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Remote Thermometer Control System

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Automatic monitoring and control has increasingly found application in the recent past in systems realting to various applications. Their importance has grown over the years where with the implementation of more and more complex systems. The present day systems are employed in almost every field from basic human daily needs to Space programmes. With the increasing use of such systems, their operational features have gained increased importance in the meantime. For a particular application, a variety of systems with varying features will be available in the market. A system is chosen for a particular application depending on its features with is best suited for the specific application. Operating temperature, Frequency, Efficiency, Response time, Compatibility, Flexibility etc are some of the parameters that are considered for selecting a particular system. Operating temperature is one parameter which is of paramount importance in idustrial applications. Desired operation is mostly obtained within a specified temperature range only. But, in most systems temperature varies due to different factors like continued operation, varying loads, system faults etc. Thus temperature needs to be monitored and controlled to ensure the efficient operation of sensitive systems. Hence, we choose temperature as a measurend.

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Remote Thermometer Control System

CHAPTER 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Remote Section

Heat

Temperature Sensor LM35

ADC

MCU PIC16F877A

Encoder HT12E RF Module 434MHz

ASK Rx 49.53MHz

Decoder SM6135W

Buffer ULN2803

Relay 1 - 4 Cooling Fan

Figure 2.1: Remote Location Control Room

RF Module 434MHz

Decoder HT12D

MCU PIC18F4550

LCD 16x2 USB Port

9V

Power Supply

5V 3.3V

Encoder SM6136B

ASK Tx 49.53MHz

Figure 2.2: Control Room

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CHAPTER 3 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


2.1 Remote Section 2.1.1 Temperature sensor The temperature sensor used here is LM35. It is a precision integrated-circuit temperature sensor whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature and is rated to operate over a -55 to +150 C range. The scaling factor is linear +10.0 mV/C. The sensor is kept in contact with the body whose temperature is to be monitored. 2.1.2 Microcontroller The central element of the Receiver section is the PIC16F877A microcontroller. The Analog-toDigital Converter of the microcontroller is used for Digital conversion. The analog output of the Temperature sensor is given as the input of the ADC (pin AN0). The resulting 8 bits are stored in the microcontroller for transmission. The microcontroller also helps in Synchronising the data transmission by sending a Synchronisation nibble in addition to the data along with nibble conversion into lower and higher nibbles. 2.1.3 Encoder Low power, high noise immunity Encoder HT12E is used for encoding the data to be transmitted. Four bits from the microcontroller is encoded into a single bit serial data stream by the HT12E. It also has 12 address lines, which may be used for decoder requirements during reception. Here only 10 address lines are used for this purpose.

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2.1.4 RF Module The data stream from the Encoder is transmitter by the RF module at 434MHz through the antenna connected to it. The RF module used here is of low cost. 2.1.5 ASK Receiver The transmitted data from the Control Room for controlling the temperature as required is received at the remote location by the ASK Receiver. The transmission and reception of the control signals is at 49.53MHz. 2.1.6 Decoder The decoder IC SM6135W is used to decode the received signals from the Control room to generate the necessary control signals as required. 2.1.7 Buffer High-Voltage, High-Current Darlington arrays IC ULN2803 is used as a Buffer. The output of the buffer is used for various applications like driving a motor, driving the relay etc. 2.2 Control Room Section 2.2.1 RF Module The transmitted signal from the Remote location is received at the Control room at a frequency of 434MHz. 2.2.2 Decoder Low power, high noise immunity HT12D is used to decode the received signal. The decoder first check whether the address matches. Decoding is initiated once the address is found to match.
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2.2.3 Microcontroller Here microcontroller PIC18F4550 is used as the master controller. The decoded signal are sent to the controller. The controller works on synchronisation with the transmitter. The Microcontroller is used to display the parameter to the LCD and generate the necessary control signals for transmission. The microcontroller code specifies certain temperature ranges and the action to be carried out for each case. 2.2.4 LCD The LCD is used to display the measured temperature. A 16x2 LCD array is used. 2.2.5 Encoder Here encoder SM6136B is used to encode the output of the controller. The output of controller depends on the temperature range into which the sensed temperature falls as specified. 2.2.6 USB Port The main feature of PIC18F4550 is that it provides an internal USB Controller. This feature is utilized here to specify the temperature ranges for controlling as required. The port is also used to burn the program into the controller. Hence the need of a seperate burned is avoided. 2.2.7 ASK Transmitter Here Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is made use of for transmitting the control signals back to the remote control for controlling the temperature as required. Hence an ASK transmitter transmitting at 49.53MHz is used it send across the signals to the remote location receiver.

