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Introduction

Human works always try to maintain the comfort and health of the physical and psychological of their bodies. And for The importance of housing as well as all types of buildings and their impact on human health and comfort, it must explain the climate of housing and elements that affect it. Providing the right climate much comfortable in the house is at the heart of people's interest in all times of the year, especially in times of heat and cold works as people to improve the impact of low or high temperatures using cooling systems in the summer and heating systems in winter. People take special care of building climate since ancient, and notes that through their interest

in determining the direction of the doors and windows, in addition to the selection of building materials, and in many cases, and when people build homes for them, they will not care climatic conditions on purpose, And probably do not need to because the long history of experience and identified the method of construction for each zone, In the end, Among the factors that control much in the housing role of the concerned governmental authorities in urban planning, establishment of housing is linked to areas of urban set out in the cities and villages, and construct of housing within that assembly Urban, who has the necessary services of water, electricity, gas, sanitation, etc, and government agencies are also select the View Street Housing and spacing from each other, high buildings, you will find in the legislation and roles for cities. For this rests with the State choose the appropriate location for the establishment of urban areas and the location most convenient and least affected by the shadows of various elements of the environment, including the elements and extreme weather. the lack of care or attention to the elements of climate in the design of housing created in locations that are not appropriate, it may have negative consequences in the future, especially in areas where exposure to extremes in climatic elements such as the tropics, the regions cold, and the consequences of heat waves, hail, tornadoes and floods that cause loss many human and material losses increase in the cost of life such as increased operating costs and heating and cooling. The Climate scientists Describes the state of the climate change on the basis of monthly and annual averages of temperature and precipitation. Includes rain, snow and other forms of moisture that falls to the ground. As well as scientists describe changes in climate from year to year and cause periods of wet and dry periods. The weather changes from day to day and may

be windy and cold today, while the next day bright and warm dry.To determine the climate in a particular area, scientists rely on the study of daily weather conditions and long lasting several years. Each region on the surface of the earth, no matter how diminished size, your climate. The common diameters apart in such a climate, the climate varies between the mountainous area is also high and other low-adjacent. The climate varies also between the city and its suburbs Climate is the most factor affect the building envelop As well as factors affecting the roofs of rain and snow and moisture, so roofs in the tropics differ from the roofs in the Scandinavian slanted so as not to accumulate huge quantities of snow above, causing the collapse of the roofs also in the dry areas in the interior mud sometimes for the stone roofs in coastal areas because they are not affected by moisture. Buildings due to climatic factors (Building Defects Caused by Natural Elements) refers to the problems and diseases that lead to distortions and defects in the buildings, resulting from the causes of climatic and environmental factors are normal. Understand their causes and their causes and the resulting imbalance is a way to take preventive measures to avoid their occurrence, and try to be measured and if possible. Some problems of the buildings and caused by climatic factors and their impact on the following:

* Life of the building. * Human and financial losses * Visual pollution. * The health of residents

The main 4 climate zones we are going to consider in this report are: 1. Hot dry 2. Hot humidity 3. Cold 4. Temperate

Hot dry
This is a warm climate between latitudes 15 --- 30 degrees north and south of the equator The advantage of this climate a significant rise in temperature of the day in summer Hoaouatina And that the daily temperature range has to be large Also, they have to be maintained on the building to protect it from dry and Drjhalhoa Altl_khas possibility of setting up of heat especially during the night Properties to deal with this climate 1 - is reduced in summer air temperature in the interior spaces 2 - cooling of the building during daylight hours and the process of discharge of air through the night 3 - Natural ventilation of spaces 4 - to protect the building from the dust-laden air 5 - taking into account the discharge gases to the air during the night because the temperature is high during the night

How to keep the internal energy of the building 1 - the process of natural ventilation inside the building 2 - Protection of the interior spaces of the external heat of the building and maintaining the internal temperature of the cold of the building by reducing the amount of heat lost and gained through the building

So requires to

1 - To protect the building from direct guidance P feragath in the direct guidance of the sun

2 - Reduce the heat load of the building into the interior spaces 3 - Natural ventilation of the spaces so that it does not allow influencing the internal temperature of the building which is of low conservation crisis 4 - Reducing the external surfaces of the building and gain increased the internal surfaces of the building 5 - Help on the loss of the building thermal energy stored by the body of the building so as not to be radiating this heat into the building at night so as not to Tved from poor internal heat of the building 6 - Taking into account that the temperature be missed to vacuum the outside of a building 7 - Lack of plate openings during the day and reduce its absorption of the outside temperature during the night and Veadhalmstahat

Shape of the building

The shape of the building closer to the building hot and humid areas, but the difference is clear in the vents and windows where the holes must have at least the possibility that area during the day with the possibility that Tved Atinaallil area also has the thermal

* - The building is characterized by the existence of solidarity in the block to form an internal space is called ((yard)) ** - And the building is characterized by the presence of internal courtyards open from the inside out and graded to the outside to assist in the process of internal ventilation of the building and get the cool air during Alnharma discharge of heat at night * And also

Forms characteristic of the shape of the building is that the building have a property closure on the inside and the lack of openness On the outside so that allows the work of internal spaces to allow access to natural ventilation and shading will help on the existence of an internal air temperature of the low-lead closer to the thermal comfort * - Of the most important elements to be taken into account are the large openings buffer during the day

Ventilation

Notes the lack of significant differences between the hot and humid and dry, but the holes are bigger than the previous holes in order to help get rid of the hot temperature inside the building during the night * - The vents shall be permitted within the limits so as not to help the transfer of hot air to the internal vacuum * - Possible treatment difference of the internal temperature and internal temperature and that by making the future of air vents Amrraly bodies of water or trees or shadows

Ventilation ** through **

1 - Mlaagaf air for ventilation of air spaces and access to several floors without the need for the use of industrial ventilation

Is directing this Almlaagaf hand region of the prevailing air to get the most ventilation of interior spaces

2 - Use of internal courtyards, which helps the movement of air within the interior spaces of the building and also help get rid of hot air inside the building

3 - Use the elements and architectural heritage, which was one of the solutions to these areas using the oriels, which have a characteristic entry of fresh air without the entry of dust, which is loaded by the air in this region And taking into account that the openings are narrow and targeted on the prevailing winds

4 - gain increased work shards Balihuit breakers and sun helps to get enough help to shades of difference in temperature lead to rarefaction of air, which helps the movement of air and ventilation

Building materials

Of obstacles in these areas is to get the building materials and insulating materials that reduce heat absorption during summer and at the same time the possibility of maintaining this temperature during the winter So To be the use of insulating material suitable property Vezaouhraria to do so and where it is have a characteristic discharge heat from the building during the night ((because the air temperature outside the building be less than Drahh heat inside the building that are discharging to the outside of the building)) ((In the winter it is the opposite))

* - Materials could be used is

1 - Blocks Alasmonth circle Walter contain spaces helps to thermal insulation

2 - Concrete Blocks buffer such as ((((walls circle)))) 3 - Bricks 4 - Such as heat reflectors (((aluminum plate)))) which are installed in the wall 5 - Concrete Alkhvavy (((Alsellton))) or cement foam 6 - Plastic foams 8 - Use of modern insulating materials currently available, such as - Cork plant - Foam Alpolurethein - Granules felt blocks which are placed inside the walls - Alansolaat plates (structural perlite) - Perlite lightweight blocks used in the bishop

Guidance

Sponsors in these areas to get Tabieihalty ventilation helps to have a change in the air and get rid of hot air, which could have been inside the building, taking into account the lack of great change in temperature affecting the building Asahhmojodin Natural lighting and so must be a directive that is appropriate for And that by studying the movement of prevailing winds, which are not loaded with Baterbh

1 - is directing the building in the prevailing wind direction throughout the year 2 - directing the building to be of help to the building are not exposed to direct sunlight for Hamaihalambny of the heat entering the building Mmatved internal temperature of the third party is required by the

3 - taking into account that guidance does not help on the entry of the sun to the interior spaces 4 - directing the building and the track is far from the dust-laden winds 5 - taking into account the precision in the use of sun breakers, type and status for the sun

How to enter the building to the thermal comfort

Using the following elements

Natural methods * 1 - Technical Aldakhilh that help to get the shadow of an internal help ventilate the building and internal air movement 2 - Use sun breakers to prevent the entry of the sun to the interior spaces you want to reduce the temperature inside 3 - Use Mlaagaf air ventilation to assist in the interior of the building and access to the thermal comfort 4 - Use the old traditional insulating materials or insulating materials currently available modern 5 - Taking into account the use of thermal insulation and the bishop, especially in buildings and spaces for living and sleeping

* Methods of industrial 1 - Using methods such as cooling Alhaddtheh Modern air conditioners that help to reduce the temperature

2 - taking into account also the use of insulating materials to maintain indoor air and reduce air conditioning loads

Hot humidity
Climate: 1 - Summer is hot in this area difficult access to the area of thermal comfort for humans 2 - Most of these regions for dust storms shocking 3 - Studies of this region and its buildings are not enough 4 - Note that most of the people of this region are poor

Locations of the areas for the world 1 - is located is located at latitude of between 15 + and -15 around the equator Include a large bar from the ground such as Australia's North-_______ And a large part of Africa And mid-and South America 2 - Average temperature in these areas during the year 27 degrees and change during the months of 1-3 degrees

