guide. Monitor. Filter.APPLICATION DOMAINS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In this section we consider the different ways in which artificial intelligence has been applied. Give hints on classification especially on the Web. Advice. plant faults. Apply rules of auction to many items. As in directing movement.I 14 . Artificial intelligence has been found useful in many areas including medicine. As in diseases. As in making optimal designs. Since Artificial intelligence(AI) does much to do with reasoning consider some of these reasoning activities and AI can be used in these areas: Access. For example in legal cases find precedence. Analyze.j Control. Organize. Broker. As in dealing with routine information and passing only critical issues to humans. Help. Bid. As in assisting engineers with technical issues. Give access to information from large databases. processing. Be a broker at a stock exchange. or using rules of thumb. As in determining courses of action or effects of changes. Coordinate. As in isolating important mails from a mass of e-mails. As in supervision of information distribution or networks. Data-mine. military and industry. Negotiate. or representing. Help operators for example in a factory. avoiding danger. Auction.

Problem solving. representing knowledge. Robotics. ONESMUS W. knowledge representation. Some of the recent practical research include ways of recognizing people using the retina. Its focus was later revised to specialized problem solvers such as expert systems. solve problems and be adaptive. Currently they are used for such industrial applications such as sorting. The challenges in it involve mapping visual realities to representations that allow easy pattern recognition. learning operators and how to help humans learn. Here the investigation is focused on making computers acquire knowledge. The main challenges include the arm positioning and locating positions. Natural language and understanding. vehicles can find their way around.I 15 . This is area dealing with visual recognition of objects. On maturity computers will learn from experience. If it matures then computers can recognize their owners. Here the investigation is focused on movement and positioning of arms and other parts. On maturity. looking or searching for solutions. On maturity computers can talk. Understanding and text or document translation are some of the important problems. On maturity the robots will be used for additional domestic and industrial applications. Speech synthesizers have been used to demonstrate speech in minimal and constrained circumstances. Interlanguage translations will also be possible. read articles aloud and take voice commands. On maturity. The challenges include getting uniform grammar and semantic representations. This is an area that originally attempted to build a general problem solver. Machine learning. computers will solve various problems and problem solving can be embedded into many industrial applications.Main branches of AI Machine vision. The challenges include knowledge acquisition. the computers should be able to speak in natural language and understand. and understanding. Here investigations consider grammars and semantics of languages. This is an area that attempt to find how to make computers recognize voice inputs and respond vocally. Cameras and sensors are used. robots can conduct chores in the house moving around. Speech synthesis and recognition. assembling and welding. Its main challenges include finding out how to formulate the problems. discuss. skills and be adaptive. The main challenges include speech recognition and generation.

drug manufacture.I 16 . strategic defense and verification. medicine. In 1980s there were interests in semi-automated operation weapons. Industry AI is used in all spheres of industry in areas related to planning. In 1950s. We consider a few examples of reported work in industry below. design.SOME APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE There are currently many applications of artificial intelligence. monitoring and control of equipment. Some of the areas in which artificial intelligence is used are also regarded as application problem domain areas for artificial intelligence. development of smart weapons. robotics. ONESMUS W. Work has been reported on automatic programming. identification and ranking of severe storms. Earlier experience in world war II saw the British use computers to decipher the German codes and they could monitor bombings. urban storm sewer systems. it was also possible to model simulation of fission triggered chain reaction. natural language interface to databases. Work have been reported on inter-frame displacement. These applications have been on diagnosis. The main sponsor of research in AI has been US.Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). number crunching enabled construction of thermo-nuclear bombs. Civil engineering. offshore structure applications. neural networks and genetic algorithms. it was also possible to manage information on locomotion of warheads. Robotics. Military applications There was revived interest in artificial intelligence due to breakthroughs in robotics and knowledge based systems. industry and business. control and manufacture. Initially AI was perceived as a tip of the iceberg in a body of knowledge in IT that would be important in key areas in international security such as command control. Most of the industrial uses have been fuelled by expert systems. Natural language. Reported work include: hazardous site evaluation. composition of stereotype documents in foreign languages. planning. vision and position estimation in the house. Medical applications AI applications in medicine have been fuelled mainly by expert systems and neural networks. These areas include military.

mediate. In education AI is being used to assist in tutoring and other computer assisted learning activities. trouble shooting of large industrial plants. hold dialog and assist in direct manipulation of computers or machines. reason. entities that mediate between two agents knowing little about each other. Software engineering. Reported work include: marine system design. single board computer design.Mechanical engineering. In business AI has been used in many areas including planning. Reported work include: intelligent interface design. Education. forecasting and advising. Reported work include: managing VLSI CAD data. Business. Electrical engineering. drilling stations management. VLSI transistor sizing. automated valve expert capture. help.I 17 . ONESMUS W. network communication design.

H3 W13 w35 O5 W14 I2 W24 H4 w45 ONESMUS W. NEURAL NETWORKS Human neuron nucleus axon synapse dendrites cell body Artificial neuron Wi.PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Problems are tackled in AI using two main broad approaches.j Input links ∑ ∫ aI Output links ∑ ∫ ai I1 .I 18 . The first one is using the search technique and the second one is by modeling natural phenomena (e. and neural networks). evolution.input function .g.activation function -activation value of unit i.

C B Cross-over Involves exchanging values of components (chromosomes) across genes. ONESMUS W. Until Some individual is fit enough End. FitnessFn):Individual.GENETIC ALGORITHMS These are models used to solve problems based on the theory of evolution and natural selection.FitnessFn). Begin Repeat Parents:=SELECTION(population. Genes A B C D Mutation Involves changing a value of a component of the gene (chromosome) eg. The resulting new population is selected make the numbers constant using a selection criteria called the fitness function.I 19 . Var parents:composite structure. Mutation and cross-over of genes are modelled. Population:=REPRODUCTION(parents). a new generation is reproduced using mutation and cross over of members of the current population. A general genetic algorithm Function GeneticAlgorithm(Population. C B A D In genetic algorithms.

Defining a search problem A search problem is defined by specifying:  State space. The states are represented as nodes while the allowed steps or actions are represented as arcs.SEARCHING AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE Since searching is extensively used. The solution is a path from the current state to the goal state.  Rules giving how to change states. which is a path from the current state to the goal state. 3. 2.  Start node. ONESMUS W. Check the current state.I 20 . if it is not then the new state becomes the current state and the process is repeated until a solution is found or the state space is exhausted. we look at searching as a technique of solving problems in more detail.  Goal condition.  Cost of obtaining the solution. Execute allowable actions to move to the next state. Searching is the process of looking for the solution of a problem through the a set of possibilities (state space). Search problem The search problem consists of finding a solution plan. and a test to check whether the goal condition is met. Representing search problems A search problem is represented using a directed graph.  Goal state – the solution reached. Search conditions include:  Current state -where one is. Process of Searching Searching proceeds as follows: 1. check whether it has been reached. Check if the new state is the solution state.

Problem Initial state(current state) C A B Goal state (final state) A B C State space C A B A BC A BC B A C A B A B AC B AC ABC C AB C AB A C B B C A A B C The state space has 13 elements or nodes.259] Three blocks A. B. C on a table are considered. A block can be grasped when there is no other block on top of it. p. Possible moves  Put a block on table. Only one block can be moved at a time. The solution to our problem is any member of the set of all paths from original to goal state such as the path indicated in bold.  Remove a block from the top of another and place on top of another block.I 21 .Example of a search case study [Bratko. ONESMUS W.  Put a block on top of another block.

Var nodes:structure. End. ONESMUS W. QueuingFn): Solution|Failure. The may also be regarded as traversal techniques. Begin While Begin Node:= remove_front_node(nodes). EndWhile End.General search algorithm Function Gsearch (Problem. OPERATOR(problem)). STATE(node)) succeeds then Solution:=Node Else Nodes:=QueuingFn(node. Depth first The branch (child) nodes are visited first. a b c d e f g f The arrows show the depth first search progression. Exhaustive search may be performed using breadth first or depth first (iterative deepening) strategies. EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH STRATEGIES Searching may yield a solution or the state space may be exhausted without a solution.I 22 . If Goal_test(problem.

