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Scott K. Powers •• Edward T. Howley

Scott K. Powers

Edward T. Howley

Scott K. Powers •• Edward T. Howley Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application
Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance
Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance

SEVENTH EDITION

Chapter

Scott K. Powers •• Edward T. Howley Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application

Bioenergetics

Scott K. Powers •• Edward T. Howley Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Objectives

  • 1. Discuss the functions of the cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria.

  • 2. Define the following terms: (1) endergonic reactions, (2) exergonic reactions, (3) coupled reactions, and (4) bioenergetics.

  • 3. Describe the role of enzymes as catalysts in cellular chemical reactions.

  • 4. List and discuss the nutrients that are used as fuels during exercise.

  • 5. Identify the high-energy phosphates.

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Objectives

  • 6. Discuss the biochemical pathways involved in anaerobic ATP production.

  • 7. Discuss the aerobic production of ATP.

  • 8. Describe the general scheme used to regulate metabolic pathways involved in bioenergetics.

  • 9. Discuss the interaction between aerobic and anaerobic ATP production during exercise.

10. Identify the enzymes that are considered rate limiting in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Outline

  • Cell Structure

  • Biological Energy

Transformation

Cellular Chemical Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction

Reactions

Enzymes

  • Fuels for Exercise

Carbohydrates

Fats

Proteins

  • High-Energy Phosphates

  • Bioenergetics

Anaerobic ATP Production Aerobic ATP production

  • Aerobic ATP Tally

  • Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • Control of Bioenergetics

Control of ATP-PC System Control of Glycolysis

Control of Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain

  • Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Introduction

Metabolism

– Sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body

– Anabolic reactions

  • Synthesis of molecules

– Catabolic reactions

  • Breakdown of molecules

Bioenergetics

– Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into energy

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Chapter 3 Cell Structure
Chapter 3
Cell Structure

Cell Structure

Cell membrane

– Semipermeable membrane that separates the cell from the extracellular environment

Nucleus

– Contains genes that regulate protein synthesis

  • Molecular biology

Cytoplasm

– Fluid portion of cell

– Contains organelles

  • Mitochondria

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Chapter 3 Cell Structure
Chapter 3
Cell Structure

A Typical Cell and Its Major Organelles

Chapter 3 Cell Structure A Typical Cell and Its Major Organelles Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan

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Figure 3.1
Figure 3.1
Chapter 3 Cell Structure
Chapter 3
Cell Structure

In Summary

  • Metabolism is defined as the total of all cellular reactions that occur in the body; this includes both the synthesis of molecules and the breakdown of molecules.

  • Cell structure includes the following three major parts: (1) cell membrane, (2) nucleus, and (3) cytoplasm (called sarcoplasm in muscle).

  • The cell membrane provides a protective barrier between the interior of the cell and the extracellular fluid.

  • Genes (located within the nucleus) regulate protein synthesis within the cell.

  • The cytoplasm is the fluid portion of the cell and contains numerous organelles

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Chapter 3 Cell Structure
Chapter 3
Cell Structure

A Closer Look 3.1

Molecular Biology and Exercise Science

Study of molecular structures and events underlying biological processes

– Relationship between genes and cellular characteristics they control

Genes code for specific cellular proteins

– Process of protein synthesis

Exercise training results in modifications in protein synthesis

– Strength training results in increased synthesis of muscle contractile protein

Molecular biology provides “tools” for understanding the cellular response to exercise

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Steps Leading to Protein Synthesis

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation Steps Leading to Protein Synthesis 1. DNA contains information to produce

1. DNA contains

information to

produce proteins.

  • 2. Transcription produces mRNA.

  • 3. mRNA leaves nucleus and binds to ribosome.

  • 4. Amino acids are carried to the

ribosome by tRNA.

  • 5. In translation, mRNA is used to determine

the arrangement of

amino acids in the

polypeptide chain.

