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Abstract Mined cavern storage for liquefied natural gas (LNG)l has been under active development for many years in several countries. Described are the efficient mining techniques that renewed U.S. interest in caverns as a storage system by making them economically competitive with conventional storage methods. Laboratory data are reported on the physical and thermal behavior of selected rocks at low temperature. The design, construction, and operation of an insulated test cavern are described. The effects of insulation on evaporation rates and thermally induced rock stresses are discussed. Information on the design and cost of commercial caverns for LNG storage is presented based on the results from this pilot test.

Le stockage en excavation du gaz naturel liqufi a t developp trs activement dans plusieurs pays. Les techniques efficaces de fonage ou forage ont renouvel lintrt qu on portait aux Etats-Unis ce genre de stockage, reconnu conomiquement comptitif aux mthodes conventionnelles. Les rsultats dessais sont donns concernant le comportement physique et thermique basse temprature, de roches pralablement slectionnes. Le schma, la construction et lexploitation dune caverne exprimentale calorifuge sont dcrits. Les informations concernant le schma et le cot des cavits pour le stockage commercial de gaz naturel liqufi sont bases sur les rsultats de ces essais semi-industriels.

Basically, the excavation technique used is identical to that now used to construct liquefied propane and With the recent rapid growth in energy requirements, butane caverns. These gases are stored under pressure. natural gas has occupied an increasing role in meeting To contain the pressure effectively, a small-diameter these needs on a worldwide basis. The movement and (42 inches) vertical shaft entry to a depth of 400 feet or storage of natural gas in liquid form has required the more is required. The operating pressure is close to the development of new techniques to meet these n e e d ~ . l - ~ hydrostatic head corresponding to the depth of the At present, there are three methods of storing liquefied reservoir. The cavern, as envisaged by the French, is uninsulated and therefore subject to relatively high heat natural gas which are available to the industry: influx rates. (1) Aboveground metal tanks. At the Institute of Gas Technology, studies in 1962on the concept of LNG cavern storage indicated a quite (2) Cryogenic in-ground storage. (3) Below or aboveground prestressed concrete tanks. different approach to be the most promising. The high cost of mining liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage In addition to these, another method-storage of caverns appeared to limit their use as LNG storage conLNG in an underground cavern-has been under inves- tainers. Since LNG could easily be stored at atmostigationin France and the United States, but by different pheric pressure, a cavern need not be deep. Mining approaches. The first work was done by Gaz de France techniques were, therefore, studied, and it was found which contemplated storage of liquefied natural gas in that a large, inclined entry to a room-and-pillar cavern an uninsulated, unlined cavern. Although some articles was best. In addition, it was found that insulation must and papers have been published on the results of these be used to maintain economically low boil-off rates tests, it might be helpful to recapitulate the essential because the LNG in the U.S. would almost always be used for only a few days of peak-shaving with 200 to 300 details of this days of filling and holding. by A. R. KHAN, P. J. ANDERSON, and B. E. EAKIN, Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Inclined-entry mining technique

The existing practice for LPG caverns has been to provide entry to the excavation by a narrow-diameter vertical shaft due to pressure requirements. These smalldiameter shafts require the use of small, low-production


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Fig. 2-Excavation progress.


Fig. 1-Typical excavation using room-and-pillar mine system. mining equipment, and hence result in high-cost excavation.6-8 Since LNG can be stored at substantially atmospheric pressure, deep overburden is not necessary. Consequently, the entry size and configuration can be increased and geared to large equipment requirements. This allows use of larger and more productive equipment with resultant lower excavation costs. The most economical method of entry per unit of length is by horizontal tunnel. If the depth is not excessive, an inclined shaft entry can be utilized. The size of the entry is governed by the size of the loading and transportation equipment, and may typically be 13 feet wide by 17 feet high. Once the entry is dug to the desired depth, the actual excavation of the cavern may progress in stage^.^ A typical excavation using a room-and-pillar mining system is shown in Fig. 1. The progress of the excavation in three stages is depicted in Fig. 2. The mining cycle includes drilling, blasting, scaling, and loading. It is estimated that an average daily excavation of 550 cubic yards can be readily maintained, thus permitting rapid and economical schedules. The excavating cost per storage barrel using the above technique is significantlylower than that for a vertical-shaft pressure cavern. Table I compares these costs for a cavern with an ultimate storage capacity of 300,000 barrels. The storage excavation for the IGT inclined-entry cavern


COMPARISON OF EXCAVATION COSTS IGT inclined entry Site selection study Portal preparation Entry, 1000 ft at $100/ft Storage excavation, 300,000 bbl at $1.00/bbl (including overage, 10 % excess) Contingency, 10% Office overhead, 5 % Fee, 5% Cost per storage barrel 20,000 2,500 100,000 330,000 $452,500 45,300 $497,800 25,000 25,000 $547,800 $1.82

Vertical shaft Site Selection study Mine shaft and product handling wells, 300 ft deep Storage excavation, 300,000 bbl at $3.00/bbl Mine development Contingency Office overhead, 5 % Fixed fee, 5 % Cost per storage barrel

25,000 125,000 900,000


$1,100,000 75,000 $1,175,000 58,750 58,750 $1,292,500 $4.31

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includes 10% overage. As can be seen, the storage exca- None of the test samples showed any evidence of spalvation costs are $1.82 per barrel, compared to $4.31 for ling or cracking. the vertical-shaft system. In making the stress computations, the only values of Young's modulus available were in compression. Since it normally makes little difference whether the modulus Investigationsrequired for development of concept is measured in tension or compression, the use of the At the outset, it was recognized that there was a gross latter value was thought to be acceptable even though lack of published data on the physical properties of rock the rock would be in tension. However, in view of the at cryogenic temperatures. Mathematical models used disagreement between computation and experiment it to derive the equations for the thermal stresses and heat was decided to measure Young's modulus under teninflux rates were based on spherical caverns in infi- sion. It was found to be much lower than in compresl nite homogeneous rock media.2* o Calculations of heat sion. When these lower values were used to calculate influx rates based on literature values of thermal pro- stress, it was found that the predicted stresses were less perties indicated the necessity of insulation to avoid than the strength of the rock, thus corroborating the high evaporation rates, but insulation systems were not experimental results. Table II lists the tensile and comavailable. To contain the liquefied natural gas and pre- pressive strengths, and Table III compares the value of vent damage to the insulation, a suitable liner would Young's modulus in compression and tension. have to be found.

To properly evaluate the effects of cryogenic temperatures on the physical properties of the selected rock formations, the following determinations were made : (a) Coefficient of thermal expansion. (b) Ultimate strength in compression. (c) Ultimate strength in tension. (d) Specific heat. (e) Elastic moduli. (f) Poisson's ratio. (g) Thermal stress tests. (h) Thermal conductivity. The rock formations from which samples were obtained for these determinations were those that would be encountered at potential cavern sites: limestone, sandstone, and granite. Selected were the Salem limestone formation of central Indiana, the Cayahoga sandstone formation from McDermott, Ohio, and the Rockville granite, quarried near Rockville, Minnesota. The principal cause of concern had been the effect of thermal stresses which could cause cracking and spalling of the rock. Previous calculations based on available data indicated that tangential and radial stresses would exceed the strength of the rock at cryogenic temperatures. These computed results could not be reconciled with actual experiments, as no spalling or cracking occurred when massive rock samples were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. Experiments were conducted in which extreme thermal stresses (much greater than those to be encountered in practice) were imposed by restraining the ends of the sample while subjecting the middle portion to -320F.


Ultimate strength, psi Sample Temperature, "F In compression In tension

10,317 7,966 14,800 11,700 21,330 18,900 ?3.000 14;350 >23,000 >23,000 800 600 720 580 1120 1140 3280 900 1740 1220

Limestone, dry wet Sandstone, dry wet Granite, dry Sandstone, dry

70 70

-200 -200 -200

Limestone, dIy wet Granite, dry

Young's modulus x 106psi



Limestone Granite Sandstone

--70F -100F
Compressive Tensile Compressive

' b

2.9 1.8 0.87

4.8 8.6 44

2.4 1.o

4.0 7.7 5.0

A critical factor in the design of a room-and-pillar cavern is the thermal contraction of the pillars. Dimensional stability is largely controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and compressive strength. Fig. 3 shows the contraction of the three rock types (both dry and saturated) as the temperature is lowered from 80" to -260F. The limited degree of contraction that was exhibited indicates that roof supports should not fail. It is of particular interest to note that dry limestone contracts as the temperature is reduced to -120"F, then


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expands as the temperature is further reduced. The result is virtually no net change in size from ambient to LNG temperatures. The thermal properties of the various rocks are presented in Table IV over a temperature range of 70" to -250F.