One problem is about combinatorial problems associated with some search cases. ONESMUS W. There are several heuristics that are used to guide search mechanisms.I 23 . Guided search is also called heuristic search and is a search strategy in which the knowledge about the problem domain is used to guide the search mechanism thus enabling it to avoid wrong options.Breadth first This is search strategy in which the nodes of the same level are visited first. The other problem is that the state space can be extremely large such that complete search is time consuming. At times the number of possibilities rise and demands on storage and processing cannot be met. but the ones considered here is called the best-first search heuristic. Heuristics are rules that apply most of the time but not all the time. However. in that it is difficult to enumerate. GUIDED SEARCH Guided search is one solution to the problems associated with exhaustive search. Sometimes the state space can be inexhaustible. a b c d e f g f The arrows show the breadth first search progression LIMITATIONS OF EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH METHODS Exhaustive search has the advantage of guaranteeing solutions if they exist. exhaustive search has some problems associated with the need to visit all states at times.

At times the nodes have associated costs or benefits. In this case we consider a heuristic that seeks to minimize the costs.. in which nodes have associated costs and also subsequent paths have associated costs as well. OTHER SEARCH PROBLEMS There are so many cases in which the search technique may be used. Vacuum world V .BEST-FIRST SERARCH HEURISTIC In the best-first search heuristic the node with the most promising chance of being the solution is visited first. ONESMUS W. These include the following cases: 8-puzzle problems. The search is going to be guided by cost minimization. Nodes are regarded as most promising when they are associated with the most desired numerical values called heuristic estimates. Original problems 5 a 2 4 b 2 4 c f minimize{f(x):= sum path} s 2 2 e s 7 f(a)=7 5 f(b)=13 4 2 f(c)=19 f(d)=25 c a e f(e)=9 b f f(f)=18 2 3 2 g g d t f(g)=22 3 d 3 t goal Exercise: re-trace the path given that the heuristic function only adds the sum of path and the cost of the current node. Heuristic estimates are computed values that assess the suitability of a node as candidate solution.I . Consider an example. 1 2 3 4 8 5 6 7 8-queens problem.. A heuristic function would therefore seek to minimize costs or maximize benefits. The functions used to compute heuristic estimates are called heuristic functions. 24 .

How are problems solved in artificial intelligence? What is searching? Discuss how to handle problems using searching technique. neural networks and genetic algorithms. 6. ONESMUS W. EXERCISES Investigate how to program models related to agents. Discuss exhaustive search and heuristic search. 4. Discuss relevance of the search technique and other examples where the search technique may be applied. 2. 7. 5.I 25 . 3. 1.REAL LIFE APPLICATIONS OF THE SEARCH TECHNIQUE Travelling – minimize the distances in route finding. VLSI layouts Robot navigation – robot movements Assembly sequencing. Discuss how to implement the genetic algorithm. Discuss examples of agents.

give directives or strategy.I 26 . Discuss examples.source of rules. can handle uncertainties to some extent. Predicate calculus. Components cannot be individually examined. where function is any object or relationship. OR map + operations. OR game layout and rules of play.KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION Definition Knowledge. Structure+ operations. uses small primitives for descriptions whose numbers can be many. It has well defined rules for manipulation. Disadvantages: cannot cope with complex associated knowledge.deciding on rules to apply. ONESMUS W. The quantifiers are used. Cannot handle uncertainty. OR abstract data types. Advantages. it is an extension of propositional calculus. Discuss examples. based on proven theory. Framework for storing knowledge and manipulating knowledge OR ‘Set of syntactic and semantic conventions that makes it possible to describe things. Advantages: easy to use. 1990. Can reason about the world. Knowledge representation. Disadvantages.assertions describing things.OR facts. data and relationships (Computational view). conflict resolution. Knowledge representations schemes Propositional calculus. explanations are possible. Discuss examples. Predicates are used these are of the form function(arguments). use logical connectives and boolean logic. True rational belief(philosophy). Related ideas: rules and fact base.’ BenchCapon. Format: IF <premises> THEN <conclusion>. Rules These are formalization of used to specify recommendations. they can grow to unmanageable size. conflict set . capture heuristics. Advantages. Disadvantages. Representation.

Disadvantages: has been hard to implement. What is a problem? 4. 3. Discuss examples: body parts. the arcs are the relationships or moves. Discuss the search process. cannot express standard logical connectives. searching may lead to combinatorial explosion. Describe the knowledge representation formalisms giving their advantages and disadvantages. nodes may have confusing roles or meanings. Disadvantages. Features: capture object attributes and their values. Describe blind search. 6. Discuss examples. can represent only binary or unary predicates.close matches are presented. Structure: Node and collection of attributes(slots). 2. Advantages: can cope with missing values. Define terms related to knowledge representation. Easy to translate to predicate calculus. especially inheritance. 5. ONESMUS W. Cannot handle quantifiers. Exercises 1.Semantic networks Semantic networks are graphical representation of entities and their relationships. Frames These are knowledge representation formalisms in which stereotyped information on objects are represented. Describe guided search.I 27 . sentences. Advantages. The nodes are objects or events. search done by matching.

Questionnaires – these are questions that are sent to experts for responses. The resources are identified or provided. books. The participants are identified (experts. Software and hardware issues are resolved. articles. METHODS OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION Face to face interview with experts – the experts are interviewed by knowledge engineers. The situation is studied. journals.KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION Definition Knowledge acquisition is the process of extracting knowledge (facts. its characteristics are examined and it is broken down into smaller sub-problems. procedures. Conceptualization The best method of representing knowledge is identified and selected. Protocol analysis – this is a documentation of how the expert behaves and processes information during problem solving. mass media materials. THE KNOWLEDGE AQUISITION PROCESS Identification This is a stage in the problem is identified. rules) from human experts. sensors or computer files and converting it into a form that can be stored and manipulated by the computer for purposes of problem solving. Formalization The knowledge is extracted from the sources. Implementation The program is written or a prototype is developed. Analysis of documented knowledge – this is extraction of knowledge from such sources as books. Usually the experts think aloud. Observation – the experts are observed at work. ONESMUS W. Testing Test cases are used. magazines. users. The experts are consulted on acceptability of results.I 28 . documents. knowledge engineers).

Examples Rule Induction New cases Rule Induction classification Training Usage Issues with knowledge acquisition • Machine representation is lower in form than human usage of knowledge. What is knowledge acquisition? 2. 5. Expert. • Many participants are involved and they have varied backgrounds causing communication challenges(Keng. System designers. • Experts may not express their knowledge). 3. Dom. etc. Describe the steps in knowledge acquisition. EXERCISES 1. Discuss ways of acquiring knowledge.Rule induction (computer aided knowledge acquisition) – rule induction can be viewed as a system that accepts examples and develops classification rules.. • Mismatch between the way experts hold their knowledge and the way computers represent knowledge. Explain how you may acquire knowledge to build a system. 4.I 29 . ONESMUS W.). Users. Discuss problems associated with knowledge acquisition.

harvest. The problematic situation is examined. Backward chaining. predicate calculus. ONESMUS W. size. F: Jump in a matatu. solution data bank) and use it to match new problems and adapt a (problem. mathematical logic. D: Walk to work. then sets out to draw a conclusion. then it is linked with other similar situations that are then used to build a solution. The facts and rules are scanned and rules fire as they meet available evidence. facts.INFERENCE Definition Inference is the process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence.I 30 . Fuzzy logic: this is less precise and less logical method of reasoning. Formal reasoning: use rules. Meta-level reasoning: use knowledge about what is known to solve problems. Example A: It is raining. C: It is cold. B: It is sunny. Fuzzy sets. Example: Bone fracture.the proponents claim that this is a natural way humans handle problems. find someone with a fixed bone and get advice. induction and deduction.sets whose membership is probalistic. height. E: Carry umbrella. It may also be seen as reaching a decision through reasoning. Some inference strategies in Artificial Intelligence Applications Reasoning by analogy. Procedural reasoning: use formulae and algorithms to solve problems. beauty. heap of sand. Generalization and abstraction: use sets. Rule-based inference controls Forward chaining – this is an inference mechanism which begins with evidence(facts). Fuzzy phenomena include: rain.this is an inference mechanism which begins with the goal (conclusion) and sets out to look for evidence to establish or disprove the goal. Special case: case-based reasoning.

