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CATELITE CONVERTER

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BY

Under the guidance of -----------------------------

2011-2012
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

Register number: _________________________

This is to certify that the project report titled CATELITE CONVERTER submitted by the following students for the award of the degree of bachelor of engineering is record of bonafide work carried out by them.
Done by

Mr. / Ms_______________________________

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree in Diploma in mechanical Engineering During the Year (2004-2005) _________________ Head of Department Coimbatore 641651. Date:
Submitted for the university examination held on ___________

_______________ Guide

_________________ Internal Examiner

________________ External Examiner

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At this pleasing moment of having successfully completed our project, we wish to convey our sincere thanks and gratitude to the management of our college and our beloved chairman .. , who provided all the facilities to us. We would like to express our sincere thanks to our principal , for forwarding us to do our project and offering adequate duration in completing our project. We are also grateful to the Head of Department Prof. .., for her constructive suggestions & encouragement during our project. With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our earnest & sincere thanks to our guide Department of ..,

EEE for her kind guidance & encouragement during this project. We also express our indebt thanks to our TEACHING and NON TEACHING staffs of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,.(COLLEGE NAME).

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BUTTON OPERATED ELECTROMAGNETIC GEAR SHIFTING SYSTEM


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CONTENTS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONTENTS
ADKNOWLEDGEMENT

1. SYNOPSIS 2. INTRODUCTION 3. I.G ENGINE 4. TYPES OF CATELITE 5. SCEUBBER UNIT 6. WORKING PRINCIPLE 7. DESIGN AND DRAWINGS 8. LIST OF MATERIAL 9. COST ESTIMATION 10. ADVANTAGES 11. APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES 12. PROGRAME 13. CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHY

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Chapter-1
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SYNOPSIS
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CHAPTER-1 SYNOPSIS

Diesel power invitably finds a very important role in the development of the plants economy and technical growth. Inspite of their high thermal efficiency, one cannot ignore the fact about the effect of their exhaust, in the atmosphere.

It is a well-known fact that the toxic gases emitted in diesel engines are less than the engines.

Due to high cost of petrol, diesel engines are more in use. Anticipating the use of diesel engines, even more in the near future; this system developed can be used to control the toxic gases, coming out of the diesel engines.

These toxic gases are harmful not only to the atmosphere, but also to the human & animal race. Objective of this project is to design & fabricate a simple system, where the toxic levels are controlled through chemical reaction to more agreeable level. This system acts itself as a silencer; there is no need to separate the silencer. The whole assembly is fitted in the exhaust pipe; it does not give rise to any complications in assembling it. This system is VERY COST EFFECTIVE AND MORE ECONOMICAL.

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Chapter-2
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INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER - 2

INTRODUCTION

Diesel engines are playing a vital role in Road and sea transport, Agriculture, mining and many other industries. Considering the available fuel resources and the present technological development, Diesel fuel is evidently indispensable. In general, the consumption of fuel is an index for finding out the economic strength of any country.

Inspite, we cannot ignore the harmful effects of the large mass of the burnt gases, which erodes the purity of our environment everyday. It is especially so, inmost developed countries like USA and EUOPE. While, constant research is going on to reduce the toxic content of diesel exhaust, the diesel power packs find the ever increasing applications and demand.

This project is an attempt to reduce the toxic content of diesel exhaust, before it is emitted to the atmosphere. This system can be safely used for diesel power packs which could be used in inflammable atmospheres, such as refineries, chemicals processing industries, open cost mines and other confined areas, which demands the need for diesel power packs. For achieving this toxic gases are to be reduced to acceptable limits before they are emitted out of this atmosphere, which otherwise will be hazardous and prone to accidents.

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Chapter-3
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I.C ENGINE
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CHAPTER-3

I.C ENGINE

Internal combustion engines are those heat engines that burn their fuel inside the engine cylinder. In internal combustion engine the chemical energy stored in their operation. The heat energy is converted in to mechanical energy by the expansion of gases against the piston attached to the crankshaft that can rotate.

4.1 Diesel ENGINE The engine which gives power to propel the automobile vehicle is a diesel burning internal combustion engine.dieselis a liquid fuel and is called by the name gasoline in America. The ability of diesel to furnish power rests on the two basic principles; Burning or combustions always accomplished by the production of heat. When a gas is heated, it expands. If the volume remains constant, the pressure

rises according to Charles law.

4.2 WORKING There are only two strokes involved namely the compression stroke and the power stroke, they are usually called as upward stroke and downward stroke respectively.

4.2.1 UPWARD STROKE During this stroke, the piston moves from bottom dead center to top dead center, compressing the charge-air mixture in combustion chamber of the cylinder, at the

time the inlet port is uncovered and the exhaust, transfer ports are covered. The compressed charge is ignited in the combustion chamber by a spark given by spark plug.

4.2.2 DOWNWARD STROKE The charge is ignited the hot gases compress the piston moves downwards, during this stroke the inlet port is covered by the piston and the new charge is compressed in the crankcase, further downward movement of the piston uncovers first exhaust port and then transfer port and hence the exhaust starts through the exhaust port. As soon as the transfer port open the charge through it is forced in to the cylinder, the cycle is then repeated.

4.3 ENGINE TERMINOLOGY The engine terminologies are detailed below,

4.3.1 CYLINDER It is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the piston makes a reciprocating motion.

4.3.2 PISTON It is a cylindrical component fitted to the cylinder which transmits the bore of explosion to the crankshaft.

4.3.3 COMBUSTION CHAMBER It is the space exposed in the upper part of the cylinder where the combustion of fuel takes place.

4.3.4 CONNECTING ROD It inter connects the piston and the crankshaft and transmits the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of crankshaft.

4.3.5 CRACKSHAFT It is a solid shaft from which the power is transmitted to the clutch.

4.3.6 CAM SHAFT It is drive by the crankshaft through timing gears and it is used to control the opening and closing of two valves.

4.3.7.1CAM These are made as internal part of the camshaft and are designed in such a way to open the valves at the current timing.

