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Agriculture Annual report: 2007 b:y J.Mwirigi 1



International Aid Services has been operating in Northern Bahr-El-Ghazal region

since the year 2000. It has helped to improve the food security situation especially in
Aweil East and West County. Aweil East County has 7 payams with a total
population of 374,112 people. IAS Food security activities in the county have
concentrated in 3 payams; Wunlang payam whose population is 62979 people;

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Yargot payam with a population of 42324 people and Mangok with a population of
35643 people. In Aweil West IAS has supported the community in two payams;
Mariam East and West. IAS overall objective is to support the recovery and
rehabilitation of rural communities in South Sudan and promote an enabling
situation for transition to development. Major areas that agriculture sector
addresses are accessibility to basic services in relation to food and to provide skills
and tools to build the communities self-reliance and project ownership. These
objectives are achievable through a number of activities; provision of humanitarian
assistance to the returns particularly agricultural resettlement kits and building the
capacities of the key agricultural personnel and selected individual groups in the
community. The overall result is to have a community whose livelihood has
improved. There need to be seen a sustainable and dignified return and
reintegration of the returnee population with ability to achieve sustainable food
security status. The current situation warrants the participation of community
groups in the rural development. IAS has aimed at promoting food security
through income generation leading to sustainable development and self reliance in
rural livelihood. IAS has focused on Income generation for sustainable recovery and
development. In the year IAS has supported 470 rice contract farmers with high
quality rice seeds and tools. Other supported groups are 200 contact farmers who
benefited from formal agricultural workshops. During the year IAS has conducted
agricultural training for 37 community based agricultural extension workers
(CBAEWs) covering horticultural production, agronomical practices, farm
management, agriculture extension among others.

1. Introduction

International Aid Services has been operating in Northern Bahr-El-Ghazal region since
the year 2000. It has helped to improve the food security situation especially in Aweil
East and West County. Aweil East County has 7 payams with a total population of
374,112 people. IAS Food security activities in the county have concentrated in 3
payams; Wunlang payam whose population is 62979 people; Yargot payam with a

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population of 42324 people and Mangok with a population of 35643 people. In Aweil
West IAS has supported the community in two payams; Mariam East and West.

The communities of Bhar-el-Ghazal generally depend on agriculture especially after so

many people are without cattle due to the war which left many people who used to
depend on cattle to turn to agriculture. Fishing is also one of the areas for their survival.
The people in Aweil East suffered a great deal during the time of one of the African
longest war between the government of Sudan and Sudan People Liberation
Movement/Army. The government used the Arabs militias to kill, rape and abducts many
children and women in Aweil. People lost their property during the 21 years of war.
Agricultural and other activities would not take place during then. Thousands and
thousands of people fled to other African countries for refuge. Other sectors ranging from
Education to health suffered too. Many children dropped out of school due to the physical
insecurity as well as the hunger situation.

Today, there are positive changes brought by CPA (Comprehensive Peace Agreement).
Since the signing of the CPA in 2002 to date, the area has remained peaceful. The
prevailing peace has resulted to the region being one of the return points for both transit
returnees and those who are coming to settle there.

The influx of returnees year after year gives additional pressure to the host households.
The host households grow mainly sorghum, and groundnuts as staple food crops. In
normal environment, these could produce the bulk of food security, but natural calamities
such as draught would negate the effort of the people hence rendering them to always be
food insecure. Sometimes it is not a problem of draught but late planting. Poor tools and
methods of cultivation bring about late planting. There is need to sensitize the
communities on the importance of early planting. In order to ensure improved livelihood
among the people, there is a need to equip the community with tools and seeds to assist
them in the recovery process. Major targets are the host households, the returnees and
community groups.