Advice a pupil on what to do on a raining day. What is inference? 2.R1: If A ∨C then E. ii. 5. EXERCISES 1. R2: If B then D. What does an inference engine do? ONESMUS W. Is inference problem solving? 3. R3: If A ∧ then F. Advice a pupil on what to do on a cold raining day. Describe forward and backward chaining inference controls. What are AI inference strategies? 4. C Problem Use backward and forward chaining inference mechanisms to: i.I 31 .

A classifier is a system that takes inputs then places it into a category. Pattern recognition system is a device that extracts features of an object then classifies the object.height. A feature vector is an measurement of features that make up the input pattern in which each feature is unique. Example: Rugby players and Ballet dancers Feature space.I 32 . weight Height Weight Legend: . Classifier. A feature space is an n-dimensional space created by the n-elements in the feature space. Sometimes templates or stereotypes may be used to classify.Ballet dancer . Definitions Pattern recognition. For instance when reading we quickly recognize the letters.Rugby player ONESMUS W. Feature space. FEATURE VECTORS AND FEATURE SPACE Feature vector. In this section we will examine how the process of classification can be mechanized by examining the techniques used for pattern recognition.PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION Everyday life consists of many occasions when we handle familiar occurrences at times unawares. A feature is any measurement on input pattern so that it may be categorized. Feature. We do so by classifying the character object. Usually only useful features are categorized. Try to explain how A and H differ.

The non. Decision boundary Height Weight Legend: . They can be deterministic or statistical. These are numeric and non-numeric methods. that is used to separate classes is an example of linear classifiers. ONESMUS W. Our scope of treatment will only cover numeric-methods of classification include deterministic and statistical techniques discussed below. CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES There are two broad classes of classification techniques. Such a line.Ballet dancer .DISCRIMINATION FUNCTION Discrimination function is a function that maps input features into a classification space. The numeric methods are classification techniques that use measurements of geometric patterns.numeric methods are classification techniques that that depend on symbolic processing such as those dealing with fuzzy sets.I 33 .Rugby player Decision boundary is a discriminating function that in above case is a straight line. They are used in many pattern recognition techniques.

k-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR CLASSIFICATION The nearest neighbour classification is one in which a new pattern is placed in the class to which it is closest. Height d1 X d2

Class A

Class B Weight

Legend: - Ballet dancer d1 is the shortest distance to class A d2 is the shortest distance to class B X is the unclassified pattern

- Rugby player

Consider the a discriminant function f(X), where f(X) = closest(Class A) – closest (Class B). If f(X) is positive then place in class B. If f(X) is negative then place in class A. In practice, all (k) members are taken into account. In this case we have k-nearest neighbour, where k is the number of samples. A general problem is to find a reliable measure of distance from one class of samples. There are several k-nearest neighbour methods that are discussed below. Hamming distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the hamming distance between then denoted by H is given by: n H = ∑ |xi-yi| 1 The hamming distance is commonly used to compare binary vectors where it gives the number of different bits. Note that |xi-yi| = xI XOR yI .

Euclidean distance This is an accurate distance metric based on Pythagoras’s theorem. It is defined as given below.

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Euclidean distance between then denoted by d(X,Y)euc is given by: n d(X,Y)euc = X

√(∑ (x -y ) )
i I 2


Euclidean distance Y

A special occurs when the input vectors are binary. In this case the Euclidean distance is the square root of the Hamming distance. The amount of computations are reduced by approximating Euclidean distance using the following methods that are faster but less accurate. City-block distance X City-block distance Y

Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Cityblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)cb is given by: n d(X,Y)cb = ∑ |xi-yI| 1 No square roots are taken. Square distance Let X = (x1, x2, x3,……, xn) and Y = (y1, y2, y3,……, yn) be any two input vectors, then the Squreblock distance between them, denoted by d(X,Y)sq is given by: d(X,Y)sq = max{ |xi-yI|}, where the maximum value of the differences( or the longest side) is taken.




Linear classifiers occur many times. They depend on linear functions or straight line boundaries that are used as decision boundaries. Sometimes a weight vector may be used to adjust the decision boundary so that classification is correctly performed. This is depicted below. Height linear decision boundary

Class A Weight vector Legend: - Ballet dancer

Class B Weight - Rugby player

n f(X) = ∑ wixIwhere X is the boundary, w is the weight. 1 For two classes A and B, one classification rule would be f(X) > 0 ⇒ place in Class A, and f(X) < 0 ⇒ place in Class B. Usually the challenge is to find w so that classification is correct, especially in nearest –neigbour methods. Linear separable problems These are problems for which it is possible to find a single linear decision boundary(line or plane). Several classes may be handled systematically such as: ABCD could be handled as A or BCD, B or CD, then C or D. Sometimes it may be hard to get class boundaries, in such a case the samples may be split as below: class 1 class 3 class 4 Usually the nature of the problem determines which technique to use. STATISICAL CLASSIFICATION METHODS These are methods that use statistical techniques to classify. They are based on conditional probability that is generalized in Baye’s theorem.

class 2

G2. 3. G 1 Gn Let P(G) be the probability of a pattern X belonging to group Gi. Usually models are assumed on the patterns of data distribution such as the normal distribution.I 37 . The conditional probability of event X given event Y has occurred is written as P(X|Y). Baye’s rule: P(Gi|X) = P(X| Gi) P(Gi) ∑P(X|Gj) P(Gj) j P(Gi) is easy to get as this depends on the number of groups and assuming independence. X. Baye’s classifier X belongs to class Gi if P(Gi|X) > P(Gj|X) . P(Gi|X). 2. What is pattern recognition? ONESMUS W. in other words what is the probability. Statistical classification problem Given a set of measurements.. G2 …. i ≠ j.Let G1. . It is a theorem that Bayesian classifiers reduce to linear classifiers. …. what is the probability that it belongs to calss Gi. EXERCISES 1. P(X| Gi) is obtained from the distribution being used such as the normal distribution or some other probability distribution function. Bayesian classifiers can be optimized to perform very well.. G3. for all i=1. …. n. Gn be possible classes or groups.

4. Discuss Bayesian classification technique.I 38 . Describe the nearest-neighbour classification technique. 6. 8. Explain the meanings of the terms feature vector and feature space. What is statistical classification? 7. ONESMUS W. Discuss an example showing how Baye’s theorem may be used in a classification a problem.2. What is classification? 3. What is discrimination function? 5.

Explain the solution to a problem. Restructure knowledge. Human experts have extensive task specific knowledge acquired from training. practice and experience.  Rules (heuristics) on what to do in a given problem case. Recognize their limitations but still offer workable solutions(degrade gracefully). Learn from experience. politicians. The programs will take and solve problems in restricted problem domains or areas of expertise. Expertise is a property of human beings describing their abilities to cope with difficult problem solving situations. engineers. We meet human experts as experienced doctors. Expert systems must therefore have knowledge similar to the ones held by human experts and use it to solve problems of the type solved by human beings. Experts take a long time to develop and when they solve problems they may do so in one or more of the following ways:         Recognize and formulate the problem.EXPERT SYSTEMS Towards a definition Expert systems are computer systems that are best appreciated first by examining what the terms mean.  Facts about the problem area. Human experts usually solve problems in specified areas of expertise with appreciable level of competence. Provide the solution to the problem fast. analysts.  Meta-knowledge(knowledge about knowledge).  Rules and procedures regarding general problem area. Tell the relevance of situations or issues. static or dynamic. programmers. The knowledge could include:  Theories about the problem area. open.I 39 . craftsmen. The first term to consider is the term system. composition by several inter-related components that contribute individually to the its goal. and existence of boundaries. A system is an environmental entity that is considered to have the characteristics that include: existence of a purpose or goal. ONESMUS W. psychiatrics.  Global strategies for solving typical problems. The term system is used here in the sense of computer system or computer programs in particular. The word expert is derived from human experts. reading. etc. closed. administrators. In addition. Break rules. a system may be adaptive. educators. Expert system is therefore a set of computer programs that mimic the human expert.

schedules. enforces consistency checks Expert Knowledge Blackboard (Workspace) Plan Solution Agenda Problem description Knowledge refinement Adapted from Turban & Ronson [P.interprets. 447] ONESMUS W.draws conclusion .I 40 .STRUCTURE OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE BASE Facts: what is known about the problem domain area Rules:logical reference such as between symptoms and causes User User interface Knowledge Engineer Recommended action Explanation facility Documented knowledge INFERENCE ENGINE . .

The knowledge acquisition subsystem assists in the accumulation. It provides a methodology and implementation of the reasoning mechanism that uses the knowledge held in the knowledge base and the blackboard to formulate conclusions. databases. textbooks. Blackboard (workspace) is the area in working memory where current problems are described. an agenda of potential actions awaiting execution and a solutions indicating candidate hypotheses and alternate courses of action. Knowledge will include facts in the problem area and the theory of the problem area.  Why some alternatives are rejected. data is entered and intermediate results are kept.  Schedule that maintains control over the agenda. Knowledge can be acquired from human experts. multimedia documents. Heuristics are rules that are used to solve some typical problems. It may explain:  Why some questions are asked by the expert system. transfer and transformation of problem solving expertise from experts or documented knowledge sources to a computer program. The consultation environment is used by the non-experts to obtain expert help or knowledge from the expert system. Explanation subsystem (justifier) is the part that traces responsibility for conclusions to their sources. special research reports and the internet. User interface the part that enables the users or builders to submit their items to the expert system and also the expert system to respond to the users or builders.  How some conclusions are reached. It gives a means of using the knowledge by developing the agenda that organizes and controls the steps taken to solve problems during consultation. propositions and predicates. Structures used to store knowledge are called knowledge representation formalisms and they include rules. The parts of the inference engine consists of:  Interpreter (rule interpreter in many system) that executes selected agenda items by applying relevant rules from the knowledge base. semantic networks. It is sometimes called control structure or rule interpreter. The blackboard may contain a plan of how the problem should be solved. Inference engine is the brain of the expert system.  Consistency enforcer maintains a consistent representation of the emerging solution.I 41 . formulating and solving problems. It uses priorities and other criteria to estimate the effect of applying rules on the agenda.The development environment is used by the experts to build the components and enter the knowledge into the expert system. frames. The knowledge base contains the knowledge needed for understanding. they may also be kept. ONESMUS W.

The user may also be a partner.I 42 . In this case the expert system gives a second opinion. predict. These areas are given below. Many times he may be the expert systems builder also. The Knowledge engineer is the is the one who extracts and structures knowledge from sources such as the human experts. CLASSIC PROBLEM AREAS ADDRESSED BY EXPERT SYTEMS Expert systems have been used in several typical problem areas. The user may be an expert systems builder who adds knowledge to the knowledge base of the expert system which acts as a partner. who is someone who uses the expert system as an assistant or colleague. and correct student performance Interpret. Several application systems have been demonstrated in these areas. The User is someone who is involved with an expert system as a non-expert and the expert system is an consultant providing advice or solutions to problems. repair and monitor system behaviour BENEFITS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS Increased productivity and output since expert systems work faster than humans.  The remaining facts to establish before the final conclusion. The plan used to reach the solution. so that it may be put into the computer for use in expert an system. PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERT SYSTEMS The Expert is the person who has a special knowledge. experience or methods used to solve problems or advise on a given class of problems. The user may also be student who wants to learn from the expert system which acts as an instructor. debug. ONESMUS W. Knowledge refining system is the part that enables the analysis and use of knowledge so that leaning may take place and improvements may be made. Category Interpretation Prediction Diagnosis Design Planning Monitoring Debugging Repair Instruction Control Problem area addressed Infer situation descriptions from observations Infer consequences of given situations Infer malfunctions from observations Configure objects under constraints Develop plans to achieve goals Compare observations and plans. flag exceptions Prescribe remedies to malfunctions Execute plans to administer prescribed remedy Diagnose. judgement.

Ability to work with incomplete or uncertain information where ES may use existing knowledge to solve a problem even though some other facts may still be missing or uncertain. Reduced down time as expert systems (ES) where ES are used for diagnosis of malfunctions and prescribing repairs. Increased process and product quality as errors can be significantly reduced. Increased capability of other computerized system where ES integrate with other systems to make applications work faster or produce higher quality results. Easier equipment operation where ES is used to operate a complex equipment. toxic environments. Accessibility to knowledge and help desks where ES is used to supply information and scarce knowledge or support help desks. Provide training where ES is used by novices because of its contents in the knowledge base. ONESMUS W. Enhanced problem solving and decision making where ES integrates analysis and judgement of top experts. Operation in harzadous environments where ES is used where humans are not safe such as in nuclear power plants. Elimination of the need for expensive equipment where ES is used to perform monitoring and control tasks with low-cost equipment. such as a product out of production. Flexibility as ES can sense changing needs and advice accordingly.Decreased decision-making time as expert systems can make decisions faster. Integration of several experts’ opinions where ES are built by consulting several experts.I 43 . Capture of scarce resource as ES can store the expertise held by humans who may be taking long to train.

Enhancement of other CBIS as ES adds the necessary intelligence capabilities needed in other CBIS.  Human experts cannot abstract when under pressure.  Experts may not always use understood vocabulary.  Only work well in a narrow domain. Ability to solve complex problems as ES can hold a massive amount of knowledge and thus being able to handle complex problems.  Knowledge engineers are few and expensive.  Cognitive limitations of users.I 44 . LIMITATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS The following problems are associated with expert systems:  Knowledge is not always readily available.  Experts may not always validate their conclusions. tired or hold attitudes. Improved decision quality as ES is reliable and does not become bored.  End-users may not trust expert system.Improved decision-making processes where ES provide rapid feedback on consequences. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS Implementation of expert systems may succeed because of the following factors: ONESMUS W.  Subjectivity and biases in knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer to remote locations as ES can hold specialist knowledge that may be used in remote locations such as eye disease diagnosis and treatment system demonstrated in Algeria and Egypt by World Health Organization.  Variations in problem assessment by different experts.  Difficulty in extracting expertise from humans.

outcomes and evidence to consider. The problem must be qualitative (fuzzy). Utilities refer to values that indicate importance of actions. There must be at least one cooperative expert. Enter available evidence. Draw a conceptual diagram. The should be a friendly user interface for novice users. ONESMUS W. Find out the actions. There should be a good ES shell (store & manipulate knowledge naturally). Assign utilities. Assign conditional probabilities. Evaluate the diagram. Decide on the new evidence to acquire through appropriate acquisition methods.I 45 . There should be competent knowledge-based system developers. There must be a high level of knowledge.          Management support and user involvement. The ES should positively impact on end-users. Obtain new evidence. Identify the aspects that determine the utility of outcomes. Assign probabilities. Materials above are adapted from [3. The problems must be difficult enough to warrant the use of ES. Draw a diagram indicating relevant factors and which ones influence the others. Calculate optimal action according to the available evidence. Functions can be used for these. pp. 439-463 ] A METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DECISION SUPPORT Determine the problem scope. The problem must be sufficiently narrow in scope. Where some initial evidence exist in each case it should be entered.

