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I HC QUC GIA H NI TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN

NH HNG CA PHN BN N MI TRNG T

Sinh vin: Lp:

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 Cng ngh mi trng

GV hng dn: PGS.TS. L Vn Thin

H NI - 2011

Mc lc
I. 1. a. b. c. d. 2. 3. II. 1. 2. a. b. c. 3. M u ............................................................................................................ 3 Gii thiu chung v phn bn .................................................................... 3 Phn loi phn bn .................................................................................. 3 Tc dng ca phn bn ........................................................................... 6 S tn lu ca phn bn trong t ...................................................... 10 S chuyn ha ca phn bn trong t ............................................... 11 Tnh hnh sn xut v s dng phn bn Vit Nam........................... 12 Khi qut cc vn mi trng do phn bn gy ra .......................... 18 nh hng ca phn bn ti mi trng t............................................ 20 Thoi ha t do phn bn ...................................................................... 20 nhim t do phn bn ......................................................................... 25 nhim t do phn ha hc .............................................................. 25 nhim t do phn hu c ................................................................ 29 nhim nguyn t vi lng ................................................................. 32 nh hng ca phn bn ln sinh vt t .............................................. 37

III. Kt lun ......................................................................................................... 40 IV. Ti liu tham kho ....................................................................................... 44

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

I.

M u
1. Gii thiu chung v phn bn

Nng nghip hin nay phi sn xut mt lng ln thc n khng ch p ng nhu cu trong nc m cn phc v vic xut khu. Trong khi , din tch t trng trt tnh theo u ngi ngy cng gim do dn s gia tng v cng v s pht trin thnh ph, k ngh v vic s dng cho nhng mc ch phi nng nghip. Do , ngi ta cn phi thm canh mnh hn, dn ti vic lm xo trn dng nng lng v chu trnh vt cht trong h sinh thi nng nghip. Mt trong cc bin php thm canh c s dng nhiu nht l tng cng s dng cc loi phn bn thc y s sinh trng v pht trin ca thc vt. a. Phn loi phn bn

Phn bn c a vo t c tc dng trc tip ci thin dinh dng ca cy trng v ci thin ph nhiu ca t. Phn bn c chia lm hai nhm chnh: Nhm phn khong: bao gm phn N, P, K, Mg, phn Bo, Mo v phn hn hp.

Hnh 1. Phn khong (phn v c)


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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Nhm phn hu c: bao gm phn chung, phn bc, phn than bn, phn xanh v phn rc.

Hnh 2. M hnh phn hu c t bn v ph phm Mt s ngun nguyn liu dng lm phn bn hu c: Rc hoai mc: Rc sinh hot sau khi loi b nhng vt rn nh snh si, thy tinh, kim loi, ni lng c th cho mc lm phn bn. Phn xanh: mt s cy v c di c hm lng dinh dng cao c th cho hoai mc lm phn bn. B u phng, u nnh, ht bng vi c hm lng dinh dng cao. Bt mu ng vt, bt xng, ph phm t cc l m, cc nh my ch bin hp l nhng ngun nguyn liu c hm lng dinh dng cao c th x l lm phn bn hu c. Phn chung: Cc ngun phn thi t gia sc, gia cm phn ln c hm lng dinh dng cao nn l mt trong nhng nguyn liu ch yu c dng lm

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

phn bn hu c. Tuy nhin nn lu n cch cho hoai mc cn thit phi loi b c mm bnh thng c trong phn chung. Mt ca: C th dng lm phn hu c nhng phi cho hoai trc khi a xung t trnh hin tng tranh th m ca cy trng trong qu trnh phn hy. V ngha dinh dng, phn bn c chia thnh phn c tc dng trc tip cung cp cc cht dinh dng cho cy v phn bn c tc dng gin tip c s dng ci thin tnh cht t (vi). Cc loi phn c s dng nhiu nht l: Phn m: cung cp N cho cy trng. Cc loi phn m hay dng gm: Phn m amoni (l cc mui ca NH4+), phn ure (NH2)2CO, phn nitrat (l cc mui ca NO3-). Phn ln: cung cp P cho cy trng di dng H(PO4)2- hoc H2PO4-. Cc loi phn ln ph bin l supe photphat n (cha 14 20% P2O5, hn hp gm Ca(H2PO4)2 v CaSO4) v supe photphat kp (cha 40 50% P2O5 vi thnh phn l Ca(H2PO4)2). Phn kali: cung cp cho cy nguyn t K di dng K+, thnh phn ch yu l KCl v K2SO4.

Hnh 3. Mt s loi phn bn ha hc (t tri qua): 1. Phn m 2. Phn ln 3. Phn Kali 4. Phn tng hp
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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Ngoi ra, hin nay cc loi phn tng hp cng ang c dng ngy cng ph bin. Phn tng hp l loi phn c t 2 dng cht tr ln. Cc loi phn thng dng hin nay l: DAP, NPK 16-16-18, NPK 20-20-15, Phn tng hp s dng tin li hn phn n, tc dng tng ng nh phn n khi bn cng lng nguyn cht. i vi cy la ch dng trong giai on u 20-25 sau khi s, giai on sau nn dng phn n ur, kali bn hoc phun Nitrat kali qua l nng 1-2% trc khi tr 1 tun. Bng 1. T l % dng cht c trong phn tng hp % dng cht m DAP NPK 16-16-8 NPK 20-20-0 NPK 20-20-15 b. 18 16 20 20 Tc dng ca phn bn Ln 46 16 20 20 Kali 0 8 0 15

Loi phn

Phn m thc y cy trng tng trng mnh, kch thch la chi, b l pht trin v xanh m, tng s ht trn bng, tng t l ht chc v hm lng Protein trong ht. Thiu m: cy pht trin ci cc, ny chi km, l nh v ngn v sau chuyn sang mu vng nht, cy ln, bng ngn v cho nng sut thp. Tha m: thn l pht trin mnh, cy mm yu d b lp v ng trong ma ma (v h thu), nh hng n thi gian sinh trng ko di, tr v chn chm, su bnh pht trin mnh.

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Phn ln gip cho cy la c b r pht trin mnh, tng hiu qu s dng phn m, sm phc hi sau khi cy, cho nhiu ht chc v phm cht cao, la chn sm v u. Ngoi ra ln cn c tc dng h phn to iu kin cy la pht trin tt. Thiu ln: cy la pht trin ci cc, n bi km. L la nh v ngn v gi chuyn sang mu mu v mu ta, s lng ht trn bng thp v nng sut gim. Phn kali xc tin qu trnh quang hp, hnh thnh v vn chuyn cc cht dinh dng, cht bt ng trong cy. Kali gip cy cng cp chng ng, gim tc dng vn lng, vn l do bn tha m, tng kh nng chng chu vi su bnh, tng phm cht go. Thiu kali: Cy c cc triu chng sau: Cy sinh trng ci cc, hn ch ny chi, cy la ln l la xe v c mu xanh m. L la i khi xut hin nhiu m nu trn b mt l la. La d b nhim su bnh, nng sut v phm cht go gim.

Thc tin Vit Nam v nhiu nc trn th gii cho thy, phn bn ha hc ng gp vo vic tng tng sn lng hn nhiu so vi tng din tch v tng v. Kt qu theo di nhiu nm Vit Nam cng cho thy, c bn 1kg N s bi thu t 10 15kg thc. Ngoi ra phn v c cn cung cp cc nguyn t vi lng cho cy trng. Tc dng ca mt s nguyn t vi lng i vi cy trng1:

Khi dng khi nim nguyn t a lng hay nguyn t vi lng, ngi ta cn c vo hm lng ca chng trong t hoc trong cc c th sng. Thng thng ngi ta gi nhng nguyn t cn thit cho c th sng vi mt lng nh nhng chng thc hin nhng chc nng sinh l quan trng l cc nguyn t vi lng. V d: Fe v Mg. i vi t th hai nguyn t ny c xp vo dng a lng nhng trong cc c th sng chng thuc dng vi lng, tham gia vo thnh phn clorophyl.

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Canxi (Ca): Canxi c vai tr quan trng trong vic hnh thnh t bo, hnh thnh cc m c quan ca cy. Chng c ngha quan trng trong vic trung ha chua ca t cng nh vic kh c do s c mt ca cc cation (Na+, Al3+ ...) trong nguyn sinh cht ca t bo. Cng vi P, Ca l nguyn t hng u tng nng sut v cht lng cy h u. Khi thiu Ca th nh sinh trng v chp r b nh hng nghim trng do cc m phn sinh ngng phn chia, sinh trng b c ch. Triu chng c trng ca cy thiu Ca l cc l mi ra b d dng, chp l un cu, r km pht trin, ngn, ha nhy v cht. Ca l cht khng di ng trong cy nn biu hin thiu Ca thng th hin cc l non trc. Magi (Mg): Magi l thnh phn quan trng ca phn t dip lc nn n quyt nh hot ng quang hp ca cy. y cng l cht hot ha ca nhiu enzym rt quan trng i vi qu trnh h hp v trao i cht ca cy. Mg rt cn i vi cc cy ngn ngy nh la, ng, u, khoai ty... Mg s lm tng hm lng tinh bt trong sn phm. Thiu Mg lm chm qu trnh ra hoa, cy thng b vng l do thiu dip lc. Triu chng in hnh l cc gn l cn xanh trong khi phn tht l bin vng. Xut hin cc m hoi t thng t cc l pha di, l trng thnh ln l non, v Mg l nguyn t linh ng, cy c th dng li t cc l gi. St (Fe): Vai tr quan trng nht ca st l hot ha cc enzym ca qu trnh quang hp v h hp. N khng tham gia vo thnh phn dip lc nhng c nh hng quyt nh ti s tng hp dip lc trong cy. Hm lng st trong l cy c quan h mt thit n hm lng dip lc trong chng. S thiu ht Fe thng xy ra trn nn t c vi. L cy thiu st s chuyn t mu xanh sang vng hay trng phn tht l, trong khi gn l vn cn xanh. Triu chng thiu st xut hin trc ht cc l non, sau n l gi, v Fe khng di ng t l gi v l non.
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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Mangan (Mn): Mn l nguyn t hot ha rt nhiu enzym ca cc qu trnh quang hp, h hp v c nh nit phn t. Triu chng in hnh khi cy thiu Mn l phn gn l v mch dn bin vng, nhn ton b l c mu xanh sng, v sau xut hin cc m vng phn tht l v pht trin thnh cc vt hoi t trn l. Nu thiu nghim trng s gy kh v cht l. Triu chng thiu Mn c th biu hin l gi hay l non ty theo tng loi cy. ng (Cu): ng l nguyn t hot ha nhiu enzym ca qu trnh tng hp protein, axit nucleic v dinh dng nit ca cy. Hin tng thiu ng thng xy ra trn nhng vng t m ly, rung ly tht. Cy trng thiu ng thng hay c hin tng chy gm (rt hay xy ra cy n qu), km theo cc vt hoi t trn l hay qu. Vi cy h ha tho, nu thiu ng s lm mt mu xanh phn ngn l. Bo (B): B l mt trong nhng nguyn t vi lng c hiu qu nht vi cy trng. B tc ng trc tip n qu trnh phn ha t bo, trao i hocmon, trao i N, nc v cht khong khc, nh hng r rt nht ca B l ti m phn sinh nh sinh trng v qu trnh phn ha hoa, th phn, th tinh, hnh thnh qu. Khi thiu B th chi ngn b cht, cc chi bn cng thui dn, hoa khng hnh thnh, t l u qu km, qu d rng, r sinh trng km, l b dy ln . Molypden (Mo): Mo c vai tr rt quan trng trong vic trao i nit, tng hp Vitamin C v hnh thnh lc lp ca cy. Thiu Mo s c ch dinh dng m ca cy trng ni chung, c bit ca cc cy h u. Km (Zn): Zn tham gia hot ha khong 70 enzym ca nhiu hot ng sinh l, sinh ha ca cy.
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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Thiu Zn s gy ri lon trao i auxin nn c ch sinh trng, l cy b bin dng, ngn, nh v xon, t ngn v bin dng Tc dng ca phn hu c l lm tng nng sut cy trng, gip cy trng hp thu dinh dng tt hn, tng hiu lc phn ha hc, ci to t, gi pH t mc trung ha hp l; tng cht mn cho t, cha cc kch thch t gip cho r cy pht trin nhanh hn; cha cc cht khng sinh, cc vi sinh vt i khng hay cc vitamin tng kh nng chng chu ca cy trng trong nhng iu kin bt li. c. S tn lu ca phn bn trong t

Khi bn phn vo t c 5 qu trnh sau xy ra: Thc vt v ng vt hp th t gi li Ra tri v mt cht dinh dng do tiu nc Mt dinh dng do bc hi vo khi quyn Mt dng rn theo b mt xi mn v ra tri

S tn lu ca phn bn trong t khc nhau tu thuc loi phn s dng. i vi phn m: phn ln phn m d tan, ngoi phn cy trng s dng, phn cn li trong t tham gia vo cc qu trnh chuyn ho khc nhau trong t v c gi li ch yu dng NO3- v NH4+. NH4+ c keo t gi, trong iu kin oxi ho NH4+ d dng b nitrat ho hnh thnh NO3-. Tuy nhin do NO3- t c keo t gi v s hp ph ho hc xy ra vi ion ny rt yu nn qu trnh ra tri theo nc mt v thm su, cng vi qu trnh phn nitrat ho lm hm lng NO3- trong t gim nhiu sau mt nm canh tc. i vi phn ln: khc vi phn m, phn ln t b mt i trong qu trnh s dng. Ngoi phn P cy ht v mt phn nh d ho tan b mt i theo dng

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

chy, phn ln ln tn ti trong t dng cc hp cht kh tan vi Ca, Al v Fe. Ngoi ra, trong iu kin t vng nhit i chua nhiu, mt phn P b gi cht do hp ph l ho hc bi cc keo dng. y chnh l l do ti sao hm lng ln tng s trong mt s loi t tng ln nhiu trong nhng nm gn y do bn phn ln lin tc. Tn d ca P trong t tuy khng nh hng xu n mi trng, nhng s c nh ln qu mnh ca mt s loi t lm gim hiu sut s dng ca phn ln. i vi phn kali: Khc vi phn ln, phn kali d tan hn. Tn d ca kali trong t khng gy c cho t v mi trng. Kali tn lu ny c th tn ti trong t di cc dng khc nhau tu thuc vo lng tn d v loi t. Mt phn kali tn lu c th ho tan tn ti trong nc, phn kali ny d b ra tri khi t hoc d dng c cy hp th. Phn ln kali tn lu c keo t hp ph dng kali trao i hoc kali nm su trong khe h gia cc lp tinh th ca keo st. c bit cc t c cha nhiu hydromica s hp ph v c nh kali cng mnh. Khc vi ln, kali sau khi c t hp ph hoc c nh trong cc khe h ca keo st c th chuyn thnh kali d ho tan v kali trao i cung cp cho cy. d. S chuyn ha ca phn bn trong t

Phn bn trong t chu tc ng ca nhng chuyn ho chnh sau: Qu trnh in li, v d s in ly ca amonisunphat : (NH4)2SO4 2NH4+ + SO42-

Qu trnh ho tan, v d s ho tan ca supe photphat Ca(H2PO4)2 + H2O Ca2++ 2H2PO4- + H2O

Qu trnh thu phn, v d s thu phn ure hnh thnh NH3


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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

CO(NH2)2 + 2H2O (NH4)2CO3 Qu trnh nitrat ho Nitrosomonas 2NH4+ + 3O2

(NH4)2CO3

2NH4+ + CO32-

2NO2- + 4H+ + 2H2O + Q Nitrosomonas

2NO2- + O2 Qu trnh phn nitrat ho

2NO3- + Q

NO3- NO2- NO N2O N2 Qu trnh hp ph trao i, v d s hp ph trao i kali H+ + 3KCl Ca2+ K+ Keo K+ t K+

Keo t

+ HCl + CaCl2

Qu trnh kt ta Ca(H2PO4)2 + Ca(HCO3)2 2CaHPO4 + 2H2CO3

2.

Tnh hnh sn xut v s dng phn bn Vit Nam

Hin nay, cc nc pht trin lng phn bn ha hc s dng c xu hng gim xung thay vo l cc loi phn vi sinh bo v mi trng. Tuy nhin th cc nc ang pht trin trong c Vit Nam, phn v c vn c s dng kh nhiu nh vo u th v chi ph v nhng hiu qu nhanh chng tc ng ln cy trng. Nm 1997 bn 126,1 kg/ha, xp x mc trung bnh ca th gii, nhng cn thp hn nhiu

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

so vi Hn Quc, Nht Bn v Trung Quc. Tuy nhin mt s vng thm canh tng v cao th lng phn bn c th c s dng nhiu hn. So vi cc nc s dng nhiu phn bn trn th gii, Vit Nam mi s dng phn bn mc 2% trong chi ph u vo ca sn xut nng nghip, tuy nhin y cng l mt khon chi ph tng i ln. Nhu cu phn bn hng nm ca Vit Nam khong 7,5 8 triu tn phn bn cc loi trong loi phn NPK c nhu cu cao nht khong 2,5 triu tn/nm, k n l phn ur 2 triu tn nm, phn ln 1,3 triu tn/nm.

Hnh 4. C cu nhu cu tng loi phn bn Nhp khu vn ng vai tr ln trong vic m bo ngun cung trong nc. Nhn qua s liu v nhp khu phn bn t nm 2001 n nay c th thy xu hng chung l tng. T nm 2005, lng phn bn c gim so vi trc l nh kh nng sn xut phn bn trong nc thay th c mt phn lng phn bn nhp khu. Tuy nhin, gi tr nhp khu phn bn c tc tng kh mnh. Nht l trong 9 thng u nm 2008, c nc nhp v 2,64 triu tn phn bn cc loi nhng gi tr tng n 102,5% so vi cng k nm 2007.

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Hnh 5. Gi tr nhp khu phn bn trong giai on 2001-2007

Hnh 6. C cu phn bn nhp khu nm 2007 Do lng s dng nhiu nn cc loi phn cha cc nguyn t a lng chim hu nh ton b lng phn bn s dng v cng c cp nhiu nht khi ni v ngnh
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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

phn bn. Trong nhm phn a lng , phn m c lng s dng cao nht, k n l phn ln cui cng l phn kali. Mc d xt v mc cn thit, cy trng cn nhiu kali hn m hay ln nhng do trong t c tng i nhiu K hn N v P nn lng nhu cu phn Kali thp hn hai loi cn li. Nu tnh trn mi ha: nm 1970 tng lng N, P, K bn 51,3 kg/ha (t l N: P2O5: K2O = 1,0: 0,61: 0,24); bnh qun nm t 1976 - 1980 bn 36,5 kg/ha (t l N: P2O5: K2O = 1,0: 0,36: 0,15); bnh qun t nm 1981 - 1985 bn 62,7 kg/ha (t l N: P2O5: K2O=1,0: 0,29: 0,07). So vi bnh qun th gii vo thi gian y l 95,5 kg/ha (t l N: P2O5: K2O = 1,0: 0,8: 0,35) th mc bn v lng P, K cn rt thp. trung du v min ni li cng thp. Ti Vit Nam, trong nhng nm gn y, xu th s dng phn bn cng c kh nhiu thay i. Do yu cu cn b sung ng b cc cht dinh dng cho cy nn ngi nng dn chuyn sang s dng phn tng hp thay cho phn n. V vy, phn NPK, SA2, DAP3 ang c xu hng s dng tng ln cn phn ur ang c chiu hng gim trong c cu phn bn s dng ca nc ta hng nm. Hng nm, Vit Nam cn nhp khu n 50% nhu cu, trong phn DAP, kali, SA phi nhp khu 100%. Sn xut trong nc ch c kh nng cung cp 3 loi phn: Phn m: do hai nh my m H Bc c cng sut 175.000 tn ur/nm v nh my m Ph M cng sut 740.000 tn ur/nm.Hin c hai nh my ny c kh nng p ng c mt na nhu cu m trong nc. Phn ln: supe ln do 2 n v CTCP Supe Photphat v ha cht Lm Thao cng sut 880.000 tn/nm v nh my Supe Photphat Long Thnh cng sut 180.000 tn/nm. Phn ln nung chy do CTCP Phn ln Ninh Bnh cng sut 300.000 tn/nm v CTCP Phn ln nung chy Vn in cng sut 300.000

Phn SA: Phn Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 Phn DAP: Phn Diammonium phosphate

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

tn/nm. Nng lc sn xut phn ln trong nc p ng c phn ln nhu cu. Phn NPK phi trn: s lng cc nh my c cung cp phn NPK trong nc kh nhiu v c kh nng cung cp 4,2 triu tn NPK. V c bn, lng cung trong nc kh nng p ng nhu cu phn NPK. Hin nay, mt s doanh nghip xut khu loi phn ny sang cc th trng ln cn l Lo v Campuchia.

Hnh 7. Bn phn cho la ti Vit Nam Pha Nam l th trng tiu th phn bn nhiu nht nn s lng cc doanh nghip ti th trng ny cng nhiu hn pha Bc. Yu t cnh tranh ti hai th trng ny kh khc nhau. th trng min Nam, nng sn sn xut ra ch yu xut khu nn nng sut v phm cht nng sn u c quan tm do ngi nng dn thng chn nhng loi phn c cht lng; nhng sn phm phn bn no khng nh c uy tn v cht lng s c tiu th nhiu th trng pha Nam. Cn ti pha Bc, cc

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

sn phm phn bn s cnh tranh vi nhau v gi do ngi nng dn t quan tm n phm cht ca nng sn nn loi no c gi thnh r th s c xu hng c la chn nhiu hn. y cng l mt phn l do ti sao tnh trng phn bn gi xy ra kh thng xuyn ti khu vc pha Bc. Vit Nam hin c khong hn 100 doanh nghip u mi v cc thnh phn kinh t tham gia vo mng li sn xut, kinh doanh v tiu th phn bn. Cc loi phn bn trn th trng Vit Nam c chia thnh 6 loi chnh, bao gm: Phn n, phn NPK, phn hu c khong, phn vi sinh, phn trung lng vi lng v cc loi phn khc. Trong , cht lng ca cc loi phn N, P, K, phn hu c sinh hc v phn hu c khong ang l vn ni cm v cng gp phn lm nhim mi trng. V l do li nhun, cc cht trn khng c tinh khit. Do chng cha nhiu tp cht kim loi v kim c v t di ng trong t . Chng c th tch t cc tng mt ca t ni c r cy. Cc loi phn khong c s dng rt nhiu vi lng s dng cao gp nhiu ln so vi lng khuyn co. iu tra kho st ti Lm ng cho thy mc s dng thng cao hn t 30 40%, c bit ln hn ti 60% i vi phn N, P, K. Bn cnh phn bn ha hc, nng dn cng s dng lng ln phn hu c. Phn hu c c s dng nhiu c v s lng v chng loi: Ch tnh ring thnh ph H Ni, hng nm lng phn Bc thi ra khong 550.000 tn, trong 2/3 c dng bn cho cy trng gy nhim mi trng t v nng sn. Huyn T Lim nhiu h nng dn phi dng phn Bc ti vi liu lng 7 12 tn / ha. Do vy, 1 lt nc mng mng khu trng rau c ti 360 E.Coli, nc ging cng cng l 20, cn trong t n 2.105/100g t. BSCL, phn ti c coi l ngun thc n cho c. Phn Bc v phn chung ti cng c trc tip xung ao h, mng lch nui c.

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Ti Lm ng, phn c vn c s dng cho trng rau v trng hoa (4.5 6.5 tn/ha/v) d c khuyn co khng nn s dng. Ngoi ra cn s dng cc loi phn hu c khc nh phn chung, phn d, cc loi phn hu c ch bin vi lng bn cao (trung bnh 15 20 tn/ha/v). Mt c im quan trng ca nc ta l kh hu nhit i nng m, ma nhiu, kh nng ho tan phn bn cao, kh nng thm cht c vo t theo dng chy cng cao. Mt khc, lng phn bn s dng khng ng u, thng tp trung vng thm canh cao trong s tp trung c bit l khu vc canh tc rau, hoa qu v la. Kt qu nh gi nh hng ca vic s dng phn bn n ph ca t Vit Nam mt s vng xc nh r rng l phn bn gp phn tch cc bo v ph nhiu cho t ngho dinh dng. Trong t, ring lng phn hu c v lng m vn cn b st gim nhiu, ln v khu cng gim. Hin tng chng t cha c c s m bo cn bng dinh dng cho t do vy nhu cu phn bn chc s cn tng cao hn na. 3. Khi qut cc vn mi trng do phn bn gy ra

Vic s dng phn bn trn lan cng lm xut hin cc mt tri v vn mi trng, nht l khi chng c s dng khng hp l. Hin tng xy ra l: t b chua ha, hm lng cc cht vi gim, kt cu t km i, hot ng ca cc vi sinh vt trong t gim, c s tch ng nitrat, amoni, kim loi nng mt s vng. Khng phi tt c lng phn bn trn c cho vo t, c phun trn l s c cy hp th ht. Theo s liu tnh ton ca cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc nng ha hc Vit Nam, hin nay hiu sut s dng phn m mi ch t t 30-45%, ln t 4045% v kali t 40-50%, ty theo chn t, ging cy trng, thi v, phng php bn, loi phn bn Nh vy, cn 60-65% lng m tng ng vi 1,77 triu tn ur, 5560% lng ln tng ng vi 2,07 triu tn supe ln v 55-60% lng kali tng ng vi 344 nghn tn Kali clorua (KCl) c bn vo t nhng cha c cy trng s dng.

18

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Trong s phn bn cy khng s dng c, mt phn cn c gi li trong cc keo t l ngun dinh dng d tr cho v sau; mt phn b ra tri theo nc mt v chy vo cc ao, h, sng sui gy nhim ngun nc mt; mt phn b trc di (thm rt theo chiu dc) xung tng nc ngm v mt phn b bay hi do tc ng ca nhit hay qu trnh phn nitrat ha gy nhim khng kh. Phn bn i vo ngun nc mt gy nh hng xu nh: Gy ph ha nc v tng nng nitrat trong nc. Nng nitrat trong nc cao (do phn m cha nitrat) lm nh hng n sc khe con ngi. Phn bn b ra tri theo chiu dc xung tng nc ngm ch yu l phn m v cc loi phn ln v kali d dng c gi li trong keo t. Ngoi phn m i vo ngun nc ngm cn c cc loi ha cht ci to t nh vi, thch cao, hp cht lu hunh,.. Nu nh phn m lm tng nng nitrat trong nc ngm th cc loi ha cht ci to t lm tng mn, cng ngun nc. Phn bn trong qu trnh bo qun hoc bn vi trn b mt gy nhim khng kh do b nhit lm bay hi kh amoniac c mi khai, l hp cht c hi cho ngi v ng vt. Mc gy nhim khng kh trng hp ny nh, hp khng ng k so vi mc gy nhim ca cc nh my sn xut phn m nu nh khng x l trit . Phn bn gy nhim mi trng l do lng d tha cc cht dinh dng do cy trng cha s dng c hoc do bn khng ng cch Nguyn nhn chnh l do cha nm bt c s lng , cht lng v cch bn phn ng cch cy ci hp th. Phn bn v c c th cha mt s cht gy c hi cho cy trng v cho con ngi nh cc kim loi nng, cc cht kch thch sinh trng khi vt qu mc quy nh. Cc yu t vi lng nh ng (Cu), Km (Zn) rt cn thit cho cy trng sinh trng v pht trin v c kh nng nng cao kh nng chng chu cho cy trng. Tuy nhin khi lm dng cc yu t trn li tr thnh nhng loi kim loi nng khi vt qu mc s dng cho php v gy c hi cho con ngi v gia sc.

19

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Theo quy nh hin hnh, cc loi kim loi nng c trong phn bn gm Asen (As), Ch (Pb), Thy ngn (Hg) v Cadimium (Cd). Phn bn c sn xut t ngun phn ln nhp khu t cc nc vng Nam M hoc Chu Phi thng c hm lng Cd cao mc trn 200 ppm. Theo quy nh, mt s cht kch thch sinh trng nh axit giberillic (GA3), NAA, mt s cht kch thch sinh trng c ngun gc t thc vt c php s dng trong phn bn kch thch qu trnh tng trng, tng t l u hoa, u qu, tng qu trnh trao i cht ca cy trng, tng hiu sut s dng phn bn lm tng nng sut, phm cht cy trng. Mc quy nh hin hnh cho php tng hm lng cc cht kch thch sinh trng khng c vt qu 0,5% khi lng c trong phn bn. Nh my sn xut phn bn nu khng c bin php x l nhim trit s gy nhim n mi trng xung quanh. y l nguyn nhn gy nh hng n mi trng tp trung v e da trc tip nht, tuy nhin mt tnh hung c nh, cn c vo cc quy chun, tiu chun mi trng m nh qun l c bin php c th. II.

nh hng ca phn bn ti mi trng t


Trong cc vn mi trng gy ra do nn cng nghip hin i, c mt phn ln

l do s dng phn bn khng ng k thut, khng hp v sinh v vt qu mc cho php. Phn bn l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng lm tng nng sut cy trng, nhng cng c nhng mt tri, c bit nhng vng thm canh cao bng phn ho hc, s dng khng cn i phn N, P, K v cc loi phn hu c v phn vi lng khc. Hin tng c th gp l s ho chua ca t, kt cu t b km i, s tch ng kim loi nng (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni...) v NO3-, NH4+... trong t, nc. 1. Thoi ha t do phn bn

Lm dng qu mc phn bn ha hc v thuc tr su l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn ln gy nn tnh trng nhim v suy thoi t ai, nht l t sn xut nng
20

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

nghip. Theo kt qu iu tra gn y nht ca Vin Khoa hc k thut nng nghip Vit Nam, trong s 21 triu ha t canh tc nng nghip ca Vit Nam th c n 9,34 triu ha t hoang ha. Bnh nh, tng din tch t t nhin l 602.506 ha, c 425.835 ha t xm bc mu, trong din tch t ct 15.968 ha, i ni dc 375.000 ha; din tch hoang mc ha hin nay ca Bnh nh l 786 ha.

Hnh 8. t thoi ha Vit Nam, do nhu cu tng nng sut nn p dng nhng bin php thm canh, tng v bc lt t, lng bn phn khong tng nhanh, mt cn i vi phn hu c. Mt khc khi thu hoch li ly i gn nh ton b cht hu c nn trong t hm lng cht hu c gim nhanh, qu trnh tch ly mn yu i rt nhiu so vi qu trnh khong ha. S ngho mn lm ph hy cu trc ca t, gim phc hp hp th st mn (complexe absorbant argilo humique) nn gim ph ca t. Ngoi ra, vic bn phn khng hp l v khng ng t l cn gy mt cn bng dinh dng trong t. vng ng bng ch ch bn phn m, t bn phn ln v phn kali. Vit Nam, t l N : P2O5 : K2O ph bin l 100 : 29 : 7, trong khi trung bnh ca th gii l 100 : 33 : 17 (FAO, 1992). Vic t bn phn Kali lm gim kh nng hp th
21

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

m ca cy. Do , tuy lng phn ha hc c s dng Vit Nam l rt t so vi trung bnh ca th gii nhng vn gy nh hng rt ln n mi trng t. ng thi vic tng cng thm canh cng lm gim st ph nhiu ca t thng qua vic ly i cc cht dinh dng m khng c bin php no hon tr li. S dng phn khong lin tc vi liu lng cao trong cc h thng nng nghip cng lm axit ha t, v mt phn qua qu trnh nitrat ha khi s dng phn m. Nu cc ion NO3- trong t nhiu hn so vi nhu cu ca cy trng, chng s b ra tri. Tc ng gy chua t ca phn m c th hin trong kt qu th nghim 4 nm nh li trn t ph sa sng Hng ca b mn Th nhng, i hc Khoa hc T nhin H Ni. Bng 2. pH ca t tng ng vi nhng lng m bn khc nhau Lng m bn (kg/ha) pH trung bnh sau 4 nm

0 6.9

150 6.4

300 6.1

450 6.0

600 5.6

750 5.4

Hin tng chua ha xy ra vi cc t ph sa ca Vit Nam, theo kt qu nghin cu ca Phm Quang H (2003) th c hn 68% t ph sa ang trn chua ha, trong c khong 50% mc chua v rt chua v do vic s dng phn bn ang rt c quan tm trnh xu hng chua ha t ph sa. S gy chua trong t do phn SA: Qu trnh nitrate ho SA sinh ra trong t 2 loi axit: (NH4)2SO4 + 4O2 = 2HNO3 + H2SO4 + 2H2O t chua, bn SA c kh nng y ra mt lng chua trao i ln: H+ Keo + (NH4)2SO4 t NH4+ + H2SO4

Keo t

22

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

t khng chua, NH4+ b hp ph vo keo t v y Ca2+ ra, do , bn SA lm cho t mt vi dn, lu ngy lm cho t ho chua: Ca+ Keo + (NH4)2SO4 t NH4+ NH4+ + CaSO4

Keo t

Do bn vi ci thin s gy chua ny, lng tng ng ca CaO c dng nh gi: Bng 3. Lng CaO s dng trung ha t b chua ha do 1kg N tng ng vi tng loi phn Lng CaO dng trung ho s gy chua t do 1 kg N* 1 kg 2 kg 3 kg
*Trn c s hiu qu s dng l 50%

Loi phn Ammonium nitrate, Ure Diammonium phosphate Ammonium sulphate

Ngoi phn SA, cc loi phn khong khc nh KCl, K2SO4, Supe ln cng to ra cc gc axit SO42-, Cl cy khng ht hoc ht rt t, tn ti trong t, cng vi nc to thnh axit lm cho t chua. Trong t chua, cc nguyn t gy c s tr nn linh ng hn, lm tng nguy c gy c cho cy trng. Bng 4. Cc tc ng chnh ca pH trong t Tc ng Gim khi pH tng
23

Yu t c nhm

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Ln d tiu Tnh linh ng ca cc nguyn t vi lng

Hm lng ln nht pH 5.5 7.0 Tt c nhng nguyn t vi lng (ngoi tr Mo) u linh ng mnh t pH 5.5 6.0. Trong khi tnh c hi ca Mn v Fe li gim trong khong pH ny Tng khi pH tng trong cc loi t c mc phong ha cao Cc SV t khong ha N tt nht trong khong pH 5.5 6.0 S hnh thnh nt sn v chc nng ca chng yu khi pH < 5.0 Mt s bnh c th kim sot bng khng ch pH t (VD: bnh sn si khoi ty gim khi pH t tng) pH phi < 5.5 ha tan phosphate, gii phng P cho TV ht thu

Kh nng trao i cation Khong ha N C nh N Bnh tt

Ha tan phosphate

Khi m cc ch tiu dinh dng trong t ngy cng gim (vi cc biu hin nh : t ngy cng chua hn; kim, no baz, dung tch hp thu gim; hm lng mn, cc cht dinh dng tng s v d tiu, a lng v vi lng trong t ngy cng gim), th cc cn bng dinh dng trong h thng t - cy - mi trng b ph v. Ko theo, hng lot cc c t trong t gia tng nh Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, H2S, SO42-, ln c nh4. Nghin cu tnh trng ny mt s vng trung du v min ni cho thy, khi hm lng cc nguyn t trung lng v vi lng gim s dn ti tnh trng thiu B v Mo cho cy h u, thiu Mg ng, da, h tiu v thiu Zn, B, S i vi cy c ph nng sut cao.

S thiu ht ln thng gn lin vi s tng c ca Al3+, do hin tng to phc hp AlPO4 khng tan, c nh P.

