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Week 8 The Era of dissent -Examine Social protests and .

How every social protest during 1950s The outbreak of Korea War in June

1. Impacts of the Korean War, 1950

[Immediate impact of Korean War in Japan] Establishment of the National Police Reserve -Establishment of National Police Reserve (..) , quite well received in the beginning evidence from . Newspaper. Local consensus for defense -Yomuri Newspaper = not one can gurarantee peace with Korean War Escalation of the Red Purge .. was the Red Purge Lead to mass firing of employee in all kind of industries,( in Japan First wave spread to ordinary compounds

First Wave initiated by GHQ, . Reds purge not from GHQ by .. By 1950 = Red spread to employment. agenvcies 1925, public fe,,,,, law 1925) 2. Argument Supporting for Japans Re-armament, 1950-1953 Rise of pro-rearmament discussion advocate for Jap Rearmament, , = Ashida ( during wartime period= become politician) His argument= need arms to defend from Korean war . Struggle for Jap US, USSR pple do not defend instilling the need to build military and promote Jap unity Outbreak of Korean war, before the war anger to rearm After 1950 , . Again

Ashida interpretation of Article Nine

Spring of 1951, began nationwide speaking tour, Ashida interpretation of Article 9 of Jap constitution -Article 9, forever renounce war as a right to settle international dispute .Land,sea and air force will not be maintained. Right of of state will not be reorganized Ashida interpretation :Forbade the use of offence to settle international dispute but did not ban military preparation for self-defence -How should political force figure change their stance depending on Popular support for Japans re-armament Its shaped socially by public Large . If popular support for Japans rearmament

1950 Asahari . 54% agree and 28% disagreed 1951- newspaper . 70% agree re-armaments. Yoshida Shigen (1878-1967) . Although he publicly denied any intention to national defense e but behind close door intentions . These phenomenons in turn led to sharp .. among youth and women Jap women .. stance .. 3. Argument Against Japans Re-armament, 1950-1953 Rise of anti-rearmament argument But today you are demanding the rearmament of Japan, please remember talk you gave- source of betrayal felt now a day stance to re-arm -young pple dont want. On sep 9 1950 = 1500 students gathered at university , anti-red purge = dont want war want peace. Red purge, A week later, 3000 students at university of Tokyo.

Both demonstrations revealed their . Of of opposition to re-armament

Memories of the war Pro-rearmament reconciled young youth about Wartime history/ww2 experiences. Such memories of war did not appear immediately after WW2 but around Korean war, reminded Jap of their own experiences in WW2. Peace thought and anti-war sentiments Eg. A film in 1950: listen to voices from the sea, highly successful, view from student about re-armament .. paintings . Memories of war, attracting surprising large no of audience * 800000 + . Cultural production of WW2 appeared in early Korean war . -common theme . Horror of the war and remorse the war, inability to stop the war The message: If you are not able to stop the war (Korean war) today will be back to wartime once again What is included and excluded of the memories of WW2 Excluded: Jap aggression and colonialism in Asia 4. National Politics on Japans Re-armament, 1952-1953 Social Democratic Party (SDP)s reaction Political reactions : how such political culture and social protest affect jap different and nation poltics Politicians knew the popular of and continuously change their stance Ashida propose . Of re-armament there is popular support for it (changing stance) Social democratic party (SDP) strong de-armament stance, was not organized .. SDP change their stance with change of public opion . By 1951 two contradictory idea gain popular support, rearmaments vs anti rearmament Ashida advisor for advocate amendment of constitution + national armed forces Re-armament at the center of the elections in 1952 and 1953 SDP (left and right session) but took the stance of disarmament. It is also the last time the issue of re-armament is discussed and contested After 5=6 decades no longer an issue in 1952-1953

Idea of rearmament surprisingly unpopular Pro rearmament party begin to not use the work rearmament and weaken the image of rearmament during election campaign Women advocating aborting rights, considered against re-armament @ that time , . To rearmament Result of the elections Ashida party blame ashida = lost 10 due to rearmament stance, Ashida took responsibility and resigned . 1953 repeated again the same pattern Rearmament group Politican them discuss issue of rearmament 1950= Disucssion caught attention after Korean War 1950-1951 Rearmanment gained popularity 1952- became unpopular Re-drawing political map in the mid-1950s

