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Timpurile din lb.

engleza Present Simple


Cum se formeaza?
Aff S+v1(+es/s-pentru pers a III-a sg). Int Do/Does +S+v1+? Neg S+do/does+not+v1.

Cand se foloseste?
1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor) The sun rises in the East and sets in West. (Soarele rasare in Est si apune in Vest.) The water boils at 100 degrees C. (Apa fierbe la 100 C.) 2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general valabile) I drink a tea every day. (Beau ceai in fiecare zi.) I never drink tea. (Nu beau ceai niciodata.) 3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva John says: "I speak French". (John spune: Vorbesc Franceza.)

4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor The match starts at 2pm on Sunday. (Meciul incepe la ora 2 pm, duminica.)

5. in modul conditional (Conditional Prezent Real) Tom helps me with my homework when he has time. (Tom ma ajuta cu temele cand are timp.)

6. cateodata cand se povesteste o intamplare (de regula se folosesc si expresii, cuvinte care sa accentueze surprinderea, sau rapiditatea cu care se intampla o alta actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de baza) I went into the house and suddenly I see a misterious map. (Am intrat in casa si dintr-o data am vazut o harta misterioasa.)

I went into the house = actiunea de baza (suddenly) I see a misterious map = actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de baza care accentueaza surprinderea Observatii! a) "-es" se adauga la persoana a III-a singular pentru verbele care se termina in s, z, sh, ch, consoana+y b) Din punctul de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate persoanele singular si plural, cu exceptia persoanei a III- a singular, care se adauga (e) s.

Exercitii:
Exercise 1

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Simple Present. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ____ she ____ books? (to read) Answer: Does she read books? 1) They 2) She 3) 4) My parents 5) 6) Andy's brother 7) Leroy Anne you hockey at school. (to play) e-mails. (not/to write) English? (to speak) fish. (not/to like) any hobbies? (to have) in an office. (to work) very fast. (can/not/to read)

8)

Jim and Joe

the flowers every week? (to water) a motorbike. (not/to ride) cola? (to drink)

9) Yvonne's mother 10) Elisabeth

Raspuns: 1) They play hockey at school. (to play) 2) She does not write e-mails. (not/to write) 3) Doyou speak English? (to speak) 4) My parents do not like fish. (not/to like) 5) Does Anne have any hobbies? (to have) 6) Andy's brother works in an office. (to work) 7) Leroy cannot read very fast. (can/not/to read) 8) Do Jim and Joe water the flowers every week? (to water) 9) Yvonne's mother does not ride a motorbike. (not/to ride) 10) Does Elisabeth drink cola? (to drink)
Exercise 2

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Simple Present. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: He ___________ books (not/to read) Answer: He does not read books. or He doesn't read books. 1) Anne 2) 3) This girl 4) they my questions. (not/to answer) tomatoes in this shop? (to sell) trousers at school. (not/to wear) Mr Barker Physics? (to teach) under the desk. (not/to hide) the school bus? (to miss) on the wall anymore. (not/to hang) for the tickets? (you/to pay) stones. (not/to throw) the bells of your church still ? (to ring)

5) The guinea pigs 6) 7) The poster 8) 9) The boys 10) Ken often

1) Anne does not answer my questions. (not/to answer) 2) Do they sell tomatoes in this shop? (to sell) 3) This girl does not wear trousers at school. (not/to wear) 4) Does Mr Barker teach Physics? (to teach) 5) The guinea pigs do not hide under the desk. (not/to hide) 6) Does Ken often miss the school bus? (to miss) 7) The poster does not hang on the wall anymore. (not/to hang) 8) Do you pay for the tickets? (you/to pay) 9) The boys do not throw stones. (not/to throw) 10) Do the bells of your church still ring? (to ring)

Present continuous
Cum se formeaza?
Aff: S+to be(P.S)+v1+ing. Int: To be+S+v1+ing Neg: S+to be+not+v1+ing

Cand se foloseste?
1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum) I am just writing my exercise. (Tocmai imi scriu exercitiul.) I am writing my exercise now. (Imi scriu exercitiul acum.) In acest caz, de regula, in propozitie intalnim cuvinte (care sa intareasca aceasta idee) precum: just, now. 2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat) I am studying French. (Studiez franceza.) Cand fac afirmatia poate ca nu studiez franceza (la acea ora), insa aceasta actiune/ activitate e inceputa in trecut si va continua si in viitor. In acest caz nu se folosesc cuvinte de subliniere a prezentului precum just, now. 3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz nu are nuanta subiectiva)

What are you doing tomorrow ? (Ce faci maine?) In acest caz frecvent se folosesc verbe de miscare precum to come, to arrive, to go, to leave: My friend is leaving tomorrow. (Prietenul meu pleaca maine.) 4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent I am constantly thanking God for the opportunities that He has given me in my life. (nu exprima iritarea) (Ii multumesc lui Dumnezeu in permanenta, pentru oportunitatile pe care mi le-a dat in viata.) De regula exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiune: He is continually making noise. (El face galagie in permanenta.) Obs! Repetarea se exprima folosind adverbe precum: always, constantly, continually, often.

!!!!Exista verbe care nu au forma continua. Puteti vedea aici lista verbelor care nu au forma continua. Exercitii:
Exercise 1 Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Present Progressive/Present Continuous. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ____ she ______ a magazine? (to read) Is she reading a magazine?

1) The teacher 2) 3) They 4) 5) We 6) 7) She 8) you

the door. (not/to close) the washing-up? (to do) the printers. (to check) your grandmother the checkpoint. (not/to pass) they to help? (to try) to the centre of the town. (not/to walk) the policemen into the bank? (to run) a cup of coffee. (to make) at birds? (to look)

9) Look! Steve's mother

10) You

the words correctly. (not/to link)

1) The teacher is not closing the door. (not/to close) 2) Are you doing the washing-up? (to do) 3) They are checking the printers. (to check) 4) Is your grandmother looking at birds? (to look) 5) We are not passing the checkpoint. (not/to pass) 6) Are they trying to help? (to try) 7) She is not walking to the centre of the town. (not/to walk) 8) Are the policemen running into the bank? (to run) 9) Look! Steve's mother is making a cup of coffee. (to make) 10) You are not linking the words correctly. (not/to link) Exercise 2 Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Present Progressive/Present Continuous. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Beispiel: ____ they _______ the girl? (to bully) Lsung: Are they bullying the girl?