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o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

2.

nhim t do phn bn a. nhim t do phn ha hc

Theo tnh ton, mi nm nc ta c khong 60-70% lng phn m khng c cy trng hp th, ang tc ng tiu cc n chnh h sinh thi nng nghip nh lm chai cng t, nhim ngun nc v c th gy t bin gen i vi mt s loi cy trng. Phn ure cha khong 44 48% N nguyn cht. Nh vy, vi nhu cu s dng phn ure l 2 triu tn/nm, hng nm, t tip nhn thm khong 6.000 tn N khng c cy trng hp th. S dng phn bn khng ng k thut trong canh tc nng nghip nn hiu lc phn bn thp, c trn 50% lng m, 50% lng kali v xp x 80% lng ln d tha trc tip hay gin tip gy nhim mi trng t. Bn nhiu phn m vo thi k mun cho rau qu, lm tng ng k hm lng NO3- trong sn phm. nhim do phn m Trong cc loi thc n, nc ung c con ngi s dng hng ngy th rau xanh a vo c th mt lng NO3- ln nht. S tch lu NO3- cao trong cy t gy c i vi cy trng nhng rt nguy him cho con ngi nht l tr em. Tnh c ca NO3khng ng k nhng trong qu trnh bo qun, vn chuyn v tiu ho ca con ngi th NO3- b kh thnh NO2-. Trong mu NO2- ngn cn s kt hp gia hemoglobin vi oxy lm cho vic trao i kh ca hng cu khng c thc hin trong qu trnh h hp. Trong qu trnh dinh dng ca cy trng phn bn l yu t then cht quyt nh nng sut nhng bn phn khng hp l, thu sn phm khng ng thi im s lm tng d lng NO3- trong rau qu. Cy trng ht m ch yu l dng NO3- v NH4+, qua qu trnh bin i sinh ho tng hp nn protein v cc axit amin. Bn nhiu N, qu trnh quang hp yu N t NH4+, NO3- s khng c chuyn thnh axit amin, protein m c
25

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

tch lu dng NO3- trong sn phm. C nhiu nguyn nhn dn n hm lng NO3- tch lu cao trong rau nh: ging, nhit , nh sng, t ai... nhng nguyn nhn ch yu c nhiu nh khoa hc nhn nh l phn m. Theo PGS.TS. Trn Khc Thi (1999) khi nghin cu tn d NO3- trong rau trng ca dn vng ngoi thnh H Ni u c tn d NO3- cao hn so vi trng rau theo quy trnh sn xut rau sch ca S Khoa hc cng ngh v mi trng H Ni v u vt ngng cho php. i vi ci bp (Nguyn Vn Hin, 1994) hm lng NO3- r v l thp hn thn 2 - 2,5 ln. S dng N s lm tng nng sut ci bp nhng vi liu lng qu cao s lm gim hiu qu kinh t ng thi lm tng NO3-. Thu hoch sau bn phn m 2 tun s lm gim hm lng nitrat. Kt qu phn tch NO3- trong ci bp ti thi im 7 ngy sau bn cc cng thc 450 - 550 - 650 kg ure/ ha tng ng l: 322,89 - 348,67- 387,78 mg/kg. Thi gian t khi bn N ln cui n khi thu hoch cng c nh hng r rt n tn d NO3- trong nng sn. bp ci hm lng NO3- gim sau khi bn N ln cui 16 21 ngy v bin php ho m vo nc ti s rt ngn thi gian cch ly 2 - 4 ngy so vi bin php bn vi (Bi Quang Xun, 1999). Nhiu nghin cu ngoi nc cng cho thy phn N ho hc lm tng hm lng NO3- trong nng sn. M.E.Yarvan (1980) cho rng khi tng lng N bn t 30 ln 180 kg/ha lm tng hm lng NO3- tng ng trong c c rt v ci c t 21,7 ln 40,6 v 263 ln 473 mg/kg. Phn m dng NO3- lm cy tch lu NO3- cao hn dng NH4+ (Schuphan, Bengtsson, Bosund, Hymo, 1967).

26

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Hnh 9.Vng tun hon Nit khi c s tham gia ca phn bn Tnh trung bnh, khi bn phn m vo t, thc vt hp thu khong 50 60%, s cn li phn tn vo cc ngun khc nhau. Nitrat (NO3-) l yu t cn thit cho sinh trng v pht trin ca nhiu loi cy trng. Nitrat trong dung dch t hu dng ngay cho cy v cng d dng b thm hoc ra tri. Cc cy mu thng ht thu N dng nitrat. NH4+c th chuyn ho thnh dng NO3- do s nitrate ho (nitrification) do vi sinh vt t Nitrosomonas v ri chuyn thnh NO2- do vi sinh vt t Nitrobacter. Dng NO3- do t bn phn hoc c to ra t s nitrat ho th rt d b ra tri v khng b hp ph bi keo t mang in tch dng. Nu bn qu nhiu phn ho hc l hp cht nit, lng hp thu ca r thc vt tng i nh, i b phn cn lu li trong t, qua phn gii chuyn ho, bin thnh mui nitrat tr thnh ngun nhim cho mch nc ngm v cc dng sng. Cng vi s
27

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

tng ln v s lng s dng phn ho hc, su v rng ca loi nhim ny ngy cng nghim trng. Hm lng nitrat ln trong t khng ch gy ra nhng nh hng xu ln h sinh thi t m cn c th b ra tri, gy ra nhim nc ngm, do nitrat rt linh ng v gn nh khng b t hp ph. Mi lin quan gia nitrat vi sc khe cng ng c biu hin qua hai loi bnh: Methaemoglobinaemia: Hi chng tr xanh tr s sinh Ung th d dy ngi ln.

Thc ra, NO3- khng c, nhg khi n b kh thnh NO2- trong c th th tr nn rt c. Hi chng tr xanh: Hi chng ny thng xy ra a tr di 10 tui. Cc vi khun trong d dy kh nitrat thnh nitrit v xm nhp vo mu. N phn ng vi hemoglobin cha Fe2+ l phn t c chc nng vn chuyn oxy i khp c th. Mt ion Fe2+ c rt t nng lng vn chuyn oxy trong mu v do gy nn tc nghn ha hc. Tr s sinh thng rt nhy bn vi bnh ny, v hemoglobin bo thai c i lc vi NO2mnh hn hemoglobin, thng thng ch cut hin khonh khc trong cc mch mu. Do , d dy ca chng khng axit ngn cn cc vi khun bit i NO3- thnh NO2NO2- cn lm trm trng thm bnh vim d dy v ng rut. Ung th d dy gy suy nhc, au n v cht. Bnh ny cng lin quan ti hm lng NO3- trong nc. Mi lin quan ny c gii thch l NO2- sinh ra t NO3-, phn ng vi mt loi amin th sinh xut hin khi phn hy m hoc protein bn trong d dy v to ra hp cht N nitroso (l hp cht gy ung th) c cng thc: R - N H + NO2- + H+ R1 - N N = O + H2O R R2
28

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Lm dng phn bn khng ch e da sc khe con ngi, m cn lm mt n nh h sinh thi nng nghip. Kiu canh tc dng nhiu phn v c, kt hp vi vic ngng quay vng ca cht hu c trong t trng, to nn mt e da nghim trng trong vic gi ph nhiu ca t. L do s tch ly lin tc cc cht tp (kim loi, kim) c trong phn ha hc v s bin i cu trc ca t. Thnh phn cht hu c ca t b gim nhanh v kh nng gi nc v thot nc ca t b thay i. Phn ng vt v thc vt khng quay v vi t m cht ng s nhim mc thy cp sau khi ln men amoniac. Hoc chng b em thiu t b, khng v t c. t b mt cht hu c cng s lm cho cc cht c vn b gi li trong thnh phn cht hu c c gii phng v c cy trng ht thu, tch ly v gy c cho cy trng. b. nhim t do phn hu c

Phn bn hu c - ch yu l phn chung, phn bc l ngun dinh dng quan trng, c tc dng phc hi ph nhiu cho t. Tuy nhin, s dng phn hu c s gy nh hng xu v mt v sinh nu khng tun th ng quy trnh k thut v ngoi cc vi sinh vt gy bnh cng c nhiu ho cht b phn gii ang tn ti dng c hi. Vn ny lin quan cht ch n vic qun l v x l phn trc khi s dng ca b con nng dn nc ta. iu tra Thi Bnh, H Ty, H Ni trong nhng nm qua cho thy: vng trng la 90% h dn c h tiu dng c, trong gn 60% s h s dng phn bc cha x l ti bn cho cy trng. iu tra Ph Th nm 2005, in Bin nm 2006 cng thy khong 70 - 80% s h s dng phn bc, thm ch cha x l trong canh tc nng nghip. Hn 80% s h trng rau nng thn dng phn ti bn rau. Cng theo cc s liu iu tra ca cc tc gi H Ni, trong nc ti vng Mai Dch trng giun trn k sinh t 0,2 n 2,8 trng/lt cn trong bn cn t 13 n gn 30 ci/100 gam bn. Trong t trng rau Mai Dch mt trng giun t n 27,4 ci/100 gam t, cn Vn Canh l 10,2 ci/100 gam t. Tng kt cng tc an ton v sinh thc phm nm 2006, cc nh khoa hc cho bit hn 90% cc mu rau bn ch khu vc H Ni c nhim trng giun.
29

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Theo Phm Bnh Quyn (1994) C Nhu ngi trng rau c tp qun s dng phn ti, phn bc; thy trn 60% ngi b bnh ngoi da, 53% b bnh thiu mu, trn 70% ngi b bnh giun, gn 50% ngi b bnh au mt. Nm 1997 Trng i hc Y khoa H Ni thng bo: ti mt s x Kim Bng, H Nam trong 100 ngn ngi c 1097 ngi mc bnh tiu ho. Tp qun s dng phn ti vn rt ph bin. Ring H Ni hng ngy thi ra 550.000 tn phn trong thu gom mi ch c khong 30 - 35%. chnh l mt nguyn nhn lm nhim bn t, nc mt v ngay c ngun nc sch v thc phm nht l rau qu ti. Theo thng k ca B Y t, t nm 1999 n 13/8/2004, trn ton quc xy ra 1245 v ng c thc phm vi 28014 ngi mc, trong 333 trng hp t vong. Phn tch cc nguyn nhn xy ra ng c trong thi gian trn cho thy t l s v ng c do vi sinh vt cao nht (32,8 - 51,3%), sau l ng c ha cht (11- 25%) v thc phm c c (6,4 - 31,8%), cn li l ng c cha xc nh c nguyn nhn. Hin nay, tp qun s dng phn bc ti theo cc hnh thc: 50% lng phn bc trn tro bp bn lt, 10% lng phn bc c pha long bng nc ti cho cy trng. 40% phn bc trn tro bp cng vi vi bt v khong 10 14 ngy, sau bn cho cy trng. Cch bn phn ti ny ang gy nhim mi trng t, nc v c khng kh. Bng 5. Mt s ch s dng tham kho i tng nghin cu 1. Phn bc ti trn tro bp 2. Phn bc 2 thng 3. t va ti phn bc 4. t ti phn bc sau 20 Vi khun E.coli/100g t 107 105 105 105 S trng giun/50g phn hoc 1000ml Giun a Giun tc 31 16 12 7 22 10 13 5
30

