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DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A CHANNEL WING MODEL AIRPLANE Wade M. Spurlock Mississippi State University
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A
CHANNEL WING MODEL AIRPLANE
Wade M. Spurlock
Mississippi State University

Outline

o Assumptions o Blick Theory

o Static Case o Five Components of Lift o Lift Coefficient

Outline o Assumptions o Blick Theory o Static Case o Five Components of Lift o Lift
Outline o Assumptions o Blick Theory o Static Case o Five Components of Lift o Lift
Outline o Assumptions o Blick Theory o Static Case o Five Components of Lift o Lift
o Design o Motor Testing o Channel Fabrication Channel Wing Model Airplane Wade Spurlock 2
o Design
o Motor Testing
o Channel Fabrication
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
2

Assumptions

Assumptions o Subsonic o Incompressible o Adiabatic Low Flight Speeds, Takeoff and Landing Channel Wing Model
Assumptions o Subsonic o Incompressible o Adiabatic Low Flight Speeds, Takeoff and Landing Channel Wing Model
o Subsonic o Incompressible o Adiabatic Low Flight Speeds, Takeoff and Landing Channel Wing Model Airplane
o Subsonic
o Incompressible
o Adiabatic
Low Flight Speeds,
Takeoff and Landing
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
Ref. 3
3

Blick Theory

o Static-case channel lift o Five components of lift

o Upper surface of channel o Lower surface of channel o Pressure differential on channel o Wing minus channel o Vertical thrust component

Blick Theory o Static-case channel lift o Five components of lift o Upper surface of channel
Blick Theory o Static-case channel lift o Five components of lift o Upper surface of channel
Blick Theory o Static-case channel lift o Five components of lift o Upper surface of channel
o Overall lift and lift coefficient Channel Wing Model Airplane Wade Spurlock Ref. 1 4
o Overall lift and lift coefficient
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
Ref. 1
4
Static Case: V = 0 ∞ m & = ρ AV e e 5 e ε
Static Case: V = 0 ∞ m & = ρ AV e e 5 e ε

Static Case: V

= 0

m& = ρ AV

e

e

5 e ε Ref. 1 Ref. 2 sin Wade Spurlock L = mV& Channel Wing Model
5
e
ε
Ref. 1
Ref. 2
sin
Wade Spurlock
L = mV&
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Lift: Channel Section o Upper Surface: o Lower Surface: o Pressure Difference: ⎛ CU L =
Lift: Channel Section o Upper Surface: o Lower Surface: o Pressure Difference: ⎛ CU L =
Lift: Channel Section o Upper Surface: o Lower Surface: o Pressure Difference: ⎛ CU L =

Lift: Channel Section

o Upper Surface:

o Lower Surface:

o Pressure Difference:

 

CU

L

= −

1

⎝ ⎜

CL

L

η

C

=

L

=

P

q

d

⎝ ⎜

*

η C

⎠ ⎟

LC

*

qS

d

C

cos

LC

C

qS

qS

α

ressure 2 α = span-average angle of attack C η S = planform area Channel Wing
ressure
2
α = span-average angle of attack
C
η
S = planform area
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Ref. 1
∞ = freestream conditions
Wade Spurlock
C L
namic
where :
q = d
1
= the fraction of lift provided by the lower surface of airfoil
*
6
d = conditions at propeller disk (upper channel)
V
= unpowered lift coefficient
p
2
y
⎟ ⎠
ρ
Lift: Outboard Wing and Thrust L = C * qS ∞ W LW W L =
Lift: Outboard Wing and Thrust
L
=
C
*
qS
W
LW
W
L
=
nT sin(
α ε
+
)
T
≈ nT sin
α
Ref. 1
where :
W = outboard wing
n = number of engines
T = thr
us
t
α
= angle of attack
ε
= downwash angle
Wade Spurlock
Channel Wing Model Airplane
7
Lift: Total ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ L =− ⎜ 1 η C * ⎟ qS +
Lift: Total
L
=− ⎜
1
η C
*
qS
+
ηC qS
*
+
q
q
S
cos
α
LC
d
C
LC
C
d
C
⎜ ⎝ ⎜
⎟ ⎠ ⎟
⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎠
+
C
*
q
S
++ ⎛
nT
sin
α ε
LW
W
⎝ ⎜
⎠ ⎟
Ref. 1
Case of zero thrust (
q
=
q
)
:
d
L
=
C
*
q
S
+
C
*
q
S
LC
C
LW
W
*
With constant airfoil (
CC
**
=
=
C
*
):
L
=
CqS
LW
L
LC
L
Wade Spurlock
Channel Wing Model Airplane
8

Coefficient of Lift: C L

  • V d

Coefficient of Lift: C V d ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ LC LC LC C * ⎝
Coefficient of Lift: C V d ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ LC LC LC C * ⎝
⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ LC LC LC C * ⎝ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ + ⎜ ⎜
LC
LC
LC
C
*
+
S
W
η
C
LW
4
1
nC
LW
LW
C
sin
C
S
L
*
S
C
⎠ ⎟
1
1
1
1
1
9
⎝ ⎜
⎜ ⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
V
C
C
=
=
L
*
T
):
=
+
=
=
S
S
S
S
T
T
L
L
2
*
T
⎟⎝ ⎢
1
With constant airfoil (
Case of zero thrust (
Channel Wing Model Airplane
= ++ C
Wade Spurlock
==
CC
**
2
qA
C
T
T
η
,
4
1
C
⎠ ⎣
S
W
+
+
Ref. 1
S
C
S
1
⎞ ⎢
2
0) :
1 cos
L
*
α
CC
CC
Using
+ +
αε
++
++
*
C

1953 NACA Full-Scale Tests

1953 NACA Full -Scale Tests 2625 a e , - - 2450 170 688 677 a
2625 a e , - - 2450 170 688 677 a 220 788 763 ) Effect
2625
a
e
,
-
-
2450
170
688 677
a
220
788 763
)
Effect of Power Settings on Static Lift
T il O
T il Off Lift
rope er
ower (
ll
δ = 0
pee
Lift
p)
lb
lb
P
P
S
d
h
(rpm)
n
(
)
(
Channel Wing Model Airplane ft/s 2.2 1.3 7.0 5.0 α = 38° N/A N/A 13 7.5
Channel Wing Model Airplane
ft/s
2.2
1.3
7.0
5.0
α = 38°
N/A
N/A
13
7.5
Maximum C L Values for Freestream Velocity, Power, and Angle of Attack Conditions
60 α = 20°
Channel C L
Channel C L
Overall C L
Wade Spurlock
P = 170 hp
Velocity
Freestream
P = 0 hp
Angle of
Attack
8.0
Overall C L
α = 0°
0.2
0.2
7.0
4.0
40 α = 20°
ft/s
2.2
1.3
14
10
α = 38°
N/A
N/A
24
15
α = 0°
0.1
0.1
5.0
2.0
Channel Wing Design Like Custer’s CC W -2 , the channel win g model is a
Channel Wing Design Like Custer’s CC W -2 , the channel win g model is a

Channel Wing Design

Like Custer’s CCW-2, the channel wing model is a modified

Channel Wing Design Like Custer’s CC W -2 , the channel win g model is a

Piper Cub. Below is a CAD model of the conceptual design with

the channels replacing the inboard sections of the wings and twin

motors with propellers at the trailing edge of the wing.

Channel Wing Model Airplane Wade Spurlock 11
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
11
Channel Wing Design o Previous research found that the ideal aspect ratio, or the length of
Channel Wing Design
o
Previous research found that the
ideal aspect ratio, or the length of
the span divided by the length of
the chord, is 1.
o
The model’s wing has a 12-inch
chord, so the channel’s span and
propeller diameter are 12 in.
Wade Spurlock
Channel Wing Model Airplane
12
Electric Motor Selection In order to attain the p ower-to-wei g ht ratio of the CC
Electric Motor Selection In order to attain the p ower-to-wei g ht ratio of the CC
Electric Motor Selection In order to attain the p ower-to-wei g ht ratio of the CC

Electric Motor Selection

In order to attain the power-to-weight ratio of the CCW-2,

which had two 90-hp engines and weighed about 1000 lbs, the

o

channel wing model is estimated to weigh 7.5 lbs with

modification and requires a total of 1000 W.