1.2. Problem analysis

Almost every year Annual Needs and Livelihood (ANLA) assessment conducted
indicated food security as below normal or not meeting the average household
consumption needs. Cultivation in Bahr-el-Ghazal is usually characterized by late rain
that is scarce, erratic, unreliable and unevenly distributed. The rain increases later so
much that further cultivation is hampered. More often where rains delay there are usually
cases of pest infestation. This usually results to poor crop performance. The communities
would every year have a food deficit of 40 to 50%. The food insecurity situation is
aggravated by the returnees’ influx. Aweil counties have always been recording high
figures of the returns. Even in the peace scenario more returnees are registered. In order
to meet the need of the resident and returnees population, there is need to provide seeds
and tools to host and the returnees’ households in the targeted area.
The traditional system of planting continues to contribute to the low development in the
Agriculture sector. Even if all the inputs are there, there should be trained agriculture

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extension workers who will constantly be training farmers on improved method of
cultivation and the need to utilize early rains.

Current situation
International NGOS have all along been distributing seeds and tools to achieve the
objective of alleviating the sufferings of the people. IAS agriculture sector is trying to
combat food insecurity in the area by strengthening agricultural extension services
through training program; training of contact farmers and agriculture training for in-
service agriculture extension personnel. The sector also focuses on income generation
targeting rice farmers for seeds and tools on cost recovery scheme. It aims at
transforming the traditional method of agriculture and or livelihood to modernized
methods that would yield into increased food production and nutritional well being of the
people. IAS is advocating for better methods of cultivation. Schools are entry point
towards realizing the objective of better ways of farming.

Weather and food security situation in 2007

Rainfall started in Mid May with only 34mm and peak in August and September. The
river water level started incresed resulting to floods. See flood report on pp 12.. Generally
cultivation started in June with simsim, sorghum and vegetable crops. However, this was
only in a few areas as the rain was very erratic and unevenly distributed. Cultivation
generally picked up well in the second and 3rd weeks of June. Rice cultivation had
however not started by the end of June. Late rains contributed to the delay in rice


2.1 Overall objective

The agriculture sector’s overall objective is to support the recovery and rehabilitation of
rural communities in South Sudan and promote an enabling situation for transition to
development. Major areas that agriculture sector addresses are accessibility to basic
services in relation to food and to provide skills and tools to build the communities self-
reliance and project ownership. These objectives are achievable through a number of
activities; provision of humanitarian assistance to the returns in terms of resettlement kits
and building the capacities of the key agricultural personnel and selected individual
groups in the community. For the sector to meet the objective, it focused on the
following; the need to increase food production in the region through the provision of
high quality seeds and improved farm tools to the farming households-both residents and
returnees, Capacity building for the local farmers and local community structures,
promotion of environmental practices and promotion of fishery industry.

2.2 Target group and achievements

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In Capacity building, IAS has conducted Agriculture training for community based
extension workers with an objective of equipping the community with experienced
people who are committed to serve and ensure better delivery of agricultural extension
services. IAS has trained 40 Contact farmers in ox plough cultivation with the objective
to increase acreage cultivated using oxen cultivation as a modern technology. IAS has
supported organized groups to start income generation activities. 8 women groups have
been trained in horticultural production in order to ensure availability of vegetables and
cash among households. 500 Rice contract farmers have been supported with 16 MT rice
seeds and tools for rice cultivation. This is also aimed at building the cash base of the
households. This has operated on a cost recovery scheme. The rice farmers in the
previous year were able to pay their cost recovery seeds to the tune of 7.1 MT out of the
12.5 MT distributed. This has this time indicated that the project is sustainable. Other
areas of intervention in the year were; provision of seeds and tools in support of the
returnees. The following is a summary of the achievements of the project:

 Construction of the Training center’s office and a training centre’s residential house.
 Successful beginning of the 6th batch of Agriculture training in June 1st 2006. 37 agriculture
extension workers graduated on the 12th September.
 A total of 8 MT of rice seeds purchased locally from rice contract farmers in Aweil East County
and in Mariam payam AWC.
 3 MT of rice seeds received from farmers as cost recovery seeds
 11 MT of rice seeds distributed to 470 household rice contract farmers in Wunlang, Mangok and
Yargot in Aweil East county and Mariam in Aweil West. School gardens in AWC and ANC
benefited from 1.8 MT of rice
 3000 agro forestry tree seedlings raised and distributed to 850 in Mangok and Mariam payams.
 5 Boma development committees(128 people) received 6 months training in land and natural
resource management


Capacity building for land and natural resource management and community
driven recovery in post conflict South Sudan