4.3.7.2PISTON RINGS It provides a tight seal between the piston and cylinder wall and preventing leakage of combustion gases.

4.3.7.3GUDGEON PIN It forms a link between the small end of the connecting rod and the piston.

4.3.7.4INLET The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the engine end through which air or air fuel mixture is drawn in to the cylinder.

4.3.7.5EXHAUST MANIFOLD The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine through which the product of combustion escape in to the atmosphere.

4.3.7.6INLET AND EXHAUST VALVE They are provided on either on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder and regulating the charge coming in to the cylinder and for discharging the product of combustion from the cylinder.

4.3.7.7FLYWHEEL It is a heavy steel wheel attached to the rear end of the crank shaft. It absorbs energy when the engine speed is high and gives back when the engine speed is low.

4.4

NOMENCLATURE This refers to the position of the crank shaft when the piston is in it slowest

position.

4.4.1 BORE(d) Diameter of the engine cylinder is refers to as the bore.

4.4.2 STROKE(s)

Distance traveled by the piston in moving from TDC to the piston in moving from TDC to the BDC.

4.4.3 CLEARANCE VOLUME (V) The volume of cylinder above the piston when it is in the TDC position.

4.4.4 SWEPT VOLUME (V) The swept volume of the entire cylinder Vd = Vs N Where, Vs ------- Swept Volume N --------- Number of cylinder

4.4.5 COMPRESSION RATIO (R) It is the ratio of the total cylinder volume when the piston is at BDC to the clearance volume.

4.5 ENGINE SPECIFICATION

Type of fuel used Make Cooling system

: : :

Deisel Hero Honda Air cooled Single Four Stroke Four Vertical 100 cc

Number of cylinder : Number of stroke Number of Gear Arrangement Cubic capacity : : : :

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Chapter-4
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Types of catelite
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Types
Two-way A two-way (or "oxidation") catalytic converter has two simultaneous tasks: 1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2 2. Oxidation of hydrocarbons (unburnt and partially-burnt fuel) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2] O2 xCO2 + (x+1) H2O (a combustion reaction) This type of catalytic converter is widely used on diesel engines to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. They were also used on gasoline engines in American- and Canadian-market automobiles until 1981. Because of their inability to control oxides of nitrogen, they were superseded by three-way converters. Three-way Since 1981, "three-way" (oxidation-reduction) catalytic converters have been used in vehicle emission control systems in the United States and Canada; many other countries have also adopted stringent vehicle emission regulations that in effect require three-way converters on gasoline-powered vehicles. The reduction and oxidation catalysts are typically contained in a common housing, however in some instances they may be housed separately. A three-way catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks: 1. Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx xO2 + N2 2. Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2 3. Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2]O2 xCO2 + (x+1)H2O.

These three reactions occur most efficiently when the catalytic converter receives exhaust from an engine running slightly above the stoichiometric point. This point is between 14.6 and 14.8 parts air to 1 part fuel, by weight, for gasoline. The ratio for Autogas (or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), natural gas and ethanol fuels is each slightly different, requiring modified fuel system settings when using those fuels. In general, engines fitted with 3-way catalytic converters are equipped with acomputerized closed-loop feedback fuel injection system using one or more oxygen sensors, though early in the deployment of three-way converters, carburetorsequipped for feedback mixture control were used. Three-way catalysts are effective when the engine is operated within a narrow band of air-fuel ratios near stoichiometry, such that the exhaust gas oscillates between rich (excess fuel) and lean (excess oxygen) conditions. However, conversion efficiency falls very rapidly when the engine is operated outside of that band of air-fuel ratios. Under lean engine operation, there is excess oxygen and the reduction of NO x is not favored. Under rich conditions, the excess fuel consumes all of the available oxygen prior to the catalyst, thus only stored oxygen is available for the oxidation function. Closed-loop control systems are necessary because of the conflicting requirements for effective NOx reduction and HC oxidation. The control system must prevent the NOx reduction catalyst from becoming fully oxidized, yet replenish the oxygen storage material to maintain its function as an oxidation catalyst.
Oxygen storage

Three-way catalytic converters can store oxygen from the exhaust gas stream, usually when the air-fuel ratio goes lean.[12] When insufficient oxygen is available from the exhaust stream, the stored oxygen is released and consumed (see cerium(IV) oxide). A lack of sufficient oxygen occurs either when oxygen derived from NOxreduction is

unavailable or when certain maneuvers such as hard acceleration enrich the mixture beyond the ability of the converter to supply oxygen. Unwanted reactions Unwanted reactions can occur in the three-way catalyst, such as the formation of odoriferous hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Formation of each can be limited by modifications to the washcoat and precious metals used. It is difficult to eliminate these byproducts entirely. Sulfur-free or low-sulfur fuels eliminate or reduce hydrogen sulfide. For example, when control of hydrogen-sulfide emissions is desired, nickel or manganese is added to the washcoat. Both substances act to block the absorption ofsulfur by the washcoat. Hydrogen sulfide is formed when the washcoat has absorbed sulfur during a low-temperature part of the operating cycle, which is then released during the high-temperature part of the cycle and the sulfur combines with HC. For diesel engines For compression-ignition (i.e., diesel engines), the most-commonly-used catalytic converter is the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). This catalyst uses O2 (oxygen) in the exhaust gas stream to convert CO (carbon monoxide) to CO2 (carbon dioxide) and HC (hydrocarbons) to H2O (water) and CO2. These converters often operate at 90 percent efficiency, virtually eliminating diesel odor and helping to reduce visible particulates (soot). These catalysts are not active for NOx reduction because any reductant present would react first with the high concentration of O2 in diesel exhaust gas.

Reduction in NOx emissions from compression-ignition engines has previously been addressed by the addition of exhaust gas to incoming air charge, known asexhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In 2010, most light-duty diesel manufacturers in the U.S. added catalytic systems to their vehicles to meet new federal emissions requirements. There are two techniques that have been developed for the catalytic reduction of NOx emissions under lean exhaust conditions - selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and the lean NOx trap or NOx adsorber. Instead of precious metal-containing NOx adsorbers, most manufacturers selected base-metal SCR systems that use a reagent such as ammonia to reduce the NOx into nitrogen. Ammonia is supplied to the catalyst system by the injection of urea into the exhaust, which then undergoes thermal decomposition and hydrolysis into ammonia. One trademark product of urea solution, also referred to as Diesel Emission Fluid (DEF), is AdBlue. Diesel exhaust contains relatively high levels of particulate matter (soot), consisting in large part of elemental carbon. Catalytic converters cannot clean up elemental carbon, though they do remove up to 90 percent of the soluble organic fraction [citation needed], so particulates are cleaned up by a soot trap or diesel particulate filter(DPF). A DPF consists of a Cordierite or Silicon Carbide substrate with a geometry that forces the exhaust flow through the substrate walls, leaving behind trapped soot particles. As the amount of soot trapped on the DPF increases, so does the back pressure in the exhaust system. Periodic regenerations (high temperature excursions) are required to initiate combustion of the trapped soot and thereby reducing the exhaust back pressure. The amount of soot loaded on the DPF prior to regeneration may also be limited to prevent extreme exotherms from damaging the trap during regeneration. In the U.S., all onroad light, medium and heavy-duty vehicles powered by diesel and built after January 1, 2007, must meet diesel particulate emission limits that means they effectively have to be equipped with a 2-Way catalytic converter and a diesel particulate filter. Note that this applies only to the diesel engine used in the vehicle. As long as the engine

was manufactured before January 1, 2007, the vehicle is not required to have the DPF system. This led to an inventory runup by engine manufacturers in late 2006 so they could continue selling pre-DPF vehicles well into 2007.[13] Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines For Lean Burn spark-ignition engines, an oxidation catalyst is used in the same manner as in a diesel engine. Emissions from Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines are very similar to emissions from a Diesel Compression Ignition engine.

Installation
Many vehicles have a close-coupled catalysts located near the engine's exhaust manifold. This unit heats up quickly due to its proximity to the engine, and reduces cold-engine emissions by burning off hydrocarbons from the extra-rich mixture used to start a cold engine. Air injection When catalytic converters were first introduced, most vehicles used carburetors that provided a relatively rich air-fuel ratio. Oxygen (O2) levels in the exhaust stream were generally insufficient for the catalytic reaction to occur efficiently, so most installations included secondary air injection which injected air into the exhaust stream to increase the available oxygen and allow the catalyst to function. Some threeway catalytic converter systems have air injection systems with the air injected between the first (NOx reduction) and second (HC and CO oxidation) stages of the converter. As in the two-way converters, this injected air provides oxygen for the oxidation reactions. An upstream air injection point, ahead of the catalytic converter, is also sometimes present to provide oxygen during engine warmup, which causes unburned fuel to ignite in the exhaust tract before reaching the catalytic converter.

This reduces the engine runtime needed for the catalytic converter to reach its "lightoff" or operating temperature. Many modern vehicles do not have air injection systems. Instead, they provide a constantly varying air-fuel mixture that quickly and continually cycles between lean and rich exhaust. Oxygen sensors are used to monitor the exhaust oxygen content before and after the catalytic converter and this information is used by the Electronic control unit to adjust the fuel injection so as to prevent the first (NOx reduction) catalyst from becoming oxygen-loaded while ensuring the second (HC and CO oxidization) catalyst is sufficiently oxygen-saturated.

Damage
Poisoning Catalyst poisoning occurs when the catalytic converter is exposed to exhaust containing substances that coat the working surfaces, encapsulating the catalyst so that it cannot contact and treat the exhaust. The most-notable contaminant is lead, so vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be run only on unleaded fuels. Other common catalyst poisons include fuel sulfur, manganese (originating primarily from the gasoline additive MMT), and silicone, which can enter the exhaust stream if the engine has a leak that allows coolant into the combustion chamber. Phosphorus is another catalyst contaminant. Although phosphorus is no longer used in gasoline, it (and zinc, another low-level catalyst contaminant) was until recently widely used in engine oil antiwear additives such as zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP). Beginning in 2006, a rapid phaseout of ZDDP in engine oils began.[citation needed] Depending on the contaminant, catalyst poisoning can sometimes be reversed by running the engine under a very heavy load for an extended period of time. The increased exhaust temperature can sometimes liquefy or sublime the contaminant,

removing it from the catalytic surface. However, removal of lead deposits in this manner is usually not possible because of lead's high boiling point. Meltdown Any condition that causes abnormally high levels of unburned hydrocarbons raw or partially burnt fuel to reach the converter will tend to significantly elevate its temperature, bringing the risk of a meltdown of the substrate and resultant catalytic deactivation and severe exhaust restriction. Vehicles equipped with OBD-IIdiagnostic systems are designed to alert the driver to a misfire condition by means of flashing the "check engine" light on the dashboard.

Regulations
Emissions regulations vary considerably from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Most automobile spark-ignition engines in North America have been fitted with catalytic converters since 1975,[2][3][4][5] and the technology used in non-automotive applications is generally based on automotive technology. Regulations for diesel engines are similarly varied, with some jurisdictions focusing on NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) emissions and others focusing on particulate (soot) emissions. This regulatory diversity is challenging for manufacturers of engines, as it may not be economical to design an engine to meet two sets of regulations. Regulations of fuel quality vary across jurisdictions. In North America, Europe, Japan and Hong Kong, gasoline and diesel fuel are highly regulated, and compressed natural gas and LPG (Autogas) are being reviewed for regulation. In most of Asia and Africa, the regulations are often lax in some places sulfur content of the fuel can reach 20,000 parts per million (2%). Any sulfur in the fuel can be oxidized to SO2 (sulfur

dioxide) or even SO3 (sulfur trioxide) in the combustion chamber. If sulfur passes over a catalyst, it may be further oxidized in the catalyst, i.e., SO2 may be further oxidized to SO3. Sulfur oxides are precursors to sulfuric acid, a major component of acid rain. While it is possible to add substances such as vanadium to the catalyst washcoat to combat sulfur-oxide formation, such addition will reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. The most effective solution is to further refine fuel at the refinery to produce ultra-low sulfur diesel. Regulations in Japan, Europe and North America tightly restrict the amount of sulfur permitted in motor fuels. However, the expense of producing such clean fuel may make it impractical for use in developing countries. As a result, cities in these countries with high levels of vehicular traffic suffer from acid rain, which damages stone and woodwork of buildings, poisons humans and other animals, and damages local ecosystems.