Ordindary people also . to Japan Post war policy into .. national elections Formation of Japans defense strategy: Yoshida Doctrine Yoshida will not amend any Japan constitution , anti war feeling pervasive due to military pples decision to create a war Rearmanment create anti- govt feelings issue . So Japan adopt Yoshida doctrine support rearmament to satisfy popular .. defence force to satisfy conservative policy till WOW

Yoshida doctrine lead to concern of few of US bases in Japan

Memories of WW2 remained in 1950s-1960s Contentious issue-- issue of war and peace Peace movement- movement represented by various group of society

5. Era of Dissent, 1960-1969 U.S.-Japanese Security Treaty (1951)

Anti- military base movements, anti US-Jap security treaty (1951) , give American the right to station military forces in Japan More than 80000 US troop in Japan most faculties on Okinawa, Local residents detested US bases lend to violence , murder , rape by US troop. Traffic accident due to US troops duty. Many Jap resident upset because those crime fell under US jurisdiction US vases vecame a symbol of extraterriotional right that followed to unequal treating in 19 Anti-military base movement

Anti-nuclear movement Devastation of Nagasaki and Hiroshima The Lucky Dragon Incident (1954) 1954, lucky dragon incident: lucky dragon , name of Jap board doing fishing boat was showered by nuclear .. Us exercise nuclear test , firther influence movement.

Several Nuclear organization developed quickly : eg Gensuikyo came to orgqanize annual conference concerning Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombing, new groups , mother conference, housewives association , stron nuclear war message around the time All Jap Federation of student Self-governing associations Birth of Godzilla More than 30 million signed petition against nuclear test, even in popular film birth of Godzilla there are anti-nuclear messages, Board base of support to these organization, late 1950 early 1960 erupted in a crisis (The Anpo struggle , begin with us-jap treaty. -putting jap a risk for battleground and target for US ear

-this treaty imposed 1- side obligation, US in Jap land So kishi (politician), division of treaty will increase opposition, led to more intense opposition to the treaty. April 1960, Dozens of demonstration brought protestors to the street, expressing opposition to the treaty. In reaction to kishis forceful approach( kishi died ) led to even strong opposition , hige protestors outside national diet Largest one in June 1960 gathered over 100000 pple outside diet . Gensuikyo (Japan Council Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb)

The core issue of /.. force struggle not US-security treaty but many were by kishis forceful approach minister of commercial during wartime , was trial in Tokyo court Kishi forced to resign immediately after the event,

Anti-war movement Anpo movement died after a new treaty signed but US military still there. 7. Anti-Vietnam War Movement, 1965-1970s

War in Vietnam escalated in 1965. Many seen Us intervening domestic civil war. Many believed Jap helping US in war, few Jap will be drowned into wider war As a result, citizen form a new and network, Beheriren = no .. remarkable because no frequent . Membership (no membership fee Over 80 million pple participated in anti-war protests. The largest single demonstration gathered 800 000 pple on street in june 1970 Student movement in Jap. Same to Beiheren movement, Jap uni students undertook influence and often violent protests. Student radical organize unprecedented strikes and boycotts but not affiliated to any communist group and anti-communist group 8. Zenkyoto Movement in Universities, 1965-1969

Rather it is a joint struggle (Zenkyoto ), student protest, curriculum reform necessary in order to resist US imperialism, Jap curriculum too capitalized and American dominated. WITH THE UPSURGE OF STUDENT PROTEST, MANY COLLEGE Campuses closed Zenkyokto join with left group to take on violent protest (1969) Students around ///// occupy classroom buildings, govt arrested leading activist. ( these pple do not want to talk about their experience till recent year boom on these experiences)

Summer 1969 Zenkyoto movement collapsed in the early 11970s. the force of student movement declined sharped probably because it is vilent, End of support, end of movement, end of politics . By public opinion Anpo war = (US Jap security treaty), . Signed : war but not . It will .

. For support form US will form . How sill sign treaty and support US. Japan imperial . Of how alive L he p as he thought. . he around

Jap govt did not persecute those .. but leave it to the allies. Anpo . Rage against Anpo protest down with Kishi . Keep .. Education in elementary school , you are democracy