1) He 2) We 3) 4) What 5) I 6) The cat 7) 8) The eagle 9) Why 10) The boys Raspuns:

her name. (not/to shout) nice photos. (to take) Phil you on the sofa. (not/to sit) on the carpet. (not/to lie) they to radio now? (to listen) the mouse. (to catch) Ruth for money? (to ask) into the pool. (not/to dive) the exercise? (to explain) here? (to do)

1) He is not shouting her name. (not/to shout)

2) We are taking nice photos. (to take)


3) Is Phil explaining the exercise? (to explain)

4) What are you doing here? (to do)

5) I am not sitting on the sofa. (not/to sit) 6) The cat is not lying on the carpet. (not/to lie) 7) Are they listening to radio now? (to listen)

8) The eagle is catching the mouse. (to catch) 9) Why is Ruth asking for money? (to ask)
10) The boys are not diving into the pool. (not/to dive)

Lista verbelor care nu au forma continua:


Verbele de perceptie

to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste ex: I see a red car.

Totusi, daca actiunea e una voluntara, una constienta se poate folosi aspectul continuu: What are you seeing ? (se presupune ca persoana care vede ceva realizeaza o actiune voluntara; de exemplu: se uita cu binoclu, s-a urcat pe ceva sa vada mai departe, etc)

De asemenea, daca sensul verbului nu mai este cel de baza, iar se poate folosi forma continua: I am seeing my dentist on Wednesday. (sensul nu mai e de a vedea ci de a fi consultat, de a se duce la)

2. Verbe care exprima activitati mentale


to agree, to believe, to distrust, to imagine, to doubt, to remember, to understand, to suppose, to recognize, to forget, to think, to mean Obs!: Daca se foloseste forma continua apare o modificare de sens: I am thinking. (nu se spune si ce gandesc.)

3. Verbe care exprima dorinta


to wish, to want, to intend, to desire

ex: I wish to go there.

4. Verbe care exprima sentimente, atitudini, trairi emotionale


to love, to like, to dislike, to detest, to prefer, to abhor, to adore, to hate ex.: I like it.

5. Verbele modale
can, may, must, ought to ex.: I can do it.

6. Verbe care exprima posesia


to posses, to owe, to belong to, to own, to keep, to hold ex.: I keep it for me.

7. Alte verbe care nu pot avea forma continua


to expect, to suffice, to differ, to appear, to contain, to deserve ex.: This movie appears to be interesting.

Present Perfect
Cum se formeaza?
Aff: S+to have(P.S.)+v3. Int: To have+S+v3. Neg: S+to have +not+v3.

Cand se foloseste?
1. pentru o actiune trecuta cand nu se precizeaza timpul exact (dar se stie ca e in trecut) I have seen that movie 10 times. (Am vazut acel film de 10 ori.) Yes, I have seen that movie. (Da, am vazut acel film.) Uneori se pot folosi adverbe de frecventa sau de timp care nu precizeaza timpul cu exactitate (ever, never, often, seldom, always, sometimes): I have never seen him. (Nu l-am vazut niciodata.) 2. actiunea din trecut are repercursiuni in prezent I have seen an interesting museum. (Am vazut un muzeu interesant.) ... in prezent imi amintesc bine acel muzeu.

A terrible accident has happened. (Un accident teribil a avut loc.) ... inca sunt afectat de acel lucru. 3. actiunea e terminata in trecutul apropiat. It has just rained. (Tocmai a plouat.)

In general, propozitiile contin adverbe precum just, recently, lately, latterly, till now, up to now, so far, up to the present, last week. 4. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE I have been at home since 5Pm. (Sunt acasa de la ora 5 pm.) I have been at home for 2 hours. (Sunt acasa de 2 ore.) SINCE: specifica de la ce data/ ora. FOR: specifica perioada In cazul in care actiunea/ activitatea e facuta fara intrerupere sau se doreste accentuarea ei se va folosi The Present Perfect Continuous 5. in propozitiile care se folosesc adverbele YET (=INCA) si ALREADY (=DEJA) Have you learned Polish curses already ? (Ai invatat deja cursurile in poloneza? ) I have already learned the Polish curses. (Am invatat dj cursurile in poloneza.) I have not learned the Polish curses yet. (Inca nu am invatat cursurile in poloneza.) 6. cand actiunea trecuta s-a desfasurat intr-o perioada care a inceput in trecut dar care nu s-a terminat I have eaten a good cake this morning. (este ora 9 am si dimineata nu s-a terminat) (Am mancat o prajitura buna in aceasta dimineata.) In acest caz se folosesc constructii ca: this week, this day, this year, this month, all day, all night, today, etc.

Exercitii:
Exercise1: Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Present Perfect. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ____ you ______ the car yet? (to clean) Answer: Have you cleaned the car yet?

1) Emma 2) How often 3) 4) John 5) 6) Andy 7) What 8) I 9) 10) The students


Raspuns:

this film on TV. (not/to see) she the Millers the office? (to phone) yet? (to arrive)

on a trip through Alaska. (not/to go) they ever to New York? (to be)

his sister's bike. (not/to repair) you a new laptop. (to buy) Toby his blue pen? (to find) their homework. (not/to forget) in the kitchen? (to drop)

1) Emma has not seen this film on TV. (not/to see) 2) How often has she phoned the office? (to phone) 3) Have the Millers arrived yet? (to arrive) 4) John has not gone on a trip through Alaska. (not/to go) 5) Have they ever been to New York? (to be) 6) Andy has not repaired his sister's bike. (not/to repair) 7) What have you dropped in the kitchen? (to drop) 8) I have bought a new laptop. (to buy)

9) Has Toby found his blue pen? (to find) 10) The students have not forgotten their homework. . (not/to forget)

Present Perfect Continuous


Cum se formeaza?
Aff: S+ to have(P.s)+been(to be III)+v1+ing. Int: to have+ S+ been(to be III)+v1+ing? Neg: S+ to have(P.s)+not+been(to be III)+v1+ing.

Cand se foloseste?
1. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua (FARA INTRERUPERE) in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE

I have been working for 2 hours. (Lucrez de 2 ore.)


dar,

I have worked in this factory for two years. (inca mai lucrez, dar la modul general;
acum poate ca sunt acasa si ma uit la TV) (Lucrez in aceasta fabrica de 2 ani.) 2. actiunea tocmai s-a terminat (si dorim sa subliniem asta)

I have been reading all afternoon. Ive just finished the novel.
(Am citit toata dupa-masa. Tocmai am terminat de citit romanul.)

Obs! Atentie la verbele care nu au forma continua ! Exercitii:


Exercise1 Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Present Perfect Progressive/Continuous. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ___ she __________ tennis for half an hour now? (to play) Answer: Has she been playing tennis for half an hour now?

1) Max 2) How long 3) I 4) 5) Who 6) It 7) How long 8) Marie 9) 10) What


Raspuns:

this comic book. (not/to read) French? (they/to learn) for two months now. (not/to drive) the whole morning? (she/to walk) in the garden? (to dig) much in this area. (not/to rain) this earring? (you/to wear) in her diary. (not/to write) matchstick figures the whole lesson? (he/to draw) ? (we/to do)

1) Andrew has not been living in the country. 2) How long have your grandparents been driving this car? 3) They have not been cycling. 4) Tony has not been reading this book, but Mary has. 5) How long has he been waiting for her? 6) Has Andy been working on the blue car? 7) My brother has not been studying hard enough. 8) How long have they been looking for a flat? 9) I have not been doing my homework. 10) Have you been sleeping the whole morning? Exercise2 Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Present Perfect Progressive/Continuous. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Do not forget to put in the subject of the questions. Example: How long _________________ here? (she/to sing) Answer: How long has she been singing here?

1) Max 2) How long 3) I 4) 5) Who 6) It 7) How long 8) Marie 9) 10) What Raspuns:

this comic book. (not/to read) French? (they/to learn) for two months now. (not/to drive) the whole morning? (she/to walk) in the garden? (to dig) much in this area. (not/to rain) this earring? (you/to wear) in her diary. (not/to write) matchstick figures the whole lesson? (he/to draw) ? (we/to do)

1) Max has not been reading this comic book. (not/to read) 2) How long have they been learning French? (they/to learn) 3) I have not been driving for two months now. (not/to drive) 4) Has she been walking the whole morning? (she/to walk) 5) Who has been digging in the garden? (to dig) 6) It has not been raining much in this area. (not/to rain) 7) How long have you been wearing this earring? (you/to wear) 8) Marie has not been writing in her diary. (not/to write) 9) Has he been drawing matchstick figures the whole lesson? (he/to draw) 10) What have we been doing? (we/to do)

Past Simple
Cum se formeaza?
Aff:S+v2. Int:Did+S+v1? Neg:S+did+not+v1. Obs! 1) V2 inseamna: a) VERB+ed --> pentru verbele regulate. b) forma a 2-a a verbelor neregulate

2) consoana finala a formei de infinitive se dubleaza cand vocala care o precede este scurta si accentuate: stop -> stopped prefer -> preferred 3) verbele terminate in y precedat de consoana il schimba in i: study -> studied 4) verbele terminate in e adauga doar d: move -> moved Cand se foloseste?
1. actiunea e in trecut; timpul e definit cu exactitate (last week, last month, last year, that day, that week, that year, in 1990, on Thursday, 10 years ago) I visited London 10 years ago. (Am vizitat Londra acum 10 ani.) 2. pentru o actiune care era o obistuinta in trecut (acum nu mai e) We went to the Black See every year. (acum nu mai mergem in fiecare an la Marea Neagra) (Am mers la Marea Neagra in fiecare an. /Obisnuiam sa mergem la Marea Neagra in fiecare an) 3. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Present Conditional (Unreal)" Where would you stay if you went to Bucharest? (Unde ai sta daca ai merge la Bucuresti?) Tom would help me with my homework if he had time.

(Tom m-ar ajuta cu temele daca ar avea timp.) 4. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Future-in-the-Past" (cand actiunile viitoare fata de actiunea trecuta sunt simultane) He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time. (when arata simultaneitatea) (Mi-a promis ca vom merge in Italia cand va avea timp.)

Exercitii:
Exercise1:

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Simple Past. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ____ she ____ the Internet? (to surf) Answer: Did she surf the Internet? 1) I 2) 3) They 4) Jenny and Peggy 5) The children 6) When 7) My mother 8) The boys 9) you you my Maths homework yesterday. (to do) Susan to England by plane? (to go)

a farm twoo weeks ago. (to visit) their brother. (not/to help) at home last weekend. (not/to be) this wonderful skirt? (to design) into the van. (not/to crash) the mudguards of their bicycles. (to take off) your aunt last week? (to phone)

10) He milk at school. (not/to drink) 1) I did my Maths homework yesterday. (to do) 2) Did Susan go to England by plane? (to go) 3) They visited a farm twoo weeks ago. (to visit) 4) Jenny and Peggy did not help their brother. (not/to help) 5) The children were not at home last weekend. (not/to be) 6) When did you design this wonderful skirt? (to design) 7) My mother did not crash into the van. (not/to crash) 8) The boys took off the mudguards of their bicycles. (to take off) 9) Did you phone your aunt last week? (to phone)

10) He did not drink milk at school. (not/to drink)

Exercise2:

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: The children ______ their sandwiches. (to forget) Answer: The children forgot their sandwiches on Monday. 1) When 2) We 3) What 4) He 5) Mandy 6) share) (to be) 7) I 8) 9) She 10) Why Frank you in London? (to be) in a flat when we were in Paris. (not/to live) you yesterday? (to lose)

magic tricks at the party. (not/to do) her room on Thursday. (not/to tidy up) a room with Henry when they in Rome? (to

Physics at school. (not/to like) the shop assistant 10 percent off the price? (to take)

the correct word in the exercise. (to use) this morning? (to cry)

the baby 1) When were you in London? (to be)

2) We did not live in a flat when we were in Paris. (not/to live) 3) What did you lose yesterday? (to lose) 4) He did not do magic tricks at the party. (not/to do) 5) Mandy did not tidy up her room on Thursday. (not/to tidy up) 6) Did Frank share a room with Henry when they were in Rome? (to share) (to be) 7) I did not like Physics at school. (not/to like) 8) Did the shop assistant take 10 percent off the price? (to take)

9) She used the correct word in the exercise. (to use) 10) Why did the baby cry this morning? (to cry)

Past continuous
Cum se formeaza?
Aff: S+was/were+v1+ing Int:Was/were+S+v1+ing Neg: S+was/were+not+v1+ing

Cand se foloseste?
1. pentru a exprima o actiune in progres la un anumit moment din trecut I remember that yesterday at 5 Pm I was watching TV. (Imi amintesc ca ieri la ora 5 pm, ma uitam la Tv.) 2. pentru a arata ca o actiune trecuta a fost intrerupta de o alta I was playing a computer game when she called. (Ma jucam pe calculator cand ea a sunat.) While we were having the picnic, it started to rain. (In timp ce eram la picnic, a inceput sa ploua.) 3. folosind "Past Continuous Tense" pentru actiuni trecute sublinieaza ideea de paralelism, simultaneitate (se cunoaste timpul) Last evening at 5 Pm, I was studying while he was making dinner. (Seara trecuta, la ora 5 pm, eu invatam in timp ce el pregatea cina.) 4. pentru a exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiuni care se repetau in trecut He was constantly/ always coming late to the English class. (Intotdeauna venea tarziu la ora de engleza.) 5. pentru a exprima conditionalul prezent ireal continuu What would you say if the boy were studying now ? (Discutie intre parinti cand se pregatesc sa intre in camera copiilor. Ei nu se asteapta ca baiatul lor sa invete acum.)

Exercitii:
Exercise1:

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Past Progressive/Present Continuous. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ____ she ______ home? (to walk) Answer: Was she walking home? 1) She 2) I 3) 4) The men 5) Frank 6) 7) They 8) The guest 9) We 10) it you the lunch basket. (to pack) . (not/to whisper) he to help? (to try) at the street corner. (not/to fight) the grass. (to cut) during the last lesson? (to yawn) stickers. (to swap) the whole evening. (to dance) in the tree house. (not/to hide)

dark? (to get) 1) She was packing the lunch basket. (to pack)
2) I was not whispering. (not/to whisper) 3) Was he trying to help? (to try) 4) The men were not fighting at the street corner. (not/to fight) 5) Frank was cutting the grass. (to cut) 6) Were you yawning during the last lesson? (to yawn) 7) They were swapping stickers. (to swap) 8) The guest was dancing the whole evening. (to dance) 9) We were not hiding in the tree house. (not/to hide) 10) Was it getting dark? (to get)

Exercise 2

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the Past Progressive/Present Continuous. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ____ she ______ home? (to walk) Answer: Was she walking home? 1) She 2) 3) I 4) 5) He 6) The people 7) 8) He thinks you 9) We 10) they a heavy bag. (to carry) hands? (to shake)

a screwdriver. (not/to use) the teacher the exercises? (to explain)

in the kitchen. (not/to help) themselves. (to enjoy) in the garden? (Nick/to dig) too quickly. (to drive) . (not/to hurry)

when someone stole your clothes? (you/not/to swim) 1) She was carrying a heavy bag. (to carry)
2) Were they shaking hands? (to shake) 3) I was not using a screwdriver. (not/to use) 4) Was the teacher explaining the exercises? (to explain) 5) He was not helping in the kitchen. (not/to help) 6) The people were enjoying themselves. (to enjoy) 7) Was Nick digging in the garden? (Nick/to dig) 8) He thinks you were driving too quickly. (to drive) 9) We were not hurrying. (not/to hurry) 10) Were you not swimming when someone stole your clothes? (you/not/to swim)

Past Perfect
Cum se formeaza?
Aff: S+had+v3. Int:Had+S+v3? Neg:S+had+not+v3.

Cand se foloseste?
1. exprima o actiune anterioara altei actiuni din trecut sau anterioara unui moment din trecut The little boy said that he had seen a flying saucer in the garden. (Baietelul a spus ca vazuse o farfurie zburatoare in gradina.) The little spoke as if he had seen a flying saucer. (Micutul a vorbit ca si cum vazuse o farfurie zburatoare.) 2. in constructiile care folosesc Conditional in Trecut (Ireal) Tom would have helped me with my homework if he had had time. (situatie ipotetica in trecut) (Tom m-ar fi ajutat cu temele daca ar fi avut timp.) 3. pot exprima o dorinta nerealizata I wish I hadn't missed the buss. (Imi doresc sa nu fi pierdut autobuzul.) I wished I hadn't missed the buss. (Mi-as fi dorit sa nu fi pierdut autobuzul.) 4. exprima o actiune anterioara unei actiuni a carui timp e "Future-in-the-Past" Tom said that he would go to England after he had learned English a little bit. (Tom a spus ca va merge in Anglia, dupa ce va invata putina engleza.)

Exercitii: Put the words in brackets into the gaps. Use the verbs in the Past Perfect. Example: Alex couldn't go for a walk because he ______________ his leg. (to break)

Answer: Alex couldn't go for a walk because he had broken his leg. 1) When I arrived at the restaurant, Victoria 2) He noticed that Peter 3) Before Emma laid the table, she 4) She asked me if I a glass of water. (already/to order)

the old chair. (not/to paint) a talk with her mother. (to have) the new words. (to learn) them. (to eat)

5) There were no sausages left when I came back. The dog 6) It for three weeks, so the land was dry. (not/to rain)

7) I did not wait for my brother because I 8) Linda 9) She told me that Frank 10) order)

his text message. (to read)

to a magic show before yesterday evening. (never/to be) his room. (not/to tidy)

his hamster before he left his house? (Jack/to feed)

1) When I arrived at the restaurant, Victoria had already ordered a glass of water. (already/to

2) He noticed that Peter had not painted the old chair. (not/to paint) 3) Before Emma laid the table, she had had a talk with her mother. (to have) 4) She asked me if I had learned the new words. (to learn) 5) There were no sausages left when I came back. The dog had eaten them. (to eat) 6) It had not rained for three weeks, so the land was dry. (not/to rain) 7) I did not wait for my brother because I had read his text message. (to read) 8) Linda had never been to a magic show before yesterday evening. (never/to be) 9) She told me that Frank had not tidied his room. (not/to tidy) 10) Had Jack fed his hamster before he left his house? (Jack/to feed)

Past Perfect Continuous


Cum se formeaza?
Aff S+had+been+v1+ing Int Had +S+been+v1+ing?

