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ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

WHEEL BALANCING
Regular tyre maintenance and wheel alignment reduces fuel consumption and prevents undue tyre wear. Worn shock absorbers and weak springs can also contribute to the waste of fuel. Correctly aligned wheels extend tyre life and improve fuel efficiency They also help safe steering of the vehicle and comfortable ride Wheel out of balance leads to hard steering, rough riding and rapid tire wear Static balance & Dynamic balance

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

STATIC BALANCE
A wheel that is statically out of balance is heavier in one section than in another. A statically balanced wheel may not be dynamically balanced

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

DYNAMIC BALANCE
To check dynamic balance ,the wheel is spun and indicating device in the wheel balancer indicates the place and appx. amount the dynamically out of balance. Dynamic unbalance causes the wheels to wobble at or above a particular speed. No more than 8 ounces should be added to a rim

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

WHEELS

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Function Interpose a cushion between the road and car wheels - shocks To carry load of the vehicle Provide frictional contact between wheels and road, so that good traction is secured Desirable tire properties
Load carrying capacity
Must be of max. strength to take weight ,road shocks etc. Must be strong enough to resist local deformation

TYRES

Cushioning
Should be able to absorb high frequency vibration set up by the road surface

Wheel balance
Must be properly balanced

Non skidding
Good thread pattern giving nice gripping

Must be easily detachable with minimum effort Power consumption


Synthetic tyre consume more power than natural

Should be easy to clean and of good external appearance


ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

TYPES OF TYRES
Solid Pneumatic
With inner tube Tubeless

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CONVENTIONAL TYRE WITH TUBE


Consists of two main parts Carcass Basic structure taking mainly the various loads Consists of number of plies wound in a particular fashion from the cords of rayon or any other materials Vulcanizing Process of heating the rubber under pressure Number of layers of cord varies Passenger car 4, Truck -14 Tread - Part of the tyre which contacts the road surface Ribs provide traction edges required for gripping Grooves provide passage for the quick escape of any foreign matters A valve stem For inflating or deflating the tube

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

TUBE
Tube flexible Amount of air pressure depends on the type of tire and operation Passenger cars : 22 30 psi Trucks & buses : 100 psi Importance of maintaining tyre pressure
Under inflation severe flexing of tire plies, side walls, excessive heat, premature failure Over inflation overloads the components of the tyre, causes excessive tread wear and hard riding

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

TUBELESS TYRE
No separate tube Advantages
Lesser unsprung weight Better cooling Slower leakage of air Simpler assembly Improved safety

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Puncture sealing tire/tubes Tube : Material : butyl

- Coating of plastic material,hardens to seal


the hole,

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CARCASS TYPE
Cross ply or bias ply
Ply cords are woven at an angle (30 40) to the tyre axis Two layers run in opposite direction

Radial ply
Ply cords run in radial direction Number of break strips in circumferential direction to provide lateral stability

Belted bias ply


Combination of above two types

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

COMPARISON OF RADIAL AND BIAS PLY TIRES


The side walls of radial ply tyres can bend readily.
Shock absorbing deflection is about 25 % more than the cross ply tyres

Lower rolling resistance lower sidewall rigidity- lower fuel consm. Longer tread life While taking turns, a radial tyre has less tendency to lift off from the road

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

More road contact for radial tyres Breaker strips

Heavier steering at low speeds Due to the highly flexible sidewalls ,their bulge appears due to which tyre seems to be under inflated

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

TYRE SECTION
Aspect ratio = Tyre section height/ Tyre section width Lower aspect ratio Advantages better load carrying capacity Less wear better performance at high speed

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

TYRE DESIGNATIONS
Tire Size : 8 x 15 (m xn) n : Diameter of the rim, m : m inches larger in radius than rim Width, speed rating,diameter (SR upto 170kmph, HR upto 210 kmph, VR above 210 kmph), 145 SR -13 Width, rim diameter, ply rating 9.00 20 -12 Load/size relationship, tyre construction, aspect ratio, Rim size in inches FR 78 -15

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Lighting system Ignition system Starting system Generator

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

BATTERY
Heart of the electrical system Lead acid type , consisting of 3 or 6 cells, 12V Positives plates consists of grid filled with paste of lead peroxide Negative plates consists of grid filled with paste of lead Grid made of an allot of lead and antimony Post strap to hold plates Plates are separated by separators
Porous rubber, perforated cellulose

Electrolyte

Sulfuric acid
Battery case Moulded from ebonite Or bituminous

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CHEMICAL REACTIONS
H2SO4 = H2 (pos) + SO4 (neg.) H2 +PbO2 = H2O +PbO (Pos) PbO +SO4 + PbSO4 (Pos) Pb +SO4 + PbSO4 (Neg.)

Charged
Lead Peroxide PbO2 + Pos

Discharged
Lead Energy Sulfate PbSO4 + Q Neg.

Sulfuric Spongy Lead Water acid lead Sulfate 2H2SO4 + Pb = PbSO4 + 2H2O + Electrolyte Neg. Pos. Water

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

BATTERY CAPACITY
Maximum current that a cell can furnish is dependent on the area of plate surface in contact Standard Capacity rating 20 hour rating in ampere hours (quantity of energy furnished by a current of 1 amp for 1 hour) Indicates the lighting ability of the battery Discharging the battery at a current rate equal to 1/20 of the manufacturer's ampere hour rating
6 V, 120 amp hour 6 amp for 20 hrs before its terminal voltage drops to 5.25 V 12 amp 10hrs 3 amp 40hrs

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Measure of ability of the battery to furnish electrical energy to the starting motor at low temperatures (Cold rating at F) Indication of the cold weather starting ability of the battery By the number of minutes required for a battery to drop to a terminal voltage of 1 V per cell when continuously discharged at a rate of 150 amp(12 V) The terminal voltage 5 seconds after the beginning of such a the discharge

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Hydrometer To measure the sp.gravity of the electrolyte Reading Condition


1.260 1.280 1.230 1.250 1.20 1.220 1.170- 1.190 1.110 1.130 Full charge charge charge Very little life Completely discharged

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

BATTERY LIFE
Depends on the material Way of use Overcharging Faulty regulator/generator dry water Under charging Sulfated Sulfate crystals causes plates to buckle and break Mechanical breakage Excessive loads Starting motor Addition of distilled water

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

BATTERY CHARGING
Charging methods
Slow charge method Small current for long time Quick charge method Large current for short time

Rate of current varies with the time of charging Dynamo speed also varies Dynamo out put must be regulated by automatic means, so that voltage is maintained at the value required by the battery condition
Voltage regulator

Connection of dynamo with battery (during starting)


Cut out or Reverse- current relay

Automatic control in charging system is essential

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CHARGING CIRCUIT
Responsible to keep the battery charged for regular supply of electric current to various electrical systems. DC Generator Battery Ampere-meter Cut out/Voltage/Current Regulator Necessity of regulators

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

DC GENERATORS

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

REGULATORS

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CUT OUT (REVERSE CURRENT DELAY)


Cut out unit consists two coils
Fine wire voltage or shunt coil Thick wire current or series coil

The value of the dynamo voltage at which the cut out contact close is usually between 12.7 to 13.3 V

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Causes generator to provide a charging rate in reverse ratio to the state of charge of battery Variable resistance increases or decreases the effective resistance in generator field Battery (full charge) & No electrical load resistance remains in the generator field Battery (Partial charge) & with load resistance is kept only for a small portion of time

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CURRENT/VOLTAGE REGULATOR

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CURRENT/VOLTAGE REGULATOR

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CURRENT/VOLTAGE REGULATOR

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CURRENT/VOLTAGE REGULATOR
When the load requirement is high and the battery is low, the current regulator operates to prevent the generator output from exceeding the safe maximum When load requirement is reduced and the battery come up to charge, Voltage regulator operates Current and voltage regulator will not operates simultaneously.

ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING