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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING SECTION 3A SPECIFICATIONS

1-GENERAL The CONTRACTOR shall furnish and install underground drainage and sewer piping in compliance with this section of the specifications. Piping shall be furnished and installed of the materials, sizes, and classes designated on the Contract Drawings and described herein, and at the grades and locations shown on the Contract Drawings.

2-EXISTING FACILITIES The CONTRACTOR's responsibilities regarding the protection, maintenance, repair and restoration of existing facilities, utilities, and structures are specified in the sections entitled "General Provisions" and "Excavation and Backfill". In addition, the CONTRACTOR shall conduct the CONTRACTOR's operations such that no interruptions to the existing utility system shall occur. Where existing sanitary sewers or storm drain systems are being replaced or interrupted, the CONTRACTOR shall provide temporary bypass pumping or temporary piping to maintain flow around the work site such that no backups occur in these sewer systems. Existing sanitary sewer laterals damaged in the work or temporarily disconnected shall be restored to operation by the end of each work day. Existing sanitary sewer laterals, where crossing over new pipelines, to be restored in accordance with details shown on the Contract Drawings. The CONTRACTOR shall maintain existing manholes, catch basins, and other utility structures in their pre-work condition. Any material or debris entering same due to the CONTRACTOR's operation shall be promptly removed. Prior to start of construction, the CONTRACTOR shall notify the Underground Facilities Protective Organization (UFPO) and shall have staked or marked all underground utilities. Utilities include water, gas, petroleum, steam, electrical, telephone, communications, signal lines, cable or conduit, storm sewer, sanitary sewers, laterals, and services. In the event such locations indicate a possible interference, or when needed to locate points of connection to existing facilities, the CONTRACTOR shall perform exploratory excavations to determine the utilities' location and elevation. The CONTRACTOR shall provide the ENGINEER with the results of the exploratory excavations for the ENGINEER's review. The CONTRACTOR shall allow the ENGINEER sufficient time to determine any changes required as a result of such exploratory excavations prior to start of construction. Refer also to sections entitled "General Provisions" and "Excavation and Backfill" for additional details regarding existing facilities, utilities, and structures. 3-LINES AND GRADES Pipes shall be laid to the lines and grades shown on the Contract Drawings and shall be straight between manholes. The grade of the sewer between manholes and from pipe length to pipe length shall not vary from the design grade shown on the Contract Drawings by more than 0.15 times the design grade, unless a change in grade has been ordered by the ENGINEER, in which case the same tolerance shall apply. In addition, invert elevations at any location shall not vary from the design elevations by more than 0.05 feet, unless a change in invert elevation has been ordered by the ENGINEER, in which case the same tolerance shall apply. Any sewer grade or invert elevation which exceeds these tolerances shall be corrected by the CONTRACTOR at the CONTRACTOR's own expense in a manner prescribed, and to the extent ordered, by the ENGINEER.

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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING The method used to install the sewer shall be consistent with standard practice of establishing line and grade and sufficiently accurate to insure that the above requirements are met. The final alignment of the sewer shall be such that a clear and unobstructed line of sight exists between manholes. In the event the CONTRACTOR uses laser beam method to establish line and grade, the CONTRACTOR shall check the grade of pipe at not more than 50-foot intervals by use of level instrument and tripod. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all labor, materials, surveying instruments, and tools to establish and maintain all lines and grades. The CONTRACTOR shall have personnel on duty or on standby call, at all times, who are qualified to set and check grades of sewers and manholes as they are installed. The responsibilities of the ENGINEER to provide, and the CONTRACTOR to maintain, BASIC CONTROL POINTS for line and grade are outlined in the Section entitled "General Provisions." The CONTRACTOR shall employ a licensed land surveyor to verify final rim and invert elevations at manholes of all piping installed on this Project and the length between manholes. This information shall be recorded on the Record Contract Drawings to be delivered to the ENGINEER. Location of required elevations to be of the pipe invert at a point where the pipe enters or exits a structure.

4-TRENCH EXCAVATION Trenches for sewer piping shall be excavated and maintained as shown on the Contract Drawings and specified in the Section entitled, "Excavation and Backfill." As specified in this section, trench widths shall be held within the minimum and maximum limits shown on the Contract Drawings. If the CONTRACTOR utilizes a prefabricated, mobile shield in lieu of conventional sheeting and bracing in pipe trenches, the bottom of the shield shall be maintained as high as possible (preferably at or above the top of the pipe) so as to prevent disturbance of the pipe foundation material and to avoid forces which would tend to pull pipe joints apart when the shield is dragged forward. Gouged openings or troughs left by the shield shall be filled with additional pipe foundation material and thoroughly compacted. 5-PIPE FOUNDATIONS All pipes, fittings or specials which are to be installed in the open trench excavation shall be properly bedded in, and uniformly supported on pipe foundations of the various types specified herein and shown on the Contract Drawings. Flat-bottom trenches of required width shall be excavated to the necessary depth as required in the Table of Quantity Factors shown on the Contract Drawings and maintained in accordance with the section entitled, "Excavation and Backfill," prior to installing the foundation. Trenches shall be dewatered and all work performed in a dry trench. Bedding material shall be spread in a maximum of 8-inch layers to the midpoint of the pipe and each layer shall be compacted until the required total depth of bedding has been built up. Compaction methods include hand tamping with T-bars, flat heads, shovel slicing, as well as mechanical compactors. The CONTRACTOR shall perform the bedding operations with care to maintain line grade. The pipe foundation above the midpoint of the pipe shall be spread and compacted in 12-inch layers to 12 inches above the top of the pipe. When PVC, plastic or polyethylene pipe is used, do not compact directly over pipe until the depth of backfill has reached 2 feet above the top of the pipe.