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Chapter-5
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SPROCKET AND CHAIN DRIVE


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CHAPTER-5 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

2.1

EXHAUST OF BACK PRESSURE AND ENGINE PERFORMANCE

The exhaust gas contains carbon di oxide, sulphur di oxide, carbon monoxide and other oxides of nitrogen. At full load, the temperature of the exhaust gas will lie anywhere between 500c to 700c. The pressure of the exhaust gas depend upon so many factors viz.,

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The design of exhaust gas manifold Magnitude of valve overlap Engine speed Number of cylinders The length of the exhaust gas flow path, etc,

The design of exhaust gas manifold is very important in case of high sped diesel engines. In order to maintain the exhaust gas pressure with in required limits, the exhaust gas manifold is designed so that, the gases which come out of the cylinder flows very smoothly, before it is let out to the atmosphere.

This is absolutely essential in order to maintain the back pressure with in safe limits, so that the engine can be kept at the optimum operating level. The back pressure, if it is allowed to exceed the pre-determined level, the effort on the part of the piston for scavenge is considerable increased and so power is lost in performing the above so, the primary

consideration when introducing any modification in exhaust system does not and shall not increase the back pressure which drastically affect the performance characteristics of an engine. To be more precise, the speed of the engine is affected for a given specific fuels consumption rate and so the combustion characteristics of an engine is all affected.

As a net result of the combustion is not proper and complete which results in the increased impurities or unburnt gases. This principle against the purpose of introducing any system whose sole object is reducing the very toxic property of the exhaust gas.

So, it is implied that the introduction of any system reduce the toxic property of the exhaust gas, shall not result in any effects in the opposite direction. So by introducing any component in the system the flow path length and the resistance to flow are indirectly increased. So the increase of back pressure is inevitable unless the increase in magnitude compensated in the design of the component itself.

Considering the factors to the specific application of this project, introductions of a scrubber tank will definitely increase the back pressure. In the scrubber Tank the followings are the factors which will contribute to the increase of back pressure.

2.2

BACK PRESSURE EXERTED BY WATER IN THE SCRUBBER

Exhaust gas has to pass through the water, which is filled in the scrubber tank. In any case, the outlet from the engine shall be kept below the water level in the scrubber tank for that the gas will pass through the water. The gas has no to push the water, in order to bubble through the water. The gas has to push the water, in order to bubble through the water in the scrubber tank. This may create chances to increase the backpressure.

2.3

BACK PESSUE EXERTED BY BAFFLES

The baffles, which are provided to deflect the exhaust gases, also offers resistance to the flow and inturn increases the back, pressure.

2.4

BACK PRESSURE EXERTED BY EVAPORATED WATER PARTICLES

Due to the high temperature, the exhaust gas is let out from the engine, some of the water particles which comes in contact, readily changes its phase from liquid state to gaseous state

i.e., steam Which increases the net mass of the exhaust gas flow per unit time. The resultant may increase the backpressure.

2.5

BACK PRESSURE EXERTED BY LIME STONE CONTAINER

The lime stone container is used to stores the lime stone and offers a definite and increased resistance to flow which again, contributes to the increase of backpressure. The limestones, are originally intended to reduce the toxic ingredients of the exhaust, gas through chemical reaction. It is evidently affects the flow of resistance and hence the combustion characteristics of the engine will finally contributes the increased toxic ingredients of the exhaust gas. 2.6 BACK PRESSURE EXERTED BY EXHAUST FLOW PATH LENGTH

Because of the introduction of the scrubber, the net length of the exhaust gas flow path also is increased which is again, against the original intention. So, while all the above factors contribute for the increased backpressure of the system, the system has to be so designed or constructed to reduce the above increase of pressure to its original intended value or original designed value of the engine exhaust system. This could be in principle, accomplished by so many ways. Basically, the elimination of a separate silencer will half way solve the problem, because the scrubber tank itself will act as a silencer and hence the resistance offered by a separate silencer, which is eliminated totally.

2.7

EFFECT OF BELL MOUTH IN SCRUBBER TANK

The introduction of the bell-mouth assembly facilitates the exhaust gas to expand many times by volume gradually before it is coming in contact with the water in the scrubber tank. The process in itself contributes to the reduction of pressure of the whole system. While, designing the system, have to be very careful so as not to increase the backpressure unduly which will affect the performance of the engine in the negative direction and so the constant of the exhaust gases. Hence, it is absolutely essential to make a provision for the measurement of backpressure in the system, so, that it can be controls the same if necessary occurs. This ensures not only the safety, but enhances the performance of the system as a whole.

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Chapter-6
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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-6 CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES

3.1

OUTLET PIPE FROM THE ENGINE (OR) INLET TO THE SCRUBBER TANK :-

The outlet pipe from the engine was connected to the scrubber tank. The nominal bore of the pipe is 50mm, which is also the inlet diameter of the scrubber tank. The shape and length of the pipe is decided according to the space availability to keep the flow resistance to a minimum.

3.2

SCRUBBER TANK ASSEMBLY :-

The scrubber tank is fabricated in three stages and it contains the following sub assemblies. 1. 2. 3. 4. Tank. Bell Mouth. Lime stone container Level plug Drain Assembly.