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Remote Thermometer Control System

CHAPTER 4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Transmitter Section

Figure 4.1

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Control Room Receiver

Figure 4.2

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Transmitter at Control Room

Figure 4.3

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Controlled Circuit

Figure 4.4

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CHAPTER 5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


LM35 It is a precision integrated-circuit temperature sensor whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature and is rated to operate over a -55 to +150 C range. The scaling factor is linear +10.0 mV/C. The sensor is kept in contact with the body whose temperature is to be monitored. ADC ADC used is PIC16F877A on-chip ADC. It has 8 ADC channels. It uses the principle of Sucessive Approximation. It can be programmed to configure as 8 bit and 10 bit ADC. We are using the default settings for Vref.. For our purpose Channel 1 (RA0/AN0) is selected as ADC input and configured as 8 bit. The ADC conversion clock is selected as FOSC/8. The ADC conversion time/bit is defined as TAD. It requires minimum 12TAD for 10 bit and for 8 bit it needs 10TAD. PIC16F877A ______ A 10K resistor is connected between MCLR and V CC for reset circuit operation and 4MHz crystal with necessary filter capacitor is used for proper functioning. It is an 8 bit microcontroller from Microchip. LM35 output is directly connected to AN0, first channel of ADC. For any transmitter or receiver a synchronisation is required for error free
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communication. A simple technique is used for this purpose. At starting of each transmission cycle a synchronisation bit of any value between 0 and F (here 5) is send and checked in the receiver. The ADC output is divided into two nibbles and transmitted one by one with delay to the Encoder. HT12E It converts the parallel data received from PIC16F877A to serial data and is send to a transmitter. ASK Transmitter (434MHz) Low cost ASK transmitter, it cannot support high baud rate. If high baud rate is used, then encoder and decoder modules in the transmitter and receiver respectively can be avoided. ASK Receiver (434MHz) It receives the data transmitted from the transmitter and is sent to decoder. The range is approximately 5 metres. HT12D It decodes the serial data from the receiver and converts into parallel data which is then sent to PIC18F4550. PIC18F4550 It contains an in-built USB controller. The PIC is configured to work in two modes: 1. Bootloader mode 2. User Mode 1. Bootloader mode: A bootloader program is burned through ICSP and the Pin RB4 is the mode selection pin. If it is 1, then User mode is selected and if it is 0, it selects Bootloader mode.
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In Bootloader mode we can configure the controller or burn the program or read/write data to system using USB port. 2. User mode: In this mode, the program is executed. The basic configuration bits are configured as follows: > PLL division is set as 1 (4MHz crystal). > CPU division is disabled. Due to this configuration bit, PIC is working in 48MHz. Externally we use a 4MHz crystal. LCD A 16x2 LCD is connected in Port B. The basic configuration for LCD is: > Pin 1 is connected to VSS. > Pin 2 is connected to VDD. > Pin 3 is connected to 100K (pot.) for adjusting the contrast. It has 8 bits D0-D7 for data and Pins 15 and 16 are used for backlight purpose. SM6136B The output from Port D of PIC18F4550 is connected to the Encoder. It converts these inputs into serial format with its framing. ASK Transmitter (49.53MHz) This section contains two parts: 1. Crystal Oscillator 2. ASK Modulator The output from Encoder is mixed with output of crystal oscillator and is given to ASK modulator
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and is transmitted from antennae. In this section two high frequency transmitters, C945 are used. ASK Receiver (49.53MHz) It receives the data from transmitter to reconstruct the original signal with the help of C380 transistor and tuned circuit. It is tuned to 49.53MHz. SM6135W The output of receiver is given to decoder. It decodes the data and output is given to ULN2804. The output of ULN2804 is connected to cooling fan and a relay. The remaining outputs can be used for any other applications. Power Supply We are using 9V battery as Power source and 7805 is used for regulating it to 5V (given to Microcontroller), Zener voltage regulator are used to obtain 3.3V for SM6136B and SM6135W.

