3791
Fellow
Abstract  A simulation and digital computer modeling effort is described in which a wind turbinegenerator system is adapted for stability evaluation using a large scale transient stability computer program. Component models of the MOD2 wind generator system are described and their digital model equations A versatile wind velocity model is are provided. described, which provides the capability of simulating a wide variety of wind variations, in addition to the usual network disturbances. Computed results obtained from runs of the enhanced stability program are provided that illustrate the wind turbinegenerator system dynamic performance for changes in wind velocity.
INTRODUCTION
must conform. To introduce the new mechanical model of the wind system requires the definition of new GOVERNOR and TURBINE blocks. This required the creation of new nonlinear components for blade dynamics and the addition of a random number generator to allow specification of a random wind component as prescribed by Wasynczuk, et al [1]. The remainder of the wind mechanical system is as defined by Krause, et al [2,3]. These systems are described below.
The purpose of the work described herein is to provide the capability of simulating the dynamic performance of the MOD2 wind turbinegenerator system using a production transient stability program. The MOD2 model used for this purpose is that developed by Purdue University and described in several publications [14]. The model equations were adapted for digital simulation, coded in Fortran, and installed into a development version of the largescale EPRI TransientMidterm Stability Program [5]. This program was selected because of its modular design and public documentation. The results of this effort confirm prior analog computer studies of the MOD2 behavior [2], and provide a new study capability for utility engineers who wish to evaluate the transient effects of wind generators integrated into large scale power systems.
The shaft dynamics of the WTG are characterized in terms of the rotation of the wind turbine blade speed (w ), the hub speed (w ), the gear box speed (w ), ang the generator mechanical speed (c ). The G equations that describe the motion of the several shaft sections are as follows (in the Laplace domain):
m
JBsWB
JsHWH
=T
wDBwBD BH(wBH)KBH(0B0H)
(HB)D
HB HB
KHG
(0
HG G
K
G.
sw
m
T Dw
e
GmRG
HG(w
w
)(0
RG
GH
0
(1)
R
'r)
G G
m
e
J = =
T
w
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
wind model blade dynamics shaft dynamics pitch control generator model
e
D K R
p
=
=
damping in Js/rad
gear ratio
The first four of these models may be considered the mechanical system and the generator model is the MOD2 electrical system. The mechanical system is shown in block diagram form in Figure 1. To implement this mechanical system into the existing code required a matching of subsystems already existing in the EPRI program. These subsystem definitions are shown in Figure 2. The program defines Generation System Components, such as SWING, TURBINE, and GOVERNOR to which the wind model
These equations are normalized, based on'the generator three phase voltampere rating derives the block diagram structure in Figure'l, where all quantities are in per unit except the shaft angular velocities, which are in radians per second. The Blade Dynamics
non
(2)
uB
C
83 SM 3282 A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Power Generation Comnittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE/PES 1983 Sumiher Meeting, Los Angeles, Manuscript submitted California, July 1722, 1983. January 31, 1983; made available for printing June 20, 1983.
(Y0.022
AC
,25.6)e0.1l
(3)
PW 
1p
2
2
pVW
V3
W
I~~~~~
'BOp
(4)
00189510/83/12003791$01.00
1983 IEEE
3792
GOVERNORTURBINE
w 1G
Li
D +i
(elec
rad/s)
Figure 1.
value. The blade torquespeed characteristic is of interest in power generation, since this characteristic works against the torquespeed characteristic of the load to determine frequency regulationor governing. The MOD2 torguespeed characteristic varies with wind velocity, with the characteristic curves given in Figure 3. We are interested in these plots only in the neighborhood of rated speed (1.848 rad/s). In this region, the torque characteristic is nearly flat, with a small negative slope.
2.50
KOD 2 with Vw
...... ,............ ...........
........
35 mn/if
...... ..... ...
..
2.25
2. 00
Figure 2.
1.75
1.50 1.25 1.i0
.
..........