Neg S+had+not+been+v1+ing

Cand se foloseste?
1. exprima o actiune continua inainte unei actiuni situate in trecut They had been talking for over two hours before Tom arrived. (Ei vorbeau de peste doua ore, cand Tom a ajuns.) Aceeasi situatie poate fi prezenta si in vorbirea indirecta: John said that he had been watching TV at 9 o'clock. (John a spus ca se uitase la TV la ora 9. )

Future Simple
Cum se formeaza?
Aff S+will+v1. Int Will+S+v1? Neg S+will+not(wont)+v1.

Cand se foloseste?
I suppose I will be there. (Presupun ca voi fi acolo.) I will be there at 7 o'clock. (promisiunea) (Voi fi acolo la ora 7.) (predictia)

Obs!
1)Pentru actiunile planificate in viitor nu se foloseste viitorul simplu ci "TO BE going to future" sau Present Continuous ! Daca actiunea e planificata in decursula a 1-7 zile sau e vorba de o activitate repetitiva in viitor de regula se foloseste viitorul format cu "to be going to": I am going to see that movie on Friday. "am going to" are sensul de "planific sa" (Imi planific/ Intentionez sa merg vineri la acel film.) Daca actiunea e planificata mult mai tarziu (in viitor) de regula se foloseste prezentul simplu continuu:

Mike is moving to New York next month. (Mike se muta la New York luna viitoare.) Nota: viitorul format cu "to be going to" are nuanta de viitor apropiat; cel format cu prezentul simplu continuu nu are nici o nuanta de acest fel.

2) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile introduse cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the time, if nu vom avea viitor !

Exercitii:
Exercise 1

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the will-future. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: ___ they ____ the match? (to win) Answer: Will they win the match? 1) They 2) 3) When 4) His parents 5) 6) It 7) 8) This van 9) The meeting 10) When she they you I back by 6:30 pm. (to be) me? (to help) you again? (to see) him for being late. (not/to punish) the contract tonight? (to sign)

us three hours to get there. (to take) this concert money for our school club? (to raise)

with 8 people in it. (not/to break down) before tomorrow morning. (not/to close) me a copy of her essay? (to send)

1) They will be back by 6:30 pm. (to be) 2) Will you help me? (to help) 3) When will I see you again? (to see) 4) His parents will not punish him for being late. (not/to punish) 5) Will they sign the contract tonight? (to sign)

6) It will take us three hours to get there. (to take) 7) Will this concert raise money for our school club? (to raise) 8) This van will not break down with 8 people in it. (not/to break down) 9) The meeting will not close before tomorrow morning. (not/to close) 10) When will she send me a copy of her essay? (to send)
Exercise 2

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use the will-future. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Example: _____________ a minute. (I/to be) Answer: I won't be a minute. 1) The meeting 2) Prices 3) Phillip 4) Why 5) at 4:30 pm. (to close) . (to increase) to come. (not/to forget) me this book? (not/to lend) , please? I don't like driving on icy roads. (you/to drive) her again. (not/to visit)

6) Emily was very rude to me. I 7) Henry 8) I

his father about the accident. (not/to tell) to answer your questions. (to attempt) any minute. (to arrive) . (to play)

9) Where is the waiter? The guests 10) While the cat's away, the mice
1) The meeting will close at 4:30 pm. (to close) 2) Prices will increase. (to increase) 3) Phillip will not forget to come. (not/to forget) 4) Why won't he lend me this book? (not/to lend)

5) Will you drive, please? I don't like driving on icy roads. (you/to drive) 6) Emily was very rude to me. I will not visit her again. (not/to visit) 7) Henry will not tell his father about the accident. (not/to tell)

8) I will attempt to answer your questions. (to attempt) 9) Where is the waiter? The guests will arrive any minute. (to arrive) 10) While the cat's away, the mice will play. (to play)

Future Continuous
Cum se formeaza?
Aff S+will be+v1. Int Will+S+be+v1? Neg S+will+not+be.

Cand se foloseste?
1. la un anumit timp in viitor actiunea e in desfasurare (incepuse inainte de acel moment/ timp) Tonight at 7 o'clock, Tom will be watching TV. (Acum e1 Pm si Tom va incepe sa se uite la TV la 6:30 Pm) (Deseara la ora 7, Tom se va uita la TV. ... deja se uita de ceva vreme) 2. o actiune viitoare se va intinde pe toata durata viitoare Ann will be writing letters all day long. (Ann va scrie scrisori toata ziua.)

Obs!
1) O varianta a cazului 1 de folosire a lui "Future Continuous Tense" este cand se vrea sa se sublinieze faptul ca in viitor doua sau mai multe actiuni vor avea loc simultan: Tonight, they will be watching TV, discussing their vacation plans, and having a good time. (Deseara, ei se vor uita la TV, isi vor discuta planurile de vacanta si vor petrece o seara minunata.) 2) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile introduse cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the time, if nu vom avea viitor ! I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. (Ma voi uita la TV cand ea va sosi deseara.)

Partile de vorbire
Substantivul
Felul substantivelor
Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:

substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy substantive colective: crowd, group, team

Genul
Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin: Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin: Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they): Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby Exceptii: tarile, navele, n majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin. Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra n aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe: Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara). Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin: Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - queen

Numarul
Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.

Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular: Ex.: cat+s=cats, day+s=days, world+s=worlds Pluralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaugnd es la singular. Ex.: church+es=churches, bush+es=bushes, class+es=classes, potato+es=potatoes, bush+es=bushes, box+es=boxes

Pluralul neregulat

Substantive terminate n consoana+y fac pluralul n ies: Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies Unele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s. Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos Unele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea n ves. Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf - wolves Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs/ wharves Cteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth Pluralul substantivului child este children. Unele substantive ramn identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish

Pluralul substantivelor compuse

n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvnt va trece la plural. Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente. Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv, substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului. Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s Ex.: MPs (Members of Parliament), VIPs (very important persons)

Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)


Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate, obiecte puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte.