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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING Type I - Normal Soil conditions - Unless shown otherwise in the Contract Drawings, all pipe shall be supported on Type I foundation. The trench shall be excavated from four to eight inches deeper than the bottom of the pipe, depending on the diameter of the pipe. Run-of-crusher stone standard bedding, Type "D-R-1" material per the Section entitled, "Excavation and Backfill," shall be furnished, placed and compacted in the trench for its full width such that, after the pipe has been uniformly bedded in this material, the required minimum depth of Type "D-R-1" material remains between pipe and undisturbed trench bottom. Suitable holes shall be provided in the trench bottom to permit adequate bedding of bells, couplings, or similar projections. The run-of-crusher stone shall extend upward to a point 12 inches over the top of the pipe. Minimum width of pipe foundation shall be outside diameter of pipe plus 2'-0". Type II - Moderately Unstable Soil Conditions - When specifically called for on the Contract Drawings, or when ordered by the ENGINEER, the pipe shall be supported on Type II foundation. The foundation shall be installed where a suitable supporting soil or rock stratum occurs within two feet, more or less of the bottom of the pipe. The trench shall be excavated to the depth necessary to reach the suitable supporting stratum. Type "D-R-1" material or Type "D-2" crushed stone, as ordered by the ENGINEER, per the Section entitled, "Excavation and Backfill," shall then be furnished and placed in the trench for its full width. The material shall be spread in 12-inch layers, and each layer shall be compacted. The crushed stone or gravel depth shall extend from the supporting stratum up to an elevation 4, 6, or 8 inches below the bottom of the pipe depending upon the pipe diameter. The bedding material shall then be installed in accordance with Type I pipe foundation requirements. Type III - Unstable Soil Conditions - When specifically called for on the Contract Drawings, or when ordered by the ENGINEER, the pipe shall be supported on Type III foundation. The foundation shall be installed where no suitable supporting soil or rock stratum exists within two feet of the bottom of the pipe. The trench shall be excavated two feet deeper then the bottom of the pipe. Each side of the trench shall be supported and maintained by a permanent system of tight, continuous sheeting (and bracing) which shall be driven below the trench bottom as shown and which shall extend to an elevation of at least 12 inches above the top of the pipe. Minimum plank size to be 2" x 12". The pipe foundation material to be supported on a Type III Foundation, Geotextile Fabric Foundation. Type "D-R-2" material per the Section entitled, "Excavation and Backfill," shall then be furnished and placed in the trench for its full width, and to a depth of eight (8) inches. Crushed stone, "Type D-3" material per the Section entitled, "Excavation and Backfill," shall then be furnished and placed in the trench for its full width. All material shall be spread in layers and each layer shall be compacted until their respective total depths have been built up as required. The "Type D-3" material depth shall extend a distance of 12 inches from the top of the compacted trench lining up to an elevation 4, 6, or 8 inches below the bottom of the pipe, depending upon the pipe diameter. Bedding material shall then be installed in accordance with Type I Pipe Foundation requirements. All installed sheeting below an elevation established at 12 inches above the top of the pipe shall be left in place and undisturbed. Only the cross struts and walers shall be gradually removed as construction proceeds. Type IV - Reinforced Concrete Encasement - When specifically called for on the Contract Drawings, or when ordered by the ENGINEER, the pipe shall be supported on Type IV foundation. The trench shall be excavated to a depth below the bottom of the pipe equal to one-quarter (1/4) of the inside diameter of the pipe or six (6) inches, whichever is greater. The excavated space shall then be completely filled with, and the entire pipe encased in, concrete such that the minimum concrete encasement at any point around the outside barrel of the pipe measured six (6) inches thick. The total minimum width of the concrete encasement shall equal the outside diameter of the pipe plus 12 inches and such minimum width shall be constant for the entire length of the encasement. Unless shown otherwise on the Contract Drawings, concrete shall be Mix "C" (maximum slump of 4 inches), and the top surface of the encasement shall be screeded flat. Concrete mix, formwork, curing, etc., shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Section entitled "Concrete-General." Freshly placed concrete shall be maintained free from groundwater and no backfilling of the trench shall begin until initial set has taken place, but not less than 3 hours has elapsed after the encasement has been cast. Backfill a depth of 12 inches over top of concrete before beginning compaction with mechanical equipment. Steel reinforcing shall be as shown on the Contract Drawings and shall be furnished and placed in accordance with the Section entitled "Reinforcing Steel." 3A-3

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Type V - Concrete Cradle - When specifically called for on the Contract Drawings or when ordered by the ENGINEER, the pipe shall be supported on Type V foundation. The foundation shall be furnished and installed equal to the Type IV foundation, "Concrete Encasement", except that only that portion of the encasement at and below the horizontal diameter of the pipe shall be cast, forming a true cradle under the bottom half of the pipe. Maintain cradle free from groundwater for a period of 3 hours or until initial set has taken place. Complete pipe foundation in 12-inch lifts as for Type I pipe foundation. Type VI - Plain Concrete Encasement - When specifically called for on the Contract Drawings, or when ordered by the ENGINEER, the pipe shall be supported on Type VI foundation. The foundation shall be furnished and installed equal to the Type IV foundation, "Reinforced Concrete Encasement," except that no steel reinforcing is required. Maintain encasement free of groundwater for a period of 3 hours or until initial set has taken place. Type VII - Geotextile Fabric Foundation - When specifically called for on the Contract Drawings, or when ordered by the ENGINEER, the pipe foundation shall be supported on a geotextile fabric foundation. The fabric to be placed on the bottom of the excavated foundation and extended upwards to the top of the Type I pipe foundation where it can then be placed flat with a minimum overlap of 6 inches. Longitudinal overlaps to be a minimum of 2 feet. Fabrics to be installed and stretched tight, have no wrinkles so that the fabric will be in tension when placing the pipe foundation material. Geotextile material to be Trevia Type S 1127 by Hoechat Corporation; Mirafi Type 500X by Celanese Corporation; or equal.

6-INSPECTION OF PIPE BEFORE INSTALLATION All pipe, fittings, and specials shall be carefully inspected in the field before lowering into the trench. Cracked, broken, warped, out-of-round, damaged joints, or otherwise defective pipe, fittings or specials, as determined by the ENGINEER, shall be culled out and not installed. Such rejected pipe shall be clearly tagged in such manner as not deface or damage it, and the pipe shall then removed from the job Site by the CONTRACTOR at the CONTRACTOR's own expense.

7-INSTALLATION OF PIPE All pipe, fittings and specials shall be carefully lowered into the trench with ropes, slings or other equipment. Pipe which becomes cracked, broken or otherwise damaged during or after installation, shall be marked and removed from the job Site by the CONTRACTOR at the CONTRACTOR's own expense. The cutting of pipe, if required, to make connections to new or existing work, shall be done with proper tools in a workmanlike manner. Ends of pipe which terminate at manholes or other structures shall be cut cleanly and trimmed to a neat, sheared edge which comes flush with the inside wall of the structure unless shown otherwise. Pipe shall be installed so that a pipe joint occurs not more than two (2) feet from the outside face of the wall or manholes or structures to which the pipe connects. The pipe, fittings and specials shall be installed to the required line and grade, and shall be firmly bedded in the trench so that the pipe barrel is uniformly supported and cradled throughout its length, consistent with the requirements of the pipe foundation used. Blocking will not be permitted under the pipe, except where the pipe is to be installed in concrete encasement or concrete cradle. Holes and depressions in the pipe foundation shall be provided to receive bells, couplings, or similar projections to assure proper bedding of the pipe barrel. When the pipe is in proper position, it shall be joined or coupled to the mating end of the previously laid pipe, using the required joint and using the manufacturer's recommended assembly procedure. The completed assembly of pipe sections shall form a sewer with uniform slope. Manufactured pipe plugs or temporary bulkheads shall be placed in the open ends of sewer lines whenever pipe laying is stopped overnight, over weekends, or whenever dirt or debris could enter the pipeline during construction. 3A-4

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8-CONNECTION TO EXISTING STRUCTURES Where sewers are to be connected to existing manholes or other structures, and where no stub or opening has been provided for the connection, the CONTRACTOR shall cut an opening of minimum diameter through the side wall of the structure for inserting the pipe, at the required location. After inserting the pipe, the annular space remaining outside the pipe shall be completely filled with an expanding joint sealer (activated oakum or compressed foam) and covered with non-shrinking watertight mortar and such joint made watertight so that leakage of water into the structure is prevented. Unless otherwise shown, the pipe shall be positioned so that the finished or trimmed end of the pipe is flush with the inside wall surface of the structure. The mortar filler shall be struck off neatly to form a smooth, dense surface flush with the inside wall surface of the structure. For PVC pipe, furnish and install a rubber donut or waterstop ring around exterior of pipe or provide a/c manhole adapter to make a watertight manhole connection as manufactured by Fernco Type "CMA" adapter, the General Engineering Co. Type "CT" adopter, Certainteed, Johns-Manville, or equal. Benchwalls in existing structures shall be altered to form a new trough so that the new connection will enter the existing flow channel at a 45 degree angle in the direction of flow. Benchwalls to be extended upwards to the top of pipes as shown on the Contract Drawings. In making connections to existing manholes or structures, care shall be taken to avoid damage to the manhole or structure or allowing debris to enter the pipelines. Any damage resulting from the CONTRACTOR's operations shall be repaired and made good by the CONTRACTOR at the CONTRACTOR's own expense.

9-SERVICE CONNECTIONS AND SEWER LATERALS When shown on the Contract Drawings, or ordered by the ENGINEER, service connections and sewer laterals shall be furnished and installed, and to the extent shown or ordered by the ENGINEER. The CONTRACTOR shall verify location of each new sewer lateral with each property owner as follows: The CONTRACTOR shall notify each property owner of the planned location (horizontally and vertically) of the sewer lateral as shown on the Contract Drawings at least two (2) weeks before installation. At that time, the CONTRACTOR shall also furnish to each property owner a stake with card attached to read follows: ********************************************************************************************** IMPORTANT NOTICE A sanitary sewer will be constructed on your street shortly. A service connection and sewer lateral will be installed from the main sewer to the edge of the street right-of-way or permanent easement to serve your property or house as applicable. Please drive this stake with attached card in the area where you want the new sewer lateral to be located. Consult your plumber should you require advice on this location. IF THIS STAKE AND CARD IS NOT IN PLACE when the sewer construction starts in front of your property, the service connection and sewer lateral will be located as shown on the Contract Drawings for this Project or as ordered by the Project ENGINEER. Please be patient with the construction, as your street and property will be restored after the installation of the sanitary sewer system. 3A-5

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Thank you for your cooperation.

(Name, address and telephone number of CONTRACTOR) ********************************************************************************************** Wye or wye-tee branch fittings shall be installed in the "run" of the main sewer at the required locations or, if the pipe is required to be tapped to receive special saddles or pieces, such fittings shall be located at the required locations and installed as specified in later clauses, and in a manner satisfactory to the ENGINEER. Branch fittings shall be positioned so that stem falls above the horizontal diameter of the pipe, as shown. (The requirements for proper pipe foundation, bedding, joint assembly, etc., shall be observed when installing the fittings in the "run" of the main sewer.) After installation, wye branches shall not be backfilled until their location has been measured and recorded by the CONTRACTOR on a standard form (see form at the end of this Section) provided by the ENGINEER, and such record shall then be transmitted to the ENGINEER with the Record Contract Drawings. Unless otherwise shown on the Contract Drawings, sewer lateral pipe shall conform to the following: (a) pipe shall be installed on Type I pipe foundation; (b) pipe shall be laid at a uniform slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot and to the invert elevation shown on the Contract Drawings; (c) in straight alignment to the property line or other point of termination; and (d) the CONTRACTOR shall furnish a wye fitting cleanout every 75 feet. Each installed sewer lateral shall not be covered with the pipe foundation material until the installation has been approved by the ENGINEER. Following inspection and approval by the ENGINEER, the installed service connection and portion of the sewer lateral adjacent thereto shall be encased with Type "F" gravel-cement mixture in accordance with the Section entitled "Excavation and Backfill" or with commercial bagged mixtures approved by the ENGINEER. Type "F" material shall be installed in the "slightly damp" state, shall be carried down to undisturbed earth, and shall be carefully compacted. If not required to be connected to an existing lateral, the end of the installed sewer lateral shall be capped and its location marked with a length of 4-inch x 4-inch or 2-inch x 6-inch timber extending from the end of the pipe vertically to a point 12 inches above finished grade. The marker shall be maintained in proper position during and after all backfilling operations. Prior to backfilling, the CONTRACTOR shall determine the depth and elevation of the invert of the end of the pipe, and also the location thereof by means of suitable "tie" measurements to existing buildings, etc., which are permanent in nature. This information and other pertinent data will be recorded on a suitable form provided by the ENGINEER, after which the CONTRACTOR's representative shall sign the form in the space provided and transmit to the ENGINEER. The ends of the sewer laterals to be capped shall be closed by means of approved manufactured removable stoppers, plugs or end caps, which are compatible with the end of the pipe. The capping device shall be properly sealed and secured to withstand internal testing pressures, yet be installed in such a manner that it can be conveniently removed at a later date. Existing live sewer laterals which discharge to any watercourse, ditch, culvert or unknown drain shall be connected to the main sewer constructed under this Project in accordance with the foregoing requirements. Existing sewer laterals now connected to storm drains, catch basins, or other main sewers shall be disconnected from such facilities and reconnected to the main sewer constructed under this Project. The sewer lateral shall be relaid, extended and properly

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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING connected to the new main sewer in accordance with the foregoing requirements. The end of the abandoned portion of existing sewer lateral shall be plugged with 12 inches of concrete or grout. No connections shall be made to existing sewer laterals until the main sewer has been successfully tested by the CONTRACTOR and approved by the ENGINEER.

10-LEAKAGE TESTS ON GRAVITY SANITARY SEWERS AND MANHOLES All gravity sanitary sewers, including manholes, service connections and sewer laterals constructed under this Contract, shall be tested for leakage and shall satisfactorily meet the test requirements prior to final acceptance of the Work. No connections to existing live sewer laterals shall be made until the leakage requirements are met. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all labor, testing materials, and equipment and shall perform the tests described herein to the satisfaction of the ENGINEER. The CONTRACTOR shall re-excavate the pipe or lateral and make all necessary repairs or replacements, and shall repeat the final leakage test(s), until the leakage requirements are met. Testing shall be completed prior to final paving and restoration. Leakage Tests - New Gravity Sewer Systems - Leakage tests shall be performed on all new sewers and laterals and new manholes using low pressure air testing. Low Pressure Air Testing of Installed Gravity Sewer Pipe - Low pressure testing of main sewer and sewer laterals shall conform to the test procedure described in ASTM C-828-80, except as modified by the, Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe Association publication UNI-B-6-79 for Low Pressure Air Testing of Installed Sewer Pipe. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all necessary equipment and be responsible for conducting all low-pressure air tests. All pressurizing equipment used for low-pressure air testing shall include a regulator or relief valve set no higher than 9 pounds per square inch (psi) to avoid over-pressurizing and displacing temporary or permanent plugs. In no case should the starting pressure exceed 9.0 psi. If the average vertical height of groundwater above the pipe invert is more than 15 feet, the section so submerged is to be tested by the infiltration method as described above for manholes. Either mechanical or pneumatic plugs may be used. All plugs shall be designed to resist internal testing pressures without the aid of external bracing or blocking. If pneumatic plugs are utilized, a separate hose shall also be required to inflate the pneumatic plugs from above ground control panel. Plug the upstream end of the line first to prevent any upstream water from collecting in the test line. This is particularly important in high groundwater situations. When plugs are being placed, the pipe adjacent to the manhole shall be visually inspected to detect any evidence of shear in pipe due to differential settlement between the pipe and the manhole. A probable point of leakage is at the junction of the manhole and the pipe, and this fault may be covered by the pipe plug, and thus not revealed by the air test. To facilitate test verification by the ENGINEER, all air used shall pass through a single, above ground control panel. The above ground air control equipment shall include a shut-off, pressure regulating valve, pressure relief valve, input pressure gauge, and a continuous monitoring pressure gauge having a pressure range from 0 to at least 10 psi. The continuous monitoring gauge shall have minimum divisions of 0.10 psi and an accuracy of + 0.04 psi. The equipment to include a separate certified test gauge for periodic checking of the accuracy of the basic equipment gauges. Two separate hoses shall be used to: (1) connect the control panel to the sealed line for introducing low-pressure air, and (2) a separate hose connection for constant monitoring of air pressure build-up in the line. Low 3A-7

UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING pressure air shall be slowly introduced into the sealed line until the internal air pressure reaches 4.0 psi greater than the average back pressure of groundwater above the pipe, but not greater than 9.0 psi. After a constant pressure of 4.0 psi is reached, the air supply shall be throttled to maintain that internal pressure for at least 2 minutes. This time permits the temperature of the entering air to equalize with the temperature of the pipe wall. When temperatures have been equalized and the pressure stabilized at 4.0 psi, the air hose from the control panel to the air supply shall be shut off or disconnected. The continuous monitoring pressure gauge shall then be observed while the pressure is decreased to no less than 3.5 psi (greater than the average back pressure of any groundwater over the pipe). At a reading of 3.5 psi, timing shall commence with a stop watch or other timing device that is at least 99.8% accurate. If the time shown in Table I (refer to table at the end of this Section) for the designated pipe size and length elapses before the air pressure drops 0.5 psi, the section undergoing test shall have passed the leakage test. The test may be discontinued once the prescribed time has elapsed even though the 0.5 psi drop has not occurred. If the pressure drops 0.5 psi before the appropriate time shown in Table 1 has elapsed, the air loss rate shall be considered excessive and the section of pipe has failed the test. If the section fails to meet these requirements, the CONTRACTOR shall determine at the CONTRACTOR's own expense the source, or sources of leakage, and the CONTRACTOR shall repair or replace all defective materials and/or workmanship to the satisfaction of the ENGINEER. The extent and type of repair as well as results, shall be subject to the approval of the ENGINEER. The completed pipe installation shall then be retested and required to meet the requirements of this test. The times shown in Table I are for the length of main sewer tested. For lengths other than those shown, the time is to be interpolated. Further, the tables do not have any reduction of time for length of laterals connected to the section of sewer being tested since it normally is not significant. For an accurate calculation of time allowance including laterals, refer to UNI-Bell publication previously referenced for the appropriate formula (shown on the back of the referenced tables). 11-SHOP TESTS All shop tests of pipe and pipe materials, which are required by these specifications (refer to Pipe Schedule for specific shop tests) and/or the applicable ASTM Specifications, shall be performed at the CONTRACTOR's expense. When no specific shop tests are required in the Pipe Schedule, the manufacturer is to submit a performance affidavit certifying their product meets or exceeds these specifications and the applicable ASTM requirements. Tests shall be conducted at the pipe manufacturer's plant or when approved test facilities do not exist at the point of manufacture, the test shall be conducted at certified private testing laboratories approved by the ENGINEER. All testing machines, gages, laboratory apparatus and other devices used for the required shop tests shall be in first class condition. Shop tests shall be conducted by qualified personnel, especially trained for quality control work, have an obviously thorough knowledge of the testing, inspection and rejection procedures of the applicable ASTM Specifications. Failure of the manufacturer's facilities or personnel to meet these requirements, or failure of the manufacturer to produce valid evidence of adequate calibration and checks of their shop testing facilities, or failure of the manufacturer to give valid evidence of correcting any deficiencies noted or of intending to comply with both the letter and spirit of the principle of responsible shop testing personnel, shall be cause for disapproval of their testing facilities by the ENGINEER. The CONTRACTOR shall submit to the ENGINEER the name or names of the proposed manufacturers of pipe for this Project, including shop drawings of the proposed pipe and appurtenances. Each pipe manufacturer shall notify the ENGINEER and the CONTRACTOR when shop tests on the lot or lots of pipe for this Project are to take place, allowing sufficient time for the ENGINEER to send a representative to witness the tests. The number and selection of specimens of the various kinds, classes and sizes of pipe for testing, test procedures, equipment, instruments, recording or test results, calculations, etc., shall be conducted in accordance with the applicable ASTM Specifications, except where modified and/or amended by these Specifications. Test specimens shall be selected on a uniform basis from each lot of pipe produced for this Project, consistent with the applicable 3A-8

UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING ASTM Specification requirements. When failure of one or more initial tests occurs in a particular lot of pipe, the following retest procedure shall be performed. The same number of additional specimens shall be selected from the lot which produced the defective pipe and a second test shall be run; criteria for selection of additional specimens and test procedures shall follow the original requirements for the particular test involved. If necessary, such retest procedures shall be repeated a third time. If the third retest on the same lot of pipe fails, then each of the remaining pipe in the affected lot shall be tested. All rejected pipe shall be tagged and culled out from shipment to the job Site. "lot" is defined herein as the total number of sections (or pieces) of pipe produced for this Project during one (1) eight-hour shift at the manufacturer's plant. To this end, all sections (or pieces) of pipe in each lot shall be identified by date and shift number so as to avoid confusion if retest on additional specimens become necessary. Wherever in the appropriate ASTM Specification, tests are required to be performed only "when requested by the purchaser" (or words of like intent), all such optional tests shall be required and performed for all pipe furnished for this Project. Certified copies of all test (and retest) results shall be submitted jointly to the ENGINEER and the CONTRACTOR. Specific modifications and/or amendments to the applicable ASTM Specifications are as follows: a) Crushing Strength: Crushing strength tests shall be conducted using the 3-edge bearing method except that the lower bearing strips utilized in these tests may be of hardwood or hard rubber material complying with the applicable ASTM Specification, unless such option is precluded under the companion ASTM Specification which covers the pipe itself. b) Hydrostatic Test: When stated in the Pipe Schedule, hydrostatic tests shall be conducted on 0.5 percent of the total length of pipe of each size produced for and shipped to this Project, but in no case less than two sections (or pieces) of pipe and joint assembly of each size from the lot manufactured during each 8-hour shift. The test specimens of each size shall be selected at random, assembled together using the required joint gaskets and couplings, suitably plugged at each end with properly anchored bulk-heads, filled with clear water, and internal hydrostatic pressure applied over a given time period as follows: Pipe Material PVC Ductile Iron Pipe Minimum Pressure 5 psi 5 psi Time 5 min. 5 min.

Specimens showing obvious leakage in the pipe wall or at the joint, which will prevent compliance with the required leakage tests in the field, shall be tagged and rejected. If the joint assembly itself is suspected as the only cause for leakage, another test may be run on the same specimens using another set of gaskets and couplings. If this leakage test is met, the original gaskets and couplings shall be rejected, although the pipe sections themselves may be shipped. It is the intention of the above test procedure to also test joint gaskets and couplings. To this end, a random selection of these items shall be made and incorporated in each test set-up, and the same gasket and coupling shall not be utilized in more than one test set-up. Gaskets and/or couplings, which are the cause for obvious leakage at the joint assembly of the pipe under test, shall be marked and rejected. No part of this clause shall be construed as relieving the pipe manufacturer from full compliance with the normal manufacturer's shop tests required under the applicable ASTM Specifications. Upon completion of shipment of the pipe furnished for this Project, and when required in the Pipe Schedule, the pipe manufacturer shall provide the ENGINEER with a certificate, signed by an officer of the corporation or firm and witnessed by a notary public, attesting that the pipe and appurtenances furnished were manufactured and successfully tested in full accordance with these Specifications and the applicable ASTM Specifications. 3A-9

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Any section or lot of pipe, fittings or specials which does not meet the requirements of these Specifications and the applicable ASTM Specifications under which the product is required to be manufactured, will be rejected.

12-QUANTITY FACTORS The tables on the Contract Drawings shall be used as the basis for computing volumes of excavation below subgrade, trench lining material, special pipe foundation materials, and special backfill materials when such volumes constitute the basis for payment to the CONTRACTOR, as established elsewhere in the Contract Documents. No deviations from the factors shown shall be allowed because of variations between the several pipe materials and classes. No special computations of quantities shall be made for structures such as manholes, valve pits, catch basins, etc., which may occur in the various pipelines but the quantities for payment noted above, where applicable to such structures, shall be computed by assuming that the appurtenant pipeline continues uninterrupted through such structure; such as from center-to-center of manholes. A. Excavation Below Subgrade, Trench Lining Material and Special Pipe Foundations The quantity for which payment shall be made will be computed by using the Quantity Factors based on nominal inside pipe diameter multiplied by the measured depth and by the measured length without regard to actual width or actual quantity. B. Special Backfill Material The quantity of special backfill material for which payment shall be made will be computed by using the Quantity Factors based on nominal inside pipe diameter multiplied by the measured length and the measured height of special backfill, except that where soil or rock conditions allow steeper side slopes and narrow trench conditions (minimum width pipe O.D. plus 2'-0"), the quantity of special backfill shall be based on actual width, height, and length.

13-FINAL INSPECTION Each section of installed sewer between manholes or structures will be inspected by the ENGINEER before final acceptance. Such inspection will be visual by traversing the inside of the pipe, or by sighting through the line from manhole to manhole with the aid of artificial light when the pipe is too small to be entered. The pipe and fittings shall be true to both line and grade, shall show no leaks, shall show no obstruction to flow, shall have no projections of connecting pipe into the line, shall be free from cracks and protruding joint materials, and shall contain no deposits of dirt, debris or other material which will in any way reduce the full cross sectional area of the pipe. Refer to clause entitled "Lines and Grades" in this Section for allowable tolerances. Any section of sewer, or portions, thereof, which do not comply with the inspection criteria defined above, shall be promptly corrected or repaired by the CONTRACTOR at the CONTRACTOR's own expense. Pipe which is cracked or collapsed shall be dug up and replaced with new pipe; pipe which is out of line or grade shall be dug up and re-laid to the correct line and grade. Connecting pipes which protrude into the line shall be dug up and the connection remade, or the protruding portion of the connecting pipe shall be trimmed back flush with the wall of the main sewer, if the main line can be entered. Deposits of dirt and debris shall be flushed with water through to the downstream manhole and removed. At points of leakage, the pipe shall be dug up and replaced or repaired with approved repair clamp couplings (stainless steel Type 304 with stainless steel bolts and nuts or cast iron coupling with stainless steel

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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING bolts and nuts) so as to permanently stop the leak in a manner which shall receive the prior approval of the ENGINEER. All manholes shall be watertight. All joints between precast wall sections, between cast iron frame and brick, and between brick units themselves shall be neat, continuous, and flush with the adjacent surfaces. Dirt and debris shall be removed from all manholes. 14-POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) GRAVITY SEWER PIPE Material - All Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe and fittings shall meet or exceed all of the requirements of ASTM Specification D3034-85b, "Type PSM Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings," or ASTM Specification F78-85 Type PS-46 Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Gravity Flow Sewer Pipe and Fittings or ASTM Specification F679-86 Type Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Large-Diameter Plastic Gravity Sewer Pipe and Fittings or ASTM Specification F794-86 Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) large diameter ribbed gravity sewer pipe and fittings based on controlled inside diameter. All pipe shall be suitable for use as a gravity sewer conduit with integral bell and elastomeric gasket joints. The gasket shall meet the requirements of ASTM F477. The bell shall consist of an integral wall section which securely locks the solid cross-section elastomeric rubber ring into position. Standard lengths shall be 12'-6" and 20' +/- 1 inch. Acceptable manufacturers are Johns-Manville, Certain-Teed, Carlon, or equal. Fittings - All fittings and accessories shall be as manufactured and furnished by the pipe supplier, and have bell and/or spigot configurations identical to that of the pipe to which they are connected. Watertight fittings or gaskets to be provided at connections to manholes (refer to Clause entitled "Connection to Existing Structures" in this section). Pipe Stiffness Minimum "pipe stiffness" (F y) at 5% deflection shall be 46 psi for all sizes when tested in accordance with ASTM Designation D2412, "External Loading Properties of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading."

Installation - Extreme care shall be taken to provide proper pipe foundations and pipe sidefills in accordance with this section of the Specifications and the recommendations of the pipe manufacturer, maintaining accurate alignment of the pipe at all times. The installed sewer must meet the leakage test specified elsewhere in this section. Deflection Test for Installed Pipe - If stated in the Pipe Schedule, a deflectometer test shall be made by the CONTRACTOR on all installed sections of the sewer line or on those sections ordered to be tested by the ENGINEER. The test consists of pulling a deflectometer GO-NO-GO mandrel or similar device through the installed pipe. Allowable deflection to be not more than 5.0 percent. Any section of pipe not able to pass this test shall be replaced with new pipe and the test, including leakage test, shall be repeated until successful.

15-POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PRESSURE SEWER PIPE Material - Rigid PVC pipe, couplings and fittings shall be extruded using compounds conforming to ASTM Standard D1784 with cell classifications congruent with the intended use of the pipe. PVC pipe shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM Standard D1785 and D2241, except as modified below. PVC pipe for pressure sewer service in nominal sizes of 8-inch through 12-inch, inclusive, shall meet the requirements of AWWA Standard C900. Unless otherwise specified in the schedule, PVC pipe shall be Class 200 having a standard dimension ratio (SDR) of 21. All PVC pipe shall be installed in strict accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING Fittings - The pipe fittings for use on PVC pressure pipe shall be PVC incorporating rubber gaskets. Joints - Pipe to be furnished with rubber gasket push-on joints. The type of joint shall meet the following requirements: 1. Push-on joint - All PVC pipe shall have push-on joints consisting of an integrally cast bell with a factory installed, solid cross-section gasket, securely locked in place to prevent displacement during assembly. Joints shall meet the requirements of AWWA Standard C900. For connection of PVC pipe to other materials, use adapters as recommended by the pipe manufacturer. 2. PVC fittings, where shown, shall be screwed or solvent joint type. Screwed joints shall have long tapered threads to be made with the appropriate paste or jointing compound as recommended by the manufacturer. Screwed joints shall be limited to Schedule 80 pipe only. Solvent or adhesive welded joints shall be in strict accordance with pipe manufacturer's recommendations, including necessary field cutting, sanding of pipe ends and joint support during setting period. Care shall be taken that no droppings or deposits of adhesive or solvent material remain inside the assembled piping. Solvent cement for PVC piping shall conform to ASTM Specification D-2564.

16-HIGH DENSITY BLACK POLYETHYLENE OR POLYBUTYLENE PIPE (LOW PRESSURE SEWER) Materials - Polyethylene or Polybutylene pipe shall be produced by a manufacturer approved by the ENGINEER. Pipe shall be SDR-7 (200 psi) or equal and all fittings and connectors shall be PVC or Brass compression type. All necessary valves required in installation shall be brass body compression type. Pipe - Type of joint, fittings, and class of pipe to be furnished shall be as listed in the schedule. 17- SMOOTH INTERIOR CORRUGATED POLYETHYLENE PIPE Material- The polyethylene material for the pipe and fittings shall beet the requirements of A.A.S.H.T.O. M294, Type S or Type SP. In addition, when checked with a 12 inch straight edge the smoothness of the interior liner shall not deviate more than 0.25 inches. 18-DUCTILE IRON PIPE Material - Ductile iron pipe shall be centrifugally cast in metal or sand-lined molds with materials, dimensions, test and all other details in complete conformance with AWWA Standard C151 (ANSI A21.51). Unless otherwise indicated in the schedule, the minimum wall thickness shall not be less than that of Thickness Class 52, as outlined in AWWA Standard D150 (ANSI A21.50). Fittings - Pipe fittings for ductile iron pipe shall be ductile iron as described in AWWA Standard C110 (ANSI A21.10). The coating and linings of the fittings shall be as specified for the ductile iron pipe unless otherwise indicated in the schedule. Joints - Underground Fittings shall be furnished with mechanical joints and all pipes furnished with push-on joints. Above grade interior piping shall be flanged joint type. The types of joints shall meet the following applicable requirements: 1. Push-on joint - The rubber gasket joint, as generally described in AWWA Standard C111 (ANSI A21.11), with three (3) bronze wedges evenly spaced at all pipe joints.

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UNDERGROUND SEWER PIPING 2. Mechanical joint - the gasketed and bolted joint of the stuffing box type as described in AWWA Standard C111 (ANSI A21.11). Flange joint - The flanged and bolted joint as detailed in Table 10.14 of AWWA Standard C110 (ANSI A21.10).

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19-PIPE INSULATION AND STAINLESS STEEL JACKET SYSTEM All exposed pipes shall be insulated. Provide a pre-insulated piping system as manufactured by UNSU-TEK of Manlius, New York or approved equal. Thermal insulation shall consist of a two component rigid polyurethane foam system molded to the pip. Insulation material shall be of high compressive strength, 2.1 lb density, K factor of 0.14, non-dusting and flame retardant. Application shall be in lengths recommended by the manufacturer. Insulation thickness shall be that required to prevent condensation on the outside surface and shall be a nominal 2-1/2 inches. At piping joint or hanger locations insulation thickness shall not vary. The insulation shall be continued through the abutment and below the level of finished grade, to a point at which the piping has 4 feet of earth cover minimum and extends 5 feet minimum beyond the back face of the abutment on each side of the bridge; for cases lacking a bridge, the insulation shall extend these distances into the bank. Limits of insulation described here in may not require the full length of each pipe section extending underground to be insulated. Field determine the location of all joints and needed lengths of each insulated pipe to meet he above requirements prior to ordering insulated piping materials The covering system shall also require a vapor barrier either built into the insulation, jacketing or provided separately at each exposed end of insulation. Stainless steel jacketing is required on all pipe insulation. Jacketing shall be 0.0187 inch stainless steel spiral lockseam metal casing. Joints shall be overlapped a minimum of 4 inches. Oversized bell covers with pour in-place polyurethane foam insulation shall be provided to maintain the required insulation thickness at the joints. The joints shall be sealed and jacketed with the same materials as used on the straight lengths of pipe. The bell covers and insulation shall be field installed after completion of successful testing and sampling of the main. Provide heat shrinkable insulated pipe end cap where insulation terminates underground. The length of insulated pipe placed underground as field determined bust be sufficient to allow proper installation of this end cap. Where pipe and insulated coverings are in contact with the pipe support rollers, protection saddles shall be installed. Pipe saddles shall be carbon steel plate, 12 inches long as manufactured by ITT Grinnell. Provide at least one day of service from a manufacturers authorized technical representative to provide Contractor training for field joint procedures and verification that insulation system has been installed in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.

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