* Note that the People of this region affect the climate them negatively in their ability to work and productivity have Since these areas are poor living standards it shall be the goal of these areas is to provide shelter

Of these areas that leads to gain increased influence negatively on the productivity of the individual and contribute to economic development Therefore attention has to be comfortable heat in these areas

Shape of the building

Must be characterized by the shape of the building so that it helps at least to approach the building to enter the area of thermal comfort And have these areas had common characteristics in the form of the building, namely: -

1 - Reduce the use of exterior openings of the building 2 - Use of narrow openings so that they work to reduce the heat gained from the external environment 3 - They have to be used insulation material in the outer shell of the building and protected from the impact of external moisture 4 - To be building solidarity with each other for access to internal surfaces that allow for air movement 5 - Taking into account the non-use of heavy concrete structures, which have a large thermal conductivity * To be in these areas and the use of air conditioning units to help access to the thermal comfort of the building However, given the foregoing that these areas are poor areas for that to be the use of simple solutions to it without Events of high costs are not allowed

It is noticed that the shapes of the characteristic shape of the building that the building is to have a closure property on the inside and the lack of openness On the outside so that allows the work of internal spaces to allow access to natural ventilation and shading help to the presence of E Hwa internal temperature of the low-lead closer to the thermal comfort

Ventilation

These buildings are of a special nature in the process of ventilation and noticed that many of the architectural styles influenced by these climatic factors which helped the building on the thermal comfort of Alaqterb And that such models and a variety of Islamic architecture, which helped to a proper ventilation of the building, using:

1 - Mlaagaf air for ventilation of air spaces and access to several floors without the need for the use of industrial ventilation Is directing this Almlaagaf hand region of the prevailing air to get the most ventilation of interior spaces

2 - Use of internal courtyards, which helps the movement of air within the interior spaces of the building and also help get rid of hot air inside the building 3 - Use the elements and architectural heritage, which was one of the solutions to these areas using the oriels, which have a characteristic entry of fresh air without the entry of dust, which is loaded by the air in this region And taking into account that the openings are narrow and targeted on the prevailing winds

4 - gain increased work shards Balihuit Cup Rat sun and help to get enough help on the shades of difference in temperature lead to rarefaction of air, which helps the movement of air and ventilation This is shown clearly in the interior courtyard

Building materials

Building materials of the main factors that must be relied upon in the access to the building thermal comfort

Specifications:

1 - to be building materials have a characteristic thermal insulation of any Eselah her back to help even a few thermal insulation of the building on the external environment

2 - to be building materials have a low density so as to help reduce the thermal conductivity of building materials and its impact on the internal spaces of the building

** - Construction materials can be used in these areas

1 - Blocks Alasmonth circle Walter contain spaces helps to thermal insulation 2 - Concrete Blocks buffer such as ((((walls circle))))

3 - Bricks 4 - Such as heat reflectors (((aluminum plate)))) which are installed in the wall 5 - Concrete Alkhvavy (((Alsellton))) or cement foam 6 - Plastic foams <BR> 7 - in the poor areas which are used to manure with lime Mix in the municipal building's thermal insulation and walls 8 - Use of modern insulating materials currently available, such as - Cork plant - Foam Alpolurethein - Granules felt blocks which are placed inside the walls - Alansolaat plates (structural perlite) - Perlite lightweight blocks used in multi-bishop Vyataiwabak It is one of the most successful architectural styles used in the construction and insulation

Guidance

Sponsors in these areas access to natural ventilation and natural lighting for that has to be that guidance is appropriate for that And that by studying the movement of the prevailing winds, which are not e loaded with harmful insects and Baterbh

1 - Is directing the building in the prevailing wind direction throughout the year 2 - Directing the building to be of help to the building are not exposed to direct sunlight 3 - Taking into account that guidance does not help on the entry of the sun to the interior spaces to

Ived not from the heat of the building to be reduced 4 - Directing the building and the track is far from the wind loaded with dust and insects

How to enter the building to the thermal comfort Using the following elements

Natural methods * 1 - Technical Aldakhilh that help to get the shadow of an internal help ventilate the building and internal air movement 2 - Use sun breakers to prevent the entry of the sun to the interior spaces you want to reduce the temperature inside 3 - Use Mlaagaf air ventilation to assist in the interior of the building and access to the thermal comfort 4 - Use the old traditional insulating materials or insulating materials currently available modern 5 - Taking into account the use of thermal insulation and the bishop, especially in buildings and spaces for living and sleeping * Methods of industrial 1 - Using methods such as cooling Alhaddtheh Modern air conditioners that help to reduce the temperature 2 - Taking into account also the use of insulating materials to maintain indoor air and reduce air conditioning loads

trategies for building e-Bared areas

Climate Existing buildings in Hzhalmnatq quite different from the previous climatic zones and in the presence of reverse climate in Almzkur Of the advantages of this climate is the need for urgent and necessary to the sun in every year, especially in the winter Mogaha This is the climate in the region from the beginning of the 40-degree and post-___80 this region are the biting cold of casting out or live access to the thermal comfort