Selection of site for pilot cavern The criteria for the selection of a site for the pilot cavern dictate that it should be located in an area that is geologically acceptable. The properties of the rock must be such that any excessive thermal stresses caused by cryogenic temperatures will not induce spalling or cracking. With these basic limitations in mind, seven potential sites were examined:
(1) Birmingham, Alabama. (2) Minneapolis, Minnesota. (3) Kansas City, Missouri. (4) Rutland, Vermont. (5) Oak Creek, Wisconsin. (6) Greensburg, Pennsylvania. (7) Lowell, Massachusetts.

Fig. 3-Thermal

expansion of granite, limestone and sandstone.

Although all the sites were geologically suitable for construction of a test cavern, the funds available precluded detailed investigations at every site. Drilling programs were conducted at sites 1 and 7. The site finally selected for the pilot test cavern was Lowell, Massachusetts. The rock underlying this site is the Nashoba formation. It consists of hard, medium-grained, light to medium-gray paragneiss, composed chiefly of quartz, biotite, and sodic plagioclase. A pronounced gneissic banding, caused largely by introduction of feldspar, parallels and accentuates the bedding. The rocks are well foliated, due chiefly to the preferred orientation of




50 % relative humidity

Oven dry
\ r

-250F -150F -75F 0F 75F -250F -150F -75F 0F 75F -250F -150F -75F VF 75F Thermal conductivity,* Btu/hr/sq ft-"F/in. - _ Granite 29 28 26 23 21 Limestone 36 29 24 20 19 25 22 18 17 16 Sandstone 52 42 36 28 28 21 19 18 17 17 Heat capacity, Btu/lb-"F -320" to 70F -100" to 70F Granite 0.131 f 0.001 0.171 f 0.006 Sandstone 0 172 f 0.002 0.230 f 0004 Limestone 0 175 f 0.004 0179 f 0.004 Density, lb/cu ft Vacuum saturated Granite 181.05 Sandstone 158.57 146.71 Limestone 167.94 159.82 Thermal diffusivity, sq ft/hr -320" to 70F -100" to 70F -320" to 70F -100 to 70F Granite 009 1O 00658 Sandstone 0.0674 0.0436 Limestone 0.0614 0.0517

24 18

21 16

18 16

15 17

15 16

18042 14609 159.20

* Thermal conductivitymeasured by the Research and Development Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association.

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the micas parallel to the bedding. The bedding, however, is often completely obscured because of strong folding and shearing which was followed by the intensive feldspathization. Most prominent is a set of nearly vertical cross joints (perpendicular to the linear flow structure), although some exposures display lowangle, and, locally, high-angle oblique joints. The rocks tend to break into tabular slabs bounded by foliation planes and joint surfaces. After examination of the existing logs and cores from the cavern, it was decided that the rock, while not the most ideal, would be workable and would provide a stringent test for the concept of a pilot test cavern. Three boreholes were drilled at the site to obtain samples for cryogenic testing (Fig. 4). Boreholes A and B were drilled vertically; borehole C was inclined towards borehole A at 15" from the horizontal to intersect the foliation perpendicular to the core axis. Logs of boreholes A and B were prepared and borehole photographs taken.

Liner and insulation system

The economic advantages of cavern storage of LNG are contingent on the successful utilization of a linerinsulation system which would contain the LNG and reduce the large heat-influx rates from bare rock. An insulation and sealing system was formulated based on consultations with manufacturers and fabricators of insulation and liner material. The system consists of the load-bearing cavern wall surface, a water vapor barrier, an adhesive (if required) to bond the insulation to the barrier, foamed insulation, and a flexible, impermeable (LNG barrier) liner fastened to the foamed insulation. The water barrier had to be capable of sealing fractures in the rock surface which might be up to inch wide, sufficiently impermeable to water and water vapor under a hydrostatic head up to 90 psi, able to bond to a wet surface, and remain integral to 32"F, at which point frozen pore water will form an adequate moisture barrier.

HOLE 3 97.24'

Fig.4-Location and orientation of pilot cavern, Lowell, Massachusetts.