Figure 3.2
Figure 3.2

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Cellular Chemical Reactions

Endergonic reactions

– Require energy to be added

– Endothermic

Exergonic reactions

– Release energy

– Exothermic

Coupled reactions

– Liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

The Breakdown of Glucose:

An Exergonic Reaction

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation The Breakdown of Glucose: An Exergonic Reaction Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill

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Figure 3.3
Figure 3.3
Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Coupled Reactions

The energy given off by the exergonic reaction

powers the endergonic reaction

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation Coupled Reactions The energy given off by the exergonic reaction powers

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Figure 3.4
Figure 3.4
Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation

– Removing an electron

Reduction

– Addition of an electron

Oxidation and reduction are always coupled reactions

Often involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms rather than free electrons

– Hydrogen atom contains one electron

– A molecule that loses a hydrogen also loses an electron and therefore is oxidized

Importance of NAD and FAD

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Involving NAD and NADH

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Involving NAD and NADH Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan

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Figure 3.5
Figure 3.5
Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Enzymes

Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions

– Lower the energy of activation

Factors that regulate enzyme activity

– Temperature – pH

Interact with specific substrates

– Lock and key model

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Enzymes Catalyze Reactions

Enzymes lower the energy of activation

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation Enzymes Catalyze Reactions Enzymes lower the energy of activation Copyright ©2009

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Figure 3.6
Figure 3.6
Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

The Lock-and-Key Model of Enzyme Action

  • a) Substrate (sucrose) approaches the active site on the enzyme.

  • b) Substrate fits into the active site, forming enzyme- substrate complex.

  • c) The enzyme

releases the

products (glucose

and fructose).

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation The Lock-and-Key Model of Enzyme Action a) Substrate (sucrose) approaches the

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Figure 3.7
Figure 3.7
Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Clinical Applications 3.1

Diagnostic Value of Measuring Enzyme Activity in the Blood

Damaged cells release enzymes into the blood

– Enzyme levels in blood indicate disease or tissue damage

Diagnostic application

– Elevated lactate dehydogenase or creatine kinase in the blood may indicate a myocardial infarction

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Classification of Enzymes

Oxidoreductases

– Catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions

Transferases

– Transfer elements of one molecule to another

Hydrolases

– Cleave bonds by adding water

Lyases

– Groups of elements are removed to form a double bond or added to a double bond

Isomerases

– Rearrangement of the structure of molecules

Ligases

– Catalyze bond formation between substrate molecules

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Example of the Major Classes of Enzymes

Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation Example of the Major Classes of Enzymes Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill

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Chapter 3 Biological Energy Transformation
Chapter 3
Biological Energy Transformation

Factors That Alter Enzyme Activity

Temperature

– Small rise in body temperature increases enzyme activity

– Exercise results in increased body temperature

pH

– Changes in pH reduces enzyme activity

– Lactic acid produced during exercise

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Chapter 3 Fuels for Exercise
Chapter 3
Fuels for Exercise

Carbohydrates

Glucose

– Blood sugar

Glycogen

– Storage form of glucose in liver and muscle

  • Synthesized by enzyme glycogen synthase

– Glycogenolysis

  • Breakdown of glycogen to glucose

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Chapter 3 Fuels for Exercise
Chapter 3
Fuels for Exercise

Fats

Fatty acids

– Primary type of fat used by the muscle – Triglycerides

  • Storage form of fat in muscle and adipose tissue

  • Breaks down into glycerol and fatty acids

Phospholipids

– Not used as an energy source

Steroids

– Derived from cholesterol – Needed to synthesize sex hormones

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Chapter 3 Fuels for Exercise
Chapter 3
Fuels for Exercise

Protein

Composed of amino acids

Some can be converted to glucose in the liver

– Gluconeogenesis

Others can be converted to metabolic intermediates

– Contribute as a fuel in muscle

Overall, protein is not a primary energy source during exercise

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Chapter 3 Fuels for Exercise
Chapter 3
Fuels for Exercise

In Summary

  • The body uses carbohydrate, fat, and protein nutrients consumed daily to provide the necessary energy to maintain cellular activities both at rest and during exercise. During exercise, the primary nutrients used for energy are fats and carbohydrates, with protein contributing a relatively small amount of the total energy used.

  • Glucose is stored in animal cells as a polysaccharide called glycogen.

  • Fatty acids are the primary form of fat used as an energy source in cells. Fatty acids are stored as triglycerides in muscle and fat cells.

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Chapter 3 High-Energy Phosphates
Chapter 3
High-Energy Phosphates

High-Energy Phosphates

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

– Consists of adenine, ribose, and three linked phosphates

Synthesis

ADP + P i ATP

Breakdown

ATP

ATPase

ADP + P

  • i + Energy

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Chapter 3 High-Energy Phosphates
Chapter 3
High-Energy Phosphates

Structure of ATP

Chapter 3 High-Energy Phosphates Structure of ATP Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan ies, Inc. All Rights

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Figure 3.10
Figure 3.10
Chapter 3 High-Energy Phosphates
Chapter 3
High-Energy Phosphates

Model of ATP as the Universal Energy Donor

Chapter 3 High-Energy Phosphates Model of ATP as the Universal Energy Donor Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill

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Figure 3.11
Figure 3.11
Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Bioenergetics

Formation of ATP

– Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown – Degradation of glucose and glycogen

Glycolysis

– Oxidative formation of ATP Anaerobic pathways – Do not involve O 2 – PC breakdown and glycolysis

Aerobic pathways – Require O 2 – Oxidative phosphorylation

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Anaerobic ATP Production

ATP-PC system

– Immediate source of ATP

PC + ADP

Creatine kinase

ATP + C

Glycolysis

– Glucose 2 pyruvic acid or 2 lactic acid – Energy investment phase

  • Requires 2 ATP

– Energy generation phase

  • Produces 4 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

The Winning Edge 3.1

Does Creatine Supplementation Improve Exercise Performance?

Depletion of PC may limit short-term, high-intensity exercise

Creatine monohydrate supplementation

– Increased muscle PC stores

– Some studies show improved performance in short- term, high-intensity exercise

Inconsistent results may be due to water retention and weight gain

– Increased strength and fat-free mass with resistance training

Creatine supplementation does not appear to pose health risks

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

The Two Phases of Glycolysis

Chapter 3 Bioenergetics The Two Phases of Glycolysis Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan ies, Inc. All

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Figure 3.13
Figure 3.13
Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase

Chapter 3 Bioenergetics Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan ies, Inc. All Rights

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Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15
Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Hydrogen and Electron Carrier Molecules

Transport hydrogens and associated electrons

– To mitochondria for ATP generation (aerobic)

– To convert pyruvic acid to lactic acid (anaerobic)

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)

NAD + 2H + NADH + H +

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

FAD + 2H + FADH 2

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

A Closer Look 3.3

NADH is “Shuttled” into Mitochondria

NADH produced in glycolysis must be converted back to NAD – By converting pyruvic acid to lactic acid – By “shuttling” H + into the mitochondria

A specific transport system shuttles H + across the mitochondrial membrane

– Located in the mitochondrial membrane

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

In Summary

  • The immediate source of energy for muscular contraction is the high-energy phosphate ATP. ATP is degraded via the enzyme ATPase as follows:

ATP

Chapter 3 Bioenergetics In Summary  The immediate source of energy for muscular contraction is the

ATPase

ADP + P

  • i + Energy

  • Formation of ATP without the use of O 2 is termed anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, the production of ATP using O 2 as the final electron acceptor is referred to as aerobic metabolism.

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

In Summary

  • Exercising skeletal muscles produce lactic acid. However, once produced in the body, lactic acid is rapidly converted to its conjugate base, lactate.