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

ngy 5. t va ti phn ti 6. t ch dng phn ha hc 7. Nc mng khu trng rau dng phn bc 8. Nc ging khu trng rau dng phn bc

105 102 450 20

5 3 3 7

Tp qun s dng phn ti bn rung, bn rau mu cn lm xut hin nhiu cn bnh him ngho. Bng 6. nh hng ca thi quen chm sc cy trng n cc tc nhn sinh hc - Cc bnh truyn qua phn ngi, phn ng vt ti do: + Siu vi trng: bnh phi, bnh vim gan, bnh truyn nhim, bnh bi lit + Vi trng: t, kit l, thng hn, a chy + n bo: a chy, l amip + Giun sn: giun a, giun mc, giun kim, giun tc, sn dy ln, sn l gan - Cc i tng c th b bnh + Ngi tiu dng rau qu, hoa mu + Ngi tiu dng tht v sa + Ngi lao ng sn xut trc tip

31

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

c bit, thi gian tn ti ca cc tc nhn gy nhim sinh hc tng i di trong mi trng t. Bng 7. Thi gian tn ti ca cc tc nhn gy bnh (tnh bng ngy) theo cc iu kin x l khc nhau iu kin t Hoa mu Phn bc, phn, cn bn (20 30oC) hn hp (k kh nhit thng) nhit cao (50 60oC) trong nhiu ngy Ao n nh nc thi n bo 10 Khng r 30 30 7 20

Vi khun 400 50 90 60 7 20

Virus 175 60 100 60 7 20

Giun sn Nhiu thng Khng r Nhiu thng Nhiu thng 7 20

Ngoi ra, s dng nhiu phn hu c trong iu kin ym kh, qu trnh kh chim u th, s to ra nhiu axt hu c lm t chua, ng thi to ra nhiu cht c H2S, CH4, CO2. c. nhim nguyn t vi lng

Cc nguyn t vi lng thuc nhm cc cht c hot tnh sinh ha, c tc dng trc tip vi cc c th sng. Him ha ca s nhim bi dng t di ng ca cc hp cht ca cc nguyn t c hot tnh sinh hc tng ln khi hm lng mn trong t cao v kh nng hp ph ca t cao. S tch t ca cc dng ny trong t c th ca cc qu trnh sau: S thay th ng hnh trong cc mng khong st S hp ph cc ion kim loi bi khong st, c bit l h alophan
32

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Cng kt vi cc oxit v v hidroxit mi kt ta, c bit l Fe To thnh cc hp cht phc c kim t linh ng nhim kim loi nng:

Khi nghin cu v hm lng kim loi nng trong t v rau mung Thanh Tr, tc gi V Quyt Thng (1998) cho thy hm lng trung bnh ca kim loi nng trong t u cao hn trong rau mung t 2 - 6 ln, s tch lu kim loi nng c th t n mc tn d trong rau mung c th cao hn trong t. Theo tc gi Phm Quang H (2002) hm lng Cd trung bnh trong t ph sa vng Thanh Tr l 0,81 mg /kg. Mu t thuc vng trng m St (Yn S) c hm lng Cd cao hn hn (1,06 mg/kg), c bit lng Cd trong mu bn cao gp gn 5 ln (4,19 mg/kg) so vi t nng nghip vng ln cn. Nguyn nh Mnh (2003), khi iu tra hin trng mi trng t nng nghip khu vc ngoi thnh H Ni (Gia Lm, ng Anh, Thanh Tr) kt lun v hm lng cc kim loi nng trong t nh sau: Huyn Thanh Tr: b nhim bn nhiu nht, in hnh l cc khu vc x Lnh Nam, Thanh Lit, i nh, Ngc Hi vi hai yu t Hg, Pb. Yn S nhim bn Hg, Pb, Cd mc nh. Cc khu vc Vn Phc, Yn M, Lin Ninh, T Hip, Hong Lit, Thanh Tr, Tam Hip nhim bn 1 yu t Hg. Huyn Gia Lm: t kh sch, ri rc c nhim bn Hg (ng D, Thch Bn, Kim Sn, Dng X, Ph Th, L Chi, ng X) ng ch l ti Dc Li, Dng X nhim Hg n 5 ppm. Nhim bn Pb, Cd t ni xy ra. Kim loi nng c xu hng tch ly trong t, c bit lp t gn b mt. Do vy, mc c hi v lu di phi c ch n. Tnh c ca kim loi nng biu hin ch gy nn s st gim s lng v s a dng ca vi sinh vt t, nh hng ln vi sinh vt c li cho t (v d vi sinh vt ci thin s h hp ca t, phn hy cht hu c,
33

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

c nh nit). Kim loi nng cn c tc dng gin tip lm gim s phn hy thuc tr su v nhng cht hu c khc thng qua vic tiu dit cc loi vi khun v nm m trong iu kin bnh thng, s chu trch nhim phn gii cc cht nguy hi ny (Silsoe Research Institute, 2003).

(ngun: SSLRC, National soil inventory - MAFF project, University of Reading)

Hnh 10. S tch t mt s kim loi nng trong t Bng 8. Hm lng cc kim loi nng trong mt s phn bn thng thng (mg/kg) Nguyn t As Cd Cr Co Cu Hg Bn thi sinh hot 2 26 2 1500 20 40600 2 260 5 3300 0.1 55 Phn chung 3 25 0.3 0.8 5.2 55 0.3 24 2 60 0.09 0.2 Phn ln 2 1200 0.1 170 66 245 1 12 1 300 0.01 1.2 Vi 0.1 24 0.04 0.1 10 15 0.4 3 2 125 0.05 Phn m 2.2 120 0.05 8.5 3.2 19 5.4 12 <1 15 0.3 2.9

34

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Ni Pb Zn

16 5300 50 3000 700 49000

7.8 30 6.6 15 15 250

7 38 7 225 50 1450

10 20 20 1250 10 450

7 34 2 27 1 42

Vn nhim kim loi nng trong t cng c th gy ra bi vic s dng phn bn hu c. V d, vic cho thm km vo thc n cng nghip cho gia sc nhm phng bnh v tng kh nng tiu ha cng c xem l yu t gy nn s nhim kim loi nng cho mi trng cn c quan tm. Ngi trng rau phn ln u s dng phn chung t heo, g, trong khi nhng gia sc gia cm ny c nui t thc n tng hp l kh ph bin. Thc n dng ny c nhiu khong vi lng. Hm lng kim loi nng trong phn s xm nhp vo t trng v tn lu trong cc loi nng sn c bit l i vi cc loi rau n l nh ci ngt, ci xanh, x lch. Hm lng kim loi nng trong bn thi sinh hot l cao nht. Phn chung cha kim loi nng mc l ngun cung cp dinh dng vi lng cho cy. Vi phn ln, c bit l supe ln c cha mt lng kim loi nng nht nh, ch yu l Cd nhng lng s dng cha cao nn nguy c nhim t v nng sn bi Cd l cha c. Ngoi ra, qu trnh sn xut phn ha hc bng nguyn liu khng tinh khit c th em li mt s nguyn t c hi. V d, cng nghip sn xut phn ln lin tc vi s lng nhiu s lm tng hm lng cc nguyn t As, Cd,.. trong t. Nu s dng phn m dng cyanamit canxi (CaCN2) c th tn lu trong t gy hi cho cy trng. Cc kim loi c hi c th tn ti trong t di nhiu dng khc nhau, (hp ph, lin kt) vi cc hp cht hu c, v c hoc to thnh cc cht phc hp (chelat). Kh nng d tiu ca chng i vi thc vt ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh: pH, kh nng trao i cation (CEC) v s ph thuc ln ngau vo cc kim loi khc. Cc t c CEC cao, chng b gi li nhiu trn cc phc h hp ph. Cc kim loi nng c kh nng linh ng ln t chua (pH < 5,5). Do , vic s dng phn bn ha hc c chua sinh l
35