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The basic criteria for a successful insulation require that the insulation have a low thermal conductivity, resist spalling or cracking due to the cryogenic temperatures, and be easily and economically applicable. A polyurethane foam insulation which has a low thermal conductivity (k = 0.14 Btu-in./hr-sq ft-OF) was selected, based on its physical and chemical properties. Since it would be impractical and uneconomical to install an all-metal liner capable of withstanding the cryogenic temperatures, investigations were made of other liner systems. Based on the results of this search, it was decided that a combination plastic and metal liner would best meet the containment requirements. Tests were conducted on three such liners-essentially laminates composed of Mylar, aluminum, Dacron, and combinations thereof. The laminate selected has a high ultimate tensile and tear strength, high elongation, and very low permeability to methane gas. IRaddition, tests conducted after alternate and repeated cycling with boiling water and liquid nitrogen indicated no change in physical properties. Tests of the effect of direct contact between LNG and the liner as a function of time also revealed no change. The bonding of the liner is achieved by a simple heat seal, using a tape composed of the same material as the liner but with a special cryogenic adhesive. Exhaustive testing as cited above was also conducted on the seams; the results indicated no failure at the joints. The composite liner-insulation system was finally tested for compatibility in a small prestressed concrete tank to determine if it would meet the containment requirements. From these tests, we concluded that the

seams and liner material had performed satisfactorily. Since it is important that the primary layer of insulation not separate from the wall during cooldown and operation of the cavern, the relative bonding strengths of the polyurethane foam insulation to the rock surface coated with a water barrier were evaluated. The results of these tests showed that the bonding of the Urethane foam to a moist rock surface had sufficient strength to prevent the foam from peeling off the wall. The final design of the liner-insulation system and its bonding to the rock surface is described below.
Design and construction

Construction of the pilot test cavern was begun in the spring of 1966. The initial construction consisted of the removal of overburden to bedrock at the entrance to the inclined entry. The rock at the entry was removed by blasting and the inclined entry subsequently made. Excavation of the cavern entry was delayed by surface water. The stripping of the surface overburden cut the normal groundwater flow network. This resulted in drainage into the excavation. This drainage, at a period of high groundwater level, made it difficult to keep the working area dry. The problem was further compounded by large flows through the fracture network in the weathered rock at the rock-overburden interface. The problem of blasting and mucking the area adjacent to the entry was solved when adequate pumps were installed. The deeper rock was dry as expected. The cavern and gallery were then excavated. The mining was held to a tolerance of 5 3 inches from the








Fig. 5-Cross-sectional view of LNG pilot cavern.

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Thermal tests include the measurements of temperature distributions and boil-off rates to facilitate heat influx calculations. Approximately 150 thermocouples are located in the insulation and surrounding rock. Temperature distributions will be measured above and OPERATION below the liquid level at various depths into the rock as As of writing, the cavern construction has been com- well as between each layer of insulation. Temperature pleted. The cavern will be tested in three thermal cycles profiles will be measuredin the pillar, roof, end wall, and to simulate actual operation of a commercial unit. floor. Evaporation rates will be measured hourly. Because of the unavailability of liquefaction equipment, LNG will be used only for the second cycle. It will be Effect of insulation on heat influx and thermal stresses trucked from a liquefaction plant at Birmingham, Alabama. The first and third cycles will be conducted The thermal properties of the rock-specific heat and with liquid nitrogen trucked from Boston. thermal conductivity-and the latent heat of the evaporation of the stored liquid affect the transient heat flow Rock tests in rock cavities. Of these properties, the thermal conductivity is the most variable. As stated earlier, equaThe U.S. Bureau of Mines determined the tectonic tions were derived to determine the heat influx rates and (regional) stresses in the rock before and after mining the thermal stresses during cooling to cryogenic the cavern. A special gallery was constructed in the temperatures.2*lo The equations describe temperature, entry to facilitate these measurements, which were made heat influx rates, cumulative heat influx, and the radial with a borehole deformation gage developed by the and tangential stresses at any point in the rock. Bureau. These data, coupled with the change-in-strain Obviously, the effect of insulation is to decrease the measurements from the mechanical strain rosettes in magnitude of the heat influx rates and the thermally the cavern, permit determination of the stress-strain induced rock stresses. The total surface area of exposed rock for a particular storage capacity determines the history of the structural components of the cavern. Before the third cycle of operation of the cavern, insulation thickness to be used for a required evaporainsulation will be selectively removed from the cavern tion rate. This surface area can be optimized by maxito maximize thermal stresses in the rock and to simulate mizing the mined volume and decreasing the volume occupied by the pillars. The actual pillar space occupied a structural failure.