Nume de substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood Abstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news, beauty, experience, horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature Alte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather

Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular: Ex.: This coffee is cold. The weather was dreadful. Nu sunt precedate de a/an; pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc. Ex.: I do not want any help. I need some information. This slice of bread is hard. The piece of advice you gave me helped.

Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara, astfel devenind substantive comune si comportndu-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural). Sens Unic / Sens Comun Her hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.) She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par n lapte.) Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.) We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic n padure.) Forma posesiva Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n s: Ex.: a child's voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina n s. Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence Numele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's Ex.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvnt va primi 's Ex.: My father-in-law's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives 's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri. Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech Forma posesiva se foloseste n general cnd vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se foloseste de asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri: n expresii temporale Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps n alte expresii uzuale: Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the train's departure n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci cnd sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta). Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). The kids went to Bobby's (house). Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt

urmate de o propozitie subordonata. Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.

Adjectivul
Forma adjectivului
Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau numar. Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes. Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really: Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.

Pozitia adjectivului
De obicei adjectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: A good movie. Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc: Ex.: The movie is good. You seem upset. This cheese tastes different. Dupa substantiv n expresii fixe: Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial Cteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai n fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting. That poor woman was living in a garage. Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry Ex.: He's asleep. I'm alone. Unele adjective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau dupa acesta. Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter) They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex) I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious) The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there) The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

Functiile adjectivului
Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima: Sentimente sau calitati: Ex.: They make an original couple. She is a single mother. Nationalitatea sau originea: Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian. I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas. Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect: Ex.: The table is long. The steel tray was a gift. Vrsta: Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one. He is still very young, almost a boy. Dimensiuni, marime si masuri: Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film. That boy is too tall. Culoarea: Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt. Materie / material: Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt. It was a silver tray, not a steel tray. Forma: Ex.: A rectangular envelope. A round table. Judecati, pareri sau opinii: Ex.: Grammar is fascinating. The show was entertaining.

Ordinea adjectivelor
Atunci cnd se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

Value/opinion Size

delicious, lovely, charming small, huge, tiny

Age/Temperature old, hot, young, little Shape Colour Origin Material round, square, rectangular red, blonde, black Swedish, Victorian, Chinese plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple: a green round plastic bucket an elegant little French clock a small round wooden table

Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor


Formarea comparativului si superlativului Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (nalt), comparativ (mai nalt), superlativ (cel mai nalt). n limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel: Numar de silabe (Pozitiv) o silaba tall Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala: fat big sad doua silabe + Adjectivele terminate n: -y, -ly, -ow fatter bigger sadder + -er SAU more + adj fattest biggest saddest + -est SAU most + adj Comparativ + -er taller Superlativ + -est tallest

+ Adjectivele terminate n: -le, -er sau -ure + Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet happy happier/ more happy yellower/ more yellow simpler/ more simple tenderer/ more tender happiest/ most happy yellowest/ most yellow simplest/ most simple tenderest/ most tender

yellow

simple

tender Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj. Nota: Adjectivele terminate n -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor nlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa: busy trei sau mai multe silabe important expensive

busier more + adj

busiest most + adj

more important most important more expensive most expensive

Exemple: a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest. b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest. c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable. Forme neregulate Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate: Pozitiv good bad Comparativ better worse Superlativ best worst

little old

less older / elder

least oldest / eldest most

much / many more far

further / farther furthest / farthest

Comparatia adjectivelor the + superlative Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London. comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte: Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do. Thailand is sunnier than Norway. Albert is more intelligent than Arthur. as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, ntre care nu exista diferente: Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John. Ramona is as happy as Raphael. A tiger is as dangerous as a lion. not as + adjective + as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as ...as: Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest. Norway is not as sunny as Thailand

Verbul
Verbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie. Ex.: I am a student. The students passed all their courses.

Cele 4 forme verbale


Terminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista 4 forme verbale de baza. Limba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, spre deosebire de limba romana, unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. De remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor. Cele 4 forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza: Numele Forma Forma Participiul Participiul

verbului de baza to work

de trecut prezent

trecut

I can work. I worked. I am working. I have worked. I work. I can write. I wroted. I am writing. I have written. I write.

to write

Cele mai frecvent folosite verbe neregulate Urmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale reprezentative: Forma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly Persoana III singular a timpului prezent: he flies Persoana III singular a trecutului: he flew Participiul trecut: he has flown Base Form Present Third Person Past Third Person Past Participle arise be bear begin bite blow break bring buy catch choose come creep dive do drag draw dream drink drive arises is bears begins bites blows breaks brings buys catches chooses comes creeps dives does drags draws dreams drinks drives arose was/were bore began bit blew broke brought bought caught chose came crept dived/dove did dragged drew dreamed/dreamt drank drove arisen been borne begun bitten/bit blown broken brought bought caught chosen come crept dived done dragged drawn dreamt drunk driven

drown eat fall fight fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang hide know lay lead lie light lose prove ride ring rise run see seek set shake sing sink sit speak spring steal sting strike swear swim swing

drowns eats falls fights flies forgets forgives freezes gets gives goes grows hangs hides knows lays leads lies lights loses proves rides rings rises runs sees seeks sets shakes sings sinks sits speaks springs steals stings strikes swears swims swings

drowned ate fell fought flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung hid knew laid led lay lit lost proved rode rang rose ran saw sought set shook sang sank sat spoke sprang stole stung struck swore swam swung

drowned eaten fallen fought flown forgotten forgiven frozen got/gotten given gone grown hung hidden known laid led lain lit lost proved/proven ridden rung risen run seen sought set shaken sung sunk sat spoken sprung stolen stung struck sworn swum swung

take tear throw uses wake wear write

takes tears throws used wakes wears writes

took tore threw used woke/waked wore wrote

taken torn thrown used woken/waked/woke worn written

Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do


Verbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a formelor negative si interogative. Ex.: He is planning to get married soon. I haven't seen Peter since last night. Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie cu participiul prezent. Ex.: He is living in Germany. Be, mpreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva Ex.: These cars are made in Japan. Have in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte. Ex.: I have changed my mind. I wish you had met Guy. Prezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare be si have: Ex.: He has been working very hard recently. She did not know how long she had been lying there. Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte. Ex.: He isn't going. Hasn't she seen it yet? Auxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau trecutului simplu. Ex.: He doesn't think he can come to the party. Do you like her new haircut? Auxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have. Ex.: He didn't do his homework. He doesn't have any money.

In propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast. Ex.: I do feel sorry for Roger. Nu se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be. Singura exceptie este imperativul: Don't be stupid! Do be a god boy and sit still!

Modul
Modul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un vorbitor fata de continutul mesajului exprimat. Modul indicativ, prezent in majoritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se foloseste pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare. Modul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive, sugestii cu caracter pronuntat. Ex.: Get your homework done before you watch television tonight. Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town! Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. Pronumele you (singular sau plural) este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana II. Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana I Ex.: Let's (or Let us) work on these things together. Modul subjonctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri: expresia unei dorinte; fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari. Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here. If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player. We would have passed if we had studied harder. He acted as if he were guilty. I requested that he be present at the hearing. Subjonctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi, de exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. In multe situatii care in alte limbi cer subjonctivul, in limba engleza sunt

folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.

Verbele frazale
O alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. Verbele frazale sunt formate dintr-un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea de zi cu zi. Verbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe astfel de intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. Te exemplu, to come out are 18 intelesuri diferite! Verbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati. Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand down, stand against, stand for. Mai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul respectiv Ex.: Fill this out! Fill out this form. (a completa un formular) Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. (a jefui) You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. (a omite) The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (a examina)

Verbele modale
Verbele: can, may, must, ought, shall, will si partial need si dare formeaza grupul de verbe modale. Aceste verbe nu formeaza infinitivul cu particula 'to'. can - a putea, cu intelesul de a fi in stare. In vorbirea curenta mai ales in intrebari se foloseste in locul lui 'may' (vezi mai jos) (inseamna si conserva si 'to can' = a face conserva) may - a putea, cu intelesul de a avea voie. (inseamna si luna mai). In plus se foloseste in urari, de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' . must - a trebui, a fi necesar (inseamna si must- suc de struguri), poate fi tradus uneori si prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca') ought to- ar trebui, ar fi cazul shall - este o intarire a unui ordin daca este spus apasat. Altfel formeaza viitorul persoanei intai. In acest ultim caz deobicei se inlocuieste cu 'will' (vezi mai jos). will - formeaza viitorul, particula 'voi' din romaneste. I will come = Voi veni. Se foloseste si la formarea viitorului.(deasemeni inseamna testament. Inseamna si vointa). need - a trebui, cu intelesul de a avea nevoie dare - a indrazni, a provoca pe cineva Mai jos cititi exemple in care se folosesc aceste verbe

Este binecunoscuta propozitia: I know I can - Stiu ca pot dintr-o poveste pentru copii in care o locomotiva isi tot repeta aceasta cat se straduieste sa urce un deal. They eat what they can and they can what they eat - Mananca ce pot si pun in conserva ceea ce mananca. May I have this dance? (Pot sa am acest dans) - Imi acordati acest dans? May the force be with you! - Fie ca forta sa te insoteasca! din filmul StarWars, adica sa ai noroc. If you must, you must - Daca trebuie, trebuie. I must be dreaming - Trebuie ca visez (probabil ca visez) Pentru exemple cu ought to vedeti poezia de mai jos: I got your wedding invitation I'm surprised you thought of me But I don't believe your wedding Is just where I ought to be For you put your arms around her Kiss her lips so tenderly As she's standing there beside you That's just where I ought to be Like a fool I introduced you I said baby meet my friend Never thought that I could lose you But I lost you there and then I took the diamond ring you gave me Threw it way out to sea And I had an awful feeling That's just where I ought to be Am primit invitatia la nunta Ma mir ca te-ai gandit la mine Dar nu cred ca nunta ta E un loc unde ar trebui sa fiu Pentru ca iti vei pune bratele in jurul ei O vei saruta pe buze cu tandrete Cat ea va sta langa tine Acolo ar trebui sa fiu eu. Ca o proasta v-am introdus Am zis: Draga, intalneste-o pe prietena mea Niciodata n-am crezut ca o sa te pierd Dar te-am pierdut atunci si acolo Am luat inelul de diamant pe care mi l-ai dat L-am aruncat departe in mare Si am avut un sentiment groaznic Ca acolo ar trebui eu sa fiu

Cele zece porunci date de Dumnezeu lui Moise in Biblie se spun in engleza cu shall pentru intarire. De exemplu: You shall not kill = Nu vei omori (sa nu omori) We shall overcome = Vom invinge este un cantec muncitoresc american, to overcome inseamna a depasi un moment greu.

I will survive = Voi supravietui este binecunoscutul cantec al Gloriei Gaynor Intr-un cunoscut cantec Que sera, sera o fetita isi intreaba mama ce va fi cand va fi mare: I asked my mother what will I be? Will I be happy? Will I be rich? My mother said to me: Que sera, sera Whatever will be, will be The future is for us to see Que sera, sera Am intrebat-o pe mama, ce voi fi Voi fi fericita? Voi fi vesela? Mama mi-a raspuns: Que sera, sera Ce va fi, va fi Viitorul este pentru noi de descoperit Que sera, sera

Verbele modale need si dare in cele mai multe cazuri se comporta ca verbe obisnuite. Sunt insa si situatii cand ele capata proprietati de verbe modale Need I go on? - E nevoie sa continui? In engleza moderna e mai probabil sa se zica: Do I need to go on? caz in care need nu mai este verb modal. How dare you talk like this! - Cum indraznesti sa vorbesti asa!

Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale Nu accepta particula to pentru infinitiv, nu au participiu si nici forma cu ing. Din aceasta cauza multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe. Foarte important: Verbul care urmeaza unui verb modal nu are to in fata. Adica, pe romaneste spui: Trebuie sa mananc sau mai arhaic Trebuie a manca In englezeste se spune I must eat. (Daca spui: I need to eat - need aici nu e verb modal). Din exemplele de mai sus vedem ca aceasta regula a verbelor modale e respectata: I know I can (fara 'to'), May I have this dance? (fara 'to') etc Forma negativa nu cere do. Adica in cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau does not pentru negatie. I eat meat - Mananc carne. I do not eat meat - Nu mananc carne. Daca insa spui I can not eat meat - Nu pot sa mananc carne, particula do cade. Forma interogativa nu cere do. Do you eat meat? - Mananci carne? folosind verbul modal can devine Can you eat meat? - Poti sa mananci carne?. Folosind must spunem: Must you eat meat? - Trebuie sa mananci carne?

. Aceste verbe nu se schimba dupa persoana: I can, you can, he/she can etc. Adica persoana a treia singular nu primeste 's'. Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propozitii negative. can't = can not, mustn't = must not, won't = will not sunt verbele modale care folosesc cel mai mult aceasta regula. Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i asa' din engleza e necesar folosirea acestor verbe. Forma 'nu-i asa' depinde de verbul modal folosit in prima parte a intrebarii. I can go, can't I? - Pot sa ma duc, nu-i asa? sau He will go, won't he? - Va merge, nu-i asa?

Pronumele
Functia pronumelui
Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu caracterizeaza nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. Ex.: John did all the work. He did all the work. Who did all the work?

Forma pronumelui
Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de: Numar: singular - this; plural - these Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ - her Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).

Clasificarea pronumelor
Dupa continut si functie pronumele pot fi: Personale Reflexive Nehotarate Demonstrative Relative De ntarire Interogative

Reciproce Pronumele personale Nominativ Genitiv Singular I you he she it Plural you they yours his hers its we yours theirs mine Dativ Acuzativ (to) me me

(to) you you (to) him him (to) her (to) it ours her it (to) us us

(to) you you (to) them them

I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula. Its (pronume) nu are apostrof. It's vine de la it is sau it has! Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) thee I gave him the book. He ran the London Marathon. It's a pleasure to him. I only played against her once. These books are ours. Is this pen yours or mine?

You / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general. Ex.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain. They say she's very clever.

It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta: It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau in contructii pasive) Ex.: It's 7 o'clock. It was spring. Is it Monday? How hot it is! How far is it to the station? It demostrativ Ex.: Who is it? It's the postman. It's the children. Pronumele reflexive Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana. Forme: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Ex.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me. She fell off the ladder and injured herself. You can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner. After five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down. Let's buy ourselves a chair for the garden. They built the house themselves. Pronumele nehotarate Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything. No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one. Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular. Alte pronume nehotarate: enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some.

De retinut! Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti substantivali. Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish. Little is expected. Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca determinanti substantivali. Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw) I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience) Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made) This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare. Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious. Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better. This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is trash. Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva: Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.) Can you belive I would have bought that? Pronumele relative Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat. Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that. Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best. Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. Din contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule. Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire la ambele. Ex.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba. The couple who live next door have the radio on all night. The team that won the championship received a great reception. This is the program which won the prize. We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell.

Pronumele de intarire Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Ca forma sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Ex.: I myself don't know the answer. Mary did all this herself. Mary herself did all this. Expresii: by myself = singur, de unul singur Ex.: I worked by myself. Little Jane read the story by herself. Pronumele interogativ Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte. Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom? Ex.: Who said that? Whose are those books? I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. What happened? What's the weather like? Pronumele reciproce Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei, lucruri. Ex.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can say that they gave each other books. My mother and I give each other a hard time. They borrowed each other's ideas. De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte. Ex.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment. Hockey players hit one another quite frequently.

Contents
Timpurile din lb. engleza .......................................................................................................................... 1 Present Simple ............................................................................................................................................ 1 Cum se formeaza? .............................................................................................................................. 1 Cand se foloseste? .............................................................................................................................. 1 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................... 2 Present continuous................................................................................................................................. 4 Cum se formeaza? .............................................................................................................................. 4 Cand se foloseste? .............................................................................................................................. 4 Lista verbelor care nu au forma continua: .......................................................................................... 7 Verbele de perceptie .......................................................................................................................... 7 2. Verbe care exprima activitati mentale ......................................................................................... 7 3. Verbe care exprima dorinta .......................................................................................................... 7 4. Verbe care exprima sentimente, atitudini, trairi emotionale ................................................... 8 5. Verbele modale ............................................................................................................................... 8 6. Verbe care exprima posesia .......................................................................................................... 8 7. Alte verbe care nu pot avea forma continua ............................................................................. 8 Present Perfect ........................................................................................................................................ 8 Cum se formeaza? .............................................................................................................................. 8 Cand se foloseste? .............................................................................................................................. 8 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................. 10 Present Perfect Continuous ................................................................................................................ 11 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 11 Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 11 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................. 11 Past Simple ............................................................................................................................................ 14 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 14 Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 14 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................. 15 Past continuous .................................................................................................................................... 17 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 17

Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 17 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................. 18 Past Perfect ............................................................................................................................................ 20 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 20 Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 20 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................. 20 Past Perfect Continuous ...................................................................................................................... 21 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 21 Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 22 Future Simple ....................................................................................................................................... 22 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 22 Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 22 Obs! .................................................................................................................................................... 22 Exercitii: ............................................................................................................................................. 23 Future Continuous ............................................................................................................................... 25 Cum se formeaza? ............................................................................................................................ 25 Cand se foloseste? ............................................................................................................................ 25 Obs! .................................................................................................................................................... 25 Partile de vorbire ...................................................................................................................................... 26 Substantivul .......................................................................................................................................... 26 Felul substantivelor.......................................................................................................................... 26 Genul.................................................................................................................................................. 26 Numarul ............................................................................................................................................ 26 Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns) ..................................................................................... 27 Adjectivul .............................................................................................................................................. 29 Forma adjectivului ........................................................................................................................... 29 Pozitia adjectivului .......................................................................................................................... 29 Functiile adjectivului ....................................................................................................................... 30 Ordinea adjectivelor ........................................................................................................................ 30 Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor ......................................................................................... 31 Verbul .................................................................................................................................................... 33

Cele 4 forme verbale ........................................................................................................................ 33 Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do ......................................................................................................... 36 Modul................................................................................................................................................. 37 Verbele frazale .................................................................................................................................. 38 Verbele modale ................................................................................................................................. 38 Pronumele ............................................................................................................................................. 41 Functia pronumelui ......................................................................................................................... 41 Forma pronumelui ........................................................................................................................... 41 Clasificarea pronumelor .................................................................................................................. 41