This is a six months pilot project conducted by IAS in partnership with Food and
Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in Wunlang payam in Aweil East county. It started in
February 2007and completed in July 2007. The training concentrated on the below
critical pathways:

- Community sensitization
- Visioning and goal setting
- Mapping and characterization of the management areas(Sketch maps developed)
- Analysis of the history of the bomas and population movements in and out of the
- Analysis of livelihood, livelihood capitals, strategies and outcomes
- Assessing natural resources and accessibility

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- Assessing sustainability of the boma natural resources
- Analysis of problems related to natural resource use and proposing solutions
- Making a resource management plan

Sensitization was conducted for Aweil East County authorities and the community of
Wunlang payam on the 8th February 2007.

Community sensitization in Wunlang bomas

Sensitization continued until 23rd February. After the sensitization, it followed the election
of Boma Development Committees (BDCs). These were selected by the communities
themselves while the project team monitored the selection as it gave advice on a proper
election of a representative Boma development committee.

Boma development committees have been formed in 5 bomas namely: Malualkuel,

Manyiel, Wardong, Malualdit and Gal. The membership ranged from 24 to 25.

The project achieved the following outputs:

 Bomas Organized into representative Boma Development Associations (BDCs);
 Adequate mechanisms for access to land and natural resources, ii) restitution of
rights and iii) land/property disputes identified;

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 Communities and other stakeholders capacity to use these mechanisms
 Capacity of the BDC to engage in the participatory assessment and planning
process developed;
 Women participation in public institutions responsible for land administration and
land policy development enhanced;
 Trained and well-informed resource management groups established at boma level
able to handle natural resource management and development interventions;
 Boma land and resource management plans developed.
For more details, refer to the report on Capacity building in Land and Natural resource
management IAS/FAO 2007.

Tools and seeds distribution

IAS supported Farming households in Aweil East and West Counties with seeds and
tools. Most of what was distributed in terms of seeds was rice seeds. 11.75 MT of the rice
seeds and hand hoes were distributed to rice contract farmers in 4 payams

Payam No. of beneficieries Rice seeds in Kg Hoes Malodas Sickles Expected feddans
YARGOT 150 3750 75
WUNLANG 100 2500 50
MARIAM 160 4000 80
MANGOK 60 1500 30
470 11750 235

Constructing new infrastructures as well as developing the ones started and left
uncompleted has been a big task in a bid to provide the community with a well
constructed agriculture training centre. The task started in the 1st quarter with fence
construction. Constructing the fence completed in April 2007. This entailed installing a
permanent fence made of interlinked wire and metal posts covering a perimeter of 680m.
This covered the training centre, staff residential quarter and the college garden. Other
construction activities have been the completion of the office block for the training
centre. This is in two blocks, a three office block measuring 16m x 7m and Training
Center’s office. There is also a modern residential house for teachers’ accommodation.
The pictorial below gives an illustration of the construction work done in 2007.

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One residential house and 2 office blocks wereostrutedadopleted

Training program

Agriculture training
Supporting recovery and rehabilitation
Agriculture sector has aimed at supporting the recovery and rehabilitation of rural
communities in the region and promoting an enabling situation for transition to
development. Major areas covered in this 3rd quarter are; Agriculture training for
community based agriculture extension workers, agriculture workshops for contact
farmers and capacity building for land and natural resource management for five Boma
development committees.

Agriculture training for community based agriculture extension workers

The three month-Agriculture training for community based agriculture extension workers
completed in the month of August; with graduation taking place on the 11th of September
2007. Aweil East County commissioner presided at the graduation ceremony and
presented certificate of completion to 37 CBAEWs. The graduands have been equipped
with relevant knowledge and skills in basic agriculture to enable them transform the
community through training others and assist them identify opportunities available for
sustainable agriculture. All these geared towards making a contribution to sustainable
food security in the area and creating self-reliance among communities. Subjects covered

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are; Agriculture extension, Agronomy, Horticulture, Farm management, Human nutrition,
Agro-forestry and Animal husbandry. The pictorial below shows some training sessions.