desired line. During the mining operation, two seams producing water were intersected: One was 3 to 5 feet from the cavern entrance which produced 4.5 gallons per minute; the other was approximately 9 feet into the right side of the cavern between the column and the right-hand wall which produced 4 gallons per minute. Both were successfully grouted. A cross-sectional view of the pilot cavern is presented in Fig. 5. Prior to installation of the insulating panels, a brushed layer of concrete was poured on the cavern floor to smooth irregularities and provide for drainage to the LNG sump pump. The cavern was then coated with a sealant to prevent moisture from seeping through the wall onto the insulation. The walls and roof of the cavern, and entry up to the vapor barrier, were then framed with lumber. The framing was held to the cavern wall with studs at points of contact with the rock. The panels were then fastened to the framing with adhesive. Uniform-size panels of insulation were purchased and field trimmed to fit in the cavern. These panels were used in combination with a paper-aluminum laminate as the form for the foam-in-place Urethane. The liquid barrier was then glued to the laminate. Tape of the same composition as the liquid barrier material with a pressure- and temperature-sensitive adhesive coating was used to seal the interior layer of the panels.

Borehole photographs will be taken to visually record any effects on the fractures in the pillar. In addition, optical strain and borehole deformation measurements will be made at the cavern wall adjacent to the gallery. These measurements will be correlated with photoelastic studies. They will facilitate the computation of a complete stress-strain history for the cavern from its virgin state through mining to operation. This compilation will be invaluable for designing commercial-size caverns. Pull tests will be made on selected roof bolts to establish their performance before and after operation of the cavern. Selected bolts will also be instrumented with thermocouples and strain gages to determine both their thermal and stress histories during operation. Based on the data obtained from these tests, it will be possible to evaluate (1) the effect of low temperatures on the number and spacing of bolts required in future installations, and (2) whether special steels are required for bolts in this type of service.
Thermal tests


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TABLE V would be determined by the mechanical properties of the rock, which enables the designer to calculate the ESTIMATED COST OF CAVERN STORAGE height and permissible span between pillars. Although Capacity: 300,000 bbl(1068 million CF) Evaporation rate: 0.05 %/day an extremely conservative value of 50 % pillar space has been used for projected cost estimates of large caverns, $ we anticipate that this would be decreased to as low as Excavation: 20,000 Site selection study 10% pending completion of the research program. It is 2,500 Portal preparation evident that decreasing the pillar space results in a 100,000 Entry 330,000 Storage excavation including overage decreased effective heat transfer area with consequently $452,500 Sub-total lower insulation thickness for the same evaporation 45,300 Contingency, 10% rate. From structural considerations, we believe that a $497,800 pillar space of 15 to 20 % would be technically feasible. 25,O General office overhead expense, 5 % With an insulated cavern, the rock interface tempera25,000 Fee, 5 % tures will be considerably higher than for a bare cavern $547,800 Total for excavation storing a cryogenic liquid. Fig. 6 presents the interface Insufationlliner: temperatures as a function of time for a 300,000-barrel 20,000 Wail sealer 604,000 Insulation insulated cavern excavated in limestone, sandstone, or 21,000 Liner granite. Thus, the calculated thermally induced rock Vapor/liquid barriers and sump 31,000 210,000 Installation stresses at these higher temperatures will not exceed the $886,000 tensile strength of the rock, and no spalling or cracking 44,300 Contingency, 5 % will occur. $930,300 46,500 General office overhead expense, 5 % 46,500 Projected costs for large caverns Fee, 5 %

We have discussed earlier the excavation technique Summary of costs: adopted in this concept which results in low excavation Excavation-300,000 bbl at $1.82/bbl InsuIation/liner installationcosts per storage barrel. However, to determine the total 300,000 bbl at $3.41/bbl cost per storage barrel, the costs due to sealing, insulatTotal cavern cost, 300,000 bbl at $5.24/bbl ing, lining, erection of bulkheads, etc., must all be

Total for insulation/liner

$1,023,300 547,800 1,023,300 (s1,571,100



W -

3 t


E o
I -

- 20












Fig. 4-Rock-insulation

interface temperaturesfor large cavern.