Discuss expertise. Describe the structure of a human expert. 5. Check if the best decision depends on small changes assigned to probabilities and utilities. 4.Perform sensitivity analysis. Describe the qualities and qualifications of a human expert. 6. Where small changes lead to different decisions then more data should be collected. Discuss the advantages and limitations of expert systems. Discuss the definition of expert systems. Do so by varying the parameters and running the evaluation again.I 46 . Describe the people involved with expert systems. ONESMUS W. 2. EXERCISES 1. 3.

in. in is a function from P X I into I (the agent's input function)." [Hayes. We define the agent's environment to be a tuple <A. Agents are the basic building blocks for applications. Definition of intelligent agent Working definition of "agent" An agent is a reusable software component that provides controlled access to (shared) services and resources. Other definitions of intelligent agent Definition 1 ".I.P. Definition 4 "Intelligent agents continuously perform three functions: perception of dynamic conditions in the environment. and applications are organized as networks of collaborating> where A is the set of outputs from the agent. several meanings to the term agent have been proposed as will be discussed below. often inhabited by other agents and processes. and do is a function from A X W into W [Russel & Novig]." [Dictionary for AI terminology] Definition 2 ". and determine actions. In computational sense. Example: a desktop agent "recruits" the services of a screen and a connection agent to physically connect a call. either isolated or in cooperation with other agents. software entity which functions continuously and autonomously in a particular environment.I 47 . sophisticated entity acting rationally and intentionally.out> where P is a set of input objects (percepts).. I is a set of internal states. action to affect conditions in the environment.. In conventional interpretation agents are associated with personal representatives that interact with others to accomplish a task. A is a set of output objects (actions). However.W. and reasoning to interpret perceptions.A. 1995] ONESMUS W. agents can be seen as programs that help the users with routine tasks.see. solve problems." Definition 3 An agent is a tuple <P.INTELLIGENT AGENTS (IA) Intelligent agents must have been coined from the term agent. draw inferences. Example: a printer agent that provides printing services schedules requests to a shared printer. see is a function from W to P. P is the set of inputs to the agent. W is a set of states.

Agent and conventional programs Common properties that make agents different from conventional programs: • Agents are autonomous. This is the request or response time expected. that is they act on behalf of the user. • Agents have social ability. Author. • Agents may also cooperate with other agents to carry out more complex tasks than they themselves can handle. but sometimes also proactively(initiate actions). This is the owner’s account that may be used for billing or pointer to the account. Goal. These are attributes of the goal. parent name or master agent name. Creation and duration. This is supporting information. ONESMUS W. that is they communicate with the user. Account. Components of agents The following may be specified for a typical agent: Owner.I 48 . the system. and other agents as required. • Agents may move from one system to another to access remote resources or even to meet other agents. from fixed rules to learning engines that allow them to adapt to changes in the environment. This is the statement of successful task. This is the person or the process that created the agent. This is the engine that runs the agent’s intelligence. Intelligent system. • Agents contain some level of intelligence. it may consist of rule-based expert system or neural network. Background. Subject description. • Agents don't only act reactively. This is the user name.

Support conditional processing. Service support is necessary in many areas including network security. A lot of information has been accumulated over the years and there is need to analyze it and discover any other knowledge held. Agents can move across different architectures. Automation of repetitive tasks.I 49 . Agents have a personality. Autonomy. Singularity of task. Proactiveness. Temporal continuity. The managers have so much information and they need some kind of help to cope. Agents can perceive the environment and then respond. or as they handle high level requests and seek more clarifications if necessary. Reactivity. Learning. Internet. Agents act or decide on their own. Agents are continuously running processes. Agents work on a single task. this goes beyond rule-based systems. The Internet requires search tools. Service support. Agents work in the background. they can interact with humans. Sometimes they may do this to circumvent obstacles.Characteristics of intelligent agents Intelligent agents have several characteristics that are discussed below. Agents can take initiatives such as inhibiting behavior instead of just acting in response to environmental inputs. Mobility. Agents may be rule-based systems thereby showing flexibility. perhaps somewhere in the cyberspace. Agents interact with other agents or humans. electronic commerce or employee support. ONESMUS W. Communication. usually out of sight. Massive bank of information over the years. Agents work on special repetitive tasks. Personality. Agents can learn. The need for agents The following issues underline the need for agents: Information overload. Background operation.

bill electronic users and provide security(firewalls). enable resource sharing and selection. Handle information service management problem. service customization. Classifying agents from application point of view Autonomous agents Biological agents Robotic agents Computational agents Software agents Artificial life agents Task specific agents Entertainment agents Viruses ONESMUS W. Ideal attributes: autonomy. enable using varied terminals. management. Agents can provide services. 3. Agents can act as intelligent resource managers. monitor interacting features where systems are combined. 4. learning and cooperation. Agents act as personal assistants adapting to the users. Role: information. diagnose problems. Mobility: static or mobile. Hybrid: combination of the above. 5. Overcome user interface problems. Reasoning model: deliberative or reactive.Simplification of distributed computing.I 50 . TYPES OF AGENTS Nwana's classification of Agents 1. 2.

Agents can collaborate or negotiate. Classifying agents by application area There are various types of agents under this category including: Workflow and administrative agents that assist in organizing work schedules or tasks. ONESMUS W. Classifying agents from characteristics point of view Nature of agency. These are agents that help users surf the Internet. Intelligence.Classifying agents from organizational and personal view Organizational agents. Mobility. Personal agents. Collaborative agents that work with other agents or people. These are agents that work on behalf of businesses or computer applications. Electronic commerce support agents that help users engage in electronic business. Level 3 agents. Agents have varying degrees of reasoning and learning. Level 1 agents. Desktop application support agents that help users of the desktop PCs. These are agents that are initiated by users to get relevant Internet pages such as Yahoo. Level 2 agents. Alta Vista. search or interpret information. These are agents that monitor information and notify of relevant information such as WebWatcher. They work for the users that create them. Agents have degrees of mobility across platforms. These are agents that learn and examine user profiles. Inforseek. Information support and management agents that help users retrieve. These are agents that follow orders to retrieve documents such as Netscape Navigator. Classifying agents by intelligence level and power Level 0 agents. store.I 51 .

Internet Softbot is an agent associated with finding out user needs. Lycos. Detect & alert agents. Spreadsheet agents.graphical. Frequently Asked Questions Agents are those agents that answer routing similar questions. INTERNET BASED SOFTWARE AGENTS There are various agents associated with the internet that are discussed below. diagnose problems. Web Crawler. Internet management and monitoring is a group of agents that monitor. Data-mining agents. Some agents in this category help users locate what they are looking for. Collaboration agents. natural language parsing. conduct security or manage Internet resources such as WatchGuard. Intelligent search agents are those agents that help users traverse that net to get detailed results such as Inforseek. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AGENTS These are agents that perform tasks related commerce and examples include: Bargain Finder. Software development agents. Operating system agents – wizards. add/remove progrmas. Operating system agents are those agents that help users of various operating systems get services. Good Stuff Cheap(GSC). group management. Excite. Web browsing agents are those that guide the user browsing the Web. network-client administration such as licensing and equipment installation. User interface creation agents are the agents that help users create interfaces or present them with useable interfaces. ONESMUS W.I 52 .mail agents are those agents that help e-mail users. E. OTHER AGENTS User interface agents. file & folder management. printer additions. Network control and management agents that help users in controlling and managing the network. add user accounts.Mail message support agents that help users dealing with electronic mails.