* - It is noted that Countries in this region is characterized by development and excellence on the world scientific and district culturally and productivity of the individual Also shows that in the everyday actions of the individual and his behavior and intelligence, especially the productivity of individuals in these areas and this is clear difference between these three areas and some

Of the methods that must be dealt with this climate is

1 - Cbrkm work to absorb from the sun to get warm inside the building 2 - openings and surfaces to receive help as many of the thermal energy 3 - Reduce the plate holes to some extent even help to maintain the internal temperature of the building

4 - Use spaces with dark Alalon even help absorb external heat from the sun 5 - the shape of the building solidarity so that helps in getting a conglomerate of spaces prevents heat leakage to the outside of the building unlike other climatic zones 6 - use of modern industrial equipment in the building conditioning for thermal comfort of the buildings 7 - distinguish the character of these buildings forms Jmaloneh oblique bishop and so help to protect the building from external climatic factors such as snow 8 - attention on district to get the natural light of the sun in the architectural spaces in order to maintain the health of existing building 9 - Change of interest for all domestic air and sun to enter the spaces for the existing building Mraahsahh

Shape of the building

The shape of the building of the important elements which characterize these areas and supports the form of the building at Thakikannasr functional important to get to the thermal comfort of the building

1 - that is a building block to corporate working to preserve the internal energy stored in the building with non-use of courtyards or open spaces on the outside of the building works on the heat leak from him 2 - due to the progress of these countries and the technology of buildings predominantly modern with the use of modern technology to get the thermal comfort inside the building 3 - Use the slanted roofs of buildings to external factors such as learned Alauasforiyah very cold, which affect the internal temperature of the building

4 - modern buildings is the use of large glass surfaces for solar energy 5 - Use the (soler Shade) moving with the direction of the sun in the absence of needed 6 - use the bodies of a dark color absorption temperature of the sun and Takvenha

Ventilation

Ventilation of the building in these areas is dominated by the use of modern technologies to get the ventilation Tabieihllmbeny In addition to the use of natural ventilation, but also be simple Kmaan guidance in these areas is not by steering to wind, but most of the sun 1 - must be ventilation of the building and natural ventilation so that the building is moved to the area of thermal comfort 2 - as well as maintaining the health of the building where the renewal of the air inside the building and the entry of the sun Aydallhamaih of microbes 3 - Use ventilation to get the warm air and get on the thermal comfort also

Building materials

Building materials of the main factors that must be relied upon in the access to the building thermal comfort Specifications

Of obstacles in these areas also is to get the building materials and insulating materials are Alyveadh heat absorption during summer and at the same time the possibility of preventing this heat during the winter * - So Must use insulating materials have a characteristic Vezaouhraria appropriate to do so * - Note that the Although the use of some materials such as glass surfaces in the work of entire buildings banker, are processed in order to help at Thermal Insulation

1 - Blocks Alasmonth circle Walter contain spaces helps thermal insulation to prevent leakage of Ahararhllglaf the outside to preserve it and reduce internal loads adaptations 2 - Concrete Blocks buffer such as ((((walls circle)))) 4 - such as heat reflectors (((aluminum plate)))) which are installed in the wall 6 - plastic foams 8 - the use of insulating materials of modern high-tech - Cork plant - Foam Alpolurethein - Granules felt blocks which are placed inside the walls - Alansolaat plates (structural perlite)

Guidance

Guidance in these areas is not by steering to wind, but most of the sun is even assist one another to get warm in summer and sun Ctamn

How to enter the building to the thermal comfort

Using the following elements Natural methods * 1 - using glass surfaces that help to enter the spaces of the sun and heat 2 - Use dark colors to help absorb the internal heat at 3 - Use of natural ventilation so that a border search of Atathervymojodin inside the building 4 - Use of modern insulating materials currently available 5 - taking into account the use of thermal insulation and the bishop, especially in buildings and spaces for living and sleeping to save on air conditioning loads and the internal temperature of the building interior

* Methods of industrial 1 - Using methods such as Alhaddtheh Modern air conditioners that help to regulate the temperature inside the building to get to the thermal comfort 2 - taking into account also the use of insulating materials to maintain the internal temperature of the building and indoor air and reduce air conditioning loads