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

s gp phn y nhanh vic chua ha t, khin cho cc kim loi nng tr nn linh ng hn. Cc kim loi nng c tch lu trong cc c th sinh vt theo cc chui thc n v nc ung. Mt s kim loi nng nh Pb, Cd, Hg...khi c c th hp th chng s lm mt hot tnh ca nhiu enzym. Kim loi nng dng lin kt c tnh c cao hn so vi dng t do. Trong c th c mt lng Pb ln vt ngng cho php th s gy c. Khi b nhim c Pb i vi tr em lm c th chm ln, tr tu km pht trin; ngi ln lm tng huyt p, suy tim; ph n d xy thai, ph hng chc nng gan thn, gy thiu mu do thiu ht hemoglobin, gp phn hnh thnh khi u trong phi v thn. Nguyn nhn ch yu lm Cd c tnh c l do n c kh nng thay th Zn trong mt s enzym gy ri lon qu trnh trao i cht khong, trao i gluxit v lm ri lon qu trnh sinh tng hp protein. Cd xm nhp vo c th ch yu c gi li thn nh hng n chc nng thm thu ca ng thn, n c xp vo nhm c th gy ung th ng h hp nh phi, thng vch ngn mi. Bng 10. Tc ng ca mt s kim loi nng i vi -TV c im chung c i vi TV trc c i vi V, c th gy ung th Phm vi thch ng hp, c lm giu trong chui thc n, gy ung th, bnh itai-itai Tng i khng c, h s lm giu cao, gy ung th Cr4+ rt c, dng khc tng i khng c, gy ung th D dng to phc trong t, pham v thch ng hp i vi TV c lm giu trong chui thc n, tch t trong nc, gy bnh minamata Rt di ng trong TV, tng i khng c, gy ung th
36

Nguyn t As Cd Co Cr Cu Hg Ni

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Pb Zn

Khuch tn trong khng kh v lng ng trn b mt s khai Phm vi thch ng rng, d to phc trong t, c th thiu trong mt s n, tng i khng c

Cc halogen: Trong s cc halogen ch c clo l dng a lng trong t cn flo v iod l nhng nguyn t vi lng quan trng. ng ch trong nhng nm gn y l flo, lng d flo trong t c nh hng c n ng vt n c. Sn xut v s dng phn ln l mt ngun a flo vo t. Hng nm, vic s dng phn ln a vo trong t 15-20kg F/ha. nhng vng t nhim nht hm lng flo c th t n 1000-2000mg/kg t. Nng florua trong t cao lm thay i cc tnh cht ha hc ca t. Di nh hng ca florua, axit gim xung, lng cc cht hu c tan trong nc tng ln, th oxi ha gim xung, xy ra s huy ng cc hp cht ca Fe v Mn. Tt c nhng iu ny nh hng khng tt n cc ch s hot tnh sinh hc ca t. Ngoi flo, clo cng l mt cht cn thit cho cy trng. Tuy nhin, nng Cl- qu cao s gy c cho thc vt v ng vt. 3. nh hng ca phn bn ln sinh vt t

a, Phn ha hc lm cho cy trng bc pht mnh m nhng khng duy tr hiu qu c lu. Ngoi ra chng cn li nhng tn d di cc dng mui trong t gy nn nhng hu qu c th k nh sau : Ngn cn cy trng hp th nhng dng cht cn thit, tiu dit cc loi vi sinh vt hu ch cn thit cho cy trng. Phn ha hc lm gia tng s mn cm ca cy trng vi cc loi bnh. Phn ha hc c th lm cy trng d mn cm vi cc loi bnh hn qua vic git cht cc vi sinh vt trong t m cc vi sinh vt ny bo v cho cy trng khi b mt chng bnh no .
37

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Nhiu loi bnh cho cy trng c khng ch bi cc vi sinh vt pht trin quanh vng r cy. Hin tng thiu cc vi sinh vt ny v mt s vi lng cn thit l kh ph bin cc vng t thng xuyn c bn phn ha hc v s thiu cc vi lng thit yu ny li l l do s dng thm phn ha hc. Kt qu l h thng r cy b bao vy bi qu nhiu mt loi nguyn t no m khng th hp th cc nguyn t cn thit khc do lm cho cy b yu i v mt cn i dinh dng v rt d b cc loi bnh tn cng. Phn ha hc ngn cn s hp th cc dng cht cn thit. Quanh vng lng ht ca r cy, keo t t mn hu c chuyn hu ht cc cht khong t dung dch t sang h thng r cy v i vo cy trng. Nhng ht mn s c hp lc i vi cc nguyn t dinh dng nh m, ln, kali, v cc nguyn t kim loi khc. Khi phn ha hc c bn vo t nm ny qua nm khc s gy nn s thay i c bn cu trc ca cc ht mn hu c v khi s dng lin tip, qu nhiu cc phn t phn bn c a vo t mong t c s pht trin mnh v nhanh ca cy trng. Khi c qu nhiu phn t bm quanh cc ht mn lm cho h thng lng ht ca b r b bi thc mt loi nguyn t v khng cn kh nng hp thu cc cht khong khc m cy thc s cn na. Phn ha hc cn tiu dit cc tp on vi sinh vt. t cn phi c coi nh mt vt th sng. Khi phn ha hc c s dng nm ny qua nm khc, cc axit c to thnh s ph hy cc cht mn hu c ph nhiu c to ra t s phn r ca cc c th sinh vt t cht. Cc cht mn ny c tnh nng lin kt cc ht li ti vi nhau to nn s ph nhiu ca t canh tc. Trn b mt ca cc vng t canh tc thng bn phn ha hc, cc ht khng c keo mn hu c lin kt li thng to thnh mt lp rn, t hay nhiu khng thm nc, lp rn trn b mt ny lm cho nc ma hoc nc ti khng thm xung t c m chy ra cc ao h hoc sng sui. Nh vy lp cht rn b mt ny ngn cn khng cho nc thm xung, ng thi cng khng cho nc di ngm ln trn thot hi. Lp t pha di tr thnh b ngp v c tnh axit. Trong lp t thiu kh v c tnh axit ny, mt vi sinh vt b thay i v c th b cht.

38

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Hin tng tha m s lm cho b phn ca cy, nht l cc c quan sinh trng s pht trin mnh, to thm ngun thc n cho nhiu loi vi sinh vt gy hi. m tha lm cho v t bo cy tr nn mng, to iu kin d dng cho mt s loi vi sinh vt gy bnh xm nhp, kch thch mt s loi vi sinh vt trong t xm nhp vo r v gy hi cho cy. Su bnh xut hin nhiu lm s ln phun thuc tng theo cng lm nhim mi trng. b, nh hng ln nht ca hin tng chua ha t ti cy trng l vic gia tng tnh c ca cc ion Al3+ v Fe3+: Khng ch nh hng n cu trc t, lm cho t tr nn ri rc, Al3+ c mt trong t nng cao s gy c cho cy, nh hng n cc qu trnh sinh l, sinh ha ca cy, v cui cng l nh hng n sinh trng v pht trin ca cy, tc hi bao gm: Gy tr ngi cho s phn chia v ko di t bo Gy c ch enzym lm nhim v tng hp vt cht ca vch t bo Lm hi cu trc mng bn thm ca r Lm gim tnh thm thu ca t bo v qua nh hng n qu trnh tng hp protein Lm tr ngi cho s hp th cc cht dinh dng NPK, Ca, Mg ca cy Lm gim s tng trng ca r v thn l Lm gim s hp thu nc ca cy v hu qu lm gim nng sut cy trng Lm gim s h hp ca cc t bo r

Mt vn ca Fe2+ v Fe3+ l s bm dnh ca chng di dng hydroxit v r la v cy trng khc lm cho cy kh ht cht dinh dng v trao i kh. Cy lc b ng c Fe c biu hin l mu nu tm hoc c mu vng n vng da cam (Tanaka v Yoshida, 1970). Mt s ging khng c biu hin l nhng sinh trng chm li

39

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

(Yayawardena, 1977). Sinh trng v nhnh b gim v h thng r km pht trin, r t, ngn v th (L Huy B, 1982). c, nh hng ca mt s nguyn t vt: Cc nguyn t dng vt c vai tr sinh hc quan trng vi cy trng. Tuy nhin, s d tha cc nguyn t ny s gy ra cc nh hng bt li: Bo nh hng ln ti s trao i cht, s vn chuyn hidrate carbon trong thc vt. Khi hm lng ca Bo trong ng vt v thc n cao th c th gy bnh cho ng vt. Vanadi tham gia vo s c nh nito, tng hp clorophyl v mt s enzym. Tuy nhin, nng cao ca V gy c i vi ng vt v thc vt. Selen c th tham gia vo khi nhm sulfua v sulfohidryl ca protein v nh hng n s tng hp methionin dn n ph v lin kt peptit v xy ra s ph v cu trc ca mng t bo. Flo trong t s c tch ly bi thc vt, Flo gy c cho ngi v gia sc, km hm hot ng ca mt s enzym, ngn qu trnh quang hp v tng hp protein thc vt.

III.

Kt lun
Trong vng 30 nm cui th k XX din tch trng la ton th gii ch tng c

24% nhng nng sut la tng 108% v sn lng la tng ln 164%, tng ng vi mc s dng phn ho hc tng ln l 242%. Nh vy gp phn vo vic n nh lng thc trn th gii. nc ta, do chin tranh ko di, cng nghip sn xut phn ho hc pht trin rt chm v thit b cn rt lc hu. Ch n sau ngy t nc c hon ton gii phng, nng dn mi c iu kin s dng phn ho hc bn cho cy trng ngy mt nhiu hn. S lng phn ho hc bn vo tr thnh nhn t quyt nh lm tng nng sut v sn lng cy trng ln rt r, c bit l cy la. R rng nng sut cy
40

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

trng ph thuc rt cht ch vi lng phn ho hc bn vo. Tuy nhin khng phi c bn nhiu phn ho hc th nng sut cy trng c tng ln mi. Cy ci cng nh con ngi phi c nui cht, ng cch v cn bng dinh dng th cy mi tt, nng sut mi cao v n nh c. Nhn tng qut, phn bn thc s l yu t thc y nng sut, cung cp tng lng lng thc cao nc ta hin nay. Cc nghin cu v nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng cha nhiu so vi nhng li ch m n em li, hn na s liu cng cha y m ch nhm vo mt s kha cnh. D sao, mt tri ca phn bn cng bt u xut hin, l: S dng tp trung, mt cn i v phn ho hc mt s vng bc u gy ra nhim bn nc mt v nc ngm v NH4+, NO3- S dng phn bn cao bt u gy tch ng kim loi Cu Zn, Cd, Ni... mt s khu vc nh. Hin tng Cd tch ng trong nc v t trng trt l tng i r. Nguyn nhn khng ch l do s dng phn ho hc (cc loi phn ln) m cn do s dng phn hu c, ng k l phn rc v k c ngun nc ti cha c kim sot y . thy nh hng ca phn hu c c bit l phn bc v phn chung n s tch ly vi khun gy bnh, trng v u trng giun sn. S dng mt cn i gia phn ho hc, phn hu c gy ra mt s nh hng n tnh cht t nh pH t, trao i canxi, hm lng keo, tng s vi sinh vt t... Mc d v mt k thut, ngi ta hng dn ngi sn xut nhiu bin php kt hp nhm gim ti thiu cc nh hng . S tch ly cc cht c hi gy bnh cho cy trng v nh hng n sc khe con ngi. t mt khi b nhim th vic x l l v cng kh khn v mt nhiu cng sc, tin ca. Do cn phi c bin php ngn chn nhim t. Trong gii php quan trng nht l nng cao thc ca con ngi, thc s dng thuc tr su, phn bn
41

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

ha hc ca nhng ngi nng dn. ng thi cn khuyn khch s dng phn bn sinh hc, s dng cc ging cy trng khng c su bnh hn ch vic s dng thuc tr su v phn bn ha hc. Khi t b nhim th bin php phc hi t hu hiu nht l bng bin php sinh hc. Cc bin php hn ch nhim t, pht trin nn nng nghip bn vng cng l mt chin lc bo v mi trng t, c bit min ni. c trng c bn ca h thng nng nghip bn vng l hng ti cc mc tiu c bn sau: Nng cao li ch ca sn xut nng nghip nh m bo mt s lng nng nghip tng xng, p ng c nhu cu sng ca lng dn s m h thng hng ti. Tng nng sut nng nghip thng qua vic tng cng s dng cc kiu gen c nng sut cao, chng chu su bnh v thch ng cc iu kin kh khn, duy tr ph ca t, tnh a dng ca cy trng, p dng lun canh cy trng, s dng h thng cy hng nm, cy lu nm, ngh c, chn nui tng hp. Bo v v ci thin mi trng sng cho con ngi v cc sinh vt khc nh chng nhim ngun nc, gim v loi b s dng cht c tr su bnh, gim s dng phn khong. Tng cng cc hot ng phi nng nghip khc, to thm cng n vic lm, pht trin c s h tng nhm nng cao dn i sng ngi dn. i vi Vit Nam pht trin cc h thng nng nghip bn vng cn ch : p dng cc bin php canh tc chng xi mn. a dng ha cy trng di hnh thc: trng xan, gi v, lun canh. p dng h thng nng lm kt hp, lm ng kt hp vi cc m hnh a dng, phong ph.
42

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

Kt hp trng trt v chn nui, tng cng pht trin v m rng cc m hnh kinh t vn rng, tri rng.

Tng bc xy dng mt nn nng nghip sch m bo a dng ha cy trng, to nng sut bn vng, n nh, gim s dng phn khong v ha cht c hi bo v thc vt. Khng nn t mc tiu duy nht bng mi gi t nng sut cy trng, vt nui cao nht.

Cui cng cn nhn mnh thm rng vn nghin cu bin i mi trng t cn c t ra mt cch c h thng trong phm vi ton quc, vic phi hp hnh ng vi cc nc trong khu vc v ton cu l mt i hi cp bch nhm gp phn thc hin chin lc bo v mi trng ni chung v mi trng t ni ring.

43

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

IV.

Ti liu tham kho


1. L Vn Khoa, 2004. Sinh thi v mi trng t. NXB i hc Quc gia H Ni 2. L c, 2006. Gio trnh ha hc t. 3. Nguyn Xun Hi, 2011. Bi ging Cng ngh ci to v s dng t thoi ha. 4. Hm, 2007. Ha cht dng trong nng nghip v sc khe cng ng. http://www.ebook.edu.vn/?page=1.20&view=9056 5. Phan Tun Triu, 2009. Gio trnh Ti nguyn t v Mi trng. http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/giao-trinh-tai-nguyen-dat-va-moitruong.479617.html 6. Hunh Thu Ha, V Vn B. nhim t. http://vietsciences1.free.fr/vietscience/giaokhoa/biology/moitruongvaconnguoi/ onhiemdat.htm 7. VDSC, 2008. Bo co ngnh nguyn liu c bn Phn bn nng nghip. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:6Gyb8rARUpUJ:www.wooricbv. com/FileShow.ashx%3FContentID%3D1932+B%C3%A1o+c%C3%A1o+ng% C3%A0nh+c%C3%B4ng+nghi%E1%BB%87p+c%C6%A1+b%E1%BA%A3n +ph%C3%A2n+b%C3%B3n+n%C3%B4ng+nghi%E1%BB%87p&hl=vi&gl= vn&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgREEYb232Aj9ppsKvfaHfssBv92SJBHsgFwJLTqE3LgJ_IC-n6u3RUfN8enFtSS1SiRhkg28bXmzYUrrUyb0vw2AcPa5WmyaKilgA2ud9Zyb4e-dm6pxBL9pgFSq2dOPUM8&sig=AHIEtbSCL_zLh_N_70tn2Gp5FT6TbcbHA 8. Tiu lun nhim t. http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/tieu-luan-o-nhiemdat.458627.html 9. S khc bit gia phn ha hc v phn hu c. http://www.humixvn.com/fertilizer/?id=297 10. B Nng nghip v pht trin nng thn. http://www.agroviet.gov.vn/Lists/appsp01_statistic/Attachments/47/Phuluc_10 _2011_f.pdf 11. Trn Vn Hin. Phn bn trong nng nghip v vn nhim mi trng. Vin la BSCL. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:HVRMFQ2QgeEJ:sokhcn.angian
44

o Nguyn Thy Hng K53 - CNMT

nh hng ca phn bn n mi trng t

g.gov.vn/wps/wcm/connect/d166780046bb02818519958b5bcc4472/2011027.d oc%3FMOD%3DAJPERES+PH%C3%82N+B%C3%93N+TRONG+N%C3% 94NG+NGHI%E1%BB%86P+V%C3%80+V%E1%BA%A4N+%C4%90%E1 %BB%80+%C3%94+NHI%E1%BB%84M+M%C3%94I+TR%C6%AF%E1% BB%9CNG&hl=vi&gl=vn&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiR6YCZUqbFYl6IfhGVe LBRiu-982tHZ-f9ugaiS0t0NMu5XXiI2aMT949cQfoCeXtJiyRRsYblHt6TwidTWb7BnN3Ewr0B4BLktpGINObDLTYCo1h_thFKq59IX DLFIa1Vy7h&sig=AHIEtbSjBrSIZ5R9OX3Z_Pu-YX1TDwt4pg 12. Phm Minh Cng v cng s, 2005. Nghin cu mt s bin php k thut canh tc hp l cho vng chuyn canh sn xut rau an ton. Bo co kt qu khoa hc v k thut ti, ti trng im cp b giai on 2001 2004. 13. Trn Khc Thi v cng s, 1999. Nghin cu cc gii php cng ngh v t chc qun l cht lng rau sch. ti 01C- 10/19/02 - 98 - 2, H Ni. 14. Nguyn Vn Hin, Phan Thc ng, T Thu H, 1994. Nghin cu s tch lu NO3- trong rau bp ci v bin php khc phc. Kt qu nghin cu khoa hc v rau qu 1990 - 1994, Vin Nghin cu rau qu. 15. Bi Quang Xun, Bi nh Dinh, 1999. S dng hp l t, phn bn trong sn xut rau an ton v quanh nm cho vng ngoi H Ni. Hi tho ln 2 Nng nghip ngoi thnh vi vn quy hoch th. 16. Yarvan, M.E., 1980. Nitrate contents in vegetable produce. Vselkom khozaistve. nr 10.p. 27 29. 17. Schuphan W.B. Bengtssan, Bosund I., Hymo B., 1967. Nitrate acummulation in Spinach. Qual. Plant. Water. Veg. 18. Phm Bnh Quyn, Nguyn Vn Sn, Trn Ngc Lm, 1994. Kt qu nghin cu bc u hin trng nhim kim loi nng ca khu dn c v t nng nghip do sn xut cng nghip. Tp ch BVTV, s 3. 19. Phm Quang H, 2002. Nghin cu hm lng cadmium v cnh bo nhim trong mt s loi t ca Vit Nam. Khoa hc t. S 16. H Ni, 2002. 20. Nguyn nh Mnh v cng s, 2003. iu tra hin trng mi trng t nng nghip khu vc ngoi thnh H Ni (Gia Lm, ng Anh, Thanh Tr) xc nh cc yu t mi trng chnh nh hng n an ton sn phm nng nghip sn xut ti a bn, xut gii php v khc phc. Bo co kt qu ti nghin cu khoa hc cp Nh nc.

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