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CHAPTER 6 PCB LAYOUT

Figure 6.1: Control Room transmitter and Remote Location receiver

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Figure 6.2: Control Room Receiver

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Figure 6.3: Remote location transmitter

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CHAPTER 7 PCB FABRICATION


The materials required for PCB fabrocation are Copper Clad, Ferric Chloride solution, paint and drilling machine. The PCB fabrication involves the following steps, 1. PREPARATION OF THE PCB LAYOUT First the circuit is drawn using Express schematic and PCB layout is prepared using PAD 2 PAD as explained in the layout making procedure. The mirrored image of layout of bottom layer PAD 2 PAD software is \printed on an A4 size translucent tracing sheet or butter paper. Using this, the thin film can be made and is exposed to the UV. 2. FILM PREPARATIONS In this process, the negative of the plate is made into photographic film. For this the printed image of the layout in the butter paper is placed over the film and is exposed to UV rays from the top so that the film will be exposed to the UV rays from the top so that the film will be exposed to the UV rays in the region other than the layout. The developer solution then the reaction will take place, then the region not exposed by UV rays will become transparent and the other regions are dark in color. Thus the negative is produced. Then the film is washed in fixing solutions. After that the solution is kept for drying. 3. TRANSFERRING THE LAYOUT TO COPPER CLAD SHEET Traditional Toner Transfer Method is used here. Here we make use of a iron box to copy the impression of the layout into the copper clad. First the thin film is kept over the copper clad such that the impression of the layout lying on the copper clad. We ten press the thin film using a
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switched on iron box. The heat produced by the iron box must be sufficiently high that the impression of the layout is copied on to the copper clad surface. 4. ETCHING OF THE BOARD When the board is ready for etching, it is placed in the Ferric Chloride solution of required concentration. It is checked in regular intervals to prevent over etching and successive damage to the part. After the etching is complete the board is taken out of the etch and washed in water to remove the excess ferric chloride. The D13X NC Thinner is applied to remove any dew or paint material on copper tracks. Then the sheet is cleaned by using steel scrubber and washed again in water. Now the copper lines are exposed and hence the body is checked with the magnifying glass to see whether all the lines in the layout are clearly formed. Now the board is ready for tinning. 5. DRILLING The next process is drilling, In this the holes of required sizes are drilled in the PCB wherever needed, using an PCB drilling machine. 6. FINISHING

In the process after drilling holes on PCB, the board is taken and a light coat of air dying insulating varnish is applied to the bottom side carefully avoiding the pad areas The PCB is then left till the insulating varnish dry up. The application of the insulating varnish prevents any type of oxidation on the track further proving better safeguard to the tracks after tinning.

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CHAPTER 8 SOLDERING AND DESOLDERING

SOLDERING Soldering is the process of joining two or more or dissimilar metals by melting another metal having low melting points. SOLDERING TOOLS Soldering Iron It is the tool used to melt the solder and apply at the joints in the circuit. It operates in 230V main supply. The normal power ratings of the soldering iron are 10W, 25W, 35W, 65W and 125W. The iron bit at the top of it gets heated up within a few minutes. 10W and 25W soldering irons are sufficient for light duty works. Soldering Station The soldering station consists of a handheld hot air blow gun and the base station comprising of air flow and temperature controls to the hot air blow gun. Tip temperature is maintained by feedback control loops. Soldering guns usually have a trigger switch which controls the AC power.

MAKING SOLDERING JOINTS Hold the soldering like a pen, near the base of the handle. Remember to never touch the hot element or tip. Touch the soldering iron onto the joint to be made. Make sure it touches both the

component lead and the track. Hold the tip there for a few seconds. Feed a little solder on the joint. It should flow smoothly onto the lead and track to

form a volcano shape. Make sure you supply the solder to the joint, not to the iron.

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Remove the solder, then the iron, while keeping the joint still. Allow the joint a few

seconds to cool before you move the circuit board. Inspect the joint closely. It should look shiny and have a volcano shape. If not, you

will need to reheat it and feed in a little more solder. This time ensure that both the lead and track are heated fully before applying solder. DESOLDERING It is the removal of the solder from previously soldered joint. There are two ways to remove the solder. USING DESOLDERING PUMP (SOLDER SUCKER) De-solder pump is a commonly used device for this purpose. When the solder melts by the action of the soldering iron, the trigger on the de-solder pump should be activated to create a vacuum. This vacuum pulls the solder into the tube. Set the pump by pushing the spring loaded plunger down until it locks. Apply both pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt. Then press the button on the pump to release plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle.

SAFETY PRECUATIONS Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. They are very hot (about 673K) and will you a nasty burn. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. The iron
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should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. Ordinary plastic flex melts immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a risk of burns and electric shock. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when it is not in use. Allow joints a minute or so to cool down before you touch them. Work in a well ventilated area. The smoke formed as you melt the solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Avoid breathing it by keeping your head to the side of, not, above your work. Wash your hands after using solder.

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CHAPTER 9 DEVELOPMENT TOOLS


Features of EAGLE System Requirements: EAGLE is a powerful graphics editor for designing PC board layouts and schematics. In order to run EAGLE the following is required: Windows 2000, XP, or Vista. a harddisk with a minimum of 70 MByte free disc space. a minimum graphics resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels.