Nursery beds preparation A good mix of manure and top soil

Crops planted in rows: Maize sorghum

Hedgerow with local Thou tree seedlings Figure Tree seedlings in a nursery

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Nutrition practicals: Meals preparation

For a detailed report, refer to the June-September2007 Agriculture training report

Household Income generation

Rice contract farming

The rice project in Aweil County is operating on a cost recovery scheme for 470 rice
contract farmers. A total of 11MT of rice seeds was purchased locally and distributed to
the beneficiaries to plant 75 acres in Yargot, 50 acres in Wunlang, 80acres in Mariam
payam and 30 acres in Mangok. Planting took place in June to July 2007. Cultivation
was however negatively affected as only a few acres were cultivated. People put all their
hope for land cultivation on the government tractor that was provided for Aweil East
County. After just ploughing about 50 acres, the tractor broke down; leaving the farmers
waiting for mechanical breakdown to be rectified for the work to resume. Work did not
resume. However, cultivation in Mariam payam was not affected. The 160 farmers
supported by IAS in 2007 have managed to cultivate 80 acres of rice.

In Mangok, Wunlang and Yargot, the little cultivated rice was swept away by floods. The
flood resulted from heavy rains that pounded the area in July to September. Rice among
other crops cultivated was damaged by the flood water.

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5. School garden
The school garden project is operated as an income generation project for schools. It aims
at producing food for the institutions as well as serving as a tool for teaching better
agriculture practices to both the young and adult learners in the community. During the
2nd quarter, the following were achieved.

 0.8MT rice seeds purchased locally and distributed to 12 schools in Aweil West
County. These are among the schools IAS is supporting under education project. 280
hand hoes were distributed to the schools as well.

 24 school garden model rice contract farmers were supported with 1 MT of rice seeds
and hand hoes.

 Currently, extension workers attached to the project in Aweil North and West counties
are monitoring the activities and rendering advisory services to the schools.

 250 returnees in Marialbai have been supported with 0.27MT of groundnut seeds and
0.8MT of rice seeds. Extension workers provided advice and guidance on planting.

Contact farmers training

180 Contact farmers have been trained on the basics of modern farming. Training
was conducted 60 people Mariam Payam; 40 people in Wunlang and 40 people
in Yargot. The training was conducted in series from July to December 4th 7.
The farmers have been equipped with practical skills for modern cultivation and
have utilized the knowledge in home vegetable gardens. In Mariam Payam,
farmers planted sorghum, maize and vegetable crops in rows. The contact
farmers have also formed into a cooperative society and have cultivated jointly
one acre of rice.

Agro forestry and fruit trees

2000 mangoes seedlings were raised in Mariam payam and distributed in August to 1000
1900 eucalyptus tree seedlings were raised since March and distributed in August to 1000
households. A few eucalyptus and mangoes seedlings were planted at Achiek agriculture
training centre.

Other activities

USAID visit to Aweil state

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On the 2nd of March, USAID team visited Aweil town for a food security and livelihood
assessment. A coordination meeting was organized by USAID personnel in Aweil and
was attended by Organizations operating in AWEIL East County. Among the issues
discussed were NGOs activities and the challenges they have encountered for their time
in operation.

TearFund and IAS took the team to the rice fields in Dalabal –Akuem (IAS project
area) and a vegetable project for women groups supported by Tear Fund in Adiorgot-
Wunlang Payam. The team visited Aweil West as well after the visit in Aweil East County.

Flood assessment
After the general assessment by UN and NGOs in Awulwic village where 3658 household
IDPs were registered, displacement due to floods extended to the villages in Yargot
payam. This prompted a separate assessment conducted by International Aid Services
from 5th to 9th September 2007. Villages assessed were Langic, Atuekcok , Halbull,
Nyioric,Mathiort, Akuemkou Lieth anguei, Kunyuk, Anguek, Kwenwir Kar Marial and
Wunliet; all in the lowland of Yargot. Households registered as displaced were 416.
Tabulated data provides more information of the affected villages.