3.2.1 TANK FABRICATION

The tank is made of standard steel plates of 3mm thickness of quality structional steel conforming to BIS: 226, Designation ST 42S. The tank is fabricated using Electric Arc Welding process to withstand a maximum pressure of 0.8N/mm2 [8Kg/Cm2], with leak proof.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The tank is 40 liters capacity keeping in view the size of Bell-mouth and lime stone container, which are to be accommodated inside. The maximum water content of the tank is about 15 liters, corresponding to 115mm of water level from the bottom of the scrubber tank. Suitable baffles are provided which will encourage through scrubbing of the exhaust gas. The baffles also prevent entry of water into the stone container to a considerable extent.

3.2.2 Bell Mouth Fabrication

The bell mouth is made of standard steel plates of 3mm thickness of quality structural steel conforming to BIS: 226, Designation ST 42S.

Design consideration

The bell mouth is provided to expand the exhaust gas so, as to reduce the backpressure and temperature. The areas at the inlet portion are about 9025mm2. At the end where the expansion is complete, the area is about 22500mm2. This accounts for a total enlargement of more than 2 times, the area, which is originally available, the overall flow path of times, the area, which is originally available. The overall flow path of the bell mouth is more than 330mm. The water column inside the bell mouth is 25 30mm maximum. This accounts for a maximum amount water displacement under peak load conditions. The greater amount of expansion and lesser-required water displacement ensures minimum backpressure during the bubbling of exhaust gas. The back pressure can be further reduced by introducing a suitable space between the bell mouth and tank top flange without necessitating the reduction of water level in the scrubber tank.

3.2.3 Lime stone Container Fabrication

The container is made of standard steel plates, which has 2mm thickness of quality steel plates conforming to BIS: 226, Designation ST 42S Mild steel Plates, using Electric Arc welding.

Design considerations

The stone container is designs to accommodate 35 40mm cross sectional area (approx.) limestone. The capacity of the container is less than 2 liters. Limestones are to be only below the outlet portion, which is above the top plate of the tank. Suitable holes are provided at the circular sidewalls of the container. This facilitates the easy flow of exhaust gas, because the effective area is more than 1.5 times the area at the inlet of bell mouth. But the diameter of the holes is less than the lime stone which is filled, to prevent the lime stones from falling into the tank. The conical shape at the top ensures gradual reduction of flow area, there by increasing velocity and reduces pressure before it is let into the outlet pipe.

By separating the out let portion, the lime stone container can be easily visible for that cleaning and changing the lime stone becomes very simple.

3.3

LEVEL PLUG CUM DRAIN

Fabrication

The level plug cum drain is fabricated using 12.7mm nominal bore pipes fittings and conforming to BIS: 1369 Where, fabricated using electric arc welding. The surface is rough ground in order to have better finish.

Design consideration

The level plug is designed to maintain a level of 115mm inside the tank. Instead of providing a separate drain plug, a tee welded at the bottom of the level pipe to accommodate the drain plug.

The whole assembly can be unscrewed and taken out of the tank for periodic maintenance and repair by unscrewing the thread, which is fastening it to the boss, which is welded to the bottom of the tank. Water level indicator is fixed in the tee joint, which shows the level of water in the scrubber tank. During the evaporation period this will be useful to maintain the level of water.

3.4

OUTLET PIPE FROM THE SCUBBER TANK

The outlet pipe from the scrubber tank is fabricated using standard medium duty pipes, which are conforming to BIS 1369. The nominal bore of the pipe is 60mm, which is also the diameter of the inlet pipe. The flange at the end is to suit the flange on the outlet of the lime stone container. The shape and length of the pipe are to keep the flow resistance to a minimum.

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Chapter-7
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CHEMICAL REACTION DETAILS


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CHAPTER-7
DETAILS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

In the scrubber tank water is used as a alkaline solution mainly to dissolve the Unburned Hydro Carbons (UBHC). By this method, the UBHC, even if it is in glowing conditions, it is dissolved in water, there by it is suppressing a spark which could escape from the engine to the inflammable environment.

Chemical Reaction 1

The obnoxious product of combustion is NOX the oxides of Nitrogen. Water will absorb the oxides of Nitrogen to a larger extent. The following chemical reaction will enhance the proof, for the above statement.

NO2 + 2H2O

2 HNO2 + 2HNO3 (Diluted)..I

Chemical Reaction 2

If a small amount of limewater is added to scrubber tank, further reaction takes place as below.

Ca (OH)2 + 2HNO3 Ca (OH)2 + 2HNO2

Ca(No3)2 = 2H2O Ca(NO2)2 + 2H2O..II

Chemical Reaction 3

When the carbon-di-oxide present in the exhaust gas comes in contact with the limewater, calcium carbonate will precipitate. The calcium carbonate when further exposed to carbon-di-oxide, calcium-bi-carbonate will be precipitated. The following is the chemical reaction,

Ca(OH) + CO2

CaCO3 = H2O Ca(HCO3)2..III

CaCO3 + H2O + CO2

Chemical Reaction 4

The sulphur-di-oxide present in the Diesel Exhaust also reacts with the limewater. But the small trace of sulphur-di-oxide makes it little difficult to measure the magnitude of the chemical reaction, accurately. The following equation gives the chemical reaction and calcium sulphite will precipitate.

Ca (OH) 2 + SO2

CaSO3 + H2OIV

Because CO is chemically balanced and stable, it will not readily react with water or with any by products, which is resulted from the above reactions. Also the negligible volume (0.2%) of CO present in the Diesel emission is not such a menace, when compared to the petrol engine exhaust which as high as 10% of CO.

Even though, the limewater absorbs a part of the oxides of Nitrogen, carbon-dioxide, the time limitation for the reaction take place allows a considerable percentage to

escape. But, the stone container, which is provided with limestone or calcium carbonate, (CaCO3), encourages further chemical reaction, in the presence of steam, which evaporates from the scrubber tank due to the high exhaust temperature (400C - 700 C). The following are the chemical reactions for the oxides of Nitrogen (Nox) Carbon-dioxide (CO2) and Sulphur-di-oxide (SO2).
Chemical Reaction 6

CaCO3 + SO2 + H2O

CaSO3 + CO2 + H2OVI

From calcium carbonate, calcium sulphite will precipitate and CO2 will be byproduct. Because of the small percentage and SO2 presence, the liberation of Carbon dioxide is very less. But the liberated CO2 will again combine with CaCO3 to form calcium bicarbonate as mentioned in equation 5.

