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Malaysian Studies Assignment: The United Nations

The United Nations

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Table of Contents Cover Page Table of Contents Introduction Process of Formation The Six Organs of the United Nations Objectives - The United Nation Charter - Membership - Purposes of the United Nations - The Principles of the United Nations Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Pages 5-12

Activities - The Specialized Agencies of the United Nations

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Conclusion References Appendix

Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 & 22

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Introduction: The United Nations

The United Nations is an international organization which consults the interests and interactions between countries. To maintain and regulate its goal of world peace the organization has become noteworthy for its humanitarian aid, peacekeeping, security, exercising of human rights and international funding. The United Nations was officially formed in 1945 following World War II with its primary goal being to maintain world peace. Initially 51 countries were members of the organization when it was established , currently it consists of 193 countries. The main leaders of The U.N currently include: Secretary General - Ban Ki Moon Deputy Secretary General Asha-Rose Migiro General Assembly President Joseph Deiss Security Council President Nawaf Salam As an organization with an international presence it has six official languages as a medium of communication including: English Chinese Arabic French Russian Spanish

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Process of Formation

The United Nations is the successor to The League of Nations which was created following World War I in 1919. The League of Nations was disbanded in 1946 due to its failure to prevent the tension within Europe from escalating into World War II. The initial plan for the United Nations came from then president Franklin D. Roosevelt as an alliance between the Allied Countries of World War II. A charter was signed by 26 governments in 1942 as a pledge to create a better world after learning from the consequences of World War II. In 26 June 1945, over 50 countries together they established United Nations. On 24 October 1945 , the UN Charter came into power. Thus make 24th October as United Nations day

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The Six Organs of The United Nations

The United Nations currently has six main organs including: The General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, International Court of Justice, Security Council, Trusteeship Council and Secretariat. Within each of the bodies only a select number of elected countries are members of it. Each Organ has their own responsibility. Example the General Assembly deals with most international problem occurred and the Security Council deals with the world defense forces and military conflict.

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The General Assembly

The General Assembly is the most significant organ in The U.N. All

member countries participate in this assembly. It is essentially where decisions are discussed by representatives of all member countries. It is like a "parliament of nations" which meets to consider the world's most pressing problems. Important problems such as budget maintenance and admission of new members are given a vote on the course of action, where the majority decision must be a result of two-thirds of all votes. A one country, one vote system is implemented in which each country is given a single vote however if a country is late in payment of financial contributions it may not be given the same right. A successful majority vote creates a recommendation for a course of action. The Assembly cannot force action by any State, but its recommendations are an important indication of world opinion and represent the moral authority of the community of nations. At the beginning of each regular session, the Assembly holds a general debate, often addressed by heads of state and government, in which member states express their views on the most pressing international issues.

http://www.un.org/en/ga/about/background.shtml

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Functions and powers of General Assembly

One of the functions is to maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and weapon regulation. Another is to discuss anything relating to international peace and security. General Assembly also makes recommendations for peaceful solutions of any situation, regardless of origin, which can disrupt relationship between different nations. Another main function is to elect non-permanent members of the Security Council and by the recommendation from the Security Council, to appoint a Secretary-General. The General Assembly also elect the members of the Economic and Social Council and members of the Trusteeship Council .With the Security Council, they also elect Judges of the International Court of Justice The General Assembly responsibility to look into by studying and make recommendations to promote an international political cooperation, development and codification of international law, realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in social, cultural, economic, health and education.

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Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is responsible for coordinating international economic and social work. Generally the main function of ECOSOC is to improve the Standard of Living, Employment, social and cultural benefits in all member states. The ECOSOC contains 54 members all of whom discuss and give recommendations on international economic and social issues. Under the ECOSOC are a total of 17 specialized agencies of the UN. Each of these agencies have different roles but maintain the same objectives of peace and equal human rights. Significant examples of these agencies are the World Health Organization (WHO), World Trade Organization (WTO), and International Monetary Fund (IMF) amongst others.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice is the judicial organ of the U.N. The ICJ is responsible for settling international legal disputes in accordance to international law. It consists of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. The Court also provides advisory opinions to the General Assembly and the Security Council upon requested.2 Every three years, the President and the Vice-President are elected by the Members of the Court through a secret ballot .The election is held on the date on which Members of the Court elected at a triennial election. After that, they begin their terms of office thereafter. With an absolute majority, the President and the VicePresident is then elected with no conditions with regard to nationality.

http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=3

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The Security Council

The Security Council is in charge of exercising international peacekeeping and

security. It therefore has the ability to locate and initiate military operations within all member countries. There are currently 15 members of this organ, 5 being permanent and 10 being elected non permanent members. The 5 permanent members include: China, United States of America, United Kingdom, France and Russia. It is noticeable that these five countries are considered the worlds leading military superpowers and have access to nuclear arms. The presidency is elected monthly by rotation according to the alphabetical listing of the member. Functions of the Security Council is to maintain the international peace and security between the nations in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations Another function is to investigate any dispute which might lead to international relation problems. The Security Council also play a role in appointment of the Secretary General. Based on the Charter, Security Council has the power to make decisions that all members are legally obligated.

http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_background.html\

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The Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council is the only organ of the U.N that is not currently in operation.

During its active period its responsibility was to ensure that territories, previously part of its predecessor The League of Nations, received international care and peacekeeping as an incentive to become a member state of The U.N. As of now however all of the territories under the Trusteeship Council have either received independence or membership in the U.N and thus the organ remains inactive. The Trusteeship Council is authorized to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories. The Trusteeship Council also does discussions with the Administering Authority to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other special missions to Trust Territories.

http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/trusteeship/

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The Secretariat

The Secretariat is the most important organ of the U.N and is responsible for

providing information and facilities needed by the U.N. The Secretariat is currently led by Secretary General Ban-Ki-Moon. All actions are ultimately decided by the Secretary General following recommendations from the other organs. Information gathering, international disputes and peacekeeping operations are some of the many responsibilities that the Secretary General holds. Essentially the Secretary General is the de facto of the U.N and therefore must be a person of extreme qualities. The Secretary General cannot be elected from a member state that is already part of The Security Council because it would influence decision making towards the interest of that state. The duties carried out by them are as to the problems dealt with by the United Nations. Some of their duties include managing peacekeeping missions to settle international debate, from surveying economic and social activities and problems on human rights and sustainable development. Secretariat staff also informs the world's multimedia about the responsibility of the United Nations; prepare international conferences on problem happening in worldwide.

http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/secretariat/

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The United Nations Charter

The United Nations Charter was signed on 26 June 1945, San Francisco and came into effect on 24 October 1945. This Charter is essentially the foundation of the process and objectives of the United Nations. The United Nations Charter is a treaty signed within the UN to establish a mutual agreement between countries about peace and human rights in general. This charter is comprised of a series of articles that are compiled into chapters. Prior to the chapters is a preamble which sets guidelines for the chapters that follow. The Preamble grounds the foundation of the charter. The preamble advocates the dignity of human beings thus promoting human rights. It relays a great discouragement for wars, taking the events of World War I and World War II as a great example. It also promotes the notion of equality between men and women of all nations and therefore also promotes the freedom of different social cultures. Lastly it vigilantly upholds justice in the treaties and process of the UN. There are basically two important parts to the charter (though it is not in order in the charter). One of the two important parts is the promotion of the objective of achieving human rights and world peace for all nations. The other parts declare the methods and powers of each organ of the UN. This maintains stability and achieves efficiency in the decision making process and actions of the UN.