S/N Village Payam Households affected

1 Halbull Yargot 23
2 Nyioric Yargot 69
3 Mathiat Yargot 3
4 Kar Marial Yargot 40
5 Wunliet Yargot 13
6 Akuemkou Yargot 5
7 Kurnyuk Yargot 80
8 Anguek Yargot 52
9 Kwenwir Yargot 53
10 Langic Yargot 50

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11 Atuekcok Yargot 20
12 Liethanguei Yargot 8
Total household 416

Kurnyuk village is most affected with total households displaced as 80. Nyioric follows
with 69 families while Mathiat has 8 families suffering the floods.
Most of the displaced families by the time of the assessment were living with their
relatives in Akuem. A chief representing returnee households in Yargot visited IAS
appealing for philanthropic attention to the affected villages.
It is anticipated that the number of displaced families will increase by October 2007. At
the time of the assessment, the flood was still increasing.

At Awulwic, families from flood affected areas of Mangok, Mariam and Maduany payam
were still wadding on water to access Awulwic displacement camp.

We can still trace the route leading from our ruined homes despite the water on the way.

Deserted homes in Awulwic village: some families have camped by the roadside; Akuem- Aweil road
Awulwic village.

Crop situation
Sorghum in flooded villages has lodged in water, a situation which puts the affected
families food insecure in the following year 2008. In Wunlang payam, rice field in
Adiorgot village is completely submerged and this may result to a total loss of the rice
cultivated by more than 100 rice contract farmers supported by IAS in 2007. The same
situation applies for rice farmers in Yargot-Dalabal rice fields and in Mangok Payam as

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IAS extension worker assessing the damage on a flooded rice field in Yargot payam

Implementation strategy

An all inclusive participatory approach was considered where all stake holders’ plaid
their roles. The community through their representatives conceived the innovations
expressed. And they endorsed the project. They were fully involved in the conception,
planning and setting priorities among the numerous felt needs. IAS has worked hand in
hand with local authorities in the implementation of the projects. With the training centre,
selection of trainees and transportation to the centre was catered for by the authorities.
IAS will continue to strengthen this relationship through coordination and joint meetings.
IAS worked with community groups e.g. women groups, rice farmers association and
contact farmers. There has been information sharing with the ministry of agriculture and
forestry on matters pertaining to Agriculture training. The ministry provided teachers for
the training. This is a relationship that has lived since the inception of the training centre.
The project was implemented under various areas; Capacity building-which covered
training of community based agriculture extension workers, ox plough training, contact
farmers training, and women groups training; Income generation which encompassed:
rice contract farming, support to school garden project with seeds and tools, support to
contact farmers; contact farmers were trained to be good examples that others would
imitate. They were trained to be farmer’s promoter and trainers. The other area in the
implementation was returnees’ intervention. With the help of local authorities, returnee
representatives’ mobilization and sensitization meetings were conducted after which
returnees were registered in every payam. Registration and targeting was according to the
villages. This facilitated follow-up. Other area was targeting schools for school garden.
Agriculture starts from school, home and finally to the entire community. Schools were
supported to start garden projects as models for teaching agriculture; School garden
committees were formed and charged with the day to day management of the garden
project. To be very effective, the school garden committees were trained.

Long term developments

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With the government of South Sudan in place, Food security and income generation
program focused on strategies that would take the people yonder relief dependency to
development of the land resource. More emphasis was given to building the capacity of
the people for them to be able to exploit and give proper management of the recourses
available; natural, man made and human resource. This was with the objective to ensure
improved means of agriculture resource development; culminating in an overall food and
income secure population. IAS agriculture sector has helped the community realize and
prioritize their production potentials. Most of the local employees are Sudanese. Building
the capacity of these people is a step ahead on matters pertaining to the project
availability. The community mobilization unit has assisted the people to realize their
needs and focus a head. Trainings have been offered on project management for project

Major donor for the agriculture project is Sida (Swedish international development
agency). Total funding for the year 2006 is US$ 64,125,


3.1 Project monitoring and evaluation

The project was managed from IAS head office in Khartoum with the help of Bahr-el-
Ghazal area development officer and agriculture project coordinator. The project
monitoring was directly done by the project coordinator assisted by 9 agricultural
extension staff; 5 in Aweil East County and 4 in Aweil West County. The monitoring and
evaluation activity included; post- inputs distribution, pre-harvest crop assessment and
crop performance monitoring and post harvest assessment. Other areas included school
gardens performance and the activities of the people who benefited on trainings and
workshops. Community mobilization sector has also played a vital role. The personnel
constantly visited the groups targeted and gave advice for improvement on the
communities supported projects. IAS has participated in the Annual Needs and
Livelihood organized by WFP and conducted jointly with NGOs operating in Aweil East
County: Summary assessment report is on annex 3. Other reports written on the project
progress are quarterly reports (not annexed)


Involvement of local and international organizations on IAS projects

IAS has introduced contact farming in its agricultural extension program. Contact farmers
are model farmers expected to demonstrate good farming practice along side other village
developments. In returnees’ intervention, Contact farmers were also involved in their
registration. They worked hand in hand with extension staff and the local authorities.
In the 1st quarter of year 2006, IAS staff had a meeting with the director general for
agriculture-Aweil state Mr. Gabriel Mal. Discussion was about the future of Achiek

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agriculture training centre. On the graduation day for Agriculture extension workers in
September, the director general confirmed that the centre will continue to operate in
Akuem. IAS has collaborated with the GOSS at national and state level on matters
pertaining to the training centre particularly long term planning for the centre. Since the
inception of the centre in 2002, the ministry of Agriculture and forestry has been
seconding tutors to facilitate at the agricultural training centre. The local authority has
taken the responsibly of conducting selection of agriculture trainees at the grass root
level. IAS has collaborated with other humanitarian organizations on matters that pertain
to general food security and humanitarian intervention. Food security assessment has
always jointly with international and local NGOs with the involvement of the local
authority. There has also been information sharing with other organizations.
Organizations conducting food security project in the Aweil counties have found the
Agriculture training conducted by IAS as a step to the right direction. In 2006 eight
agriculture extension trainees were sponsored to the centre by the NGOs.

Coordination meetings
The first NGOs/state government coordination meeting was held in Aweil town on the
10th of February 2006. Several other meetings have been conducted. The meetings are
called by the state government and UN OCHA. IAS has had representation in these
meetings. The meetings had the objective of sharing experiences and giving highlights of


During the entire period, there has been a constant lack of transport. Our mobiles have
had breakdown from time to time. Akuem field station has been having only one pick up
in the base to be used for agriculture programs and administration. One other pick up for
drilling team has always been at the drilling sites; locations several kilometers away from
Akuem and Marialbai. Distribution of tools and seeds has not been an easy task to carry
out. Agriculture project needs a new vehicle and at least a motorbike for project
monitoring. Late and poor rains have as well contributed negatively towards the project
implementation. Though the beneficiaries have had access to farming tools and seeds,
their effort to make good cultivation this year has been negated by the rainfall factor. In
May and June, Akuem field station recorded only 181 mm of rain. Due to poor rains
germination of sorghum was poor. Most affected is the late planted crop. Some
households under IAS support did gaping, but this did not help much.

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Funding EXP in EXP BAL Project

USD dinars USD USD No.

1. Agriculture sector

Returnees intervention
7.03MT sorghum seeds purchased 31250 610750 2800

Vegetable seeds

Assorted tools

1.2 Distribution of fishing items 20000 100 4430

Income generation activities

1.3 9 MT of rice seeds purchased 1415407 6400
2MT G nut seeds purchased 12500 171000 780 4432
Agriculture training for CBAEWS
6000 1084000 4900
Teaching and educational materials

1.4 ------- --------- -------- 4429

Agriculture workshops for contact
farmers 180000 800

Field visits and assessment 100000 450

Ox plough training 118000 540 4427

1.6 Construction of Training centre;

Fence 9375 240000 1100

Kitchen house 390000 1800 4431

TOTAL EXPENDITURE/BAL 64,125 19,670 44,455

Balance for 2007:

less expenses for buying assorted tools ……………
less Assorted vegetable seeds ……………
Balance for 2007 ____________


Direct project implementing
Joseph Mwirigi Bahr-el-Ghazal Agriculture project
James Lual Akuem Extension worker
Garang Lim Dut Akuem Extension worker/Training
Deng Majok Akuem Extension worker
Michael Piol Akuem Extension worker