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# 7c - Phase Changes

Reviews Questions: 1. How many states of water are in the hockey rink when the resurfacer is "cleaning" the ice? What factors determine which state of matter exists in each place? 2. Why does a resurfacer put down water in the liquid state rather than spread ice shavings? *3. Explain the overall trends in melting points below in terms of the forces among particles in the solids indicated.* (Honors only) Hydrogen, H2 -259 C Ethyl Alcohol, C2H5OH -114C Water, H2O 0C Calcium Chloride, CaCl2 772C Specific Heat If I set my cup of coffee on the desk and start blabbing to the class, what happens to my coffee? Since I am talking and not drinking, the coffee begins to cool off. Where does the heat go? We talk about the coffee as the system and the cup, the desk, and gas particles in the room as the surroundings. The systems loses heat to the surroundings as the surroundings are at a lower temperature (lower kinetic energy) than the coffee (higher kinetic energy). A system loses energy is called exothermic, while a system that gains energy is calledendothermic. Enthalpy is defined as changes in heat changes, so really heat and enthalpy are the same. The specific heat of a substance is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit of mass by one degree celsius. For water, the specific heat is 4.18 J for every gram raised 1.00C. Another unit of heat is