EXAMPLE OF COLLABORATIVE AGENT ORGANIZATION USER 1 USER 2 USER 3 Goals and Results Task specs Interface agent 1 Interface agent 2 Interface agent 3 Task Conflict resolution Task agent 1 Task Proposed solution Task agent j Information integration Information request reply collaborative query processing Information agent 1 Information agent 2 Information agent 3 Query Answer Information Source 1 Information Source 2 Information Source 3 Information Source 4 Source: K. IEEE Expert 1996. Distributed Intelligent Agents.DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL AGENTS (DAI) These are agents that provide intelligent part of the distributed problem. In DAI the task is subdivided and each subtask is solved or get handled by an agent. ONESMUS W. MULTIPLE AGENT SYSTEMS These are systems that provide environments in which there are several agents possibly with different goals each of which probably negotiating their own ways to achieve their ends such as in electronic commerce. Sycara.I 53 .

I 54 .Simple Reflex agent architecture These agents find rules that match the current conditions and take action. a set of condition-action rules State = interpret-input(percept) Rule = match-rules(state. rules) Action = determine-action(rule) Return Ation Reflex agent with internal state environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves what actions to do agent Condition action rules action to take Effectors ONESMUS W. environment Sensors (what the world is like now) agent Condition action rules Effectors(action to take) Algorithm Function simple-agent(percept) returns action Static: rules.

description of current world state rules. percept) Rule = match-rules(state. ONESMUS W. rules) Action = determine-action(Rule) State = update-state(state.Algorithm Function internal-agent(percept) returns action Static: state.I 55 . a set of condition-action rules State = update-state(state. action) Return Ation goal agent environment Sensors what the world is like now state how world evolves action type agent what actions to do action to take goals Effectors Algorithm is an exercise.

6. 2.I 56 . Discuss the classification of agents. 4. Discuss the components of an agent. 5. 3. What is an intelligent agent? What is a distributed intelligent agent? What is a multi-agent system? Discuss why agents are necessary. ONESMUS W.EXERCISES 1.

Suitable uses of robots Manufacturing and handling materials. deep sea exploration. Nature of real world Inaccessibility. guided by feedback from physical sensors. Non-derterminism.ROBOTICS Definition A robot is a programmable multifunction manipulator designed to move material parts. Augment human abilities. nuclear plant maintenance. Mobile robots can be used to distribute mails. or specific devices through variable programmable motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. Robots can be used in dangerous situations such as nuclear disaster zones. they may also be used as blind guides. An alternative definition presents a robot as an active artificial agent whose environment is the physical world. Robots can be used to duplicate lost limbs. Robots can be used for repetitive manufacturing tasks. lunar exploration. Moving items. Robots can be used to monitor things going on in distant places or simulate reality through computer controls (virtual reality). ONESMUS W. All configurations and motions that are possible cannot be enumerated. tools. Non episodic. Continuous. Hazardous environments. or be used as moving vehicles such as underwater vehicles. Uncertainties exist. Sensors can only perceive close stimuli. toxic waste clean up.I 57 . Autonomous robots are those robots that make decisions on their own. Tele-presence and virtual reality. Effects of actions vary continuously.

Actuator.I 58 . Manipulators can allow rotary motion where rotation is around a hub. LOCOMOTION IN ROBOTS Legs may be used in motion but it is not easy to construct legs to be used by robots. Dynamically stable hopper. This is where the robot can walk and stay stable as long as it hopping. Manipulation. Locomotion involves the change of position of a robot within its environment using effectors. They will determine the degree of freedom. These are robots that cannot exhaust total degrees of freedom of movement available. There are different types of sensing that are discussed below. Locomotion. hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders. These parts are discussed below. Holonomic robots. For example: the car can only move in two dimensions while there are three possible dimensions. These are tools for action usually by which the robot affects the environment under its control. This is a part of an effector that converts software commands to physical motion such as motors. if it suddenly stops then it loses its balance.COMPONENTS OF ROBOTS Robots consist of several parts. These are robots the exhaust all possible degrees of freedom in movement. Manipulators can allow prismatic motion in which the motion is only linear such as piston movements. ONESMUS W. For example the plane can move in all the three dimensions. This involves walking where the robot can pause and not lose balance. Effectors. Manipulation involves moving other objects in the environment using effectors. Non holonomic robots. MANIPULATION BY ROBOTS Manipulators are effectors that move objects in the environment. SENSORS IN ROBOTS Sensors are tools for perception. There are different types of motion that are possible that include:Statically stable walker.

Camera data.Propriperception. Describe the components of a robot. ONESMUS W. Sonar sensing. Camera data is mainly used for vision. manipulation. Force sensing. Describe the nature of the real world. This invoves sensing and controlling position of joints. What is a robot? 2. 4. sensing. 6. 5. Discuss the uses of robots. EXERCISES 1. and vision in robots. Why are robots important? 3. This involves touch sensing where elastic materials may be used to measure distortion. Cross-beam sensor and parallel beam sensor determine object identity. This involves telling where the joints are. Discuss locomotion.I 59 . Structured light sensors are those sensors that project light. Tactile sensing. This involves using sound for navigation and range finding usually necessary in detecting objects. Laser range finders are depth finders.

Critic This is the part of the learning agent that tells the element how well the agent is doing.526 ONESMUS W. As a process it takes place as the agent interacts with the world. Learning will be considered with agents in mind. machine learning had limited successes but useful demonstrations.I 60 . and when the agent assesses its own decision-making processes.MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS In this section we will examine machine learning and its related terms. Learning element Learning element is the part of the agent that is responsible for making improvements. Exploratory actions are suggested. Unlike other AI systems. Much of the work is still under research studies. Problem generator This is the part of the agent that suggests actions that may lead to new informative experiences. Knowledge about learning element and some feedback on how the agent is doing are used to determine how the performance element should be modified to do better in future. This measure should possibly be conceptually outside the agent. Terminology in machine learning Learning Learning is the process by which an agent uses percepts to improve its ability to act in future. Performance element Performance element is the part of an agent that selects external actions. Model of a learning agent Environment Sensors CRITIC Feedback changes LEARNING ELEMENT Learning goals knowledge future adjustments PROBLEM GENERATOR Effectors PERFORMANCE ELEMENT Adapted from Russel & Novig P. A fixed standard of performance may be used.

Nilsson(1996). Sometimes machines cannot be built to do what is required due to some limitations. Specifically some of these applications include: Where there are very many examples and we have no function to generate the outputs. is an approximation of the function f. then an hypothesis. Internet) TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W. new vocabulary arise.Supervised learning Supervised learning is the learning situation in which both the inputs and outputs can be perceived. (These reasons come from: Nils. then machines can be used to learn as much as possible. Unsupervised learning Unsupervised learning is a type of learning in which the no hint is given at all about the correct input. we can use machine learning techniques to discover the relationships (data mining). planning and problem solving. In research learning has found applications that are related to knowledge acquisition. h. New knowledge is being discovered by humans. Environments change over time. Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning is a type of learning situation in which the agent does not know the outcomes but is given some form of feedback on evaluating its action. if machines can learn then they can improve their performance. If machines learn then their ability to solve problems will be enhanced considerably. so machines can adapt instead of re-design new ones. f(x)) where x is the input and f(x) is the output of the function applied to x. machine learning techniques can be used to allow the system to search for suitable functions( hypotheses). Hypothesis Suppose (x. that are side effects of research in Machine learning. learning systems may be built. f(x)) is an example. Sometimes a friendly teacher can supply the outputs. Where too much knowledge is available such that it is impossible for man to cope with it. There some areas. APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING The main aim of machine learning is to make computer systems that can learn.I 61 . new world events stream in and therefore new AI systems should be re-designed. Where we have massive amount of data and hidden relationships. Example Example is the pair (x. Instead of doing this. Introduction to Machine Learning. that have seen intensive research in recent times that include data mining. J. It is however not told the correctness of its action.

that is used for selecting the action. The possible curves that can be joined suggest various functions (hypotheses. Where there is preference to hypothesis to a given example beyond consistency. observations. f. examples. a) in examples then return a Else H induce(examples) i. Global examples {} Function reflex-performance-element(percept) returns an action If (percept. examples. then we say incremental learning occurs. The skeleton algorithms for a reflex learning agent are given below. we say there is a bias. If the agent instead of applying a new hypothesis adjusts the old hypothesis. Induction Pure inductive inference problem seeks to find a hypothesis. feedback action Examples Examples ∪ {(percept. If the percept is there then it applies the action.e find a hypotheis based on examples Return H(percept) Procedure reflext-learning-element (percept. h. f(x)). When it is confronted with a percept and it is looking for an action it first checks the list. h) that can approximate the original function. Consider an agent that has a reflex learning element that updates global variable. and neural networks. otherwise it must formulate a hypothesis. h. feedback percept Action.Machine learning depends on several methods that include induction. that approximates the function. ONESMUS W. action)} We consider two inductive learning methods namely decision trees and version spaces. given the example (x. action) Inputs: percept. and that it holds a list of pairs of (percept. action). Consider a plot of points.I 62 .