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added. An estimate for the total storage costs of a 300,000-barrelcavern excavated in the rock found at the pilot cavern site is presented in Table V. The pillar space is conservatively 50 % ;a boil-off rate of 0-05, not necessarily the optimum, is assumed. As storage volume is increased, the storage cost decreases. As pillar space is decreased, less insulation is required for the same evaporation rate with a consequent decrease in overall storage cost. From the foregoing it can be concluded that the optimum size, configuration, and evaporation rates are necessary for projecting costs of the cavern storage system and thus enhancing the relative economic position of this type of storage. The economics of this storage system improve more rapidly for increased capacity than for other storage techniques, since a single entry which represents a significant portion of the cost could just as easily serve a larger storage cavern. Also, multiple units would not be required for these large volumes as with metal or concrete tanks. CONCLUSIONS We have traced briefly the work that has been undertaken to develop the concept of storing LNG at atmospheric pressures in underground caverns. At the time of this writing, the completed pilot cavern awaits filling with LNG for completion of the test program. We anticipate that the successful proof of this concept will provide the industry with yet another competitive method of storage. With the prospect of increasing LNG shipments from gas-rich countries to markets in Europe and Japan, space requirements in crowded areas may dictate the necessity for belowground cavern storage. Also, if large volumes of gas are required for peakshaving with distribution from a centrally located facility, cavern storage of LNG can be an economical solution.

present this paper. Data on rock properties were developed under an earlier program sponsored by the American Gas Association. Cameron and Jones, Inc., and Zeni-McKinney-Williams Corp., subsidiary of Dravo Corporation, assisted in the construction phases and cost estimation. The guidance and counsel of Messrs. Fred Wright and J. Huebler, and Drs. S. Guralnick and S. A. Weil is also gratefully acknowledged.
REFERENCES 1. SLIEPCEVICH, C. M., Liquefied Natural Gas-A New Source of Energy: Part I, Ship Transportation, Am. Sci. 53, 260-87 (1965) June; Part II, Peak Load Shaving and Other Uses, Am. Sci. 53, 308-16 (1965) September. 2. KHAN, A. R., and EAKIN, B. E., Recent Developments in LNG Storage Systems. Paper No. 321 presented at the Ist International Conference on Petroleum and the Sea, Monte Carlo, Monaco, May 12-20, 1965. 3. EAKIN, B. E., BAIR, W. G., CLOSNER, J. J., and MAROTI, R., Belowground Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas in Prestressed Concrete Tanks. Institute of Gas Technology Technical Report No. 8 (covering Projects PB-35, PB-35a and PE-35a sponsored by A.G.A. and participating companies) (1963) July. 4. YOUNG, A. R., Recent Developments in Liquefaction of Natural Gas for Peak Shaving. Paper presented at American Gas Association Production Conference, Pittsburgh, Pa., May 17, 1963. 5. ANDERSON, P. J., and KHAN, A. R., Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas. Conference Preprint 216 presented at the American Society of Civil Engineers Transportation Conference, Minneapolis, Mim., May 20, 1965. Appears as, Storage Containers for Liquefied Natural Gas, Civil Engineering, 35, 65-67 (1965), August. 6. BRESSON, H., Cavern Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas. Paper CEP-62-12, Operating Section, American Gas Association, 1962. 7. SCISSON, S. E., Planning for Mined Underground LPG Storage, Oil Gas J., 58, 141-44 (1960) May 2. 8. BRESSON, H., Cavern Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas, J. Ind. Gaz., 87, 551-57 (1963), December. 9. CAMERON AND JONES, INC., Preliminary Study of Techniques and Costs of Underground Storage for Liquefied Natural Gas. Denver, Colo., 1963. 10. EAKIN, B. E., Cavern Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas. Unpublished Report to Gas Operations Research Committee, A.G.A., May 1963. 11. CASTLE, R. O., Geology of the Andover Granite and Surrounding Rocks, Massachusetts. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. To be printed.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the permission of Gas Storage Inc., which is sponsoring this project, to


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Almacenamiento de gas natural licuado en cavernas
El almacenamiento de gas natural licuado en cavernas ha sido desarrollado activamente, por muchos aos, en varios pases. Se describen las eficientes tcnicas mineras que han renovado en los Estados Unidos el inters en las cavernas como sistema de almacenamiento, hacindolas econmicamente competidoras con el mtodo convencional de almacenamiento. Se presentan resultados de laboratorio sobre comportamiento fsico y trmico, a bajas temperaturas, de rocas apropiadas. Se describen el diseo, la construcciny la operacin de una caverna de prueba aislada trmicamente. Se discuten los efectos del aislamientoen la evaporacin y los esfuerzos inducidos en rocas tratadas trmicamente. Se informa sobre el diseo y el costo de cavernas de tipo comercial para el almacenamiento de gas natural licuado, con base en los resultados de la prueba piloto.