,.... .,v
...........
..............
.........
...
....
....................................
........
75
where
= B =
.pp
A
= = = =
wind velocity in mi/h blade angular velocity in mech rad/s tip speed ratio in (mih)/(rad/s) blade pitch angle, degrees power coefficient (dimensionless) air density in lbf/ft3 blade impact area in ft2
.25
.50
4~ ~ ~~~ ~.......
*
.... ...
....
.............
.....
......
.
.......
.......
0. 00 . 25
.. myN...........................
I.......,
..
...
..
.50
. 75 1. 00
fi_......._._..._.._._....
b
_.;..
0. 4_..> .........,,,,
..
..
.........
...,, ,
,...................................
~~~~~~~...... .E 
The output power is normalized by the constant K in Figure 1 to interface the blade equations to the shaft system. The approximate expression (3) for the power coefficient C is a nonlinear function of blade pitch angle, 6, aRd tip speed ratio, y. In the digital simulation, it was found convenient to multiplK this function by the forward loop gain (6.151 x 10 ). This
1.25
1.50 1.75
2. 00
X
X
..... 
,.................... 5.................
_...__._.__.:..
..
,
U
u)
XS
w
Ln
_
Gs
U1 N
_
Ln
In
; 0G
Figure 3.
3793
MOD2 WITH Vw
4.5
35 mi 7h
4.0
3.0
3......, .....
where K is a constant. This component is always assumed to be present in studies where the wind generator is required to be in service. The gust wind velocity component is described by the equation
...........


0 ,
0O
V
t < TlG
T
t
2.5
1.5
. L 
{ V WG lCos
<t<t 1 1G + TG 1G
mi/h
(7 )
.5J = ..............
e.
..............'
......................... ............... ;........
TlG+
where
12.0
2I
o.
t


Vcos
TG
.5
.........
2.0

BLADE
09 0
Pitch Angles of 036 in 4 increments.
= time in s
0~~~~~~~~~
The turbine power vs. speed characteristic is shown in Figure 4, where again we focus our attention in the region near 1.848 rad/s. Here the slope is observed to be definitely positive for small blade angles and corresponding high power output. Our simulation of the wind turbine system verified that'the openloop system is marginally unstable for a base wind of 35 mi/h and a scheduled power of 2.55 MW. At this point the power vs angular velocity curve has a slight positive slope, which would result in unstable operation of the prime mover if operated open loop. This instability has been previously Qbserved [1]. The Pitch Control
This is the usual (1cosine) gust used in wind studies by others [71, and is considered an essential component of wind velocity for dynamic studies. The ramp wind velocity component is described by the equation
t < T T t
VWR
where
Vrap
O
tR
>T2
(8)
Vramp
Tl
T2R
/(TlRT2R)] mi/h
The pitch control system provides integral control of errors in hub speed or generated power, with a notch filter introduced to reduce oscillations of twice the rotational frequency, arising from wind shear phenomena, blade teetering and nacelle yaw [6]. Appropriate limiting of both pitch angle and rateofchange are incorporated. A mQde switch is devised to remove the pitch angle control when the average wind speed is below a nominal cutoff velocity.
and where T2R > TlR. This function may be used to approximate a step change, by setting T2R only slightly greater than T , or a slowly increasing wind velocity to study ramp racking. For negative values of MAXR, ramps of negative slopes could be studied. The final wind velocity component is the random noise component, where we define
N
VW where
] 2 2E [s V(i )Aw] (w
h1/2 c.os(w t +0
t,
< 0
(9)
W.