the 12-inch propeller. Full motor specifications can be found The motor selected is the Rimfire 35-48-700
the 12-inch propeller. Full motor specifications can be found
The motor selected is the Rimfire 35-48-700 directly driving
at www.electrifly.com.
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
13
o
Power System Lithium-Pol y mer batteries are the ideal choice for hi gh performance and low
Power System Lithium-Pol y mer batteries are the ideal choice for hi gh performance and low
Power System Lithium-Pol y mer batteries are the ideal choice for hi gh performance and low

Power System

Lithium-Polymer batteries are the ideal choice for high

performance and low weight.

An electronic speed controller capable of handling 60 A is

o

o

Volcano Series ESC 14 Wade Spurlock Channel Wing Model Airplane Weight: 2.15 oz Weight: 15.3 oz
Volcano Series ESC
14
Wade Spurlock
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Weight: 2.15 oz
Weight: 15.3 oz
Four-cell, 14.8 V
Fusion Power Series Li-Po
2-6 Li-Po cell, 7.4 - 22.2 V
required for each motor.
4000 mAh Capacity, 15 C Discharge
60 A Continuous, 80 A Burst (<10 s)
Exceed-RC Electric Propulsion Components
Electric Motor Testing 6 Dual-motor test stand 5 2 1 3 4 Single motor test setup
Electric Motor Testing
6
Dual-motor test stand
5
2
1
3
4
Single motor test setup – electric propulsion system components
include 1. r/c transmitter, 2. r/c receiver and battery, 3. Li-Po battery
pack, 4. Watt meter, 5. ESC, and 6. electric motor and propeller
Wade Spurlock
Channel Wing Model Airplane
15

Electric Motor Testing

Electric Motor Testing o The system is turned on, and the throttle range is set. o
o The system is turned on, and the throttle range is set. o The close-up view
o
The system is turned on, and the throttle range is set.
o
The close-up view of the Watt meter displays the increasing
current and power as the throttle is increased. The voltage of
the battery pack slowly decreases as the pack is drained.
o
The digital tachometer detects the propeller ’s rpm.
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
16

Channel Fabrication

Channel Fabrication o A cylinder was cut from high-density foam and wra pped with fiberglass to
o A cylinder was cut from high-density foam and wra pped with fiberglass to provide a
o
A cylinder was cut from high-density foam and wra pped with
fiberglass to provide a mold for the channels
o
Four 3-inch-wide pieces of balsa are cut to
18.85 inches to form the 12-inch diameter
semicircular channel.
o
The balsa is thoroughly wetted and formed
covered with paper towels and clamped in
to the cylinder by hand. The balsa is then
place to dry for at least one day.
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
17
Channel Fabrication Once the pieces of balsa are curved and dry, they will be covered as
Channel Fabrication
Once the pieces of balsa are
curved and dry, they will be covered
as one piece with fiberglass and resin.
The molded channel will be strong
and lightweight, and the shape will be
consistent for every fabrication.
Wade Spurlock
Channel Wing Model Airplane
18
References 1. Blick, E. F. and Homer, V., “Power-on Channel Wing Aerodynamics,” Journal of Aircraft ,
References 1. Blick, E. F. and Homer, V., “Power-on Channel Wing Aerodynamics,” Journal of Aircraft ,
References 1. Blick, E. F. and Homer, V., “Power-on Channel Wing Aerodynamics,” Journal of Aircraft ,

References

1. Blick, E. F. and Homer, V., “Power-on Channel Wing Aerodynamics,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 8, No. 4, April 1971, pp. 234-238.

  • 2. Pasamanick, J., “Langley Full-Scale-Tunnel Tests of the Custer

Channel Wing Airplane,” RM L53A09, April 7, 1953, National Advisory

Committee for Aeronautics.

Experimental Performance.” Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 38th, 3. Gunther, C. L. “Comparison of Channel Wing
Experimental Performance.” Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 38th,
3. Gunther, C. L. “Comparison of Channel Wing Theoretical and
Reno, NV, Jan. 10-13, 2000.
Channel Wing Model Airplane
Wade Spurlock
19