Different editions of EAGLE, 1. Professional Edition 2. Standard Edition 3. Light Edition for our application we chose the light edition. The following restrictions apply to the EAGLE Light Edition: The board area is restricted to 100 x 80 mm (about 3.9 x 3.2 inches). Outside this area it is not possible to place packages and draw signals. Only two signal layers can be used (no inner layers). A schematic can consist of only one single sheet.

Larger Layout and Schematic files can be printed with the higher editions. The CAM processor can generate manufacturing data as well. It is not possible to combine modules of different editions. The Light Edition is available as Freeware for testing, evaluation, and noncommercial use.

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CHAPTER 10 FLOWCHART
Transmitter Section Start Port Initialization ADC Configuration Read from ADC Send Synchronization bit Send lower Nibble

Delay

Send higher nibble

Delay

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Receiver Section

Start

Is RB3==1 Yes

No

Bootloader Mode

Port Initialization Array Initialization Port B and D as output Port A as input

User Mode

LCD Initialization

Read Port A 4 bits

Convert to decimal And store in A Synchronization No Is A==5 Yes C1 C2

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C1

Read Port A, and save as higher nibble in array

Delay

Read Port A and save the lower nibble in array

Reconstruct byte

Compare the byte with the stored temperature range

Convert to Celsius

Send to LCD

Send control signal to Port D

C2

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CHAPTER 11 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE RESULTS


After completing the hardware and software design, we tested the circuits. The distance between the transmitter and receiver was varied and found out the approximate range of operation for good result. Then we tested with the actual thermometer and found that there was some difference between the temperature. Inorder to correct these temperature difference, we improved the efficiency of the program and made it more accurate and found that it is working well. Also a synchronization bit was used for efficient reception. Also the range can be increased with improved RF module and increasing the length of the antenna. With a 30cm long antenna, range comes to around 200 metre. The output varies with the range and distance of LM35. Also with good RF module the effects of obstacles in between can be overcome. The sensitivity of the system depends on the output of LM35, which again depends on the range of LM35. As per the datasheet the specified range for efficient operation is -55 to 150C. 0.5C accuracy guarateeable at 25C. It is caliberated directly in degree Celsius. So for improved system function, more efficient temperature sensors may be employed.

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CHAPTER 12 COMPONENT LIST AND PRICE

Component Name Resistor (1/4 Watts) Capacitor i. Disc ii. Electrolytic Inductor Transistor Crystal IC base i. 16 pin ii. 40 pin IC i. SM6136B ii. SM 6135W iii. HT12D iv. HT12E v. PIC16F877A vi. PIC18F4550 vii. IC7805 viii. ULN2805 ix. LM35 RF Module LED LCD 16x2 Connectors i. USB ii. 8 pin connectors iii. 6 pin connectors iv. 2 pin connectors v. Battery connector USB Cable

Price/Unit (Rs.) 0.25 0.50 1.50 5.00 8.00 10.00 2.00 12.00 35.00 35.00 40.00 40.00 120.00 285.00 15.00 20.00 35.00 300.00 1.50 150 5.00 10.00 10.00 5.00 8.00 50.00

Quantity (No's) 30 20 5 5 3 3 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 2 2 1

Total Price (Rs.) 7.50 10.00 7.50 25.00 24.00 30.00 8.00 24.00 35.00 35.00 40.00 40.00 120.00 285.00 30.00 20.00 35.00 300.00 6.00 150 5.00 20.00 10.00 10.00 16.00 50.00
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Cooling Fan Relay Copper Clad Ferric Chloride Cabin 9V Battery

35.00 50.00 75.00 20.00 200.00 20.00

1 1 1 1 1 4

35.00 50.00 75.00 20.00 200.00 80.00

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CHAPTER 13 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE


The project can find application in various parameter sensing, monitoring and control applications by minor changes in the circuitry. The system may be modified to measure parameters like pressure, velocity, position etc. Expanding the system to accomodate monitoring or more parameters at the same time can be implemented by using more sensors and adopting a suitable modulation technique like Time Division Multiplexing or Frequency Division Multiplexing. The range of operation of the system can be increased as required by replacing the RF Module with the appropriate communication links. Depending on the module used for transmitting, the parameters at the point of interest can be monitored and controlled from very distant Control Rooms as well. The project finds application in alarming systems, control systems, security systems etc. By increasing the sensivity of the transducer very minor varaitions in temperature can be detected and the required action may be executed.

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