Chemical Reaction 7

The presence of steam makes it possible to have a preliminary reaction with oxides of nitrogen, in the following manner;

4NO2 + 2H2O

2HNO2 + 2HNO3VII

The resultant products when come in contact with calcium carbonate the following reaction takes place

CaCO3 + 2HNO3

Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O.

CaCO3 + 2HNO2

Ca(NO2)2 +CO2 + H2O..VIII

i.e., calcium Nitrate Ca(NO3)2 and calcium Nitrite Ca(NO2)2 are the by products, and CO2 is liberated. The liberated CO2again combines with calcium carbonate to form calcium bicarbonate (equation 5).

CON

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Chapter-8
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WORKING PRINCIPLE
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CHAPTER-8 WORKING PRINCIPLE

The problems that arise from the Diesel utilization in inflammable environment may be listed as follows:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Gases and particulate in engine emission. Heat and Humidity. Risk of explosion and fires. Transportation and storage of fuel. High speed in long hauls. Risk of trackless vehicles entering inadequately ventilated areas. Noise.

This section examines the first two of these problems and suggests means by which they may be reduced or overcome.

GASES AND PARTICULATES IN DIESEL EXHAUST

In addition to heat and water vapor, the pollutants in diesel exhaust are,

a) b) c)

Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Oxides of Nitrogen (Nox)

d) e) f)

Sulphur dioxide(SO2) Particulate and Unburned Hydrocarbons (UBHC) Respirable combustible Dust (RCD)

The above polluting contents in the diesel engine exhaust are to be controlled by the scrubbing method, details of which are followed.

EXPANSION AND SCRUBBING The high temperature high pollutant exhaust gas is allowed to pass through the belt mouth assembly of the scrubber in the first phase. The bell mouth at the inlet/outlet is approximately 2 times more in an area is that of the inlet. This allows the exhaust gas to expand considerably. This expansion allows the gas to cool, because the temperature is a function of pressure. This considerable reduction of backpressure allows for the additional involved due to the introduction of water and lime stone container. The venture effect of the bell mouth is minimized because the exhaust gas escapes out of the bell mouth randomly along the periphery.

After expansion, the emission comes in contact with water; (which could be otherwise being any alkaline solution) where the obnoxious products of combustion are scrubbed when bubbled through it. The bell mouth also allows for more contact area with water, so that effective cooling takes place with in the short span of time available

for the gas to pass through the water. The length of bubbling can be increased by the water level in the scrubber tank.

But this will be increased result in an abnormal backpressure, which inadvertently affect the performance of the engine. And for this reason the bell mouth is a multipurpose component, to allow for reduction in back pressure, and provides for an increased contact area with the scrubbing agent. After bubbling through the water, it comes in contact with bubbles, which encourage turbulence of the exhaust gas with in and below the water surface without unduly increasing the back pressure of the exhaust. This allows for the thorough scrubbing of the emission, so that more obnoxious product is absorbed in the allowed time.

The baffles are of invaluable help to reduce the carry over of water particles which are converted into steam, which otherwise will escape out of the system. A lime stone container, which is provided above the baffles, allows the exhaust emission to pass through limestone radially.

Now due to high temperature of the exhaust gas and the high chemical reaction prone lime stone, the products of combustion to go through a series of chemical reactions. The chemical reactions in their different phases are explained later in this chapter. The

extent of scrubbing can be analyzed by using an ORSAT apparatus very easily. The procedure and results are explained in the subsequent chapter. The area at any particular and results are explained in the subsequent chapter. The area at any particular section in the whole system is more than the outlet of exhaust manifold of the engine, which contributes to the reduction of backpressure of the system as a whole.

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Chapter-9
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DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


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CHAPTER 9 DESIGN AND DRAWINGS

1. ENGINE DESIGN CALCULATIONS:-

DESIGN AND ANYLSIS ON TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR TWOSTROKE ENGINE COMPONENT USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD:

SPECIFICATION OF FOUR STROKE DESIEL ENGINE:

Type Cooling System Bore/Stroke Piston Displacement Compression Ratio Maximum Torque

: : : : : :

Four strokes Air Cooled 50 x 50 mm 98.2 cc 6.6: 1 0.98 kg-m at 5,500RPM

CALCULATION:

Compression ratio = Here, Compression ratio = 6.6 Vc = =

(Swept Volume + Clearance Volume)/ Clearance Volume

6.6:1 (98.2 + Vc)/Vc 19.64

Assumption:

1. The component gases and the mixture behave like ideal gases. 2. Mixture obeys the Gibbs-Dalton law Pressure exerted on the walls of the cylinder by air is P P Here, M R T = = = m/M = (Mass of the gas or air)/(Molecular Weight) = 8.314 KJ/Kg mole K. = (MRT)/V

Universal gas constant 303 K

V =

253.28 x 10 m

Molecular weight of air

Density of air x V mole

Here, Density of air at 303K V mole = = 1.165 kg/m 22.4 m/Kg-mole for all gases. 1.165 x 22.4

Molecular weight of air =

P P

= =

{[(m/(1.165 x 22.4)] x 8.314 x 303}/253.28 x 10 381134.1 m

Let Pressure exerted by the fuel is P P = (N R T)/V

Density of Diesel = 800 Kg/m

P P

= =

{[(M)/(800 x 22.4)] x 8.314 x 303}/(253.28 x 10 555.02 m

Therefore Total pressure inside the cylinder

PT

= =

P + P 1.01325 x 100 KN/m = 1.01325 x 100 ------------------------- (1)

381134.1 m + 555.02 m

Calculation of air fuel ratio:

Carbon Hydrogen

= =

86% 14%

We know that, 1Kg of carbon requires 8/3 Kg of oxygen for the complete combustion. 1Kg of carbon sulphur requires 1 Kg of Oxigen for its complete combustion. (From Heat Power Engineering-Balasundrrum)

Therefore, The total oxygen requires for complete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel = [ (8/3c) + (3H) + S] Kg

Little of oxygen may already present in the fuel, then the total oxygen required for complete combustion of Kg of fuel

{ [ (8/3c) + (8H) + S ] - O} Kg

As air contains 23% by weight of Oxygen for obtain of oxygen amount of air required = 100/23 Kg

Minimum air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel = So for diesel 1Kg of fuel requires = = (100/23) { [ (8/3c) + H + S] - O} Kg (100/23) { [ (8/3c) x 0.86 + (8 x 0.14) ] } 14.84 Kg of air

Air fuel ratio

= =

m/m 14.84

14.84/1

14.84 m-------------------------- (2)

Substitute (2) in (1) 1.01325 x 100 m = = 3.81134 (14.84 m) + 555.02 m 1.791 x 10 Kg/Cycle 1.791 x 10 Kg cycle

Mass of fuel flow per cycle =

Therefore, Mass flow rate of the fuel for 2500 RPM [(1.791 x 10)/3600] x (2500/2) x 60 = 3.731 x 10 Kg/sec

Calculation of calorific value: By Delongs formula, Higher Calorific Value = = HCV = 33800 C + 144000 H + 9270 S (33800 x 0.86) + (144000 x 0.14) + 0 49228 KJ/Kg

Lower Calorific Value

= = =

HCV (9H x 2442) 49228 [(9 x 0.14) x 2442] 46151.08 KJ/Kg 46.151 MJ/Kg

LCV

Finding Cp and Cv for the mixture: We know that, Air contains 77% N and 23% O by weight But total mass inside the cylinder = m + m

= = (1)

2.65 x 10 + 1.791 x 10 Kg 2.8291 x 10 Kg 77% = 0.77 Kg in 1 Kg of air

Weight of nitrogen present =

In 2.65 x 10 Kg of air contains, = = 0.77 x 2.65 x 10 Kg of N 2.0405 x 10 Kg

Percent of N present in the total mass = = (2.0405 x 10/2.8291 x 10) 72.125 %

(1)

Percentage of oxygen present in 1 Kg of air is 23% Percentage of oxygen present in total mass = = (0.23 x 2.65 x 10)/(2.8291 x 10) 21.54 %

(2)

Percentage of carbon present in 1 Kg of fuel 86% Percentage of carbon present in total mass

= =

(0.866 x 1.791 x 10)/(2.8291 x 10) 5.444%

(3)

Percentage of Hydrogen present in 1 Kg of fuel 14% Percentage of Hydrogen present in total mass = = (0.14 x 1.791 x 10)/(2.8291 x 10) 0.886 %

Total Cp of the mixture is Cp

= =

msi Cpi (0.72125 x 1.043) + (0.2154 x 0.913) + (0.54444 x 0.7) + (8.86 x 10 x 14.257)

Cp

1.1138 KJ/Kg.K

Cv

= =

msi Cvi (0.72125 x 0.745) + (0.2154 x 0.653) + (0.05444 x 0.5486) + (8.86 x 10 x 10.1333)

0.8 KJ/Kg.K

(All Cvi, Cpi values of corresponding components are taken from clerks table)

n For the mixture

= =

(Cp/Cv) 1.11/0.8 1.38

Pressure and temperature at various PH:

= =

1.01325 x 100 bar 1.01325 bar 30C = 303 K

P/P Where, P r n

(r)

= = =

1.01325 bar 6.6 1.38

13.698 bar

(r) x T

Where, T T = = 303 K 620.68 K

3 P 2 1 4

Heat Supplied by the fuel per cycle Q = = Q 0.8265 T = = = MCv 1.79 x 10 x 46151.08 0.8265 KJ/Cycle MCv (T - T) 4272.45 K

(P V) / T Where, V P Where, P = P P

(P V) / T

= =

V (T x P)/T

94.27 bar = = P / (r) 6.973 bar

= =

T / (r) 2086.15 K TEMPERATURE 30 C 347.68 C 3999.45 C 1813.15 C 303 K 620.68 K 4272.45 K 2086.15 K

POINT POSITION POINT-1 POINT-2 POINT-3 POINT-4

PRESSURE (bar) 1.01325 13.698 94.27 6.973

DESIGN OF ENGINE PISTON:

We know diameter of the piston which is equal to 50 mm

Thickness of piston: The thickness of the piston head is calculated from flat-plate theory

Where, t Here, P f Maximum combustion pressure Permissible stress in tension = = 100 bar 34.66 N/mm = D (3/16 x P/f)

Piston material is aluminium alloy. t = = 0.050 (3/16 x 100/34.66 x 10/10) x 1000 12 mm

Number of Piston Rings: No. of piston rings Here, D Should be in Inches = 1.968 inches = 2 x D

No. of rings

2.805

We adopt 3 compression rings and 1 oil rings

Thickness of the ring: Thickness of the ring = = = D/32 50/32 1.5625 mm

Width of the ring: Width of the ring = = D/20 2.5 mm

The distance of the first ring from top of the piston equals = = 0.1 x D 5 mm

Width of the piston lands between rings = 0.75 x width of ring = 1.875 mm

Length of the piston: Length of the piston = 1.625 x D

Length of the piston

81.25 mm Total length Distance of first ring from top of The first ring (No. of landing between rings x Width of land) (No. of compression ring x Width of ring)

Length of the piston skirt =

= =

81.25 5 2 x 1.875 3 x 2.5 65 mm

Other parameter: Centre of piston pin above the centre of the skirt = = The distance from the bottom of the piston to the Centre of the piston pin = = Thickness of the piston walls at open ends = = The bearing area provided by piston skirt = = x 65 + 1 33.5 mm x 12 6 mm 65 x 50 3250 mm 0.02 x D 65 mm

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Chapter-10
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LIST OF MATERIALS
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-10 LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl. No. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi viii. ix. x

PARTS
Frame Stand Tank cover Small tubing Gasket Sealant MS coupling Connecting Tube Bolt and Nut Baffle Arrangement

Qty. 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 meter 1

Material Mild Steel Lead Acid Coil M.S 75 Cc M.S Plastic M.S -

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Chapter-11
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COST ESTIMATION

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CHAPTER-11 COST ESTIMATION

1. MATERIAL COST:Sl. No. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi viii. ix. x Frame Stand Tank cover Small tubing Gasket Sealant MS coupling Connecting Tube Bolt and Nut Baffle Arrangement 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 meter 1 TOTAL Mild Steel Lead Acid Coil M.S 75 Cc M.S Plastic M.S = 1500 2000 550 350 100 250 150 100 250

PARTS

Qty.

