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Introduction:

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a simple version of amplitude modulation used for digital modulation in which the two binary values (one and zero) are represented by two different amplitudes of the carrier frequency.

Objective:
To generate and demodulate an amplitude shift keyed (ASK) signal and a binary FSK signal.

Equipment:
Frequency generators Oscilloscope DC source for biasing Analog switch Diode Capacitors & resistors

Theory:
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) also called on-off shift keying (OOK) represents zeros and ones by pulses of a sinusoidal carrier with frequency fc with two amplitudes A0 & A1 ,A0 in most cases chosen to be zero.

In a simpler form:

It is close to AM modulation but the big difference is that the ASK modulating signal is binary (digital) signal. ASK signal achieved simply by multiplying the carrier signal with modulated signal.

The zero signals will still at zero level (multiplication) but the 1s will make the carrier shaped by the pulse (A volt) as shown in figure below:

There are sharp discontinuities shown at the transition points. These result in the signal having an unnecessarily wide bandwidth. Band limiting is generally introduced before transmission, in which case these discontinuities would be rounded off. The band limiting may be applied to the digital message, or the modulated signal itself. One of the disadvantages of ASK, compared with FSK and PSK, for example, is that it has not got a constant envelope. This makes its processing more difficult, since linearity becomes an important factor. However, it does make for ease of demodulation with an envelope detector. Modulation: One way to achieve the multiplication is by analog switch

Using an LPF is useful for shaping the ASK and bandlimiting ASK.

Demodulation types:

Matched filter coherent demodulator

Coherent correlation receiver

Quasi coherent square law receiver

Incoherent quadrature receiver

Finally the envelope detector which used in this experiment

Incoherent envelope receiver Other form is the simple envelope detector its enough to do the job.

Procedure:
First the modulation circuit implemented with an analog switch for multiplication of carrier (sinusoidal) and the modulating (square) signal as shown below:

In order to get a good ASK signal a little adjustment must be done the frequencies of both the carrier and the modulating signal also the amplitudes. Then after you get the best form of ASK you could, a suitable demodulation RC value calculated to be in a frequency level between the carrier & the massage. Finally construct the demodulation circuit (envelope detector).

Slightly Change the capacitors to find the closest form of demodulation to the original massage

Discussion:

The modulating signal amplitude in the modulator must be bigger than the carriers amplitude, because in the multiplication we need the carrier amplitude to change according to the massage giving an ASK signal. (Avoiding under modulation that might make trouble in the demodulation even the ASK signal wont be clear). The main different between the ASK and the AM is that ASK dealing with only digital signals (binary) but the AM changing according to an analog signal. The demodulated signal has a curved degrading shape in the start of the zero part because of the capacitor discharging. To minimize the discharging the Time constant (RC) must be reduced so the discharging operation would be faster. The diode in the demodulator cut the lower (negative) part out and closes the path in the reverse bias so the capacitor has to discharge in the resistance in parallel but when the ASK amplitude raises upper than the capacitor voltage the diode opens that makes the output rises again. The final output noticed that it had the same time (width) of the clock (massage) signal. Its simpler than FSK, smaller bandwidth, low power dissipation, and good immune to noise. ASK receiver also very simple and greatly sensitive. ASK used in radio frequencies, point to point military communications, and early telephone modems.

Conclusion:
Ask is a simple way for transmitting digital data and has a good immune to noise and attenuation. A regular AM demodulator can be used for ASK demodulation which is very simple and has clear output. There are different kinds of modulators /demodulators. For ASK each got its benefits and disadvantages. ASK got a lot of application especially in radio transmission and military communications.

Results:
ASK signal:

Demodulated signal: