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7c - Phase Changes

Reviews Questions: 1. How many states of water are in the hockey rink when the resurfacer is "cleaning" the ice? What factors determine which state of matter exists in each place? 2. Why does a resurfacer put down water in the liquid state rather than spread ice shavings? *3. Explain the overall trends in melting points below in terms of the forces among particles in the solids indicated.* (Honors only) Hydrogen, H2 -259 C Ethyl Alcohol, C2H5OH -114C Water, H2O 0C Calcium Chloride, CaCl2 772C Specific Heat If I set my cup of coffee on the desk and start blabbing to the class, what happens to my coffee? Since I am talking and not drinking, the coffee begins to cool off. Where does the heat go? We talk about the coffee as the system and the cup, the desk, and gas particles in the room as the surroundings. The systems loses heat to the surroundings as the surroundings are at a lower temperature (lower kinetic energy) than the coffee (higher kinetic energy). A system loses energy is called exothermic, while a system that gains energy is calledendothermic. Enthalpy is defined as changes in heat changes, so really heat and enthalpy are the same. The specific heat of a substance is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit of mass by one degree celsius. For water, the specific heat is 4.18 J for every gram raised 1.00C. Another unit of heat is

the calorie, which is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise 1.00 gram of water 1.00C. The dietary Calorie used in foods is slightly different than the thermal calorie described above. One dietary Calorie is equal to 1000 thermal calories. In other words, a Calorie = amount of energy needed to raise 1 kilogram of water 1C = amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1000C. Heat of Fusion and Heat of Vaporization Now, your alarm clock never went off and you do not want to be late to Mr. Berry's class because you know that he always turns people in for being late. You run from your dorm to class. By the time you get to class, you are sweating and very hot. As the period goes on, you start to get cold as the sweat evaporates off your skin. What's going on? Your sweat is in the liquid state and it is changing into the gaseous state (the process of vaporization). First, remember that a liquid of the same substance has less energy than the gas state, so the system (your sweat) has to get energy from the surroundings (your skin) to make the phase change from a liquid to a gas. As the sweat on your skin absorbs heat, some of that heat is pulled from your skin thereby cooling your skin. Your body uses perspiration to regulate your body temperature as your body generates tons of excess energy from chemical reactions. The phase changes occur at specific points for each substance. For water, the boiling point at 100C and the freezing point is 0C. What is another name for the freezing point? Take a look at the Phase Change Diagram. As ice is heated from -20C, the temperature rises steadily until it reaches 0C (melting point). At this point, the temperature does not change but energy is still being added. For every mole of

water, 6.01 kJ of energy needs to be added to change ice at 0C to water at 0C. This is called the heat of fusion (Hfus) for water.Then when all ice had changed phase into water, the temperature starts to rise again. Another plateau occurs at 100C, as the water is changed to water vapor. For every mole of water, 40.7 kJ of energy needs to be added to change water at 100C to steam at 100C. This is called the heat of vaporization (Hvap) for water. Again, the temperature does not change as this heat is added but will start to rise again when all the water is turned into water vapor (a gas). Why would ambient pressure matter more for the heat of vaporization than the heat of fusion?

Figure 1 The different types of phase changes are as follows: Exothermic Processes (releases energy) Condensation: gas to liquid Solidification: liquid to solid (freezing) Deposition: gas to solid Endothermic Processes (absorbs energy) Fusion: solid to liquid (melting) Vaporization: liquid to gas (boiling) Sublimation: solid to gas Try the following exercise on phase changes, boiling and melting points. (Phase Change Exercise) Since compounds have specific compositions with specific attractive forces, as you learned in section 7a, we can measure the amount of energy it takes to make a phase change for a specific amount of substance.

Figure 2: Table of Common Heats of Fusion/Vaporization, etc. Example 1: Water has a Molar Heat of Vaporization of 40.7 KJ/mol and since vaporization is the opposite of condensation, Hvapor = Hcond =40.7 KJ/mol. This allows us to calculate how much energy it will take to turn 100g of water at 100C in to 100g of steam at 100C.

Example 2: A 675g block of ice is exposed to 200KJ of heat, will the block of ice melt completely? If not, how many grams of ice remain?

Example 3: (Honors only) I have 75g of ice at -40C and want to convert it completely into 75g of water at 40C, how much energy in kilojoules will it take? Recall the formula H = M x C x T (m= mass, C=specific heat, T=change in temperature)(Cice = 2.08 J/ (gxC), Cwater = 4.18 J/(gxC))

This is a three step problem. First, you must find the H required to raise the temperature from -40C to 0C. H = 75g x 2.08 J/(gxC) x 40 = 6,240 J = 6.24 KJ Second, you must change 75g of ice at 0C to 75g of water at 0C. H = 75g x 1 mol H20/ 18g x 6.02 KJ/mol = 25.08 KJ Third, you must find the H required to raise the temperature from 0C to 40C. H = 75g x 4.18 J/(gxC) x 40 = 12,540 J = 12.54 KJ Then add the values for H H = 6.24 KJ + 25.08 KJ + 12.54 KJ = 43.86 KJ
Additional explanations: Lecture on Phase Changes Reading Questions: 3. Try this exercise: Phase Change Activity (hint: a word bank is at the top of the link) 4. Look at following link and describe how a refrigerator works. Refrigerator Link