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TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

There are many relationships among the trigonometric Iunctions. The Iollowing list contains some oI the more
important identities.
Pythagorean Relationships: sin cos

b ~
b ~ cot csc


tan sec

b ~
Negative, Supplementary, and Complementary Angle Relationships:
sin sin sin sin sin cos c ~ c c ~ c ~

6 7
cos cos cos cos cos sin c ~ c ~ c c ~

6 7
tan tan tan tan tan cot c ~ c c ~ c c ~

6 7
Quarter Circle and HalI-Circle Relationships:
sin cos sin sin 6 7

f ~ f f ~ c

cos sin cos cos 6 7

f ~ g f ~ c

tan cot tan tan 6 7

f ~ c f ~

Angle Addition Formulas: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) sin sin cos cos sin f ~ h f h


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos cos cos sin sin f ~ h g h
( )
( ) ( )
1 ( ) ( )
tan
tan tan
tan tan



f ~
f
g h
Double Angle Formulas: (2 ) 2 ( ) ( ) sin sin cos tan
tan
tan
h ~ h h h ~
h
c

cos cos sin sin cos (2 ) h ~ c ~ c h ~ h c



HalI-Angle Formulas: sin
cos
8 9
n


~ f
c
cos
cos
8 9
n


~ f
b
tan
cos cos sin
cos sin cos
8 9
o

b b
~ f ~ ~
c c
Product Identities:
2 ( ) ( ) h h ~ b b c sin cos sin sin
2 ( ) ( ) h h ~ b c c cos sin sin sin
2 ( ) ( ) h h ~ b b c cos cos cos cos
2 ( ) ( ) h h ~ c c b sin sin cos cos
Factoring Identities:
sin sin cos sin b ~ h h
c b



8 9 8 9
sin sin cos sin c ~ h h
b c



8 9 8 9
cos cos cos cos b ~ h h
b c



8 9 8 9
cos cos sin sin c ~ h h
b c



8 9 8 9
Law oI Sines: Law oI Cosines:
( ) sin sin sin
cos


~ ~ ~ b c h h h


~ b c h h h

cos
~ b c h h h

cos
Analytic Relationships With the Unit Circle: Laws oI Sines & Cosines
Figure 1. Figure 2.
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D
F
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