=
=
Ci.1/2)Aw
a random variable with uniform probability density on the interval o to 2t
WB
+V +V +V WG WR WN
(5)
Pi
where
V
V V
W=
gust wind component,mi/h ramp wind component, mi/h noise wind component, mi/h
mi/h
and the function S (W ) is the spectral density function defined by Vaicaitis, et al I8] by the equationr
s( i .V
where
v2
2KN
F2IwiI
(10) (0
These four components provide a reasonable flexibility for the study of one or a group of wind generators. The base wind velocity component is described by the equation' (6) mi/h VW=B
3794
Various studies have shown that valuesof N = 50 and ANo = 0.52.0 rad/s provide results 'of excellent
The wind model was installed in the program by adding a special function module to p'rovide V~ in mi/h given the parameters of the four wind components. This special module provid'ed an input to the Yblock, sho'wn in Fig'ure 1.
accuracy.
Computer simulAtions of the wind turbine were run using the familiar 9 bus test system shown in Figure 5. The wind generator was added,to bus 3 and scheduled to generate 2% of.the scheduled 85 MW, or 1.7 MW. The steam unit is therefore backed off to 83.3 MW. A largenumber of test runs were mad inti onfiguration to check out th'e various wind model features. Some typical results are shown in Figures 69. In each figure the blade pitch angle and the turbine mechanical power of the wind generator are plotted for a change in wind velocity.
186'kV
Figure 6 shows the wind turbine performance for a ramp change in the wind from 30 mni/h at 1 secon'd to 35 mi/h at 3 seconds. Figure 7 shows the performan'ce for the same ramp but instead of the win'd being steady,before and after the ramp, A noise component is superimfposed on the wind at all times. The noise parameters are Aw 2. 0, F= 2 000, K = 0. 004, (for No A= 2. 0 statistics show~a standarg deviation of 2.28 ft/s (1.56 mi/h) and a v'ariance of 5.21). Figure 8 shows the plots of the same variables when the wind gusts to 35 mi/h from 30 mi/h between 1 and 4 seconds i'n addition to the usual noise.
17.1
16. 5 16.
4S
15. 9 15.6
15. 3
15.
'j06~25
230 kV
La
230 kV
(Y' ~
I1
j.5
13.8 kV
V210,1045
OO8 (T
02
2 . 16
~I
2.10 2.04
1.98
1.92
1. 86
1. i. L.
1
1 .80
1. 74
1. 68
.......
1.62
..
16.5 kV
0. 0
(seconds) ~~~~~~~~Time
2.4
3. 2 4.0
0.8
1. 6
.Figure 5.
18.0
17. 7 17.4
Figure 7.
17.6
4.8
5.6
6.4
W'ind 'Ramp
7.2
8.0
.......
17. 2
16. 8
16.4
16.0
~~
17. 1
16.8 16. 5
16. 2
ID.I

15.2
15. 9
14.8 I:
15.6
15. 3
1410  .
13.6
14.4
15.0
2.40

2. 32
2. 24
2. 16
1
1.82 1
........
....
1.0 so~
..:ll
2. 08
...
1.78
1. 761. 0. 74 1.
L....
1.92
1.84
1. 76
1.7

]rie (seconds)
1.683
1.68
0.0
0.8
1.6
2.4
3.2
4.o
A
5.6
It I
6.4 7.2
8.0
4.8
1.66l.
0.0

Figure 6.
Figure 8.
0.8
1.6
2.4
Tin.e (seconds)
5.6
6.4
7.2
8.0
3795
18.0

.

..
..
16.0 1.
14.0 12.0
..
L.
.*:
.:
..
o.o .
8.0
6.0 1.
4 0
1..X
.
.
2.0
0.0
2.0 2.6
....
..
I+
1...
.........+*
.
* =

v.lI
,.,* .,,
.......
program. There are certain problems in modeling the wind turbine for digital simulation, but none that are beyond resolution. The models were integrated into the EPRI program by using the model building capabilities of the program and by some code modification. The results were satisfactory in every respect. Wind turbine generators are being added to utility systems in small groups, representing a small fraction of the total system generation. In the future, larger wind "farms" have been proposed that would be more significant in terms of the total generation and the possible impact on system operation. The stability of these systems will require study in two modes: (1) for intermachine oscillations within the wind group, and
for oscillations between
the wind group and the
rest
9
.4.2.........2(2)
2.5 1..