Each leaf specifies the Boolean value if that leaf is reached. the inputs are objects or situations described by a set of properties while outputs are either yes or no decisions. The logical version is given by: ∀ X Patrons(X. Each node consists of a test to the value of one of the properties and the branches from the nodes are labeled with possible values of test result. An example is given below: Patrons? None No some Yes full WaitEstimate <60 No 30-40 Alternate ? 10-30 Hungry? 0-10 Yes no Reservation? yes Fri/Sat? no Yes yes Alternate? no Bar? yes Yes Yes no No yes Yes Yes no yes Raining? No Yes No A decision tree for deciding on where to wait for a table No No Yes Yes Attributes for the above decision tree are: Alternate: availability of a suitable alternative. Reservation: whether reservation has been made. No) ⇒ WillWait(X). 531-535] ONESMUS W. 0-10) ∧Hungry(X. Bar: presence of a comfortable bar area to wait in. Hungry: whether one is hungry. Fri/Sat: true on Fridays and Saturday. pp.Full) ∧WaitEstimate(X.Decision trees In decision tree. Type: nature of restaurant. Patrons: number of people present.I 63 . [Russel & Novig.not important. Price: price range-not important. Raining: if it is raining outside. WaitEstimate: the estimated time to wait.

Inducing decision trees from examples Decision trees may also be obtained from examples. p. In this case.000 Wanjiru 30. Trivially. just take the attributes and enumerate its possible options.000 Turban &Aronson. default) returns a decision tree Inputs: examples.000 Assets available ? Age 30 35 33 42 Dependants 3 1 2 0 Decision Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Annual Income >40. End Return Tree.000 Mulei 40. The table is processed attribute by attribute and selecting the attribute that minimizes noise or maximizes information.000 Kamoro 70. A decision tree learning algorithm (Russel & Novig. A typical example here is ID3 algorithm. examples) Tree a new decision tree with root Best For each value vi of Best do Examplesi {elements of examples with best = vi} Subtree decision-tree-learning(examplesi.000 None None 250. Applicant Annual income Okello 50.000 No Yes Yes No Logically: ∀ A has_assets(A) ∨annual_income(A. set of examples Attributes. attributes. set of attributes Default.I 64 . 537) Function Decision-tree-learning (examples. default value for the goal predicate If examples is empty then return default Else if all examples have the same classification then return the classification Else if attributes is empty then return majority-value(examples) Else Best choose-attribute(attributes. ONESMUS W.507 Assets 100. a table is used and the goal conditions for yes are collected together. >40.000) ⇒ Approve_loan_for(A). majority-value(examples)) add a branch to tree with label vi and subtree subtree. attributes – Best.

False positive examples. temperature and susceptibility to waxing. Versioning Versioning is another inductive technique that we will outline. This technique depends on Hypotheses which are candidate functions that may be used to estimate the actual functions. A program was written to fly the flight simulator. pressure.I 65 . The idea is to readjust the hypotheses so that the classifications are correct without false placements. ∨. False negative examples.Full) ∧ Hungry(P) H2 ∨ WaitEstimate(P. saving BP millions of dollars (Russel and Novig..0-10) H3 ∨ Hungry(P) ∧ Alternative(P) H4 : Hn Consider the hypothesis space { H1.. density. The embedded flight simulator could now do better than human beings in that it made fewer mistakes. For instance the example above where a decision tree was used for the determining whether a patron will wait may have the following hypotheses: ∀P willwait(P) ⇔ patrons(P. ∨H2. H2. The attributes included relative proportions of gas. There are two approaches that are used to maintain logical consistency of hypotheses. ∨ n H Each of the hypothesis predicts a set of examples and this is called the extension of the predicate. Hn}. .Some H1 ∨ Patrons(P. by observing real flights about 30 times. The decision tree learning methods were applied to a database of existing designs and the system was developed in less time with the performance better than human experts. oil. These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be positive but they are actually negative. viscosity. P539). especially the disjunction of the hypotheses: H1.Two success reports of decision tree learning BP deployed expert system GASOIL in 1986. These are examples that according to the hypothesis should be negative but they are actually positive. Where a hypothesis has been working well and a false negative occurs then it must be extended to include ONESMUS W. Current-best hypothesis search A single hypothesis is maintained and is adjusted as new examples are encountered. and water and the flow rate. The learning algorithm considers that one of the hypothesis is correct. for gas-oil separation for offshore platforms that had about 2500 rules.

∨H2.the example. then it must be minimized or cut down to exclude the example. ∨.the set of all possible hypotheses V the set of all hypotheses For each example e in examples do If V is not empty then V Version-space-update(V. However. If this method is applied then the final set that remains is called a version space.e) returns an updated version space V {h ∈ V: h is consistent with e} OTHER TECHNIQUES USED IN MACHINE LEARNING ONESMUS W. An algorithm is given below that describes the process: Function current-best-learning(examples) returns hypothesis H any hypothesis consistent with the first examples For each remaining example in examples do If e is false positive for H then H choose a specialization of H consistent with examples Else if e is false negative for H then H choose a generalization of H consistent with examples If no consistent specialization/generalization can be found then fail End Return H.I 66 . Least-commitment search Another technique of finding a consistent hypothesis is to start with original disjunction of all hypotheses: H1. when the hypothesis has been working and a false positive occurs. ∨ n It is original set that is reduced as some hypotheses that are not H consistent are dropped. This is called generalization. the version space. This is called specialization. Version space learning algorithm is given below: Function version-space-learning (examples) returns a version space Local variables: V..e) End Return V Function version-space-update(V.

8. Belief Networks Probability trees are constructed and are used decision making. It also has a non linear component called activation function that transforms the final input values into a final activation value. problem solver. handwritten text recognition. driving (AlVIN(1993)-learnt how to steer a vehicle by observing the human driver. hypothesis. reinforcement learning. unsupervised learning. 5. Neural networks have been used in pronunciation in which text streams are mapped to phonemes (basic sound elements. critic. example. 7. 9. Describe learning by versioning. The learning occurs by adjusting the weights so that the inputs correspond to the outputs.). ONESMUS W. What is machine learning? 3. supervised learning. Investigate other areas of machine learning. 6. EXERCISES 1. Show how decision trees are used in learning. Q-learning occurs where the agent learns the action-value function that gives expected utility of taking a given action.Neural networks Neural networks as was seen earlier model the human neuron.I 67 . Each link has a numeric weight that is associated with it. What is learning? 2. The neural network consists of a number of nodes that are connected using links. A neural network unit consists of a linear input function that computes the sum of weighted inputs. Learning involves adjusting the conditional probabilities as examples are examined. 4. Reinforcement learning This is a learning method in which the learner tries to find out the utility function and uses it to select states that maximize the expected utility of outcomes. Define the terms performance element. Describe the techniques used in inductive learning. Discuss applications of Machine Learning. Describe a model of a learning agent.