Material

Amount

2. LABOUR COST

LATHE, DRILLING, WELDING, GRINDING, POWER HACKSAW, GAS CUTTING: Cost =

3. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by Manufacturing cost

Manufacturing Cost = = =

Material Cost + Labour cost

Overhead Charges = =

20% of the manufacturing cost

TOTAL COST

Total cost

= = =

Material Cost + Labour cost + Overhead Charges

Total cost for this project =

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Chapter-12
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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST EMISSION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-12 ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST EMISSION

5.1

DIESEL EMISSION

Emissions from diesel engines can be classified in same categories as those from the gasoline engines but the level of emission in these categories varies considerably. A sample of diesel exhaust may be free from smoke, odorless, and have no unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC) or it may be heavily smoke laden, highly mal-odorous and can have heavy concentration of UBHC.

It shows the approximately the possible variations in concentration of different constituents of diesel exhaust. The concentration is deceptively low in diesel engines, as compared to petrol engines. However, as the specific air consumption in diesel engines is always high due to excess air, the total amount of pollutants is nearly same in diesel and

petrol engine exhaust. Hence, diesel exhaust emissions are as great concern as of petrol engines.

Engine type and the mode of operation are two main factors, which influence the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine.

Table 5.1

RANGE OF CONCENTRATION OF DIFFERENT CONSTITUENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST

Sl.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

Constituent Hydrocarbon, (HC) Nox RCD


CO

Minimum A few ppm 100ppm few zero

Maximum 1000 ppm 2000 ppm 100 ppm 2 percent

Table 5.2 EMISSION LEVELS OF 4 STOKE NOMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE AT MEDIUM SPEED & HIGH SPEED

Sl.No 1. 2. 3.

Emission or Exhaust Quality CO, % CO2, %


UBHC, ppm C

At high Speed 0.14 7.79 1000.00

At Medium Speed 0.26 7.14 370.00

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

NOX, ppm RCD,ppm SMOKE (Haritridge units) ODOUR, DI units Turk AIR FUEL RATIO

790.00 54.00 60.00 3.50 25.00

800.00 1.60 60.00 3.30 25.00

Table 5.3 EMISSION CHAACTERISTICS OF 4 STROKE NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE.

Sl.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

Emission Hydrocarbon, (HC) NOX RCD SMOKE

Medium Speed Low Low Low High

High Speed High Low High High

Table 5.4 INFLUENCE OF OPERATIONAL MODED ON EMISSION EVELS IN FOUR-CYCLE NORMALLY ASPIRATED MEDIUM SPEED ENGINE.

SL.no

Engine Exhaust Constituent

Concentration Values as Measure in Exhaust Gas Idle Acceleration Partial Load Full Load

1. 2. 3. 4.

HC, ppm Nox,ppm RCHO, ppm SMOKE, (Hartridge Unit)

180 330 7.9 4.0

330 920 7.5 44

210 590 4.9 4.0

150 780 1.6 10

5.

ODOUR, (Diesel Indensity truk)

3.6

4.1

3.0

3.5

6. 7.

CO, % CO2, %

0.02 2.56

0.08 3.40

0.04 5.33

0.26 6.68

Table 5.4 summarizes these observations.

Effect of mode of operation on diesel exhaust Idle, full load at rated speed, and acceleration at full rack are the three modes of operation which have been found to significantly affect the emission levels in diesel exhaust as can be seen.

During the idle mode the concentration of HC, Nox and aldehyde emissions are lower than other modes the emissions at idle are less significant than during any other mode. The acceleration mode has profound influence on odor. Highest odor occurred when full rack acceleration was encountered. Smoke levels are also high during acceleration Emissions at full load relative to emissions at other operational modes very significantly with engine type. Four stroke normally aspirated engines smoke very much at rated full load.

CHAPTER 13

ADVANTAGES

It requires simple maintenance cares The low cost catelite system for automobile. Checking and cleaning are easy, because of the main parts are screwed. Easy to Handle. Low cost automation Project Repairing is easy. Replacement of parts is easy.

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Chapter-13
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

APPLICATION AND DISADVANTAGES


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------CHAPTER-

APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES

APPLICATIONS

It is very much useful for Car Owners & Auto-garages. Thus it can be useful for the two wheeler application It very use full for generator users

DISADVANTAGES
Initial cost is required.

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Chapter-14
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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CONCLUSION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------CHAPTER-14

CONCLUSION

This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning, purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries.

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully. CATELITE CONVERTER is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities.

In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines about our impression project work. Thus we have developed a BUTTON OPERATED ELECTRO-MAGNETIC GEAR SHIFTING SYSTEM which helps to know how to

achieve low cost automation. The application of electro-magnetic coil produces smooth operation. By using more techniques, they can be modified and developed according to the applications.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AUTOMOBILE ENGG.

N.M AGGARWAL S.K.KATARIA & SONS

ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE ENGG.

S.SUBRAMANIAM ALLIED PUBLISHERS LTD.

THEORY & PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS

J.B.GUPTA S.K.KATARIA & SONS

V.K.METHTA

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PHOTOGRAPHY
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PHOTOGRAPHY