2.4
.:^
:*.
2.3 1...
2.0
1.9
1.9 7
of the system. The modern transient stability program is an *" ideal tool for studying both modes of oscillation. Each wind machine can be represented separately for studies of the first type, with the balance of the system represented by a dynamic equivalent. For studies of the second type, the wind farm could be represented as a dynamic equivalent. The new generation of stability programs, which have capability for computing dynamic equivalents, appear to be a very useful tool for studying system interactions with wind turbinegenerator systems.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1.8
0.0
0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2
Time (seconda)
.1....
4.0
I.... . l
1
4.8
5.6
6.4
7.2
8.0
Figure 9.
As can be seen, the pitch angle has an overshoot whereas the turbine power responds smoothly. This is true for both the ramp, for which these variables reach new steady state values, or the gust, for which the final steady states are same as the initial. The noise component in the wind seems to induce a continuous variation in the pitch angle but the turbine power changes smoothly, if at all. Figure 9 illustrates a unique problem in this kind of simulation of wind generators with pitch control cutoff. The figure shows the variable plots for a wind ramp from 25 mi/h at 1 second to 30 mi/h at 3 seconds. The stability program was initialized from a power flow calculation in which the wind generation was 1.7 MW. But 25 mi/h initial velocity is less than the 28 mi/h .threshold value for pitch control and the output power at zero pitch for that velocity is 2.2 MW. Thus, there is a discrepancy in the initial output power. The figure shows that the simulation seeks a new pitch angle to reconcile this discrepancy in the initial conditions. The best way to handle this problem is to rerun the power flow to obtain the correct initial conditions. Since this is somewhat tedious, the technique of letting the dynamic simulation settle to a new initial condition can be used. The cutoff mechanism is also a problem when the wind is around the threshold velocity with a noise component. The pitch control sees the chatter as the controller turns on and off continuously.
CONCLUSIONS
The authors acknowledge the significant support of Purdue University and the U.S. Department of Energy in the sponsorship of this project. In particular, Dr. P. C. Krause is acknowledged for his advice and assistance. Dr. John Lamont of EPRI and Mr. Esko G. Cate of Boeing Computer Services are also recognized for their unique contribution to this work by offering advice and assisting the authors in the dse of the advanced EPRI stability program.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
The MOD2 wind turbine generator model developed by Purdue University has been adapted for digital transient stability simulation using the EPRI stability
[8]
Wasynczuk, O., D. T. Man, and J. P. Sullivan, "Dynamic Behavior of a Class of Wind Turbine Generators during Random Wind Fluctuations," IEEE Paper 81WM1734, presented at the PES Winter Meeting, Feb. 16, 1981, Atlanta. Krause, P. C. and D. T. Man, "Transient Behavior of a Class of Wind Turbine Generators During Electrical Disturbances," IEEE Paper 81WM0116, presensted at the PES Winter Meeting, Feb. 16, 1981, Atlanta. Krause, P. C. and 0. Wasynczuk, "Methods of Resynchronizing Wind Turbine Generators," IEEE Paper 81WM1627, presented at the PES Winter Meeting, Feb. 16, 1981, Atlanta. Triezenberg, David M., Purdue Hybrid Computer Wind Generation Simulation Model. Private communication. Lightfoot, et al, "TransientMidterm Stability Program," EL596 to 601 inclusive, EPRI, Palo Alto, June 1979. Krause, P. C. Analysis and Simulation of Wind Energy Systems, Final Report, NASA Grant NSG3237, Purdue University, 1979. Reynolds, Michael G. Stability of Wind Turbine Generators to Wind Gusts, Purdue University Report TREE 7920. Vaicaitis, Rimas, Masanoba Shinozuka, and Masaru Takeno. Parameters Study of Wind Loading on Structures, J. of the Structural Div., ASCE, Mar. 1973, pp. 453468.
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