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Monitoring of transition zones in railways

Paul Hlscher (Deltares, NL) Bruno Coelho (Delft University of Technology, NL)

Overview

(Paul) 1) Importance of the project 2) Information on the full project 3) Preparation of the tests 4) Overview of the tests (Bruno) 5) Results 6) Conclusions

24-09-2008

1) Societal importance

Passengers trains
more trains per track (each 10 minutes a train) higher axle loads (double stock 180 kN -> 225 kN) higher speed passenger trains (140 km/h -> 200 km/h)

Freight trains
more trains per track (Betuwe route: planned increase to 10 trains per hour) higher axle loads (double stock 225 kN -> 250 kN) higher speed passenger trains (80 km/h -> 120 km/h)

Time for maintenance Acceptance of unexpected maintenance


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2) Target of the Delft Cluster project

Increase quality of rail infrastructure


less maintenance better predictable higher availability

Focus on the geotechnical aspects Project results


better understanding behavior improved model for transition and switches proposals for draft guidelines (design, delivery and maintenance)

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Specific technical targets of Delft Cluster

Influence of subsoil on the processes Dynamic and cyclic behavior of embankment Existing and new transitions Which parameters determine the behavior Which parameters determine the life span of transitions Can these be measured reliably Reliable calculation model Development of draft guidelines design, delivery and maintenance

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Structure

1. 2. 3. 4.

Inventory, state of the art, experience Field tests Modeling and validation Practical implementation
1 | 2 | 3 PhD TUDelft | 4

Delft Cluster

Deltares ProRail Rail contractors + others ProRail


Rail contractors + others
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3) Mechanisms from literature

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Selection for field test

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height difference stiffness jump loose-lying sleepers

post-compaction of ballast ballast expansion

cavity beneath approach slab settlement of head approach slab

penetration of ballast into embankment

post-compaction of embankment expansion of embankment softening of embankment


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Location field test: Gouda Goverwelle

Switch 447 (1 : 34.7; 140/110 km/h) at km 28.65 Culvert at km 28.77 (piled foundation/approach slabs)

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Three types of measurement

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Field survey
Cpts along the track Vspts in the track Radar measurements Holes for position approach slab

Long-term measurement (during one year)


Settlements of track, embankment and slab Horizontal deformation of ballast and embankment

Short-term measurement (during one train passage)


Velocities and displacements of track, embankment and slab Cooperation with Southampton University
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4) Field test Goverwelle

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CPT along the track

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Field survey

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5) Results of the field measurements

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Preliminary prospection

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Preliminary prospection

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Distance [m] -20 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 Depth [m] -0.8 -1 -1.2 -1.4 -1.6 -1.8 Ballast Approach slab -16 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 16 20

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Location measurement

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distance to edge culvert [m]

0 0
depth from top rails [m]

6
situation culvert at km 28.773 based on boring

1 2 3 4
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bottom ballast tov BS [m] depth top approachslab tov BS [m] original constructed topside plate now measured bottomside plate now measured

Long term measurements

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Levelling
5.0 0.0 -5.0 Levelling [mm] -10.0 -15.0 -20.0 -25.0 -30.0 -35.0 -40.0 0 10 20 30 Sleeper 40 50 60 10-Jun-08 08-Jul-08 09-Jul-08 31-Jul-08 19-aug-08

Maintenance performed

Left and Right rail average


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Long term measurements

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Levelling
10.0 10-Jun-08 8.0 08-Jul-08 09-Jul-08 Levelling [mm] 6.0 31-Jul-08 19-aug-08 4.0

Maintenance performed

2.0

0.0

-2.0 0 10 20 30 Sleeper 40 50 60

Left and Right rail difference


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Long term measurements

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train
inclino 7 perpendicular 08-07-08
0 -2 -4

Depth [m]

-6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 0.00 mininimum measurement 8-Jul maximum 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

-1.00

-0.50

measurement [mm]

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Long term measurements

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train
inclino 7 perpendicular 06-08-08
0 -2 -4

Depth [m]

-6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 0.00 measurement 8-Jul measurement 6-Aug mininimum maximum 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

-1.00

-0.50

measurement [mm]

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Long term measurements

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train

inclino 7 perpendicular 03-09-08


0 -2 -4

Depth [m]

-6 -8 measurement 8-Jul -10 -12 -14 -16 0.00 measurement 6-Aug measurement 3-Sep mininimum maximum 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

-1.00

-0.50

measurement [mm]

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Short term measurements

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Short term measurements

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6 4 Displacement [mm] 2 0 -2 -4 -6 2 3 4 5 6 Time [s] 7 8 9 10


Displacement [mm]

6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 2 3 4 5 6 Time [s] 7 8 9 10

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Short term measurements

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6 4 Displacement [mm]
Displacement [mm]

6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 -2.0 -4.0 -6.0

2 0 -2 -4 -6 2 3 4 5 6 Time [s] 7 8 9 10

6 Time [s]

10

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Short term measurements

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6 4 Displacement [mm]
Displacement [mm]

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

2 0 -2 -4 -6 2 3 4 5 6 Time [s] 7 8 9 10

6 Time [s]

10

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Short term measurements

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1 m depth 3 m depth

0.8 0.6 Displacement [mm] 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 2 4 6 Time [s] 8 10
Displacement [mm]

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 2 4 6 Time [s] 8 10

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6) Conclusions

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The ballast tickness on the transition zone is about 1 m There is a big degradation of the track between maintenance operations The sleeper displacement above the approach slab is about 6 times bigger due to the fact that they are hanging Theres not a significant displacement attenuation with depth during train passage Field tests give essential information for the problem modelling

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