  • Muscle cells can produce ATP by any one or a combination of three metabolic pathways: (1) ATP-PC system, (2) glycolysis, (3) oxidative ATP production.

  • The ATP-PC system and glycolysis are two anaerobic metabolic pathways that are capable of producing ATP without O 2 .

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Aerobic ATP Production

Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)

– Pyruvic acid (3 C) is converted to acetyl-CoA (2 C)

  • CO 2 is given off

– Acetyl-CoA combines with oxaloacetate (4 C) to form citrate (6 C)

– Citrate is metabolized to oxaloacetate

  • Two CO 2 molecules given off

– Produces three molecules of NADH and one FADH – Also forms one molecule of GTP

  • Produces one ATP

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

The Three Stages of Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chapter 3 Bioenergetics The Three Stages of Oxidative Phosphorylation Figure 3.17 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan
Figure 3.17
Figure 3.17

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

The Krebs Cycle

Chapter 3 Bioenergetics The Krebs Cycle Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan ies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Figure 3.18
Figure 3.18
Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Fats and Proteins in Aerobic Metabolism

Fats – Triglycerides glycerol and fatty acids – Fatty acids acetyl-CoA

Beta-oxidation

– Glycerol is not an important muscle fuel during exercise

Protein

– Broken down into amino acids

– Converted to glucose, pyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA, and Krebs cycle intermediates

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

Aerobic ATP Production

Electron transport chain

– Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondria

– Electrons removed from NADH and FADH are passed along a series of carriers (cytochromes) to produce ATP

  • Each NADH produces 2.5 ATP

  • Each FADH produces 1.5 ATP

– Called the chemiosmotic hypothesis

– H + from NADH and FADH are accepted by O 2 to form water

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of ATP Formation

Electron transport chain results in pumping of H + ions across inner mitochondrial membrane

– Results in H + gradient across membrane

Energy released to form ATP as H + ions diffuse back across the membrane

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

A Closer Look 3.4

Beta Oxidation is the Process of Converting Fatty Acids to Acetyl-CoA

Breakdown of triglycerides releases fatty acids

Fatty acids must be converted to acetyl-CoA to be used as a fuel

– Activated fatty acid (fatty acyl-CoA) into mitochondrion

– Fatty acid “chopped” into 2 carbon fragments forming acetyl-CoA

Acetyl-CoA enters Krebs cycle and is used for energy

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Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics
Chapter 3 Bioenergetics Beta Oxidation Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan ies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure

Beta Oxidation

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Figure 3.21
Figure 3.21
Chapter 3 Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Bioenergetics

In Summary

  • Oxidative phosphorylation or aerobic ATP production occurs in the mitochondria as a result of a complex interaction between the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. The primary role of the Krebs cycle is to complete the oxidation of substrates and form NADH and FADH to enter the electron transport chain. The end result of the electron transport chain is the formation of ATP and water. Water is formed by oxygen-accepting electrons; hence, the reason we breathe oxygen is to use it as the final acceptor of electrons in aerobic metabolism.

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Chapter 3 Aerobic ATP Tally
Chapter 3
Aerobic ATP Tally

A Closer Look 3.5

A New Look at the ATP Balance Sheet

Historically, 1 glucose produced 38 ATP

Recent research indicates that 1 glucose produces 32 ATP

– Energy provided by NADH and FADH also used to transport ATP out of mitochondria.

– 3 H + must pass through H + channels to produce 1 ATP

– Another H + needed to move the ATP across the mitochondrial membrane

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Chapter 3 Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Chapter 3
Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation

Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation

One mole of ATP has energy yield of 7.3 kcal

32 moles of ATP are formed from one mole of glucose

Potential energy released from one mole of glucose is 686 kcal/mole

32 moles ATP/mole glucose x 7.3 kcal/mole ATP

686 kcal/mole glucose

x 100 = 34%

Overall efficiency of aerobic respiration is 34%

– 66% of energy released as heat

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Chapter 3 Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Chapter 3
Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation

In Summary

  • The aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose results in the production of 32 ATP molecules, whereas the aerobic yield for glycogen breakdown is 33 ATP.