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Membership

Total of 192 countries to this date joined as a member of the United Nations.
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Based on article 4 paragraph 1, membership of the United Nations is open to anyone

peace-loving states which accept the agreements contained in the present Charter and in the judgment of the Organization and are is able and willing to pick up these duties. On paragraph 2, countries that are seeking membership in the UN must be approved by votes from the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. On article 5, a member of the United Nations who are against any preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercising their rights and privileges as a member by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. Exercise of rights and privileges can only be restored by the Security Council. And on article 6, when a member has repetitively violated the Principles contained in the Charter, they may be expelled from the organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter2.shtml

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Purposes of the United Nations

To obtain international cooperation in overcoming international problems that

include: economic, social, cultural land humanitarian character. It is also to promote and encourage the respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms without distinction of race, sex, language, or religion. It is also to develop friendly relationship between different nations by respecting the principle of equal rights and self-determination of human kinds, and to take other actions to strengthen universal peace.
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Its also to work together to help people live better lives, to eliminate poverty,

disease and illiteracy in the world, to stop environmental destruction and to encourage respect for each other's rights and freedoms.

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http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/unintro/unintro2.htm

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The Principles of the United Nations

Firstly, the Organization is based on principles of sovereign equality of its entire

member. 10The second principle is that all member states have sovereign equality. Every member is equally respect, honor, power and rights and all member states must obey the Charter. Thirdly, all members have to settle their international problem through peaceful actions where in a manner that worldwide security, peace and justice, are not endangered.
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Fourthly, Members would restrain in solving their international relations from the

threat or use of force towards political independence or territorial integrity in any other manner thats incompatible with the rules of the United Nations. Fifthly, all Members would give the United Nations every support in any action thats accordance to the present Charter, and shall be banned from giving any support to those states against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action. The sixth principles is that the Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations would honor in accordance with these so that international peace and security can be protected. Lastly, anything that doesnt contain in the Charter shall be authorize the United Nations to intercede in any matters require the Members to submit to settle under the present of the Charter or solve within the domestic jurisdiction. But this principle shall not influence the actions taken but by measure following the Charter of Chapter Vll.

http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/unintro/unintro2.htm 11 http://www.unac.org/learn/wrld/background/gi.htm


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Activities of The United Nations

The United Nations has been involved in many activities in its time. The organization addresses issues around the world such as healthcare, poverty, global peace, environmental care, military, education as well as child labor among others.

Most recently the U.N has offered contributions to natural disasters such as the 2011 Japanese Earthquake & Tsunami disaster. In this crisis the U.N has offered immediate aid relief as well as acting on standby for any other areas affected by earthquakes and tsunamis.

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The Specialized Agencies of the United Nations

Within the U.N many special agencies act on an international level to reach their goals of peacekeeping/security, humanitarian aid/rights and social/economic development. Some of the well known agencies include: World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labor Organization. The World Health Organization is responsible for addressing issues in public health around the world such as AIDS, SARS and other outbreaks. It also sponsors programs aimed to treat or cure diseases. The International Monetary Fund has many goals including the stabilization of financial issues, encouragement of free trade, promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. It is able to influence economies through macroeconomic policies which can alter features such as exchange rates, balance of payments, debt crises and foreign aid.

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Conclusion

The United Nations is a joint effort among the world members for the sole target of drafting and working towards a better and stronger future in terms of economic, social and humanitarian progress. It is an organization that has a tremendous capability and flexibility in response to the changing course and needs of the international community. The roles of its work have been clearly recognized, credited and appreciated by the members of world today. They hold very prominent and crucial powers that scrutinize unfair and selfinterested moves at the expense of a whole community by a party. Having a promising future and the more gaining importance in the global platform, its no doubt that the United Nations are building the ultimate peoples dream step by step with a considerably sense of humanity.

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References

http://www.un.org/en/ http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/ http://www.icj-cij.org/ http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/ http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/trusteeship/ http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/secretariat/ http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/ http://www.un.org/works/ http://www.who.int/en/ http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm http://www.imf.org/external/index.htm http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter2.shtml http://www.unac.org/learn/wrld/background/gi.htm http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/chapter1.html

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Appendix

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Chart of the United Nation System

Current Secretary-General

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http://www.colorado.edu/StudentGroups/mun/doc.html

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The United nation Head Quarters

United Nation Logo

General Meeting in the Head Quarters


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