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MAT 1802 Mathematics for Engineers II

Problem Sheet 2
Solutions

1.

1 0
0 1
cos sin
, A =
and E() =
, show that
If I =
1 0
sin cos
0 1
(a) A2 = I
(b) E() = I cos + A sin
(c) E().E() = E().E()
(d) E(n) = I cos n + A sin n for all n N

Solution:

(b)

cos
E() =
sin

sin cos
=
cos 0

0 0
+
cos sin

sin

1 0
0 1
cos +
sin = I cos + A sin
=
0 1
1 0
(c)

cos
E().E() =
sin

sin cos

cos sin

cos cos sin sin


=
sin cos cos sin

sin

cos

cos sin + sin cos


=
sin sin + cos cos

cos( + ) sin( + )

sin( + ) cos( + )

= E( + ) = E().E() from the commutativity of sin ( + ) and cos ( + ).


(d)

cos
Assume
sin
cos

sin

sin

cos

sin cos k
=
cos sin k

sin k
= E(k).
cos k

k +1

cos
=
sin

sin

cos

cos

sin

cos k cos sin k sin


=
sin k cos cos sin
cos(k + 1)
=
sin( k + 1)

Then

sin cos k
=
cos sin k

sin k cos

cos k sin

sin

cos

cos k sin + sin cos

sin k sin + cos cos

sin( k + 1)
= E((k + 1)).
cos(k + 1)

Hence result applies for n = k + 1 if it applies for n = k.


We have E() = E(1.). Hence result should apply for n = 2, 3, 4,

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

1 of 10

2.

Show that 3

Solution: 3

3
0

2
2
2

1 commutes with its transpose.

2
2
2
T

0
2

1 = 2

1
2

2
2
2

3 0

2
2 3

1 1 3
3

2
2 . Hence

1 1
3

3 0

2
2 = 3

1 1 3
3

2
2
2

2 0

1 = 2

1 2

2
2
2

2
2

1 1
3

3
6 0 0

2
2 = 0 6 0

0 0 6
1 1

2
2
2

1 =

6 0 0

0 6 0
0 0 6

1
1
1 1

1 i 1 i
3.
Show that A A = 4I where A =
, and A is the complex conjugate of A.
1 1 1 1

1 i 1 i

1
1
1
1 1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1

1 i 1 i
1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i
Solution: A =
. Hence A A =
= 4 I.
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 i 1 i
1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i

4.

Verify thet the following matrices are orthogonal and write down their inverses:

(a)

Solution:

2
1 2

1
2 1 2
3
2 1
2

1 2 2
1
1
(a)
2 1 2
3
3
2 1
2
inverse.

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

0
1

(b) 0 cos
0 sin

sin
cos

2
1 2
9 0 0 1 0 0

2 1 2 = 0 9 0 = 0 1 0 . Matrix is it own
2 2 1 9 0 0 9 0 0 1

2 of 10

(b)

0
1

0 cos
0 sin

0 1
0

sin 0 cos
cos 0 sin

0
1

Hence 0 cos
0 sin

5.

Evaluate (i)

Solution:

(a)

21

16

17

12

21

16

17

12

(ii)

=4

sin
cos

0 1 0 0

sin = 0 1 0
cos 0 0 1
0
1

= 0 cos
0 sin

97 95

17

=4

23

53

(iii) 103 199

302

176 177

353

76

99 97

21

sin
cos

17

(b) Adding columns and factorising:

9 16 25 36
16 25 36 49

(iv)

25 36 49 64
36 49 64 81

= 4(12 17) = 20.

99 97
97 95

2 97
2 95

= 2

1 97
1 95

= 2(95 97) = 4

(c) Subtracting C3 from C2 and then adding to C1:


76 23 53
76 76 53
0 76 53
103 199 302 = 103 103 302 = 0 103 302 = 0
176 177

(d) We note that

353

176 176 353

9 16 25 36
16 25 36 49
25 36 49 64
36 49 64 81

0 176 353

32

42

52

62

42

52

62

72

52
62

62
72

72
82

82
92

Subtracting C3 from C4, C2 from C3 and C1 from C2 we obtain

Subtracting C3 from C4 and C2 from C3 we obtain further

9
16

32

42

52

62

42
52
62

52
62
72

62
72
82

72
=
25 11 13 15
82
2
36 13 15 17
9

7
9

2 2
2 2

25 11 2 2

9
16

7
9

9 11
11 13

= 0.

36 13 2 2
Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

3 of 10

6.

Prove that every square matrix can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric matrix and a skew 6 8 5

symmetric matrix. Express thus the matrix 4 2 3 .


9 7 1

Solution: Let A = [amn] . Let C = [cmn] where cmn = (amn + anm) and let D = dmn = (amn anm).
We observe that cmn = cnm and dmn = dnm. Hence C is a symmetric matrix while D is an
anti-symmetrical matrix. Note also that amn = cmn + dmn . Hence A = C + D as required.
T

6 8 5
6 4 9

4 2 3 = 8 2 7 . Hence C =
9 7 1
5 3 1

6 6 7

6 2 5 and D =
7 5 1

0 2 2

2 0 2 and so
2 2 0

6 8 5 6 6 7 0 2 2

4 2 3 = 6 2 5 + 2 0 2
9 7 1 7 5 1 2 2 0

7.

2 1
5
Evaluate the determinant D = 1 3 2 . Replace each element in D by its cofactor, and
5 2 4
show that the value of the new determinant is D2.

Solution:

2 1
5
1 3 2 = 2(12 4) (4 + 10) + 5(2 15) = 16 14 85 = 83
5 2 4

Replacing elements by their cofactors we obtain:


8
14 17
D = 14 17
9 = 8(8581) + 14(70 + 153) 17(126 172) = 6889 = (83)2 = D2.
17
9
5

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

4 of 10

8.

a1
If A1, B1, C1, ... are the cofactors of a1, b1, c1, ... in the determinant = a2

b1
b2

c1
c2 show that A2

a3

b3

c3

A2C3 C2 A3 = b1 .

Solution: A2C3 = (b1c3 b3c1)(a1b2 a2b1) and C2 A3 = (a1b3 a3b1) (b1c2 b2c1)
A2C3 = a1b1b2c3 + a2b1b1c3 + a1b2b3c1 a2b1b3c1
C2 A3 = a1b1b3c2 a1b2b3c1 a3b1b1c2 a3b1b2c1
Hence A2C3 C2 A3 = b1(a1b2c3 a2b1c3 + a2b3c1 a1b3c2 + a3b1c2 + a3b2c1)
= b1{ a1(b2c3 b3c2) b1(a2c3 a3c2) + c1(a2b3 a3b2)} = b1.

9.

(i)

1
Show that = a
a2

1
b
b2

1
c = (b a)(c a)(c b)
c2

a a 2 1 a3

(ii)

Deduce that b b 2 1 b3 = (1 abc)


c c 2 1 c3

1
a
(iii) By using the result of part (i) evaluate 2
a
a3

1
b
b2
b3

1
c
c2
c3

1
Solution: (i) Subtracting C2 from C3 and C1 from C2, = a
a2
1
= (b a)(c b) a
a2

a a 2 1 a3
a a2
b b 2 1 b3 = b b 2
c c 2 1 c3
c c2

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

1
b
b2

1
1
c = a
c2
a2

0
ba
b2 a 2

0
cb
c2 b2

0
0
1
1 . Subtracting C2 from C3 we obtain
b+a c+b

1
= (b a)(c b) a
a2

(ii)

1
d
.
d2
d3

0
0
1
0 = (b a)(c b)(c a)
b+a ca
a3 a a 2 1
1 a a2
a a2 1
b3 + b b 2 1 = abc 1 b b 2 + b b 2 1 = (1 abc)
c3
c c2 1
1 c c2
c c2 1

5 of 10

(iii)

1
a
a2
a3

1
b
b2
b3

1
c
c2
c3

1
1
d
a
= 2
2
d
a
3
d
a3

0
ba
b2 a 2
b3 a 3

1
a
= (b a)(c a)(d a) 2
a
a3

0
ca
c2 a2
c3 a 3

0
1
b+a
2
b + ab + a 2

1
= (b a)(c a)(d a)
b+a
b 2 + ab + a 2
1
Note that
b+a
b 2 + ab + a 2

1
c+a
c 2 + ca + a 2

1
1
1
1
= b+a c+a d +a = b
b2
c2
d2
b2
1
a
Hence 2
a
a3

10.

1
b
b2
b3

1
c
c2
c3

1
c
c2

0
d a
d 2 a2
d 3 a3
0
1
c+a
2
c + ca + a 2

1
c+a
c 2 + ca + a 2

0
1
d +a
2
d + ad + a 2

1
d +a
d 2 + da + a 2

1
1
1
1
=
d +a
b+a
c+a
d +a
d 2 + da + a 2
b 2 + a (b + a ) c 2 + a (c + a ) d 2 + a (d + a )
1
1
d + a
d2
b2

1
a
c2

1
a = (c b)(d b)(d c) + 0
d2

1
d
= (b a)(c a)(d a) (c b)(d b)(d c)
d2
d3

a b
c
d
1
a
a +1
a
b
c
a b c d
Factorize: (i) a + 1 1
(ii) a 2
a
b2
c 2 (iii)
a b c d
a
a +1 1
b+c c+a a+b
a b
c d

Solution: (i)

1
a
a +1
1
a
a +1 2
0
2a
1
0
a
a +1 1
a = 1 a a 1 = 1 a a 1 = 2 1 a a 1
a
a +1 1
a a +1 1
a a +1 1
a a +1 1

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

6 of 10

1
0
a
1 0
a
= 2 0 a 1 = 2 0 a 1 = 2(1 + a3) = 2(1 + a)(1 a + a2)
a a +1 1
a 1
0
a

(ii)

ab

= a b
a
b
c
b+c c+a a+b
ba
2

bc
2

b c
cb
2

1
1
c
= (a b)(b c) a + b b + c c 2
c
a+b
1
1 a + b
c

0
0
a+b+c
0
0
a+b+c
2
= (a b)(b c) a + b b + c
= (a b)(b c) a c b + c
c
c2
1
1
a+b
0
1
a+b
= (a b)(b c)(c a)(a + b + c)

(iii)

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
= abcd
= abcd
c d
1 1 1 1
c d
1 1 1 1

a b
c
d
a b c d
a

1 0 0 0
0 1 1 1
= 2abcd
= 2abcd
0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1

2 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
= 2 abcd
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 0 0
0
0 1 1 1
= 4abcd
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 2

1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
= 4abcd
= 4abcd
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1

1 0
0
0 2 0
0 1 1
0 0
0

2
3
(i) 2 x + 3
6 =0
3
4
x+6
x

11.

Solve the following for x.

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

(ii)

1 0 0
0
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1

1 0 0 0
0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1

0
0
= 8abcd
0
1

x+a

x+b

x+c

=0

7 of 10

x
2
Solution: (i) 2 x + 3

3
6 = x{(x +3)(x + 6) 24} 2(2x + 12 18) + 3(8 3x 9)
x+6

= x3 + 9x2 19x + 9 = (x 1)(x2 + 10x 9) = 0.


x+a
(ii)
c
a

x+a
= c

b
x+b

c
a

x+c

1
b+c
= (x + a + b + c ) 1 x + a + b
1 x+b+c

b+c
x+a+b

c
a

x+b+c

x+c

x+a+b+c
= x+a+b+c

b+c
x+a+b

c
a

x+a+b+c

x+b+c

x+c

0 cax
ca
= (x + a + b + c ) 1 x + a + b
a
x+c
0
ca
x+ca
c
a

0 x
ca
0
0
= (x + a + b + c ) 1 x + b
= (x + a + b+ c) 1 x + b
a
0 x x+ca
0 x
= x2 (x + a + b+ c) = 0

12.

Calculate

Solution:

a 1 1 L 1
1 a 1 L 1

1 1 1 L

a 1 1 L 1
1 a 1 L 1

1 1 1 L

Hence x = 1, 5 34

x
a
x+ca

Hence, x = 0, x = (a + b + c)

1 1 1
1 a 1
= (a n + 1)
M
M
M
M
a
1 1 1

L 1
L 1
O

(obtained by adding all the rows to R1 and factorised)


1
0
1 a +1
= (a n + 1)
M
M
1 0

0
0
M
0

L
L

0
0
(obtained by subtracting C1 from all columns)
O
M
L a +1

= (a n + 1) (a + 1)n 1 assuming we have an nn matrix.

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

8 of 10

a2
1 + a1
a1
1 + a2

13.

Evaluate

a1
M

a2
M

a1

a2

1 + a3 L
M
O

an
M

L 1 + an

L
L

an
an

1 + a3 L
M
O

an
M

a3
a3

= 1 + ai 1
i =1

a2
M

a1

a2
a3
L 1 + an
1
(obtained by adding all columns to C1)

= 1 + ai 1
i =1

a2
M

L
L

an
an

1 + a3 L

an

a3
a3
M

L
L

an
an

1 + a3 L
M
O

an
M

a2
11
1 1 + a2

a1
M

1 a2
1 1 + a2

a3
a3

a2
M
a2

1 a2
0 1

= 1 + ai 0
i =1

L 1 + an

a3

a3 L an
0 L 0

a2
a3
L 1 + an
0 0 0 L
(obtained by subtracting R1 from all the other rows)

14.

an
an

a3

a2
1 + a1
a1
1 + a2

Solution:

L
L

a3
a3

1 + x2

x
0

1+ x
x

0
M

0
M

Denoting by n the n-rowed matrix

x
1 + x2

0
x

L
L

0 = 1 + ai
i =1

1 + x2 L
M
O

x
M

prove that n n1 = x2 (n1 n2) and hence evaluate n.


1 + x2

1+ x

Solution: n = (1 + x )
2

0
0
M

Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

x
0
M

0
2

x
1+ x
x
M

L x0
0
L
M

1+ x
M

x
x
0 1 + x2

0
x

0
0

1 + x2

1+ x

L
L
L
2

L
O

9 of 10

(n 1) (n 1)

1 + x2

1 + x2
x
x
1 + x2

x
0

= (1 + x )
2

0
M

0
M
x

x
0

1+ x
x

= (1 + x )
2

0
M

(1 + x )
2

1+ x

0
M

0
x

x
M

1+ x
M

0
x
0 1 + x2

(n 1) (n 1)

L
L

1 + x2
L by C2 C1
x
2
x
1+ x L
M

1 + x2

1+ x

Lx

1+ x
M

x
M

0
0

1
0
0
0
2
0 1+ x
x
0
L
2
2
x
1+ x
x
L x 10
0
0
x
1 + x2
L

0
2

0
x

0
M

x
0

x
1 + x2

1+ x

L
L x0
0
L

0
2

0
x

0
M

1 + x2
0

1 + x2
M
O

x
M

1 + x2

L
O

0
M

0
M

L
L

x
1+ x

L
L

x
M

x
1+ x
M

(n 2) (n 2)

L
O

Hence n = (1 + x2) n1 x2 n2 = x2(n1 n2) + n 1 and result follows.


To find n we proceed as follows:
n
n1
n2
M
4
3

Hence

n1
n2
n3
M
3
2

=
=
=
=
=

x2 n 1
x2 n 2
x2 n3
M
2
x 3
x2 2

x2n2
x2n3
x2n4
M
2
x 2
x 2 1

n 2 = x2 (n 1 1) n = 2 + x2 (n 1 1)

Since 1 = 1 + x2 and 2 = (1 + x2)2 x2 = 1 + x2 + x4 we obtain


n = x2 n 1 + 1

Note that

3 = x2 2 + 1 = 1 + x2 + x4 + x6.

This suggests a pattern. We shall prove by induction that


Assume that result applies for n = k:

n = 1 + x2 + x4 + + x2n.

k = 1 + x2 + x4 + + x2k.

Then
k + 1 = x2 k + 1 = 1 + x2 + x4 + + x2k + x2 (k + 1)

Hence if result applies for k it will apply for k + 1. Since the result applies for n = 1, hence by
induction we conclude that it applies for all n. Hence
n = 1 + x2 + x4 + + x2n
Sheet 1 Vectors / Solutions

10 of 10