  • The overall efficiency of aerobic of aerobic respiration is approximately 34%, with the remaining 66% of energy being released as heat.

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Chapter 3 Control of Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Control of Bioenergetics

Control of Bioenergetics

Rate-limiting enzymes

– An enzyme that regulates the rate of a metabolic pathway

Modulators of rate-limiting enzymes – Levels of ATP and ADP+P i

  • High levels of ATP inhibit ATP production

  • Low levels of ATP and high levels of ADP+P i stimulate ATP production

– Calcium may stimulate aerobic ATP production

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Chapter 3 Control of Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Control of Bioenergetics

Example of a Rate-Limiting Enzyme

Chapter 3 Control of Bioenergetics Example of a Rate-Limiting Enzyme Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Compan ies,

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Figure 3.22
Figure 3.22
Chapter 3 Control of Bioenergetics
Chapter 3
Control of Bioenergetics

In Summary

  • Metabolism is regulated by enzymatic activity. An enzyme that regulates a metabolic pathway is termed a “rate-limiting” enzyme.

  • The rate-limiting enzyme for glycolysis is phosphofructokinase, while the rate-limiting enzymes for the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase, respectively.

  • In general, cellular levels of ATP and ADP+P i regulate the rate of metabolic pathways involved in the production of ATP. High levels of ATP inhibit further ATP production, while low levels of ATP and high levels of ADP+P i stimulate ATP production. Evidence also exists that calcium may stimulate aerobic energy metabolism.

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Chapter 3 Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production
Chapter 3
Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production

Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production

Energy to perform exercise comes from an interaction between aerobic and anaerobic pathways

Effect of duration and intensity

– Short-term, high-intensity activities

  • Greater contribution of anaerobic energy systems

– Long-term, low to moderate-intensity exercise

  • Majority of ATP produced from aerobic sources

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Chapter 3 Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production
Chapter 3
Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production

In Summary

  • Energy to perform exercise comes from an interaction of anaerobic and aerobic pathways.

  • In general, the shorter the activity (high intensity), the greater the contribution of anaerobic energy production. In contrast, long-term activities (low to moderate intensity) utilize ATP produced from aerobic sources.

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Study Questions

  • 1. List and briefly discuss the functions of the three major components of cell structure.

  • 2. Briefly explain the concept of coupled reactions.

  • 3. Define the following terms: (1) bioenergetics, (2) endergonic reactions, and (3) exergonic reactions.

  • 4. Discuss the role of enzymes as catalysts. What is meant by the expression “energy of activation”?

  • 5. Where do glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation take place in the cell?

  • 6. Define the terms glycogen, glycogenolysis, and glycolysis.

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Study Questions

  • 7. What are the high-energy phosphates? Explain the statement that “ATP is the universal energy donor.”

  • 8. Define the terms aerobic and anaerobic.

  • 9. Briefly discuss the function of glycolysis in bioenergetics. What role does NAD play in glycolysis?

10. Discuss the operation of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain in the aerobic production of ATP. What is the function of NAD and FAD in these pathways?

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Study Questions

  • 11. What is the efficiency of the aerobic degradation of glucose?

  • 12. What is the role of oxygen in aerobic metabolism?

  • 13. What are the rate-limiting enzymes for the following metabolic pathways: ATP-PC system, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain?

  • 14. Briefly discuss the interaction of anaerobic versus aerobic ATP production during exercise.

  • 15. Discuss the chemiosmotic theory of ATP production.

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Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Study Questions

  • 16. List and define the six classes of enzymes identified by the International Union of Biochemistry.

  • 17. Briefly discuss the impact of changes in both temperature and pH on enzyme function.

  • 18. Discuss the relationship between lactic acid and lactate.

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