It may involve plan recognition which involves forming a model of agents beliefs. NP and VP. A sentence is a string consisting of sub-strings from different categories that are allowed for example. each consisting of a sequence of symbols taken from a definite set. A phrase is any sub-string of a given category.  Requesting or commanding others to do things. structured system of signs used by human beings to communicate most of what they know about the world. such as the noun phrase (NP) or the verb phrase (VP). Formal language. ONESMUS W. Phrase. A language is a complex.  Acknowledging requests or offers. Speech act is producing language and may involve all forms of using language including typing or sign language. usually called terminal symbols. Understanding there requires the knowledge of syntax and semantics of a language. Speech act. Purposes of speech act include:  Informing each other about the world. Sentence (S).  Promising to do things. Language. These are symbols such as S.I 68 . S NP VP Non terminal symbols.OVERVIEW OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (Based on Russel & Novig Chapters 22 & 23) When considering natural language processing we focus on agents that can communicate. Communication. Understanding speech act Speech act can be understood when a set of inputs are associated with the part of the world that would be responsible for creating them. Communication can be taken to mean intentional exchange of information through producing and perceiving signs drawn for a shared system of conventional signs.  Sharing feelings or experiences. It also involves logical reasoning which enables forming complex phrases by combining simple ones.  Answering questions. A formal language is a set of strings.  Querying others about various things.

Pn (since words and phrases have several meanings). ONESMUS W.I 69 . (Knowledge about language is used to decide what to utter) S utters the words W (usually addressing them to H). A parse tree may be used in parsing.Components of communication The situation is such that there is a speaker. say S. who wants to convey some message. W express the meaning of P). (perceptions is speech recognition in case of speed inputs or optical character recognition in case of character inputs) H infers that W’ has possible meaning P1. links representing applications of grammar rules.or parsing and semantic interpretation-extracting the meaning. (S must reason about beliefs of H and decide that H should know about P) S selects the words W (according to S. using the words W. Parsing involves grouping the words into phrases that have categories. Seven processes are identified that may take place: Speaker’s role: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer’s role: Perception: H perceives W’ (required W = W’.. Pi = P (may be incorrect). P2. say proposition P to the hearer H. . ideal case). (Two activities are involved: syntactic interpretation. and leaf nodes representing the words) S wants H to believe P (S is considered to believe P). (In AI. (Is necessary because the utterances have several possible interpretations) Incorporation: H decides to believe Pi (or reject it if it is inconsistent with current beliefs) Example using the statement ‘The cat is good. A parse tree has nodes representing phrases. Pragmatic interpretation is a type of semantic interpretation where the situation is taken into account. phonetic alphabet may be used for string sounds) Analysis: Disambiguation: H infers that S intended to convey Pi..

well(cat) Pragmatic interpretation: good(cat).Speaker: Intention: Generation: Synthesis: Hearer: Perception: Analysis: The cat is good S NP Article The Noun cat Verb is VP Adjective good know(H. good(cat)) ‘The cat is good’ ‘dikatiskud’ Semantic interpretation: good(cat).I 70 . caught(rat. cat) Disambiguation: good(cat) Incorporation: tell(KB. good(cat)) Two Agents that communicate with language language Percepts language KB Actions Percepts Actions KB REASONING REASONING Agent A Agent B ONESMUS W.

right | left | back | noisy | good |… here | there | nearby | ahead | right | left | back | ….CONTENTS[semantics]) action ASK(KB.t)) Else if TYPE[semantics] = none then action ASK(KB. a counter. Example of a lexicon Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Pronoun ONESMUS W. indicating time TELL(KB. Lexicon is a list of allowable vocabulary words.t)) words SPEECH-PART(percepts) semantics DISAMBIGUATION(SEMANTICS(PARSE(words))) If TYPE[sentence] = command then action CONTENTS[semantics] Else if TYPE[semantics] = statement then TELL(KB. T. DO(action)) OVERVIEW OF A FORMAL GRAMAMAR FOR A SUBSET OF ENGLISH Language processing is only possible if some set of symbols are used and some form of grammar constructed on them. preposition phrase (PP). verbs (for events).t)) description GENERATE-DESCRIPTION (percept) Return COMPOUND-ACTION(SAY(description). Other categories include articles such as the. verb phrase (VP). MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept. 71 .Algorithm Function simple-communicating-agent (percept) returns action Static: KB. adjectives(modify nouns) and adverbs(modify verbs). This will need a few considerations that are indicated below. Grammar gives rules for forming sentences. initially 0. The words are usually grouped into a set of categories or parts of speech such as nouns (names to denote things).. and relative clause (RelClause) may be used. noun phrase(NP). me | you | I | it …. MAKE-ACTION-QUERY(percept.I breeze | glitter | nothing | cat | pit | rat | meat | …. MAKE-PERCEPT-SENTENCE(KB. a knowledge base. prepositions such as in. pronouns. is | see | feel | chase | hear | catch | hide | kill | eat | smell | go |…. The sentence (S). and conjuctions such as and. Lexicon.

|Mary | Ochieng’ | Kimeo | Mutiso | Kamau | ….| 9 Example of grammar with above lexicon S NP NP VP | S conjunction S Pronoun | Noun | Article Noun | Digit Digit | NP PP | NP RelClause Verb | VP NP | VP Adjective | VP PP | VP Adverb Preposition NP that VP Sample phrase I feel a breeze I feel a breeze and I smell a rat. the | a | an | ….Name Article Preposition Conjunction Digit John. to | in | on | near | …. I pit the rat 56 the rat + to the east the rat + that is good Smells feel + a breeze is + good chase + to the east go + ahead to + the east that + is good VP PP RelClause A parsing algorithm (Russel & Novig. grammar) return parse tree ONESMUS W. and | or | but | … 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ….p666) Function BOTTOM-UP-PARSE(words.I 72 .

This has been a subject of research since early 1960.i+n-1] [MAKE-NODE(RULE-LHS(rule).forest words loop do If LENGTH(forest) = 1 and CATEGORY (forest[1]) = START(grammar) then return (forest) else i choose from {1..translate from one natural language to another. RULE-RHS(rule)) then forest[i. Extracting data from a text – converting data in a text into a database format in which key values of parameters are obtained..I 73 . LENGTH(forest)} rule choose from RULES(grammar) n LENGTH(RULE-RHS(rule)) subsequence SUBSEQUENCE(forest. Information retrieval – retrieval of text documents. i+n-1) if MATCH (subsequence. usually containing key words in the query. This has given rise to text interpretation as an additional area of research. Text categorization – placing texts in various categories for example placing various news articles into relevant categories. Database access – use of natural language to access information from databases. ONESMUS W. Describe the importance of speech acts. i. 2. EXERCISES 1. Define the terms communication and language. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Machine translation. subsequence)] else fail end NB forest is a list of various allowed phrases.

Programming for Artificial Intelligence.Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems. Introduction to Machine Learning. generation. Addison Wesley. Russell. Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach.I 74 . Discuss the meaning of the terms: intention. Jay E. [4] The INTERNET. PROLOG: Programming for artificial intelligence. Bruce McKenzie (1991). disambiguation.3. 11. [5] Ephraim Turban. Aronson(1998). [3] Wolfgang Kreutzer. Discuss aspects of machine vision. analysis. perception. Discuss the important items to have in natural language processing. 5. Prentice-Hall. incorporation. 4. 6. Peter Norvig(1995). 5th Edition. How can a statement in natural language be parsed? 10. [2] Ivan Bratko (1990). ONESMUS W. What is the role of grammar in natural language processing? 9. Describe the component steps of communication. Describe a model for two agents communicating in a language. What is a lexicon? 8. synthesis. [6] Nils J. Addison-Wesley. Nillson (1996). Discuss practical applications of natural language processing. 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Stuart J.

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